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  1. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  2. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-hoc and Well-defined Categories

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this population. Aims The present study explores the possible contributors to the typicality effect in persons with aphasia by analyzing and comparing data from both normal and language-disordered populations, from persons with aphasia with more semantic impairment versus those with less semantic impairment, and from two types of categories with very different boundary structure (ad-hoc vs. well-defined). Methods and procedures A total of 40 neurologically healthy adults (20 older, 20 younger) and 35 persons with aphasia (20 LSI (less-semantically impaired) patients, 15 MSI (more-semantically impaired) patients) participated in the study. Participants completed one of two tasks: either category verification for ad-hoc categories or category verification for well-defined categories. Outcomes and Results Neurologically healthy participants showed typicality effects for both ad-hoc and well-defined categories. MSI patients showed a typicality effect for well-defined categories, but not for ad-hoc categories, whereas LSI patients showed a typicality effect for ad-hoc categories, but not for well-defined categories. Conclusions These results suggest that the degree of semantic impairment mediates the typicality effect in persons with aphasia depending on the structure of the category. PMID:22261305

  3. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-the-Spot.

    PubMed

    Soro, Jerônimo C; Ferreira, Mário B; Semin, Gün R; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-04-06

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment 1 revealed considerable levels of false recognitions of critical words from ad hoc categories. False recognitions occurred even when the lists were presented without an organizing theme (i.e., the category's label). Experiments 1 and 2 tested whether (a) the ease of identifying the categories' themes, and (b) the lists' backward associative strength could be driving the effect. List identifiability did not correlate with false recognition, and the effect remained even when backward associative strength was controlled for. Experiment 3 manipulated the distractor items in the recognition task to address the hypothesis that the salience of unrelated items could be facilitating the occurrence of the phenomenon. The effect remained when controlling for this source of facilitation. These results have implications for assumptions made by theories of false memories, namely the preexistence of associations in the activation-monitoring framework and the central role of gist extraction in fuzzy-trace theory, while providing evidence of the occurrence of false memories for more dynamic and context-dependent knowledge structures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Procedural-based category learning in patients with Parkinson's disease: impact of category number and category continuity

    PubMed Central

    Filoteo, J. Vincent; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Maddox and Filoteo, 2001; Filoteo et al., 2005a,b). We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting “striatal units” to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1) the number of categories, and (2) category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients' cognitive impairment. PMID:24600355

  5. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  6. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Chitra Sivaraman, PNNL

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).

  7. Category number impacts rule-based and information-integration category learning: a reassessment of evidence for dissociable category-learning systems.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Roger D; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on category-number manipulations in which rule-based category learning is worse when the category is composed of 4, rather than 2, response categories; however, information-integration category learning is unaffected by category-number manipulations. We argue that within the reported category-number manipulations, there exists a critical confound: Perceptual clusters used to construct the categories are spread apart in the 4-category condition relative to the 2-category one. The present research shows that when this confound is eliminated, performance on information-integration category learning is worse for 4 categories than for 2 categories, and this finding is demonstrated across 2 different information-integration category structures. Furthermore, model-based analyses indicate that a single-system learning model accounts well for both the original findings and the updated experimental findings reported here.

  8. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based but Not Information-Integration Category Learning: Further Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hejl, Kelli D.; Ing, A. David

    2004-01-01

    Category number effects on rule-based and information-integration category learning were investigated. Category number affected accuracy and the distribution of best-fitting models in the rule-based task but had no effect on accuracy and little effect on the distribution of best-fining models in the information-integration task. In the 2 category…

  9. The generalization of charged AdS black hole specific volume and number density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Liang; He, Miao; Fang, Chao; Sun, Dao-Quan; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, by proposing a generalized specific volume, we restudy the P- V criticality of charged AdS black holes in the extended phase space. The results show that most of the previous conclusions can be generalized without change, but the ratio {\\tilde{ρ }}_c should be 3 {\\tilde{α }}/16 in general case. Further research on the thermodynamical phase transition of black hole leads us to a natural interpretation of our assumption, and more black hole properties can be generalized. Finally, we study the number density for charged AdS black hole in higher dimensions, the results show the necessity of our assumption.

  10. The Semantic Morphological Category of Noun Number in Structurally Different Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingazova, Nailya G.; Subich, Vitaly G.; Shangaraeva, Liya

    2016-01-01

    The article represents structural semantic analysis of the grammatical number of nouns in the Indo-European (English, German), Semitic (Arabic, Hebrew), and Altai (Tatar, Japanese) languages. The category of number comprises numerous phenomena, including some transitive and historical aspects, which complicate and enrich the system of language.…

  11. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  12. Psychological Distance between Categories in the Likert Scale: Comparing Different Numbers of Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakita, Takafumi; Ueshima, Natsumi; Noguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of options in the Likert scale influences the psychological distance between categories. The most important assumption when using the Likert scale is that the psychological distance between options is equal. The authors proposed a new algorithm for calculating the scale values of options by applying item…

  13. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based "and" Information-Integration Category Learning: A Reassessment of Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Roger D.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on…

  14. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura

    2014-05-15

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  15. The Effects of Mode of Presentation and Number of Categories on 4-Year-Olds' Proportion Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ginsburg, Herbert

    Two experiments investigate the effects of mode of presentation and number of categories on 4-year-olds' proportion estimates. Experiment I compares simultaneous and successive presentations of proportion problems using two categories of elements. The subjects were 40 children chosen randomly and tested individually. Four problems were presented…

  16. Categories of Code-Switching in Hispanic Communities: Untangling the Terminology. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Opal Ruth

    Research on Spanish/English code switching is reviewed and the definitions and categories set up by the investigators are examined. Their methods of locating, limiting, and classifying true code switches, and the terms used and results obtained, are compared. It is found that in these studies, conversational (intra-discourse) code switching is…

  17. Impact of the Number of Response Categories and Anchor Labels on Coefficient Alpha and Test-Retest Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Li-Jen

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,247 college students participated in this study on the effect of scale format on the reliability of Likert-type rating scales. The number of response categories ranged from 3 to 9. Anchor labels on the scales were provided for each response option or for the end points only. The results indicated that the scales with few response…

  18. Effects of adding fluids to solid foods on muscle activity and number of chewing cycles.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, Andries; Engelen, Lina; Abbink, Jan; Pereira, Luciano J

    2007-06-01

    The production of a sufficient amount of saliva is indispensable for good chewing. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will facilitate the chewing process, especially for dry foods. The effect might be larger for subjects with relatively low salivary flow rates. Furthermore, adding fluids that contain mucins or alpha-amylase may have a larger facilitating effect on mastication than the addition of water alone. Twenty subjects chewed on melba toast, breakfast cake, carrot, peanut, and Gouda cheese. In addition, they chewed on these foods after different volumes of water, artificial saliva containing mucins, or a solution of alpha-amylase had been added. Muscle activity and number of chewing strokes until swallowing were measured. The salivary flow rates of the subjects were also determined. Adding fluid to the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles and total muscular work (i.e. the integrated surface electromyograpy of masseter and temporalis muscles measured bilaterally, summed for all chewing cycles) until swallowing for all foods, except carrot. The largest effects were observed for melba and cake, which are dry products requiring sufficient saliva to form a coherent bolus safe for swallowing. More facilitation of the chewing process was observed after adding fluid to breakfast cake for subjects with relatively low salivary flow rates. The type of fluid had no significant effect on the chewing process.

  19. 1986 Newspaper Help Wanted Ad Survey. Number of Ads Increases 11.5%. Computer Use Up; Shorthand Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusselman, Kay

    1986-01-01

    Key findings of the 1986 Newspaper Help Wanted Advertisements Survey concerning secretarial positions are reported. It was found that ads indicating that word processors or computers would be used on the job increased to 38.9 percent; ads requiring shorthand or fast notetaking were down for the second year; and averages of salaries offered were…

  20. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  1. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  2. Level of education and category fluency task among Spanish speaking elders: number of words, clustering, and switching strategies.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Monica; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine; Salvatierra, Judy; Zoller, Yaron

    2009-11-01

    It has been well documented that education influences the individual's performance on category fluency tasks but it is still unclear how this effect may differ across the different types of category tasks (i.e., animals, fruits, vegetables and clothing). This study aims (1) to analyze the effect of the level of education on four different types of category fluency tasks among elder Hispanic Americans and (2) to provide normative information on a population with different education levels that was previously screened for neurological and psychiatric conditions. In addition this study examines the semantic strategies used by these individuals to complete the fluency tasks. The sample included 105 healthy Hispanic individuals (age 55-98; 29 males and 76 females) divided into three education groups (<6, 6-11 and >11 years of education). Results showed that after controlling for age and gender, education has a main effect and is a strong predictor of performance in verbal fluency for the categories animals and clothing with increasing educational attainment being associated with higher category fluency scores and with more switches between categories. These findings suggest that the category fruit is less influenced by level of education than the other three semantic categories and may be a more appropriate test across different educational groups. Results from this study provide a reference for clinicians assessing verbal fluency in Spanish speaking populations.

  3. A Simulation Study to Assess the Effect of the Number of Response Categories on the Power of Ordinal Logistic Regression for Differential Item Functioning Analysis in Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Allahyari, Elahe; Jafari, Peyman; Bagheri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study uses simulated data to find what the optimal number of response categories is to achieve adequate power in ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in psychometric research. Methods. A hypothetical ten-item quality of life scale with three, four, and five response categories was simulated. The power and type I error rates of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF were investigated under different combinations of ability distribution (θ), sample size, sample size ratio, and the magnitude of uniform DIF across reference and focal groups. Results. When θ was distributed identically in the reference and focal groups, increasing the number of response categories from 3 to 5 resulted in an increase of approximately 8% in power of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF. The power of OLR was less than 0.36 when ability distribution in the reference and focal groups was highly skewed to the left and right, respectively. Conclusions. The clearest conclusion from this research is that the minimum number of response categories for DIF analysis using OLR is five. However, the impact of the number of response categories in detecting DIF was lower than might be expected. PMID:27403207

  4. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Broch , "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-hop Wireless Ad hoc Networks," in Ad hoc Networking, Chapter 5, C. E. Perkins, Eds. Addison...Project Report: 09/23/2008 to 09/22/2009 W911NF-08-2-0061 References [I] J. Broch , D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y. C. Hu and J. Jetcheva, "A...and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, pp. 723 - 726, Sept. 2005. [4] D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz and J. Broch , "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for

  5. A record number of fatalities in many categories of patients treated with deferasirox: loopholes in regulatory and marketing procedures undermine patient safety and misguide public funds?

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2013-09-01

    A record 4113 fatalities were reported in 2012 in a postmarketing surveillance of patients treated with deferasirox, despite warnings of life-threatening toxic side effects, and the need for regular monitoring and prophylactic measures. In an EMA report, the mortality rate was estimated at 11.7% and a warning was issued for increasing the dose from 30 to 40 mg/kg/day. In an earlier FDA report of 2474 individual fatality cases, it was revealed that deferasirox was used in many categories of patients. Among the fatal cases reported were many young individuals and about 500 patients with normal iron stores such as cancer, leukaemia, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The iron-loaded patient categories included myelodysplasia, sickle cell disease, haemochromatosis and thalassaemia. The rate of fatalities and the number of patient categories involved suggest that there has been an indiscriminate and uncontrollable use of deferasirox. These findings raise major concerns on patient safety and question the role, practices and procedures adopted by pharmaceutical companies, regulatory authorities, physicians, etc. in the development of new drugs and their safety. The generic drugs deferiprone, deferoxamine and their combination offer a safer, less expensive and complete treatment of iron overload in thalassaemia and other iron loading conditions.

  6. Long-term Validation of Cloud-droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product (NDROP VAP) Retrieved from Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. S. S.; Riihimaki, L.; Comstock, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Sivaraman, C.; Shi, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    A new cloud-droplet number concentration (NDROP) Value Added Product (VAP) has been produced at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site for the 13 years from January 1998 to January 2011. The droplet number concentration values are retrieved from surface radiometer measurements of cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR) and liquid water path from the microwave radiometer (MWR). We validate the NDROP VAP with in situ aircraft measurements from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer probe during the long-term aircraft field campaign, Routine ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO). The NDROP VAP considers entrainment effects rather than assuming an adiabatic cloud, which improves the values of the NDROP VAP by reducing the magnitude of cloud-droplet number concentration. The NDROP VAP captures the primary mode of in situ measured droplet number concentration, but produces too wide a distribution due to too frequent high cloud-droplet number concentrations. The large droplet number concentration error corresponds to errors in the MWR retrievals at low liquid water paths due to the limitations of the instrument. Modification of the NDROP VAP through the diagnosed liquid water path, which is constrained by the coordinated solution using cloud optical depth and cloud-droplet effective radius retrievals, alleviates this problem, leading to better agreement with in situ measurements.

  7. Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary McGee; Hudson, Richard, Ed.

    Written as an objective critical assessment, this book is the first linguistic theory guide to categorial grammars. Categorial grammars offer a radical alternative to the phrase-structure paradigm, with roots in the philosophy of language, logic, and algebra. Their historical evolution is outlined and their formal basis is discussed, beginning…

  8. Colourful categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  9. Importance of metabolic rate to the relationship between the number of genes in a functional category and body size in Peto's paradox for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ii, Masato; Nishizuka, Satoshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of tumour suppression mechanisms is a major challenge in cancer biology. Therefore, Peto's paradox, or low cancer incidence in large animals, has attracted focus. According to the gene-abundance hypothesis, which considers the increase/decrease in cancer-related genes with body size, researchers evaluated the associations between gene abundance and body size. However, previous studies only focused on a few specific gene functions and have ignored the alternative hypothesis (metabolic rate hypothesis): in this hypothesis, the cellular metabolic rate and subsequent oxidative stress decreases with increasing body size. In this study, we have elected to explore the gene-abundance hypothesis taking into account the metabolic rate hypothesis. Thus, we comprehensively investigated the correlation between the number of genes in various functional categories and body size while at the same time correcting for the mass-specific metabolic rate (Bc). A number of gene functions that correlated with body size were initially identified, but they were found to be artefactual due to the decrease in Bc with increasing body size. By contrast, immune system-related genes were found to increase with increasing body size when the correlation included this correction for Bc. These findings support the gene-abundance hypothesis and emphasize the importance of also taking into account the metabolic rate when evaluating gene abundance–body size relationships. This finding may be useful for understanding cancer evolution and tumour suppression mechanisms as well as for determining cancer-related genes and functions. PMID:27703689

  10. Importance of metabolic rate to the relationship between the number of genes in a functional category and body size in Peto's paradox for cancer.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Ii, Masato; Nishizuka, Satoshi S

    2016-09-01

    Elucidation of tumour suppression mechanisms is a major challenge in cancer biology. Therefore, Peto's paradox, or low cancer incidence in large animals, has attracted focus. According to the gene-abundance hypothesis, which considers the increase/decrease in cancer-related genes with body size, researchers evaluated the associations between gene abundance and body size. However, previous studies only focused on a few specific gene functions and have ignored the alternative hypothesis (metabolic rate hypothesis): in this hypothesis, the cellular metabolic rate and subsequent oxidative stress decreases with increasing body size. In this study, we have elected to explore the gene-abundance hypothesis taking into account the metabolic rate hypothesis. Thus, we comprehensively investigated the correlation between the number of genes in various functional categories and body size while at the same time correcting for the mass-specific metabolic rate (Bc). A number of gene functions that correlated with body size were initially identified, but they were found to be artefactual due to the decrease in Bc with increasing body size. By contrast, immune system-related genes were found to increase with increasing body size when the correlation included this correction for Bc. These findings support the gene-abundance hypothesis and emphasize the importance of also taking into account the metabolic rate when evaluating gene abundance-body size relationships. This finding may be useful for understanding cancer evolution and tumour suppression mechanisms as well as for determining cancer-related genes and functions.

  11. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  12. A study of the effectiveness of machine learning methods for classification of clinical interview fragments into a large number of categories.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mehedi; Kotov, Alexander; Idalski Carcone, April; Dong, Ming; Naar, Sylvie; Brogan Hartlieb, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of state-of-the-art supervised machine learning methods in conjunction with different feature types for the task of automatic annotation of fragments of clinical text based on codebooks with a large number of categories. We used a collection of motivational interview transcripts consisting of 11,353 utterances, which were manually annotated by two human coders as the gold standard, and experimented with state-of-art classifiers, including Naïve Bayes, J48 Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), AdaBoost, DiscLDA, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in conjunction with lexical, contextual (label of the previous utterance) and semantic (distribution of words in the utterance across the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count dictionaries) features. We found out that, when the number of classes is large, the performance of CNN and CRF is inferior to SVM. When only lexical features were used, interview transcripts were automatically annotated by SVM with the highest classification accuracy among all classifiers of 70.8%, 61% and 53.7% based on the codebooks consisting of 17, 20 and 41 codes, respectively. Using contextual and semantic features, as well as their combination, in addition to lexical ones, improved the accuracy of SVM for annotation of utterances in motivational interview transcripts with a codebook consisting of 17 classes to 71.5%, 74.2%, and 75.1%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the potential of using machine learning methods in conjunction with lexical, semantic and contextual features for automatic annotation of clinical interview transcripts with near-human accuracy.

  13. Origins of the Second-Class Mail Category and the Business of Policymaking, 1863-1879. Journalism Monographs Number Ninety-Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielbowicz, Richard Burket

    The 1879 Post Office Act created the four categories of mailable matter used today and, in part, signalled the emergence of the modern mass circulated magazine. Between 1863 and 1879, Congress liberalized the terms on which regular periodicals could use the mails and put newspapers and magazines on the same footing. Requiring payment of postage at…

  14. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…

  15. Rank 4 Premodular Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul J.; Galindo, Cesar; Ng, Siu Hung; Plavnik, Julia; Rowell, Eric; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-09-01

    We consider the classification problem for rank 4 premodular categories. We uncover a formula for the 2nd Frobenius-Schur indicator of a premodular category is determined and the classification of rank 4 premodular categories (up to Grothendieck equivalence) is completed. In the appendix we show rank finiteness for premodular categories.

  16. Categories of Arrhythmias

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous page En español Aneurysms and Dissections Angina Arrhythmia Bundle Branch Block Cardiomyopathy Carotid Artery Disease Chronic ... Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Categories of Arrhythmias Arrhythmias are generally divided into two categories: ventricular ...

  17. The "hidden" semantic category dissociation in mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Emiliano

    2007-03-02

    In patients manifesting mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), lexical semantic tasks are known to be influenced by several variables which should be adequately taken into account when studying semantic category dissociations. The following study provides indexes of three new variables (imageability (I), percentage of name agreement (pNA) and number of target alternatives (nTA)) and investigates their role in naming in a group of people with AD and in matched older adults controls. Forty young healthy participants rated I, pNA and nTA of 155 stimuli (including living and non-living items) from and sets. Forty-eight people with mild-moderate AD and 40 older adults were given the two naming tests and their naming ratings were analysed with a two-way ANOVA (two groupsxtwo categories) to assess category specificity and the effect of interaction. The influence of relevant concomitant variables in naming was measured using a multiple regression analysis. Semi-partial correlations were carried out to assess the independent contribution of each variable to naming. We found that living items were more imageable and had fewer lexical alternatives and higher name agreement than non-living items. We also found that controls significantly named better than AD patients (F=37.551, p<.001), whilst the two-way ANOVA showed no significant effect of category (F=.649, p=.423). Notably category effect emerged when assessing its independent contribution performing a semi-partial correlation (beta=-.278, p<.001) which kept the effect of relevant concomitant variables under control. Our results confirm that category dissociation does emerge in mild-moderate AD patients when the effect of relevant concomitant variables is adequately taken into account. The hypothesis that the highly correlated properties of items from biological categories may play a protective effect on living things, making them less prone to impairment in the early stages of AD, is discussed.

  18. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  19. Rethinking the Category 'Determiner'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Wayne E.

    1975-01-01

    The 'determiner' category was originally set up by structuralists for identifying nouns. The rewrite rule for 'determiners' in transformational generative grammar is inadequate for showing correspondences between type and token. An appraisal of quantity terms might eliminate the concept of the 'determiner,' and replace that category with one of…

  20. Categories of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    1994-01-01

    The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent…

  1. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  2. Cross-category demand effects of price promotions.

    PubMed

    Leeflang, Peter S H; Parreño-Selva, Josefa

    Do promotions in a certain category lead to higher revenues in other categories? If so, to what degree? The answers to these questions are highly relevant for retailers that supply products in different categories. Empirical findings in studies that consider a limited number of categories indicate small promotional cross-category effects. This study develops a framework to determine the impact of price promotions on category revenues that include interdependencies among a substantial number of categories at the category demand level. The own- and cross-category demand effects are moderated by variables such as promotion intensity, category characteristics (own-category effects), and spatial distances between shelf locations (cross-category effects). The empirical results based on daily store-level scanner data show that approximately half of all price promotions expand own-category revenues, especially for categories with deeper supported discounts. There is a high probability (61%) that a price promotion affects sales of at least one other category. The number of categories affected is not greater than two. Moderate evidence supports the existence of cross-promotional effects between categories more closely located in a store.

  3. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  4. Searching for Category-Consistent Features: A Computational Approach to Understanding Visual Category Representation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen-Ping; Maxfield, Justin T; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2016-06-01

    This article introduces a generative model of category representation that uses computer vision methods to extract category-consistent features (CCFs) directly from images of category exemplars. The model was trained on 4,800 images of common objects, and CCFs were obtained for 68 categories spanning subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels in a category hierarchy. When participants searched for these same categories, targets cued at the subordinate level were preferentially fixated, but fixated targets were verified faster when they followed a basic-level cue. The subordinate-level advantage in guidance is explained by the number of target-category CCFs, a measure of category specificity that decreases with movement up the category hierarchy. The basic-level advantage in verification is explained by multiplying the number of CCFs by sibling distance, a measure of category distinctiveness. With this model, the visual representations of real-world object categories, each learned from the vast numbers of image exemplars accumulated throughout everyday experience, can finally be studied.

  5. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  6. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  7. Self-Organization with Additional Learning Based on Category Mapping and Its Application to Dynamic News Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Tetsuya; Nobuhara, Hajime

    The Internet news are texts which involve from various fields, therefore, when a text data that will show a rapid increase of the number of dimensions of feature vectors of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is added, these results cannot be reflected to learning. Furthermore, it is difficult for users to recognize the learning results because SOM can not produce any label information by each cluster. In order to solve these problems, we propose SOM with additional learning and dimensional by category mapping which is based on the category structure of Wikipedia. In this method, input vector is generated from each text and the corresponding Wikipedia categories extracted from Wikipedia articles. Input vectors are formed in the common category taking the hierarchical structure of Wikipedia category into consideration. By using the proposed method, the problem of reconfiguration of vector elements caused by dynamic changes in the text can be solved. Moreover, information loss in newly obtained index term can be prevented.

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  9. Sound categories or phonemes?

    PubMed

    Redford, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Vihman emphasizes the importance of early word production to the emergence of phonological knowledge. This emphasis, consistent with the generative function of phonology, provides insight into the concurrent representation of phonemes and words. At the same time, Vihman's focus on phonology leads her to possibly overstate the influence of early word acquisition on the emergence of sound categories that are probably purely phonetic in nature at the outset of learning.

  10. 77 FR 10352 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Category Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for transport category airplanes that have one or more...; establishment of a procedure to announce to airplane occupants that smoking is prohibited in the...

  11. Semantic Categories and Context in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick; Zapata, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This article extends recent findings that presenting semantically related vocabulary simultaneously inhibits learning. It does so by adding story contexts. Participants learned 32 new labels for known concepts from four different semantic categories in stories that were either semantically related (one category per story) or semantically unrelated…

  12. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  13. Gene-Category Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Gene-category analysis is one important knowledge integration approach in biomedical sciences that combines knowledge bases such as Gene Ontology with lists of genes or their products, which are often the result of high-throughput experiments, gained from either wet-lab or synthetic experiments. In this chapter, we will motivate this class of analyses and describe an often used variant that is based on Fisher's exact test. We show that this approach has some problems in the context of Gene Ontology of which users should be aware. We then describe some more recent algorithms that try to address some of the shortcomings of the standard approach.

  14. Treatment of category generation and retrieval in aphasia: Effect of typicality of category items.

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Kiran and colleagues (Kiran, 2007, 2008; Kiran & Johnson, 2008; Kiran & Thompson, 2003) have previously suggested that training atypical examples within a semantic category is a more efficient treatment approach to facilitating generalization within the category than training typical examples. The present study extended our previous work examining the notion of semantic complexity within goal-derived (ad-hoc) categories in individuals with aphasia. Methods: Six individuals with fluent aphasia (range = 39-84 years) and varying degrees of naming deficits and semantic impairments were involved. Thirty typical and atypical items each from two categories were selected after an extensive stimulus norming task. Generative naming for the two categories was tested during baseline and treatment. Results: As predicted, training atypical examples in the category resulted in generalization to untrained typical examples in five out the five patient-treatment conditions. In contrast, training typical examples (which was in examined three conditions) produced mixed results. One patient showed generalization to untrained atypical examples, whereas two patients did not show generalization to untrained atypical examples. Conclusions: Results of the present study supplement our existing data on the effect of a semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval by manipulating the typicality of category exemplars. PMID:21173393

  15. Category Coherence and Category-Based Property Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Hastie, Reid

    2004-01-01

    One important property of human object categories is that they define the sets of exemplars to which newly observed properties are generalized. We manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories and assessed the resulting strength of property inductions. We found that the theoretical coherence afforded to a category by…

  16. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  17. Beyond the Categories.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  18. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  19. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  20. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  1. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  2. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  3. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, suggesting that they focused on feature-feature relations rather than summary categorical information. The results showed that people relied heavily on such correlations, even when there was no reason to think that the correlations exist in the population. The results suggested that people’s use of this strategy is largely unreflective, rather than strategically chosen. These findings have important implications for models of category-based induction, which generally ignore feature-feature relations. PMID:20526447

  4. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  5. The Coordination of Unlike Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the account of coordination of unlike categories ought to be unified with the account of feature neutralization under phonological identity. Further argues that this unified account ought not be couched in terms of string of features, but rather in terms of the logic of categories. Study concludes with a discussion of the interactions…

  6. Prior Knowledge Enhances the Category Dimensionality Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron B.; Harris, Harlan D.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the combined influence of prior knowledge and stimulus dimensionality on category learning was conducted. Subjects learned category structures with the same number of necessary dimensions but more or fewer additional redundant dimensions, and with either knowledge-related or knowledge-unrelated features. Minimal-learning models predict that all subjects, regardless of condition, should learn either the same number of dimensions, or else should respond more slowly to each dimension. Despite similar learning rates and response times, subjects learned more features in the high-dimensional than in the low-dimensional condition. Furthermore, prior knowledge interacted with dimensionality, increasing what was learned especially in the high-dimensional case. A second experiment confirmed that the participants did in fact learn more features during the training phase, rather than simply inferring them at test. These effects can be explained by direct associations among features (representing prior knowledge) combined with feedback between features and the category label, as shown by simulations of the knowledge-resonance, or KRES, model of category learning. PMID:18426059

  7. Quantum random number generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.

  8. Quantum random number generation

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; ...

    2016-06-28

    Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a highmore » speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  9. Quantum random number generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which have important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness—coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. On the basis of the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modelling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, in which verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category that provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.

  10. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  11. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  12. Universal Feature Extraction for Traffic Identification of the Target Category

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Traffic identification of the target category is currently a significant challenge for network monitoring and management. To identify the target category with pertinence, a feature extraction algorithm based on the subset with highest proportion is presented in this paper. The method is proposed to be applied to the identification of any category that is assigned as the target one, but not restricted to certain specific category. We divide the process of feature extraction into two stages. In the stage of primary feature extraction, the feature subset is extracted from the dataset which has the highest proportion of the target category. In the stage of secondary feature extraction, the features that can distinguish the target and interfering categories are added to the feature subset. Our theoretical analysis and experimental observations reveal that the proposed algorithm is able to extract fewer features with greater identification ability of the target category. Moreover, the universality of the proposed algorithm proves to be available with the experiment that every category is set to be the target one. PMID:27832103

  13. Psychopathic disorder: a category mistake?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, C A

    1991-01-01

    Although the concept of psychopathy retains its currency in British psychiatry, apparently being meaningful as well as useful to practitioners (1), it is often taken to refer to a purely legal category with social control functions rather than a medical diagnosis with treatment implications. I wish, in this brief article, to suggest that it is essentially, and most usefully, an ethical category which stands outside the diagnostic framework of present-day psychiatry. PMID:1870086

  14. Data categories for marine planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  15. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  16. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  17. Categorial structure of acupuncture points for terminological resources.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yasuyuki; Togo, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Shunsei

    2013-01-01

    Recent increase in the number of clinical reports of acupuncture requires terminological resources based on conceptual frameworks for knowledge management. For this purpose, we developed a categorial structure for acupuncture points based on ISO 17115.

  18. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  19. 75 FR 61657 - Airworthiness Directives; Transport Category Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice... directive (AD) that applies to transport category airplanes that have one or more lavatories equipped with...; establishment of a procedure to announce to airplane occupants that smoking is prohibited in the...

  20. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  1. A meta-analytic review of category naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Adlington, Rebecca L; Gale, Tim M; Moreno-Martínez, F Javier; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2007-09-20

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience word-finding difficulties that become increasingly pronounced as pathological changes accrue in the brain. One question that has received increasing attention over the last two decades concerns whether the anomia in AD is category-specific, i.e. differentially affects the ability to name living things (LT) and non-living things (NLT). The current meta-analysis systematically reviewed the effect sizes for naming pictures of LT and NLT in comparisons of AD patients and healthy controls in 21 studies with over 1000 participants (557 patients and 509 healthy controls). A random effects model analysis revealed no significant difference in the large weighted effect sizes for naming pictures of LT and NLT (d=1.76 and 1.49, respectively). Moderator variable analyses revealed a significant impact of stimulus colour on the effect size for LT, indicating that using colour stimuli significantly increases the impairment of naming LT in AD patients. Additionally, we found that LT and the NLT effect sizes were larger for samples with proportionally more female patients; smaller samples produced larger LT effect sizes. In contrast, effect sizes were not significantly related to dementia severity, patient age, the number of stimuli, years of education, or the number of matching variables controlled.

  2. Prognosis of Hurricanes CATEGORIE-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Zapotitla Roman, Julian; Juarez Zuñiga, Alan

    Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. Approximately 80 cyclones per year occurring worldwide, from which 8.8 per year occur on average in different regions of the Atlantic. However, category-5 Hurricanes do not follow a cyclic pattern but ar rather of quasi-stochastic nature. To assist in the alert processes o of hurricanes, we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes based on the Wavelet Analysis and applying techniques of Fuzzy Logic. For our study we consider North Atlantic category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine dominant oscillation periods. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category can be described by the certain periodicities, we can define the dominant periods of oscillation and establish correspondence rules using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic searches for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics, and then delimits the occurrence of the next hurricane. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following periodicities 2, 9, 14 and 24 years. According to the behavior of the harmonics we found that their combination restricts regions of possible Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north Atlantic occur of 2014-2015. Regarding categorie-5 typhoons in the pacific we delimitate the genesis regions of western of these kind of typhoons.

  3. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  4. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  5. Sentence Processing with Empty Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Edward; Hickok, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Pickering and Barry's recent argument against the existence of empty categories (ECs) in human sentence processing is disputed. It is argued here that ECs may still play a linking role between thematic role assigners and wh-phrases. One possible parsing algorithm is given that accounts for Pickering and Barry's data. (28 references) (Author/LB)

  6. Hurricane Irene at Category 3

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video sequence taken by the crew of the ISS on Aug. 23, 2011 at approximately 2:15PM EST. At that time, Hurricane Irene was a Category 3 storm with peak winds estimated at 115mph, moving west-north...

  7. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  8. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  9. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  10. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  11. Category and Word Search: Generalizing Search Principles to Complex Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    development, overlearning, attention , secondary tasks 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block number) The research...search without deficit .;However, combining V category earch and the digit-span task resulted in substantial performance deficit . The generality of...concurrent serial recall digit-span task. Subjects could simultaneously perform the digit-span task and CH category search without deficit . However

  12. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  13. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  14. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  15. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke’s (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected one or both of these two processes. The first experiment successfully replicated McCabe et al., but the second, which added a critical baseline condition, produced data inconsistent with a two independent process model of recall. The third experiment provided evidence that retrieval in category cued recall reflects a generate-recognize strategy, with the effect of distinctive processing being localized to recognition. Overall, the data suggest that category cued recall evokes a generate-recognize retrieval strategy and that the sub-processes underlying this strategy can be dissociated as a function of distinctive versus relational encoding processes. PMID:26280355

  16. The Reciprocal Category System (RCS): An Observational System Designed To Assess Teacher-Student Classroom Verbal Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Richard L.

    The Reciprocal Category System (RCS) is an observational system used to record and assess teacher-student classroom verbal interaction. The RCS is composed of nine verbal categories which are applicable to either the student or teacher (and as such are numbered differently, thus producing 18 categories) and one additional category--silence or…

  17. When is category specific in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M; Leeson, Verity C; Crawford, John R

    2005-08-01

    Mixed findings have emerged concerning whether category-specific disorders occur in Alzheimer's disease. Factors that may contribute to these inconsistencies include: ceiling effects/skewed distributions for control data in some studies; differences in the severity of cognitive deficit in patients; and differences in the type of analysis (in particular, if and how controls are used to analyse single case data). We examined picture naming in Alzheimer's patients and matched elderly healthy normal controls in three experiments. These experiments used stimuli that did and did not produce ceiling effects/skewed data in controls. In Experiment 1, we examined for category effects in individual DAT patients using commonly used analyses for single cases (chi2 and z-scores). The different techniques produced quite different outcomes. In Experiment 2a, we used the same techniques on a different group of patients with similar outcomes. Finally, in Experiment 2b, we examined the same patients but (a) used stimuli that did not produce ceiling effects/skewed distributions in healthy controls, and (b) used statistical methods that did not treat the control sample as a population. We found that ceiling effects in controls may markedly inflate the incidence of dissociations in which living things are differentially impaired and seriously underestimate dissociations in the opposite direction. In addition, methods that treat the control sample as a population led to inflation in the overall number of dissociations detected. These findings have implications for the reliability of category effects previously reported both in Alzheimer patients and in other pathologies. In particular, they suggest that the greater proportion of living than nonliving deficits reported in the literature may be an artifact of the methods used.

  18. Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Andrea; Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio

    2008-06-10

    Categories provide a coarse-grained description of the world. A fundamental question is whether categories simply mirror an underlying structure of nature or instead come from the complex interactions of human beings among themselves and with the environment. Here, we address this question by modeling a population of individuals who co-evolve their own system of symbols and meanings by playing elementary language games. The central result is the emergence of a hierarchical category structure made of two distinct levels: a basic layer, responsible for fine discrimination of the environment, and a shared linguistic layer that groups together perceptions to guarantee communicative success. Remarkably, the number of linguistic categories turns out to be finite and small, as observed in natural languages.

  19. Within-Category Discontinuity Interacts with Verbal Rule Complexity in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A test of the predicted interaction between within-category discontinuity and verbal rule complexity on information-integration and rule-based category learning was conducted. Within-category discontinuity adversely affected information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. Model-based analyses suggested that some…

  20. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  1. Category-specific semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease: a semantic priming study.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Reñé, Ramón

    2008-03-07

    Category-specific semantic deficits in individuals suffering brain damage after relatively focal lesions provide an important source of evidence about the organization of semantic knowledge. However, whether Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which the brain damage is more widespread, affects semantic categories to a different extent is still controversial. In the present study, we assess this issue by means of the semantic priming technique. AD patients with a mild impairment of their semantic knowledge showed comparable priming effects to that of controls for the categories of animals and artifacts. Interestingly, however, patients with a moderate impairment of their semantic knowledge showed a normal priming effect for animals but a very reduced priming effect (if any) for artifacts. These results reveal that AD may affect the semantic knowledge of different semantic categories to a different extent. The implications of this observation for current theoretical accounts of semantic representation in the brain are discussed.

  2. 76 FR 12556 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen Generators Installed in a Lavatory AGENCY: Federal... affected airplanes identified above. This AD requires modifying the chemical oxygen generators in the lavatory. This AD was prompted by reports that the current design of these oxygen generators presents...

  3. Categorial Compositionality: A Category Theory Explanation for the Systematicity of Human Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe—replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them. PMID:20661306

  4. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  5. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  6. What Children Infer from Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Eldror, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Children hold the belief that social categories have essences. We investigated what kinds of properties children feel licensed to infer about a person based on social category membership. Seventy-two 4-6-year-olds were introduced to novel social categories defined as having one internal--psychological or biological--and one external--behavioral or…

  7. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  8. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  9. A history of chorological categories.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, S

    2016-09-01

    One of the purposes of the research program referred to as "systematic biogeography" is the use of species distributions to identify regions and reconstruct biotic area relationships. The reverse, i.e. to group species according to the areas that they live in, leads to the recognition of chorological categories. Biogeographers, working under these two different approaches, have proposed several terms to refer to groups of species that have similar distributions, such as "element", "chorotype" and "component". A historical reconstruction, including semantic observations and philosophical implications, shows that these terms have been used in a variety of senses. The word "component" should not be used in biogeography. The word "element" has been used to identify both a group of species defined according to the biogeographic areas they occupy and a group of species with an assumed shared biogeographic history. It is especially because of the influence of the dispersalist paradigm, which dominated evolutionary thought until the mid-twentieth century, that the second definition has been frequently adopted. The term "element" is therefore ambiguous and its use should always be associated with an explicit definition. The word "chorotype" should be used to define groups of species with similar ranges when no causal assumption is made. The concept of "chorotype," finally, should not be confounded with other concepts such as distributional pattern, cenocron, horofauna, biota, endemic area, area of endemism, biotic element, and generalized track, which are also discussed in this paper.

  10. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  11. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he…

  12. VIC: A Computer Analysis of Verbal Interaction Category Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, John A.; And Others

    VIC is a computer program for the analysis of verbal interaction category systems, especially the Flanders interaction analysis system. The observer codes verbal behavior on coding sheets for later machine scoring. A matrix is produced by the program showing the number and percentages of times that a particular cell describes classroom behavior.…

  13. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  14. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  15. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  16. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., chair is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: (a) the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and (b) the grouping of concepts into categories based on those features. Our model learns categories incrementally using particle filters, a sequential Monte Carlo method commonly used for approximate probabilistic inference that sequentially integrates newly observed data and can be viewed as a plausible mechanism for human learning. Experimental results show that our incremental learner obtains meaningful categories which yield a closer fit to behavioral data compared to related models while at the same time acquiring features which characterize the learned categories. (An earlier version of this work was published in Frermann and Lapata .).

  17. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  18. Abstract and concrete categories? Evidences from neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Catricalà, Eleonora; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Plebani, Valentina; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the performance of patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA) in a series of tasks involving both abstract and concrete stimuli, which were controlled for most of the variables that have been shown to affect performance on lexical-semantic tasks. Our aims were to compare the patients׳ performance on abstract and concrete stimuli and to assess category-effects within the abstract and concrete domains. The results showed: (i) a better performance on abstract than concrete concepts in sv-PPA patients. (ii) Category-related effects in the abstract domain, with emotion concepts being preserved in AD and social relations being selectively impaired in sv-PPA. In addition, a living-non living dissociation may be (infrequently) observed in individual AD patients after controlling for an extensive set of potential confounds. Thus, differences between and within the concrete or abstract domain may be present in patients with semantic memory disorders, mirroring the different brain regions involved by the different pathologies.

  19. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  20. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover. PMID:24292562

  1. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  2. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  3. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  4. Geometric Representation of Association between Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Willem J.

    2004-01-01

    Categories can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured. Likewise, persons or individuals can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured either. Nevertheless, psychology has realized early on that it can take an indirect road to measurement: What can be measured is the strength of association between categories in…

  5. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  6. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size categories. 993.515 Section 993.515 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... respective size categories expressed as follows or in an applicable equivalent range expressed in the...

  7. SUSTAIN: A Network Model of Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Bradley C.; Medin, Douglas L.; Gureckis, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN…

  8. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  9. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  10. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  11. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  12. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  13. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  14. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  15. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  16. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  17. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  18. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  19. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  20. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  1. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  2. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  3. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  4. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  5. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  6. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  7. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  8. New categories for traditional medicine in the Economic Botany Data Collection Standard.

    PubMed

    Gruca, Marta; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Macía, Manuel J; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-09-11

    The Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (EBDCS) has been successfully followed by ethnobotanists investigating plant uses in many parts of the world. However, we have encountered some cases in our study of traditional medicine where the standard seems incomplete and inaccurate when it is applied to plant uses of rural or indigenous societies in developing countries. We propose two categories to be added to the EBDCS: Cultural Diseases and Disorders, and Ritual/Magical Uses. Adding these categories, we believe will give a more accurate insight into traditional medicine and will contribute to developing an integrative ethnomedicinal data collection protocol, which will make ethnomedicinal studies more comparable.

  9. Adding a Human Dimension to the College Numbers Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Considers how the College Essay Program, a long-standing tradition in the North Salem Central School District, helps students prepare a written personal statement essay for needs such as college admission applications. Concludes that college essays are engaging personal statements, difficult to write down, that bring a human dimension to the…

  10. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  11. Program distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: Instructions and category scope notes: Revision 75

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.F. Jr.; Amburn, D.

    1989-08-01

    The DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in conjunction with DOE Program Offices establishes distribution categories for research, development, and technological reports emanating from DOE programs. The revised category numbers and scope notes contained in this publication were coordinated between OSTI and DOE Program Offices with input from DOE Field Offices. Decisions regarding whether reports will be distributed are made by Program Offices in conjunction with DOE Field Offices and OSTI. This revision of DOE/OSTI-4500 contains the revised distribution category numbers and scope notes along with the printed copy requirement, which shows the number of copies required to make program distribution.

  12. 47 CFR 36.123 - Operator systems equipment-Category 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... trunk equipment, number checking facilities, ticket distributing systems, calculagraphs, chief operator... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operator systems equipment-Category 1. 36.123... Central Office Equipment § 36.123 Operator systems equipment—Category 1. (a) Operator systems equipment...

  13. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.

  14. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  15. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  16. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  17. Feature-based versus category-based induction with uncertain categories.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K; Newell, Ben R

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is known. The present experiments examined the conditions that drive feature-based and category-based strategies in induction under category uncertainty. Specifically, 2 experiments investigated whether reliance on feature-based inductive strategies is a product of the lack of coherence in the categories used in previous research or is due to the use of a decision-only induction procedure. Experiment 1 found that feature-based reasoning remained the preferred strategy even when categories with relatively high internal coherence were used. Experiment 2 found a shift toward category-based reasoning when participants were trained to classify category members prior to feature induction. Together, these results suggest that an appropriate conceptual representation must be formed through experience with a category before it is likely to be used as a basis for feature induction.

  18. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Gorodkin, J

    2004-12-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/.

  19. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-12-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4}-obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  20. Human category learning 2.0.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Maddox, W Todd

    2011-04-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, cognitive neuroscience investigations of human category learning focused on the primary goal of showing that humans have multiple category-learning systems and on the secondary goals of identifying key qualitative properties of each system and of roughly mapping out the neural networks that mediate each system. Many researchers now accept the strength of the evidence supporting multiple systems, and as a result, during the past few years, work has begun on the second generation of research questions-that is, on questions that begin with the assumption that humans have multiple category-learning systems. This article reviews much of this second generation of research. Topics covered include (1) How do the various systems interact? (2) Are there different neural systems for categorization and category representation? (3) How does automaticity develop in each system? and (4) Exactly how does each system learn?

  1. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  2. Words can slow down category learning.

    PubMed

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  3. The Recent Data Explosion in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Carolyn S.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E.; Thompson, D.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    In the past 12 months, we have added over a million records to the ADS Abstract Service. This is the equivalent of a 20% increase, or about double the rate of increase that the ADS has seen in recent years. This significant increase in size is due to the addition of several large datasets including historical data from many Springer astronomy and physics journals as well as bibliographic records from the full run of A&A Abstracts from the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. The number of citations in the Abstract Service has seen an increase of more than 25%, bringing the total number of citations to over 25 million. Our recent agreement to index records from CrossRef will continue the data explosion in the ADS into 2008.

  4. Impact of feature saliency on visual category learning

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi

    2015-01-01

    People have to sort numerous objects into a large number of meaningful categories while operating in varying contexts. This requires identifying the visual features that best predict the ‘essence’ of objects (e.g., edibility), rather than categorizing objects based on the most salient features in a given context. To gain this capacity, visual category learning (VCL) relies on multiple cognitive processes. These may include unsupervised statistical learning, that requires observing multiple objects for learning the statistics of their features. Other learning processes enable incorporating different sources of supervisory information, alongside the visual features of the categorized objects, from which the categorical relations between few objects can be deduced. These deductions enable inferring that objects from the same category may differ from one another in some high-saliency feature dimensions, whereas lower-saliency feature dimensions can best differentiate objects from distinct categories. Here I illustrate how feature saliency affects VCL, by also discussing kinds of supervisory information enabling reflective categorization. Arguably, principles debated here are often being ignored in categorization studies. PMID:25954220

  5. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  6. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  7. Category-Specific Naming Deficit in Alzheimer's Disease: The Effect of a Display by Domain Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2007-01-01

    A category-specific naming effect penalizing living things has often been reported in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in other brain damaged populations, while the opposite dissociation (i.e., lower accuracy in naming nonliving than living things) is much rarer. In this study, we investigated whether the use of line drawings…

  8. Closed-Shell Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations: A New Category of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to calculate the harmonic frequencies and intensities of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations that explore both size and electronic structure effects of the infrared spectroscopic properties of these species. The sample extends the size range of PAH species considered to more than 50 carbon atoms and includes several representatives from each of two heretofore unexplored categories of PAH cations: (1) fully benzenoid PAH cations whose carbon skeleton is composed of an odd number of carbon atoms (C(sub odd) PAHs); and (2) protonated PAH cations (HPAH+). Unlike the radical electronic structures of the PAH cations that have been the subject of previous theoretical and experimental work, the species in these two classes have a closed-shell electronic configuration. The calculated spectra of circumcoronene, C54H18 in both neutral and (radical) cationic form are also reported and compared with those of the other species. Overall, the C(sub odd) PAHs spectra are dominated by strong CC stretching modes near 1600 cm(exp -1) and display spectra that are remarkably insensitive to molecular size. The HPAH+ species evince a more complex spectrum consistent with the added contributions of aliphatic modes and their generally lower symmetry. Finally, for both classes of closed-shell cations, the intensity of the aromatic CH stretching modes is found to increase with molecular size far out of proportion with the number of CH groups, approaching a value more typical of neutral PAHs for the largest species studied.

  9. 78 FR 51127 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Southwest Florida Aviation, Inc. This proposed AD would require inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) cable... proposed actions are intended to prevent disengagement of the cable from the barrel, failure of the T/R... assemblies, part number (P/N) 205-001-720-001, were manufactured with a defective body, P/N...

  10. [Brazilian literature on nursing work founded on marxist categories].

    PubMed

    Mandú, Edir Nei Teixeira; Peduzzi, Marina; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; da Silva, Ana Maria Nunes

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian scientific literature on nursing work based on Marxist categories, with the aim of investigating their contributions and tendencies. The study is a quanti-qualitative review of 97 articles published between 1981 and 2008, indexed in the LILACS. It is discussed: number and periodical distribution; themes; methodological and conceptual approaches. It was identified: a growing body of literature on nursing especially from 2000 onwards; the growth of approaches on the subjects, their perceptions and social interaction; the incorporation recently into the debate on caring and nursing care management; the predominance of qualitative research and, from the 1990s onwards, the incorporation of concepts from other theoretical paths linked to Marxists categories. There was evidence of a search for understanding of the movements, contradictions and dilemmas in nursing as a heterogeneous social practice.

  11. Relative category-specific preservation in semantic dementia? Evidence from 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Merck, Catherine; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Vichard, Hélène; Boursiquot, Sandrine Le Moal; Leblay, Virginie; Belliard, Serge

    2013-03-01

    Category-specific deficits have rarely been reported in semantic dementia (SD). To our knowledge, only four previous studies have documented category-specific deficits, and these have focused on the living versus non-living things contrast rather than on more fine-grained semantic categories. This study aimed to determine whether a category-specific effect could be highlighted by a semantic sorting task administered to 35 SD patients once at baseline and again after 2 years and to 10 Alzheimer's disease patients (AD). We found a relative preservation of fruit and vegetables only in SD. This relative preservation of fruit and vegetables could be considered with regard to the importance of color knowledge in their discrimination. Indeed, color knowledge retrieval is known to depend on the left posterior fusiform gyrus which is relatively spared in SD. Finally, according to predictions of semantic memory models, our findings best fitted the Devlin and Gonnerman's computational account.

  12. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  13. Moduli of linear and abelian categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anel, Mathieu

    2006-07-01

    Linear categories naturally have several identification relations : isomorphisms, categorical equivalences and Morita equivalences. In this thesis, we construct the classifying stacks for these three relations (\\ukcatiso, \\ukcateq, \\ukcatmor) together with the classifying stack of abelian categories (\\ukab), the originality of the subject being that, apart from the first one, these are higher stacks. The principal result is that, under some finiteness assumptions, these stacks are geometric in the sense of C. Simpson. In particular, one recover the Hochschild cohomology of a category C as the tangent complex, i.e. the object classifying first order deformations of C, of these stacks at the point defined by C. Moreover, there exists a natural sequence of surjective morphisms of stacks : \\ukcatiso tto \\ukcateq tto \\ukcatmor tto \\ukab for which we prove that the middle one is etale, and the right one is an equivalence.

  14. Children's internal organization of locative categories.

    PubMed

    Erreich, A; Valian, V

    1979-12-01

    4 locative categories were investigated to determine whether their examples were organized according to the prototype/nonprototype distinction. A ranking task was presented to 30 adult subjects to see whether they would judge those instances which had been designated as prototypes by the experimenter to be the best exemplars of each category. An elicited-drawing task was administered to see whether there was a preference for drawing adult-designated prototypical instances. A matching task was presented to determine whether fewer errors would occur in response to adult-designated prototypical instances. The latter 2 tasks were presented to 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and adults, with 17 subjects in each group. The results provide strong evidence of prototype/nonprototype organization in 3 of the locative categories and weak evidence in the fourth. Tentative conclusions regarding the development of such organization are drawn.

  15. Feedback can be superior to observational training for both rule-based and information-integration category structures.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, C E R; Milton, Fraser; Wills, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two different types of training on rule-based and information-integration category learning were investigated in two experiments. In observational training, a category label is presented, followed by an example of that category and the participant's response. In feedback training, the stimulus is presented, and the participant assigns it to a category and then receives feedback about the accuracy of that decision. Ashby, Maddox, and Bohil (2002. Observational versus feedback training in rule-based and information-integration category learning. Memory & Cognition, 30, 666-677) reported that feedback training was superior to observational training when learning information-integration category structures, but that training type had little effect on the acquisition of rule-based category structures. These results were argued to support the COVIS (competition between verbal and implicit systems) dual-process account of category learning. However, a number of nonessential differences between their rule-based and information-integration conditions complicate interpretation of these findings. Experiment 1 controlled between-category structures for participant error rates, category separation, and the number of stimulus dimensions relevant to the categorization. Under these more controlled conditions, rule-based and information-integration category structures both benefited from feedback training to a similar degree. Experiment 2 maintained this difference in training type when learning a rule-based category that had otherwise been matched, in terms of category overlap and overall performance, with the rule-based categories used in Ashby et al. These results indicate that differences in dimensionality between the category structures in Ashby et al. is a more likely explanation for the interaction between training type and category structure than the dual-system explanation that they offered.

  16. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  17. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  18. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  19. Enhanced Weight based DSR for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samant; Jain, Sweta

    2011-12-01

    Routing in ad hoc network is a great problematic, since a good routing protocol must ensure fast and efficient packet forwarding, which isn't evident in ad hoc networks. In literature there exists lot of routing protocols however they don't include all the aspects of ad hoc networks as mobility, device and medium constraints which make these protocols not efficient for some configuration and categories of ad hoc networks. Thus in this paper we propose an improvement of Weight Based DSR in order to include some of the aspects of ad hoc networks as stability, remaining battery power, load and trust factor and proposing a new approach Enhanced Weight Based DSR.

  20. Number relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Number relativity 1.Every equation of the relativity is just the way to understand through to solve one question of the math problem. We just add the hypothesis into the number. 2. Sequence of number is the machine physics for software(computer) as the number order is program equation as calculator. 3. When zero is denominator, it is not existing as it is doing something by nothing. So nothing means time as we put zero denominator into time. My personal physics imagine.

  1. Event-related potential parameters of category and property violations during semantic category-based induction.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Lei, Xu; Chen, Jie; Chang, Yun; Chen, Antao; Li, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have failed to clarify the event-related potentials (ERPs) that occur in response to categorization and property inferences during category-based induction. The present study examined ERP differences among acceptable-induction conclusions, unrelated-category conclusions, and unrelated-property conclusions to dissociate categorization and property-inference processing during category-based induction. The results showed that: (a) conclusions with categories that were unrelated to the premise evoked greater frontal N2 amplitudes, smaller P3b amplitudes, and greater N400 amplitudes, compared to conclusions with categories that were logically related to the premise; and (b) conclusions with unrelated properties evoked larger late positive components (LPCs) during the 700-800ms time interval compared to conclusions with related properties. These results suggest that the N2-P3b-N400 effects reflect categorization violations, while the LPCs are related to property violations during category-based induction, therefore, the ERP responses to category-related and property-related processes are dissociated respectively during category-based induction.

  2. 75 FR 40756 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of #0;the... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft guidance for public comment. SUMMARY: The U. S... requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The...

  3. 75 FR 62694 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... July 14, 2010, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) noticed for public comment implementation guidance for a proposed rule to establish security requirements for the use and transport of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The public comment period for this guidance was to...

  4. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  5. 40 CFR 94.106 - Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heated by the engine); (ii) Without correction at any ambient water temperature (or equivalent) between 5... commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 94.105(b), the Not to Exceed... Exceed zone which follows: ER29DE99.002 (2) For Category 2 engines certified using the duty...

  6. 10 CFR 37.71 - Additional requirements for transfer of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.71 Section 37.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. A licensee transferring a category 1 or category 2 quantity of radioactive material to...

  7. The toxicological effects of heavy fuel oil category substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Reitman, Fred; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell; Charlap, Jeffrey H; O'Neill, Thomas P; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky

    2014-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) category substances are used to manufacture HFO, a product used in industrial boilers and marine diesel engines. Commercial HFOs and blending stream components are substances of complex and variable composition, composed of C20 to >C50 hydrocarbons, although lower molecular weight material may be added to reduce viscosity and improve flow characteristics. An HFO blending stream (catalytically cracked clarified oil [CCCO]) was tested for target organ and developmental toxicity in rats following repeated dermal administration at doses of 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/d. In the repeated dose study, there was evidence of increased liver weights, reduced thymus weights, and reductions in hematological parameters with an overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/d. In the developmental toxicity test, there were significant reductions in fetal survival, significant increases in resorption frequency, and significantly reduced fetal weights with an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/d. These target organ and developmental effects are associated with the types and levels of aromatic constituents in these substances. Among HFO blending streams, CCCOs have the highest levels of aromatics and, because they produce the characteristic toxicological effects at the lowest levels, are considered as "reasonable worst-case examples" for this group of substances. Other HFO category members with lower levels of aromatics produce similar effects but have higher NOAELs. The potential for target organ and developmental effects of other HFO category members can be predicted from information on the types and levels of the aromatic constituents present in these substances.

  8. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…

  9. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...; (7) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information: (i) Could reasonably be expected to interfere...

  10. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...; (7) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information: (i) Could reasonably be expected to interfere...

  11. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    PubMed

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  12. Production Determines Category: An Ontology of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It is a mainstream view within the ontology of art that there are singular as well as multiple artworks, but it is also a view that is contested. In this article, the author investigates whether the singular/multiple distinction can be sustained and argues for a new way to determine the category to which an artwork belongs. The author stresses…

  13. Measuring Category Intuitiveness in Unconstrained Categorization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.

    2011-01-01

    What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…

  14. Learning about Tool Categories via Eavesdropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Brenda; Seston, Rebecca; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that toddlers will form enduring artifact categories after direct exposure to an adult using a novel tool. Four studies explored whether 2- (N = 48) and 3-year-olds (N = 32) demonstrate this same capacity when learning by eavesdropping. After surreptitiously observing an adult use 1 of 2 artifacts to operate a bell via a…

  15. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  16. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  17. Categories Influence Predictions about Individual Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…

  18. When Does Fading Enhance Perceptual Category Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In…

  19. Right-of-Way Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The thrust of this document is vegetation management in public service rights-of-way such as along utility lines, railroads and highways. Different categories of herbicides are discussed with attention given to how they should be applied, the…

  20. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  1. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  2. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  3. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  4. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  5. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  6. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  7. Opposite RHOA functions within the ATLL category.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shumpei

    2016-02-04

    In this issue of Blood, Nagata et al reported that different Ras homolog gene family, member A (RHOA) hotspot mutations among the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) category have opposite biochemical activities, which are linked to different T-cell phenotypes.

  8. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption categories. 2.105 Section 2.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures...; (4) Trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged...

  9. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  10. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  11. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  12. 47 CFR 36.142 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS...) Other Information Origination/Termination Equipment—Category 1. This category includes the cost of other information origination/termination equipment not assigned to Category 2. The costs of other...

  13. Cooperative Multi-Agent Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    COOPERATIVE MULTI - AGENT SYSTEMS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS Joseph P. Macker William Chao Myriam Abramson Ian Downard Information Technology Division...are, mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) and Multi - Agent Systems (MAS). Despite their value in enabling more autonomous network system operation...2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cooperative Multi - Agent Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. A comparison of the standard category test with a new computer version.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Gunner, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Halstead Category Test is a popular measure of abstraction, concept formation, and logical analysis skills. Due to its large apparatus, however, ease of administration of the standard Category Test is limited. For this reason, a number of computer versions of the Category Test have been developed to facilitate its administration. The current study evaluated the equivalence of a new computer version to the standard Category Test in a sample of undergraduate students. Analyses revealed that the two versions did not differ significantly on subtest error scores, total error scores, or Neuropsychological Deficit Scale scores. Results of the current study support the equivalence of this new computer version to the standard version of the Category Test.

  15. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  16. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  17. Neural Changes Associated with Nonspeech Auditory Category Learning Parallel Those of Speech Category Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Holt, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Native language experience plays a critical role in shaping speech categorization, but the exact mechanisms by which it does so are not well understood. Investigating category learning of nonspeech sounds with which listeners have no prior experience allows their experience to be systematically controlled in a way that is impossible to achieve by studying natural speech acquisition, and it provides a means of probing the boundaries and constraints that general auditory perception and cognition bring to the task of speech category learning. In this study, we used a multimodal, video-game-based implicit learning paradigm to train participants to categorize acoustically complex, nonlinguistic sounds. Mismatch negativity responses to the nonspeech stimuli were collected before and after training to investigate the degree to which neural changes supporting the learning of these nonspeech categories parallel those typically observed for speech category acquisition. Results indicate that changes in mismatch negativity resulting from the nonspeech category learning closely resemble patterns of change typically observed during speech category learning. This suggests that the often-observed “specialized” neural responses to speech sounds may result, at least in part, from the expertise we develop with speech categories through experience rathr than from properties unique to speech (e.g., linguistic or vocal tract gestural information). Furthermore, particular characteristics of the training paradigm may inform our understanding of mechanisms that support natural speech acquisition. PMID:19929331

  18. Myocardial infarction risk and occupational categories in Kaunas 25–64 year old men

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskiene, V; Grazuleviciene, R; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Azaraviciene, A

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the risk of a first time myocardial infarction (MI) among different occupational categories in 25–64 year old men in Kaunas, Lithuania, a country in a transition market economy. Methods: Case-control study among men aged 25–64 who were residents in Kaunas between 1997 and 2000. First time, non-fatal MI cases (n = 448) were identified from the MI hospital register (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, code I21). Controls (n = 1777) were selected and matched on age, gender, and city district of residence. Information was obtained on occupation, smoking, hypertension, psychosocial, and behavioural factors. The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) was used to code for occupational categories. The relation between MI and occupational categories was evaluated by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for a number of selected risk factors. Results: Legislators, senior officials, and managers (1st ISCO category) had a twofold increased risk for MI compared to craft and related trades workers (7th ISCO category) after adjustment for age, district, smoking, hypertension, obesity, stress, education, and employment duration. An increased risk for professionals (2nd ISCO category) and plant and machine operators and assemblers (8th ISCO category) was also observed. Employment duration in the last occupation for 20 years and more almost doubled the risk of MI in the whole population. We also found an increased risk for other traditional IHD risk factors such as smoking and arterial hypertension. Conclusions: Differences in first time MI risk among occupational categories were found. Legislators, senior officials, and managers (1st ISCO category), professionals (2nd ISCO category), and plant and machine operators and assemblers (8th ISCO category) were at an increased risk. Differences in psychosocial factors in transition market economy countries may contribute to observed results. PMID:12409533

  19. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  20. Number Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Terese A.

    2004-01-01

    This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number…

  1. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  2. DichotomY IdentitY: Euler-Bernoulli Numbers, Sets-Multisets, FD-BE Quantum-Statistics, 1 /f0 - 1 /f1 Power-Spectra, Ellipse-Hyperbola Conic-Sections, Local-Global Extent: ``Category-Semantics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, G.-C.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Seminal Apostol[Math.Mag.81,3,178(08);Am.Math.Month.115,9,795(08)]-Rota[Intro.Prob. Thy.(95)-p.50-55] DichotomY equivalence-class: set-theory: sets V multisets; closed V open; to Abromowitz-Stegun[Hdbk.Math.Fns.(64)]-ch.23,p.803!]: numbers/polynomials generating-functions: Euler V Bernoulli; to Siegel[Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.,(1989)-5-papers!] power-spectrum: 1/ f {0}-White V 1/ f {1}-Zipf/Pink (Archimedes) HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY; to analytic-geometry Conic-Sections: Ellipse V (via Parabola) V Hyperbola; to Extent/Scale/Radius: Locality V Globality, Root-Causes/Ultimate-Origins: Dimensionality: odd-Z V (via fractal) V even-Z, to Symmetries/(Noether's-theorem connected)/Conservation-Laws Dichotomy: restored/conservation/convergence=0- V broken/non-conservation/divergence=/=0: with asymptotic-limit antipodes morphisms/ crossovers: Eureka!!!; "FUZZYICS"=''CATEGORYICS''!!! Connection to Kummer(1850) Bernoulli-numbers proof of FLT is via Siegel(CCNY;1964) < (1994)[AMS Joint Mtg. (2002)-Abs.973-60-124] short succinct physics proof: FLT = Least-Action Principle!!!

  3. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  4. Clustering header categories extracted from web tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Embley, David W.; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Seth, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Revealing related content among heterogeneous web tables is part of our long term objective of formulating queries over multiple sources of information. Two hundred HTML tables from institutional web sites are segmented and each table cell is classified according to the fundamental indexing property of row and column headers. The categories that correspond to the multi-dimensional data cube view of a table are extracted by factoring the (often multi-row/column) headers. To reveal commonalities between tables from diverse sources, the Jaccard distances between pairs of category headers (and also table titles) are computed. We show how about one third of our heterogeneous collection can be clustered into a dozen groups that exhibit table-title and header similarities that can be exploited for queries.

  5. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage.

  6. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  7. Structural processing and category-specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Marques, J Frederico; Raposo, Ana; Almeida, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of four structural dimensions (object parts, internal details, objects contours and variability of the representation), as a possible source of categorical processing differences and category-specific deficits. Importantly, these dimensions aggregate 22 different structural measures that have been proposed to describe the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. Study 1 analysed the differences between the four dimensions across domains and categories. Study 2 investigated how these dimensions may contribute to the performance of two patients with category-specific deficits that have been reported previously in the literature (Farah et al., 1991). The results showed that living things were structurally more complex than non-living things, scoring higher in object parts and object contours. Regarding the variability of the representation, living things did not show much within-item diversity but did show more contour overlap and less visual similarity, the latter two qualities of living things being detrimental to object processing in a naming task. Parts, contours and variability of the representation also differentiated animals, fruits and vegetables and, to a certain degree, non-living things: animals had more parts, fruits had more object contours and non-living things had a lower variability of the representation (which was especially related to higher within-item diversity and lower contour overlap). The same three dimensions predicted patient performance. However, when structural dimensions were considered together with domain (living/non-living) and concept familiarity, only variability of the representation contributed significantly to patient performance.

  8. Improving Causality Induction with Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning. PMID:24883419

  9. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  10. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  11. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  12. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  13. 47 CFR 36.122 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Central Office Equipment § 36.122 Categories and apportionment procedures. (a) The following categories of central office equipment and apportionment procedures therefore are set forth in §§ 36.123 through 36.126. Operator Systems Equipment Category 1. Tandem Switching Equipment Category 2. Local Switching...

  14. 75 FR 34953 - Existence of Proposed Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... regulations for primary category aircraft. DATES: Comments must be received on or before July 21, 2010... Directorate (ACE-111), Aircraft Certification Service, 901 Locust Street, Room 301, Kansas City, MO 64106. FOR... Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, FAA; telephone number (816) 329-4134, fax number...

  15. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  16. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  17. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  18. SARS in Three Categories of Hospital Workers, Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xilin; Leung, Ping-Chung; Chan, Louis; Wong, Eliza; Fong, Carmen; Tsui, Hi-Yi

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed attack rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in three categories of hospital workers (nurses, nonmedical support staff, and other technical or medical staff) in all public hospitals in Hong Kong that had admitted SARS patients. Of 16 such hospitals, 14 had cases. The overall attack rate was 1.20%. Nonmedical support staff had the highest attack rate (2.73%). The odds ratios of group nonmedical support staff versus those of nurses and of nonmedical support staff versus other technical or medical staff were 2.30 (p < 0.001) and 9.78 (p < 0.001), respectively. The number of affected staff and attack rates were significantly correlated with the number of SARS patients admitted (r = 0.914 and 0.686, respectively). Affected patients were concentrated in three hospitals and in the earlier phase of the epidemic. Cleaning and clerical staff on hospital wards were at a much higher risk. PMID:15496240

  19. Toward a dual-learning systems model of speech category learning

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Koslov, Seth R.; Maddox, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article, we describe a neurobiologically constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, unidimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application, we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions. PMID:25132827

  20. Discriminating taxonomic categories and domains in mental simulations of concepts of varying concreteness.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew J; Murphy, Brian; Poesio, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Most studies of conceptual knowledge in the brain focus on a narrow range of concrete conceptual categories, rely on the researchers' intuitions about which object belongs to these categories, and assume a broadly taxonomic organization of knowledge. In this fMRI study, we focus on concepts with a variety of concreteness levels; we use a state of the art lexical resource (WordNet 3.1) as the source for a relatively large number of category distinctions and compare a taxonomic style of organization with a domain-based model (an example domain is Law). Participants mentally simulated situations associated with concepts when cued by text stimuli. Using multivariate pattern analysis, we find evidence that all Taxonomic categories and Domains can be distinguished from fMRI data and also observe a clear concreteness effect: Tools and Locations can be reliably predicted for unseen participants, but less concrete categories (e.g., Attributes, Communications, Events, Social Roles) can only be reliably discriminated within participants. A second concreteness effect relates to the interaction of Domain and Taxonomic category membership: Domain (e.g., relation to Law vs. Music) can be better predicted for less concrete categories. We repeated the analysis within anatomical regions, observing discrimination between all/most categories in the left mid occipital and left mid temporal gyri, and more specialized discrimination for concrete categories Tool and Location in the left precentral and fusiform gyri, respectively. Highly concrete/abstract Taxonomic categories and Domain were segregated in frontal regions. We conclude that both Taxonomic and Domain class distinctions are relevant for interpreting neural structuring of concrete and abstract concepts.

  1. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  2. 10 CFR 37.21 - Personnel access authorization requirements for category 1 or category 2 quantities of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.21 Section 37.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background... 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General. (1) Each licensee that possesses...

  3. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Protection in Transit § 37.73 Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  4. Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Petra; Vakli, Pál; Kovács, Gyula; Zimmer, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP) components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the ERPs for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.

  5. On a categorial aspect of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan; Nieznański, Edward

    Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation. Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.

  6. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts.

  7. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants’ attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  8. Psychometric properties of the Halstead Category Test.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M N; Charter, R A; Newman, R J

    2000-05-01

    Using the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) corrected for item difficulty, the internal consistency reliability of the Halstead Category Test (HCT) was calculated for a sample (N = 398) of normal patients and volunteers, diffusely brain-damaged patients, and undiagnosed patients sent for neuropsychological assessment. The HCT Total Score reliability was.9716 and the subtest reliabilities ranged from.4587 to.9590. An item analysis found that most of the test items, except for those from Subtests I and II, were within established criteria for item difficulty and the discrimination index.

  9. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  10. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  11. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  12. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from…

  13. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  14. Development of a Novel Vector for Multiple CDC Category a Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    also recently added to the list of category A select agents. Vaccinia virus (VV) is an effective vaccine against small pox virus and MPV, but has...significant side effects in a portion of the human population. Modified vaccinia ankara ( MVA ) vaccination has recently been shown to be partially...potential efficacy of the RhCMV vector approach for inducing protective immunity to pox viruses. 6 Nelson, Jay A., Ph.D. Specific Aim 2: We

  15. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  16. Delayed Feedback Disrupts the Procedural-Learning System but Not the Hypothesis-Testing System in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Ing, A. David

    2005-01-01

    W. T. Maddox, F. G. Ashby, and C. J. Bohil (2003) found that delayed feedback adversely affects information-integration but not rule-based category learning in support of a multiple-systems approach to category learning. However, differences in the number of stimulus dimensions relevant to solving the task and perceptual similarity failed to rule…

  17. Mysterious zero in AdS5×S5 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak

    2002-11-01

    It is shown that all the states in AdS5×S5 supergravity have zero eigenvalue for all Casimir eigenvalues of its symmetry group SU(2,2|4). To compute this zero in supergravity we refine the oscillator methods for studying the lowest weight unitary representations of SU(N,M|R+S). We solve the reduction problem when one multiplies an arbitrary number of super-doubletons. This enters in the computation of the Casimir eigenvalues of the lowest weight representations. We apply the results to SU(2,2|4) that classifies the Kaluza-Klein towers of ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity compactified on AdS5×S5. We show that the vanishing of the SU(2,2|4) Casimir eigenvalues for all the states is indeed a group-theoretical fact in AdS5×S5 supergravity. By the AdS-CFT correspondence, it is also a fact for gauge invariant states of super-Yang-Mills theory with four supersymmetries in four dimensions. This nontrivial and mysterious zero is very interesting because it is predicted as a straightforward consequence of the fundamental local Sp(2) symmetry in 2T-physics. Via the 2T-physics explanation of this zero we find a global indication that these special supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theories hide a twelve-dimensional structure with (10,2) signature.

  18. On Monoids in the Category of Sets and Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenčová, Anna; Jenča, Gejza

    2017-02-01

    The category R e l is the category of sets (objects) and relations (morphisms). Equipped with the direct product of sets, R e l is a monoidal category. Moreover, R e l is a locally posetal 2-category, since every homset R e l(A,B) is a poset with respect to inclusion. We examine the 2-category of monoids R e l M o n in this category. The morphism we use are lax. This category includes, as subcategories, various interesting classes: hypergroups, partial monoids (which include various types of quantum logics, for example effect algebras) and small categories. We show how the 2-categorical structure gives rise to several previously defined notions in these categories, for example certain types of congruence relations on generalized effect algebras. This explains where these definitions come from.

  19. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  20. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  1. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  2. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  3. Limits of Generalization between Categories and Implications for Theories of Category Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Phillips, W. Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of the studies. The current study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars, but not antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features. PMID:20952784

  4. Differences between Neural Activity in Prefrontal Cortex and Striatum during Learning of Novel, Abstract Categories

    PubMed Central

    Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Learning to classify diverse experiences into meaningful groups, like categories, is fundamental to normal cognition. To understand its neural basis, we simultaneously recorded from multiple electrodes in the lateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, two interconnected brain structures critical for learning. Each day, monkeys learned to associate novel, abstract dot-based categories with a right vs. left saccade. Early on, when they could acquire specific stimulus-response associations, striatum activity was an earlier predictor of the corresponding saccade. However, as the number of exemplars was increasing, and monkeys had to learn to classify them, PFC began predicting the saccade associated with each category before the striatum. While monkeys were categorizing novel exemplars at a high rate, PFC activity was a strong predictor of their corresponding saccade early in the trial, before the striatal neurons. These results suggest that striatum plays a greater role in stimulus-response association and PFC in abstraction of categories. PMID:21791284

  5. Spectral probes of the holographic Fermi ground state: Dialing between the electron star and AdS Dirac hair

    SciTech Connect

    Cubrovic, Mihailo; Liu Yan; Schalm, Koenraad; Sun Yawen; Zaanen, Jan

    2011-10-15

    We argue that the electron star and the anti-de Sitter (AdS) Dirac hair solution are two limits of the free charged Fermi gas in AdS. Spectral functions of holographic duals to probe fermions in the background of electron stars have a free parameter that quantifies the number of constituent fermions that make up the charge and energy density characterizing the electron star solution. The strict electron star limit takes this number to be infinite. The Dirac hair solution is the limit where this number is unity. This is evident in the behavior of the distribution of holographically dual Fermi surfaces. As we decrease the number of constituents in a fixed electron star background the number of Fermi surfaces also decreases. An improved holographic Fermi ground state should be a configuration that shares the qualitative properties of both limits.

  6. Automatic computational models of acoustical category features: Talking versus singing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, David

    2003-10-01

    The automatic discrimination between acoustical categories has been an increasingly interesting problem in the fields of computer listening, multimedia databases, and music information retrieval. A system is presented which automatically generates classification models, given a set of destination classes and a set of a priori labeled acoustic events. Computational models are created using comparative probability density estimations. For the specific example presented, the destination classes are talking and singing. Individual feature models are evaluated using two measures: The Kologorov-Smirnov distance measures feature separation, and accuracy is measured using absolute and relative metrics. The system automatically segments the event set into a user-defined number (n) of development subsets, and runs a development cycle for each set, generating n separate systems, each of which is evaluated using the above metrics to improve overall system accuracy and to reduce inherent data skew from any one development subset. Multiple features for the same acoustical categories are then compared for underlying feature overlap using cross-correlation. Advantages of automated computational models include improved system development and testing, shortened development cycle, and automation of common system evaluation tasks. Numerical results are presented relating to the talking/singing classification problem.

  7. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  8. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  9. Value Added Based on Educational Positions in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Bosker, Roel J.; de Wolf, Inge F.; Doolaard, Simone; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating added value as an indicator of school effectiveness in the context of educational accountability often occurs using test or examination scores of students. This study investigates the possibilities for using scores of educational positions as an alternative indicator. A number of advantages of a value added indicator based on…

  10. p-Adic AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Knaute, Johannes; Parikh, Sarthak; Samberg, Andreas; Witaszczyk, Przemek

    2017-01-01

    We construct a p-adic analog to AdS/CFT, where an unramified extension of the p-adic numbers replaces Euclidean space as the boundary and a version of the Bruhat-Tits tree replaces the bulk. Correlation functions are computed in the simple case of a single massive scalar in the bulk, with results that are strikingly similar to ordinary holographic correlation functions when expressed in terms of local zeta functions. We give some brief discussion of the geometry of p-adic chordal distance and of Wilson loops. Our presentation includes an introduction to p-adic numbers.

  11. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  12. The structure and formation of natural categories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  13. Bringing Meaning to Numbers: The Impact of Evaluative Categories on Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ellen; Dieckmann, Nathan F.; Vastfjall, Daniel; Mertz, C. K.; Slovic, Paul; Hibbard, Judith H.

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers are often quite poor at using numeric information in decisions. The results of 4 experiments demonstrate that a manipulation of evaluative meaning (i.e., the extent to which an attribute can be mapped onto a good/bad scale; this manipulation is accomplished through the addition of visual boundary lines and evaluative labels to a…

  14. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics...

  15. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics...

  16. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  17. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  18. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  19. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  20. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  1. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  2. 40 CFR 98.50 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Adipic Acid Production § 98.50 Definition of source category. The adipic acid production source category consists of all adipic acid production facilities that use oxidation to produce adipic acid....

  3. 40 CFR 98.50 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Adipic Acid Production § 98.50 Definition of source category. The adipic acid production source category consists of all adipic acid production facilities that use oxidation to produce adipic acid....

  4. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  5. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1)...

  7. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  8. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  9. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  10. 12 CFR 6.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part as of the date the national bank or... association of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part or that...

  11. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  12. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  13. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  14. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  15. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  16. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  17. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  18. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  19. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  20. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  1. Feature distribution and background knowledge in category learning.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G L; Kaplan, A S

    2000-11-01

    Three experiments examined the interactions of category structure and prior knowledge in category learning. Experiment 1 examined the distribution of atypical or "crossover" features in category learning. In real categories, crossover features may be unevenly distributed--found primarily in very unusual examples of a category (like whales or ostriches). In contrast, in many psychology experiments, each item has exactly one crossover feature. Even versus uneven distribution of crossover features did not affect category learning when the features were neutral. However, when the features were connected by prior knowledge, it was much harder for subjects to learn the structure with the uneven distribution of crossover features. Experiments 2 and 3 found similar results with a slightly less uneven condition. We conclude that learning is a function of the interaction of category structure and prior knowledge rather than either one alone. Furthermore, knowledge benefits learning even when the category contains contradictions of the knowledge, so long as the contradictions are not very salient.

  2. Language, Perceptual Categories and their Interaction: Insights from Computational Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belpaeme, Tony; Bleys, Joris

    How do humans acquire perceptual categories? This question is far from being resolved. Specifically the balance between the influence of nature and nurture on perceptual categories remains the topic of heated debate. We present a computational model and take as case study colour categories to study two issues in perceptual category acquisition. The first issue is the effect of linguistic communication on categories during their acquisition: we demonstrate how categories can become coordinated under the influence of language. The second issue concerns the amount of coordination needed between the categories of individuals in order to achieve unambiguous communication. We show that, depending on how strictly linguistic utterances are interpreted, coordination of the individuals' categories is not always a prerequisite for successful communication.

  3. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  4. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  5. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  6. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  7. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  8. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  9. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical..., ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal....

  10. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical..., ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal....

  11. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical..., ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal....

  12. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical..., ferronickel, ferrosilicon, ferrotitanium, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, silicomanganese, or silicon metal....

  13. Discontinuous Categories Affect Information-Integration but not Rule-Based Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott; Connally, Emily; Hejl, Kelli D.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted that provide a direct examination of within-category discontinuity manipulations on the implicit, procedural-based learning and the explicit, hypothesis-testing systems proposed in F. G. Ashby, L. A. Alfonso-Reese, A. U. Turken, and E. M. Waldron's (1998) competition between verbal and implicit systems model.…

  14. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  15. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  16. Category Labels Induce Boundary-Dependent Perceptual Warping in Learned Speech Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native…

  17. Case-like Categories in Children: The Actor and Some Related Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, Martin D. S.; Wells, Robin S.

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in which nursery school children were taught to identify persons, animals, or objects in pictures that took the nominative, objective, or locative case in sentences about the pictures. Inferences are made about categories in children's thinking including animate, and actor and agent. (CTM)

  18. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1 and... subject to production-line testing. (c) For each engine that fails to meet emission standards, test two... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all...

  2. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  3. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  4. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  5. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  6. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  7. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  8. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  9. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  10. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  11. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  12. Non-split and split deformations of {{AdS}}_{5}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-12-01

    The η deformation of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring depends on a non-split r matrix for the superalgebra {psu}(2,2| 4). Much of the investigation into this model has considered one particular choice, however there are a number of inequivalent alternatives. This is also true for the bosonic sector of the theory with {su}(2,2), the isometry algebra of {{AdS}}5, admitting one split and three non-split r matrices. In this article we explore these r matrices and the corresponding geometries. We investigate their contraction limits, comment on supergravity backgrounds and demonstrate their relation to gauged-WZW deformations. We then extend the three non-split cases to {{AdS}}5× {S}5 and compute four separate bosonic two-particle tree-level S-matrices based on inequivalent BMN-type light-cone gauges. The resulting S-matrices, while different, are related by momentum-dependent one-particle changes of basis.

  13. Memory Errors Reveal a Bias to Spontaneously Generalize to Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that, from a young age, humans are able to generalize information learned about a subset of a category to the category itself. Here, we propose that--beyond simply being able to perform such generalizations--people are "biased" to generalize to categories, such that they routinely make spontaneous, implicit…

  14. When More Is Less: Feedback Effects in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.; Glass, Brian D.; Filoteo, J. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Rule-based and information-integration category learning were compared under minimal and full feedback conditions. Rule-based category structures are those for which the optimal rule is verbalizable. Information-integration category structures are those for which the optimal rule is not verbalizable. With minimal feedback subjects are told whether…

  15. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1) Facilities...) This source category is focused on upstream supply. It does not cover: (1) Storage of CO2 above...

  16. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categories of pay patients. 728.113 Section 728.113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND... Pay Patients § 728.113 Categories of pay patients. The categories of patients for whom...

  17. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

  18. About Categories of Tense and Aspect in Indonesian/Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alieva, Natalia F.

    This paper examines whether there is a grammatical category of tense in the Indonesian/Malay language (IML), suggesting that IML has a syntactical category of tense that serves to grammaticize time relations in a clause predicate which is not necessarily verbal. The discussion takes a systemic view of grammatical categories in an analytical…

  19. Empirical Investigation of Counselor Self-Talk Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morran, D. Keith; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified categories of counselor self-talk and explored possible dimensions underlying categories. Counselors (N=38) conducted interviews with female client and then completed stimulated-recall, thought-listing exercise. Trained judges categorized resulting 768 self-talk statements into 14 categories with 4 largest being client-focused…

  20. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  1. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  2. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  3. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  4. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  5. Eyetracking Reveals Multiple-Category Use in Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Category information is used to predict properties of new category members. When categorization is uncertain, people often rely on only one, most likely category to make predictions. Yet studies of perception and action often conclude that people combine multiple sources of information near-optimally. We present a perception-action analog of…

  6. Effect of Within-Category Spacing on Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Marilyn A.; Mandler, George

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to previous experiments which found recall with blocked spacing always superior to recall with random" spacings, these experiments found that total recall was a function of two independent factors: (a) category representation, and (b) items per category represented (IPC). Both factors are dependent upon within-category spacing.…

  7. Cross-Classification and Category Representation in Children's Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2007-01-01

    Items commonly belong to many categories. Cross-classification is the classification of a single item into more than one category. This research explored 2- to 6-year-old children's use of 2 different category systems for cross-classification: script (e.g., school-time items, birthday party items) and taxonomic (e.g., animals, clothes). The…

  8. 47 CFR 36.142 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment to the jurisdictions shall be updated annually. Cable and Wire Facilities ... Information Origination/termination (iot) Equipment § 36.142 Categories and apportionment procedures. (a) Other Information Origination/Termination Equipment—Category 1. This category includes the cost of...

  9. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... wire facilities described in § 36.156. (3) All Other Interexchange Circuit Equipment—Category 4.23—This... facilities as described in § 36.152(c). (i) The category 4.3 cost of host/remote circuit equipment...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22003 - Mine category or subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Mine Categorization § 57.22003 Mine category or... methane and dusts containing volatile matter. Categories and subcategories are defined as follows: (1) Category I applies to mines that operate within a combustible ore body and either liberate methane or...

  11. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.440 Definition of the source category. (a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category... Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of...

  12. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.440 Definition of the source category. (a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category... Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of...

  13. The Development of Category Learning Strategies: What Makes the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Rubi; Diesendruck, Gil; Weinshall, Daphna; Hochstein, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Category learning can be achieved by identifying common features among category members, distinctive features among non-members, or both. These processes are psychologically and computationally distinct, and may have implications for the acquisition of categories at different hierarchical levels. The present study examines an account of children's…

  14. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems for cattle and swine, manure composting, and aerobic treatment. (c) This source category does not... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit...

  15. 36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land category assignments... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.22 Land category assignments. (a) Land categories. (1) All privately owned lands within the HCNRA are to be assigned to one...

  16. The Linguistic Construction of Social Categories in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Deblinger-Tangi, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarteners treat certain social categories as natural kinds. This study addressed how children pick out social categories. Ninety-one 19-and 26-month-olds were familiarized to exemplars of categories of people (e.g., Blacks-Whites, men-women) and animals (e.g., cows-horses). Participants then saw a picture matching the familiarization…

  17. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  18. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  19. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-04-10

    The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.

  20. On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…

  1. Difference in Fractional Occurrences of Precipitation Categories in Terms of Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Kentaroh

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the precipitation stage and water cloud properties was studied in the mid-latitudes using space-borne radar and radiometer data, with a focus on a comparison between continental (over China) and oceanic (over the northwest Pacific) clouds. More specifically, fractional occurrences of the precipitation categories were investigated in terms of two-dimensional representations of cloud parameters, such as combinations of optical depth - effective particle radius, and liquid water path - droplet number density. As a result, systematic changes in the transition regarding pairs of the cloud parameters were well captured for all precipitation categories. The transition pattern was similar for both land and oceanic clouds. Notably, the ranges of all values of cloud parameters (except cloud droplet number density) were considerably larger for oceanic clouds for the precipitating category.

  2. Grasping numbers.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Giovanna; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that numerical processing is intimately linked to representations of goal-directed hand actions. Further evidence for this possibility is provided here by the results of two experiments, both of which revealed a powerful influence of numerical magnitude on the selection of hand grasping movements. Human participants performed either power or precision grip responses based on the semantic properties (e.g., parity) of visual Arabic numerals, in Experiment 1, or depending on their surface characteristics (e.g., colour), in Experiment 2. In both the experiments, it was found that small numerical values facilitated precision grip (commonly used to grasp small objects), while large numerical value potentiated power grip (commonly used to grasp large objects). These findings reveal that perceiving numbers can automatically prime grasping gestures, in a similar manner to viewing physical objects. This result is coherent with the view that processing of symbolic (numerical) and physical quantitative information converges onto a shared magnitude system representing the coordinates of action.

  3. Social learning in animals: categories and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heyes, C M

    1994-05-01

    There has been relatively little research on the psychological mechanisms of social learning. This may be due, in part, to the practice of distinguishing categories of social learning in relation to ill-defined mechanisms (Davis, 1973; Galef, 1988). This practice both makes it difficult to identify empirically examples of different types of social learning, and gives the false impression that the mechanisms responsible for social learning are clearly understood. It has been proposed that social learning phenomena be subsumed within the categorization scheme currently used by investigators of asocial learning. This scheme distinguishes categories of learning according to observable conditions, namely, the type of experience that gives rise to a change in an animal (single stimulus vs. stimulus-stimulus relationship vs. response-reinforcer relationship), and the type of behaviour in which this change is detected (response evocation vs. learnability) (Rescorla, 1988). Specifically, three alignments have been proposed: (i) stimulus enhancement with single stimulus learning, (ii) observational conditioning with stimulus-stimulus learning, or Pavlovian conditioning, and (iii) observational learning with response-reinforcer learning, or instrumental conditioning. If, as the proposed alignments suggest, the conditions of social and asocial learning are the same, there is some reason to believe that the mechanisms underlying the two sets of phenomena are also the same. This is so if one makes the relatively uncontroversial assumption that phenomena which occur under similar conditions tend to be controlled by similar mechanisms. However, the proposed alignments are intended to be a set of hypotheses, rather than conclusions, about the mechanisms of social learning; as a basis for further research in which animal learning theory is applied to social learning. A concerted attempt to apply animal learning theory to social learning, to find out whether the same mechanisms are

  4. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  5. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  6. 10 CFR 37.75 - Preplanning and coordination of shipment of category 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.75 Section 37.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. (a) Each licensee that plans to transport, or deliver to a carrier for...

  7. Another look at interpreting risk categories.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have shown that simple rating scales can accurately rank sex offenders' long-term risk of recidivism. But when using these scales as prediction tools, evaluators often wish to translate categories of risk into probabilities of recidivism. D. M. Doren (2004) has recently suggested that evaluators may use the recidivism percentages published in original studies of the RRASOR and STATIC-99 without regard to differences in populations or base rates. This article explains why Doren's computations should lead to a different conclusion, and describes how simply comparing percentages across studies can mislead researchers and clinicians. Instead, investigators should isolate and examine the detection properties of risk assessment instruments alone, independent of the population- or setting-specific base rate. This article explains this process, using an imaginary study to illustrate how base rates and the properties of risk assessment instruments yield estimated probabilities of recidivism. The article also shows why Doren's results imply that the percentages of recidivism associated with scores on the RRASOR and STATIC-99 scores may vary across study populations. The article offers recommendations for researchers who design and evaluate actuarial methods of assessing risk and for clinicians who interpret results from risk assessment instruments.

  8. Are There Natural Categories of Solar Wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.

    2014-12-01

    What seem to be the most obvious categories of solar wind, such as fast and slow, often turn out to be difficult to pin down on closer examination. For example, while slow winds tend to be dense and nonAlfvenic, there are significant exceptions, with some slow winds being not only very Alfvenic but also exhibiting many fast wind traits. Here we use "unsupervised" data mining to look for "natural" solar wind types. We use a set of variables to represent the state of the system and apply what are now standard algorithms to look for natural clustering of these variables. We have done this process for the solar wind density, speed, a carbon charge state ratio (6+ to 5+), the cross-helicity, and the "residual energy." When using the first three of these, we find two groups that tend to be slow and fast, but with the boundary between the groups that is a combination of speed and density. When all five variables are used, the best characterization of the states is as three basic groups in the cross-helicity vs residual energy space, i.e., in terms of "turbulence" measures rather than simple parameters. The three-variable case is largely but not completely reproduced in its subspace. We will suggest what the results could mean for the understanding of issues such as solar wind acceleration.

  9. A lexical analysis of environmental sound categories.

    PubMed

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second experimental study, 30 participants classified and described 56 sounds exclusively made by solid objects. The participants were required to concentrate on the actions causing the sounds independent of the sound source. The classifications were analyzed with a specific hierarchical cluster technique that accounted for possible cross-classifications, and the verbalizations were submitted to statistical lexical analyses. The results of the first study highlighted 4 main categories of sounds: solids, liquids, gases, and machines. The results of the second study indicated a distinction between discrete interactions (e.g., impacts) and continuous interactions (e.g., tearing) and suggested that actions and objects were not independent organizational principles. We propose a general structure of environmental sound categorization based on the sounds' temporal patterning, which has practical implications for the automatic classification of environmental sounds.

  10. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  11. The Isomorphism Between the Category of Lebesgue Spaces of Functions Taking Values in a Locally Compact Field and the Category of Lebesgue Measures Over Sigma - of Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, Steven Howard

    Over the last decade physicists have become interested in applications of the p-adic fields Q sub p to quantum mechanics. These fields, which are the completions of the rational numbers with respect to the non-Archimedean, p-adic valuations, satisfy fundamentality different properties than either the field of real or complex numbers. Recent work by Susilo has shown that the category of Dirac integral spaces of complex-valued functions is isomorphic to the category of Lebesgue measure spaces over sigma-algebras of sets. The natural question which arises is whether the same type of isomorphism can be established between the category of Lebesgue spaces of functions which assume values in the p-adic fields Q sub p and the category of Lebesgue measures over sigma-algebras of sets. The object of this dissertation is to find sufficient conditions on a topological field F so that one may develop an analogous theory of integration from a set of axioms. The fields for which this is possible include all of the fundamental fields used in mathematics: the fields of real and complex numbers, the p-adic number fields Q sub p, and all finite fields. For locally compact fields satisfying these so -called Borel-Baire properties, we utilize the notion of capacity over an abstract set in the sense of Bogdan to define a Lebesgue-Bochner-Dirac space. In the case of the complex numbers, this capacity is used to construct a Dirac integral space which is identical to that in the work of Susilo.

  12. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chen-Chieh; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  13. On the classification of weakly integral modular categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Galindo, César; Ng, Siu-Hung; Plavnik, Julia Y.; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we classify all modular categories of dimension 4m, where m is an odd square-free integer, and all rank 6 and rank 7 weakly integral modular categories. This completes the classification of weakly integral modular categories through rank 7. In particular, our results imply that all integral modular categories of rank at most 7 are pointed (that is, every simple object has dimension 1). All the non-integral (but weakly integral) modular categories of ranks 6 and 7 have dimension 4m, with m an odd square free integer, so their classification is an application of our main result. The classification of rank 7 integral modular categories is facilitated by an analysis of the two group actions on modular categories: the Galois group of the field generated by the entries of the S-matrix and the group of invertible isomorphism classes of objects. We derive some valuable arithmetic consequences from these actions.

  14. AdS/dS CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Giataganas, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    We propose and study a holographic dual of the type-IIB superstring theory of AdS5×S5 in terms of the N =4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory on dS4 . We develop the bulk to boundary formalism for the computation of the correlation functions to a wide class of theories. We apply it to compute the two-point correlators in the particular duality under study and we find that they agree with the expected results in d S conformal field theory. The gauge theory is expected to be UV finite and enjoy exact S L (2 ,Z ) strong-weak duality. As the string theory Green-Schwarz sigma model carries an infinite number of classically conserved charges, it also suggests that the superconformal Yang-Mills theory is integrable and deserves further studies.

  15. Category and Letter Fluency in Semantic Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Kertesz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of various degenerative dementias on access to semantic knowledge and the status of semantic representations. Patients with semantic dementia, primary progressive aphasia, and Alzheimer's disease were compared with elderly controls on tasks of category and letter fluency, with number of words generated, mean lexical…

  16. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This paper introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  17. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  18. Assessing Mathematics Self-Efficacy: How Many Categories Do We Really Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toland, Michael D.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested whether a reduced number of categories is optimal for assessing mathematics self-efficacy among middle school students using a 6-point Likert-type format or a 0- to 100-point format. Two independent samples of middle school adolescents (N = 1,913) were administered a 24-item Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale…

  19. Assessing the Neural Basis of Uncertainty in Perceptual Category Learning through Varying Levels of Distortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Reka; Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of new perceptual categories involves learning to extract that information from a wide range of often noisy sensory inputs, which is critical for selecting between a limited number of responses. To identify brain regions involved in visual classification learning under noisy conditions, we developed a task on the basis of the…

  20. Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Maria Christina B; Santos, Paulo J P; Costa, Monica F

    2006-08-01

    Although there is a consensus on the necessity of monitoring solid wastes pollution on beaches, the methods applied vary widely. Therefore, creating, testing and recommending a method that not only allows comparisons of places and periods, but also the detection of source signals, will be important to reach the objectives of the source-prevention principle. This will also allow the optimisation of time, resources, and processing of samples and data. A classification of the items found into specific categories was made according to their most probable source/use (fisheries, food packaging, hazardous, sewage/personal hygiene, beach user, general home). This study tested different widths of sampling transects to be used in the detection of plastics contamination on beaches, until all the categories were significantly represented. Each transect had its total width (50m) sub-divided into eight intervals of 0-2.5m; 2.5-5m; 5-10m; 10-15m; 15-20m; 20-30m; 30-40m; and 40-50m. The accumulated number of categories in the 50m (up to 2.5m; up to 5m and so on) was used to determine the minimal width necessary to qualitatively characterize the area regarding plastics contamination. The diversity of the categories was directly related to the area of the sampling transect. These results indicate that a significant increase in the number of categories in the first intervals tend to stabilize from 15-20m onwards.

  1. Limits of generalization between categories and implications for theories of category specificity.

    PubMed

    Bukach, Cindy M; Phillips, W Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed, and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of those previous studies (e.g., Grill-Spector, Knouf, & Kanwisher, 2004). The present study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern-car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars but not of antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features.

  2. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  3. Risk factors associated with the different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, F; Edwards, S A; Robert, F; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to identify mortality patterns and to establish risk factors associated with different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms. At farm level, the analyses were performed on data from 146 farms that experienced perinatal mortality problems. At piglet level, the analyses were performed on data from 155 farms (7761 piglets). All data were collected over a period of 10 years (2004-14) by a consulting company, using a non-probability sampling at farm level and a random sampling at sow level. Six main categories of mortality, determined by standardised necropsy procedure, represented 84.5% of all the perinatal deaths recorded. These six categories were, in order of significance: Death during farrowing, Non- viable, Early sepsis, Mummified, Crushing and Starvation. At farm level, the percentage of deaths due to starvation was positively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to crushing and the percentage of deaths during farrowing (r>0.30, P<0.05) .The percentage of deaths due to crushing was negatively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to early sepsis (r<-0.30, P<0.05) and positively correlated to the deaths due to acute disease (r>0.30, P<0.05). Patterns of perinatal mortality at farm level were identified using a principal component analysis. Based on these, the farms could be classified, using ascending hierarchical classification, into three different clusters, highlighting issues that underlie farm differences. Risk factors were compared at piglet level for the different categories of death. Compared to other categories of death, deaths during farrowing were significantly fewer during the night than during the day. Compared to other categories of death, the likelihood of non-viable piglets tended to be higher in summer than other seasons. A smaller number of deaths in the litter was also identified for the piglets classified as non-viable or mummified. For the six main categories of perinatal mortality, the piglets which died

  4. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  5. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  6. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  7. Functional categories for future flight deck designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of each new system on the flight deck, the danger of increasing overall operator workload while reducing crew understanding of critical mission information exists. The introduction of more powerful onboard computers, larger databases, and the increased use of electronic display media may lead to a situation of flight deck 'sophistication' at the expense of losses in flight crew capabilities and situational awareness. To counter this potentially negative impact of new technology, research activities are underway to reassess the flight deck design process. The fundamental premise of these activities is that a human-centered, systems-oriented approach to the development of advanced civil aircraft flight decks will be required for future designs to remain ergonomically sound and economically competitive. One of the initial steps in an integrated flight deck process is to define the primary flight deck functions needed to support the mission goals of the vehicle. This would allow the design team to evaluate candidate concepts in relation to their effectiveness in meeting the functional requirements. In addition, this would provide a framework to aid in categorizing and bookkeeping all of the activities that are required to be performed on the flight deck, not just activities of the crew or of a specific system. This could then allow for a better understanding and allocation of activities in the design, an understanding of the impact of a specific system on overall system performance, and an awareness of the total crew performance requirements for the design. One candidate set of functional categories that could be used to guide an advanced flight deck design are described.

  8. Oligomeric Neuronal Protein Aggregates as Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    as Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Sierks CONTRACTING...Oligomeric Neuronal Protein Aggregates as Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 12109023 5c

  9. Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of calories consumed from added sugars by boys and girls and by age group? Boys consumed more calories per day from added sugars than girls. Boys consumed an average of 362 kilocalories (kcals) from ...

  10. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  11. Global maps of science based on the new Web-of-Science categories.

    PubMed

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Carley, Stephen; Rafols, Ismael

    2013-02-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of 151 Subject Areas was added, but at a higher level of aggregation. Perhaps confusingly, these Subject Areas are now abbreviated "SC" in the download, whereas "WC" is used for WoS Categories. Since we previously used the ISI SCs as the baseline for a global map in Pajek (Pajek is freely available at http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/pajek/) (Rafols et al., Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61:1871-1887, 2010) and brought this facility online (at http://www.leydesdorff.net/overlaytoolkit), we recalibrated this map for the new WC categories using the Journal Citation Reports 2010. In the new installation, the base maps can also be made using VOSviewer (VOSviewer is freely available at http://www.VOSviewer.com/) (Van Eck and Waltman, Scientometrics 84:523-538, 2010).

  12. Deafness for the meanings of number words.

    PubMed

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-15

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words.

  13. Deafness for the meanings of number words

    PubMed Central

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. PMID:17915265

  14. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  15. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  16. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  17. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  18. The linguistic construction of social categories in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Diesendruck, Gil; Deblinger-Tangi, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarteners treat certain social categories as natural kinds. This study addressed how children pick out social categories. Ninety-one 19- and 26-month-olds were familiarized to exemplars of categories of people (e.g., Blacks-Whites, men-women) and animals (e.g., cows-horses). Participants then saw a picture matching the familiarization category and another that did not, and were asked to select which was like the familiarization pictures. For half of the participants, a label was attached to familiarization exemplars, while for the other half, no label was mentioned. The main finding was that for the younger toddlers, labels significantly improved recognition of the categories of people, but not of animals. These results are taken to support the notion that social categories are indeed culturally constructed.

  19. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    PubMed

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-03-27

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  20. Phase locking of a 275 W high power all-fiber amplifier seeded by two categories of multi-tone lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Leng, Jingyong; Zhou, Pu; Du, Wenbo; Xiao, Hu; Ma, Yanxing; Dong, Xiaolin; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin; Zhao, Yijun

    2011-04-11

    Multi-tone radiation is a promising technique to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects and improve the ultimate output power of the fiber laser/amplifier. Coherent beam combining of fiber lasers/ amplifiers is another feasible way to increase the output laser power from single gain medium while simultaneously maintaining good beam quality. In this paper, we combine the multi-tone driven all-fiber amplifiers and active phase compensation to demonstrate high power phase locking for coherent beam combining. First, we present the theory of coherent beam combining of multi-tone lasers. Second, we optimize the all-fiber power amplifier oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system with high scalability and flexibility based on compact, high efficiency Yb-doped fiber amplifier chains. Then, two categories of multi-tone master oscillators are used to driven the amplifier chains. The first category is two coupled single-frequency lasers and the second is a frequency modulated single-frequency laser. The output powers are all boosted to 275 W without any distinct SBS. Last, phase locking of the amplifier chains are implemented using stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. Scaling this configuration to a higher power involves increasing the power per chain and adding the number of amplifier channels.

  1. ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.

  2. The Diagnostic Performance of Thyroid US in Each Category of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.

    PubMed

    Park, So Yoon; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Oh, Young Lyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of thyroid ultrasonography (US) in each category of the Bethesda system and analyze false positive/negative findings using US. This retrospective study included 622 thyroid nodules in 592 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy of US in each category of the Bethesda system were evaluated. False positive/negative cases of US were analyzed. Out of the 622 total thyroid FNAs, 179 (28.8%) were malignant. The malignancy rates for the 6 categories were as follows: I (nondiagnostic): 9.7%, II (benign): 2.5%, III (atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance): 37.5%, IV (suspicious for follicular neoplasm): 5.7%, V (suspicious for malignancy): 100%, and VI (malignancy): 100%. The accuracies of US for the 6 categories were 92.5%, 95.6%, 70.8%, 94.3%, 95%, and 92.4% in category order. US showed the lowest sensitivity (50%) in Category IV. Category III demonstrated relatively low sensitivity (66.7%) and specificity (73.3%) due to a high incidence of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and a low number of category III nodules. The most optimal performance of US was revealed in Category I with 88.9% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity. In 22 US false positive cases, the most frequent finding was associated with marked hypoechogenicity and the least finding was noncircumscribed margin. The most common US features of 19 false negative cases were circumscribed iso or hypoechoic nodules. These results highlight the excellent diagnostic performance of US in category I of the Bethesda system and the lowest sensitivity of US in category IV. Awareness of US interpreters regarding these pitfalls can minimize false positive/negative diagnoses and prevent unnecessary interventions.

  3. The style of a stranger: Identification expertise generalizes to coarser level categories.

    PubMed

    Searston, Rachel A; Tangen, Jason M

    2016-12-05

    Experience identifying visual objects and categories improves generalization within the same class (e.g., discriminating bird species improves transfer to new bird species), but does such perceptual expertise transfer to coarser category judgments? We tested whether fingerprint experts, who spend their days comparing pairs of prints and judging whether they were left by the same finger or two different fingers, can generalize their finger discrimination expertise to people more broadly. That is, can these experts identify prints from Jones's right thumb and prints from Jones's right index finger as instances of the same "Jones" category? Novices and experts were both sensitive to the style of a stranger's prints; despite lower levels of confidence, experts were significantly more sensitive to this style than novices. This expert advantage persisted even when we reduced the number of exemplars provided. Our results demonstrate that perceptual expertise can be flexible to upwards shifts in the level of specificity, suggesting a dynamic memory retrieval process.

  4. Joint Hierarchical Category Structure Learning and Large-Scale Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyun; Lin, Li; Shen, Fumin; Lu, Chang; Wu, Yang; Xie, Yuan; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-10-05

    We investigate the scalable image classification problem with a large number of categories. Hierarchical visual data structures are helpful for improving the efficiency and performance of large-scale multi-class classification. We propose a novel image classification method based on learning hierarchical interclass structures. Specifically, we first design a fast algorithm to compute the similarity metric between categories, based on which a visual tree is constructed by hierarchical spectral clustering. Using the learned visual tree, a test sample label is efficiently predicted by searching for the best path over the entire tree. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on the ILSVRC2010 and Caltech 256 benchmark datasets. Experimental results show that our method obtains significantly better category hierarchies than other state-of-the-art visual tree-based methods and, therefore, much more accurate classification.

  5. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  6. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  7. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  8. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  9. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  10. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  11. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  12. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  13. 40 CFR 98.30 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes of producing electricity, generating steam, or providing useful heat or energy for industrial... turbines, engines, incinerators, and process heaters. (b) This source category does not include:...

  14. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  15. Deriving semantic structure from category fluency: clustering techniques and their pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Longenecker, Julia; Verheyen, Steven; Weinberger, Daniel R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Assessing verbal output in category fluency tasks provides a sensitive indicator of cortical dysfunction. The most common metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors. Two main observations have been made about the structure of the output, first that there is a temporal component to it with words being generated in spurts, and second that the clustering pattern may reflect a search for meanings such that the 'clustering' is attributable to the activation of a specific semantic field in memory. A number of sophisticated approaches to examining the structure of this clustering have been developed, and a core theme is that the similarity relations between category members will reveal the mental semantic structure of the category underlying an individual's responses, which can then be visualized by a number of algorithms, such as MDS, hierarchical clustering, ADDTREE, ADCLUS or SVD. Such approaches have been applied to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, and the general conclusion has been that the clinical condition systematically distorts the semantic structure in the patients, as compared to the healthy controls. In the present paper we explore this approach to understanding semantic structure using category fluency data. On the basis of a large pool of patients with schizophrenia (n = 204) and healthy control participants (n = 204), we find that the methods are problematic and unreliable to the extent that it is not possible to conclude that any putative difference reflects a systematic difference between the semantic representations in patients and controls. Moreover, taking into account the unreliability of the methods, we find that the most probable conclusion to be made is that no difference in underlying semantic representation exists. The consequences of these findings to understanding semantic structure, and the use of category fluency data, in cortical dysfunction are discussed.

  16. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  17. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  18. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  19. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  20. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  1. A Comparison of the neural correlates that underlie rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kathryn L; Wills, Andy J; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Milton, Fraser

    2016-10-01

    The influential competition between verbal and implicit systems (COVIS) model proposes that category learning is driven by two competing neural systems-an explicit, verbal, system, and a procedural-based, implicit, system. In the current fMRI study, participants learned either a conjunctive, rule-based (RB), category structure that is believed to engage the explicit system, or an information-integration category structure that is thought to preferentially recruit the implicit system. The RB and information-integration category structures were matched for participant error rate, the number of relevant stimulus dimensions, and category separation. Under these conditions, considerable overlap in brain activation, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and the hippocampus, was found between the RB and information-integration category structures. Contrary to the predictions of COVIS, the medial temporal lobes and in particular the hippocampus, key regions for explicit memory, were found to be more active in the information-integration condition than in the RB condition. No regions were more activated in RB than information-integration category learning. The implications of these results for theories of category learning are discussed. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3557-3574, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  3. Pigeons acquire multiple categories in parallel via associative learning: a parallel to human word learning?

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Brooks, Daniel I; McMurray, Bob

    2015-03-01

    Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons' categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed.

  4. Pigeons acquire multiple categories in parallel via associative learning: A parallel to human word learning?

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Brooks, Daniel I.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons’ categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed. PMID:25497520

  5. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  6. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input

    PubMed Central

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T.; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Notman, Leslie A.; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest. PMID:27252669

  7. Category selectivity in human visual cortex: Beyond visual object recognition.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Downing, Paul E

    2017-04-02

    Human ventral temporal cortex shows a categorical organization, with regions responding selectively to faces, bodies, tools, scenes, words, and other categories. Why is this? Traditional accounts explain category selectivity as arising within a hierarchical system dedicated to visual object recognition. For example, it has been proposed that category selectivity reflects the clustering of category-associated visual feature representations, or that it reflects category-specific computational algorithms needed to achieve view invariance. This visual object recognition framework has gained renewed interest with the success of deep neural network models trained to "recognize" objects: these hierarchical feed-forward networks show similarities to human visual cortex, including categorical separability. We argue that the object recognition framework is unlikely to fully account for category selectivity in visual cortex. Instead, we consider category selectivity in the context of other functions such as navigation, social cognition, tool use, and reading. Category-selective regions are activated during such tasks even in the absence of visual input and even in individuals with no prior visual experience. Further, they are engaged in close connections with broader domain-specific networks. Considering the diverse functions of these networks, category-selective regions likely encode their preferred stimuli in highly idiosyncratic formats; representations that are useful for navigation, social cognition, or reading are unlikely to be meaningfully similar to each other and to varying degrees may not be entirely visual. The demand for specific types of representations to support category-associated tasks may best account for category selectivity in visual cortex. This broader view invites new experimental and computational approaches.

  8. AD performance and its extension towards ELENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelert, Walter; Eriksson, Tommy; Belochitskii, Pavel; Tranquille, Gerard

    2012-12-01

    The CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is devoted to special experiments with low energy antiprotons. A main topic is the antihydrogen production with the present aim to produce these antimatter atoms with such low energy that they can be trapped in a magnetic gradient field. First very convincing results have been published recently by ALPHA. Still, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of antiproton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility would drastically increase, if the antiproton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy would be reduced by an additional decelerator to something like 100 keV. Such a facility "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton Ring and first discussed in 1982 for LEAR, was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and is presently under consideration. ELENA will increase the number of useful antiprotons by up to two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments in parallel.

  9. AD performance and its extension towards ELENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelert, Walter; Eriksson, Tommy; Belochitskii, Pavel; Tranquille, Gerard

    The CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is devoted to special experiments with low energy antiprotons. A main topic is the antihydrogen production with the present aim to produce these antimatter atoms with such low energy that they can be trapped in a magnetic gradient field. First very convincing results have been published recently by ALPHA. Still, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of antiproton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility would drastically increase, if the antiproton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy would be reduced by an additional decelerator to something like 100 keV. Such a facility "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton Ring and first discussed in 1982 for LEAR, was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and is presently under consideration. ELENA will increase the number of useful antiprotons by up to two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments in parallel.

  10. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of an 0.065-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XRSSM-N-9a (REGULUS II) Missile at Mach Numbers from 1.6 to 2.0 (TED No. NACA AD 3122)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofstetter, William R.

    1957-01-01

    The static longitudinal and lateral stability charaetefistics of an 0 .065-scale model of the XRSSM-N-9a (REGULUS II) Missile at Mach number range of 1.6 to 2.0 at a Reynolds number per foot of 2.0(exp 8)

  11. Autism Disorder (AD): An Updated Review for Paediatric Dentists

    PubMed Central

    J., Udhya; M.M, Varadharaja; J., Parthiban; Srinivasan, Ila

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion of interest in Autism Disorder (AD). Knowledge and awareness on the condition has grown exponentially at all levels among the general public, parents, health professionals, the research community and more recently, at parliamentary level. The world has begun to recognize the scope of this problem and act internationally and locally to improve the lives of the growing number of individuals and families affected by this devastating disorder. This article reviews the dental literature since 1969 and it summarizes characteristics of patients with AD, oral health status and dental management of patients with AD. PMID:24701555

  12. 40 CFR 98.300 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.300 Section 98.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....300 Definition of the source category. (a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment...

  13. 40 CFR 98.300 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.300 Section 98.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....300 Definition of the source category. (a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment...

  14. 40 CFR 98.460 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Waste Landfills § 98.460 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to industrial waste landfills that accepted waste on or after... or equal to 300,000 metric tons. (b) An industrial waste landfill is a landfill other than...

  15. 40 CFR 98.460 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Waste Landfills § 98.460 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to industrial waste landfills that accepted waste on or after... or equal to 300,000 metric tons. (b) An industrial waste landfill is a landfill other than...

  16. 36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... availability of this map or maps in the local newspapers of record. (b) Changes in land category assignment... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land category assignments... NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.22 Land...

  17. 76 FR 12141 - New Postal Product and New Price Category

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... New Postal Product and New Price Category AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... Services to the competitive product list. The Postal Service also states that it has established a new... new product to the competitive product list and concurrently establish a new price category under...

  18. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding...

  19. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding...

  20. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding...

  1. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding...

  2. A comparison of different category scales for estimating disease severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales are widely used for assessing disease severity, including for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale, but reports show tha...

  3. What interval characteristics make a good disease assessment category scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales have been used for assessing plant disease severity in field experiments, epidemiological studies, and for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsf...

  4. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... geologic formations. (b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under the Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of wells where a CO2 stream is being injected in subsurface geologic formations to enhance the recovery of oil...

  5. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... geologic formations. (b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under the Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of wells where a CO2 stream is being injected in subsurface geologic formations to enhance the recovery of oil...

  6. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  7. 32 CFR 901.17 - Foreign students category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign students category. 901.17 Section 901.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND... Foreign students category. (a) The Academy is authorized to provide instruction to as many as 40...

  8. 32 CFR 901.17 - Foreign students category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign students category. 901.17 Section 901.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND... Foreign students category. (a) The Academy is authorized to provide instruction to as many as 40...

  9. 32 CFR 901.17 - Foreign students category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign students category. 901.17 Section 901.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND... Foreign students category. (a) The Academy is authorized to provide instruction to as many as 40...

  10. 32 CFR 901.17 - Foreign students category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign students category. 901.17 Section 901.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND... Foreign students category. (a) The Academy is authorized to provide instruction to as many as 40...

  11. 32 CFR 901.17 - Foreign students category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign students category. 901.17 Section 901.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND... Foreign students category. (a) The Academy is authorized to provide instruction to as many as 40...

  12. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding...

  13. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  14. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  15. Decoding the neural representation of fine-grained conceptual categories.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Marta; Vaghi, Matilde Maria Serena; Perani, Daniela; Tettamanti, Marco

    2016-05-15

    Neuroscientific research on conceptual knowledge based on the grounded cognition framework has shed light on the organization of concrete concepts into semantic categories that rely on different types of experiential information. Abstract concepts have traditionally been investigated as an undifferentiated whole, and have only recently been addressed in a grounded cognition perspective. The present fMRI study investigated the involvement of brain systems coding for experiential information in the conceptual processing of fine-grained semantic categories along the abstract-concrete continuum. These categories consisted of mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-, mouth action-, hand action-, and leg action-related meanings. Thirty-five sentences for each category were used as stimuli in a 1-back task performed by 36 healthy participants. A univariate analysis failed to reveal category-specific activations. Multivariate pattern analyses, in turn, revealed that fMRI data contained sufficient information to disentangle all six fine-grained semantic categories across participants. However, the category-specific activity patterns showed no overlap with the regions coding for experiential information. These findings demonstrate the possibility of detecting specific patterns of neural representation associated with the processing of fine-grained conceptual categories, crucially including abstract ones, though bearing no anatomical correspondence with regions coding for experiential information as predicted by the grounded cognition hypothesis.

  16. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... three categories: Namely, Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential, depending on its degree of significance... provided by statute. The three classification categories are defined as follows: (a) Top Secret. Top Secret... with the utmost restraint. (b) Secret. Secret refers to that national security information or...

  17. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste landfills... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that...

  18. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste landfills... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that...

  19. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted waste on or after January 1, 1980, unless all three of the following conditions apply. (1) The...

  20. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste landfills... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that...

  1. 40 CFR 98.350 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.350 Definition of source category. (a) This source category consists of anaerobic processes used to treat industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment sludge at facilities that perform the operations listed in this paragraph....

  2. 40 CFR 98.350 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.350 Definition of source category. (a) This source category consists of anaerobic processes used to treat industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment sludge at facilities that perform the operations listed in this paragraph....

  3. 40 CFR 98.350 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.350 Definition of source category. (a) This source category consists of anaerobic processes used to treat industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment sludge at facilities that perform the operations listed in this paragraph....

  4. 40 CFR 98.350 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment § 98.350 Definition of source category. (a) This source category consists of anaerobic processes used to treat industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment sludge at facilities that perform the operations listed in this paragraph....

  5. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  6. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  7. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  8. 1 CFR 5.9 - Categories of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Categories of documents. 5.9 Section 5.9 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.9 Categories of documents. Each document published in the Federal Register shall be placed under one of...

  9. 1 CFR 5.9 - Categories of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categories of documents. 5.9 Section 5.9 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.9 Categories of documents. Each document published in the Federal Register shall be placed under one of...

  10. Can Semi-Supervised Learning Explain Incorrect Beliefs about Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lang, Jonathan; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with 88 college-aged participants explored how unlabeled experiences--learning episodes in which people encounter objects without information about their category membership--influence beliefs about category structure. Participants performed a simple one-dimensional categorization task in a brief supervised learning phase, then…

  11. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following processes: taconite iron ore processing, integrated iron and steel manufacturing, cokemaking not...

  12. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following... means the production of steel from iron ore or iron ore pellets. At a minimum, an integrated iron...

  13. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following... means the production of steel from iron ore or iron ore pellets. At a minimum, an integrated iron...

  14. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category... manure, litter, or manure wastewater in one or more of the following system components: Uncovered... systems for cattle and swine, manure composting, and aerobic treatment. (c) This source category does...

  15. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  16. Feature Inference and the Causal Structure of Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, B.; Burnett, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to establish how theoretical category knowledge-specifically, knowledge of the causal relations that link the features of categories-supports the ability to infer the presence of unobserved features. Our experiments were designed to test proposals that causal knowledge is represented psychologically as Bayesian…

  17. 12 CFR 324.402 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the FDIC-supervised institution's capital category has changed as... FDI Act and this subpart H on the basis of the FDIC-supervised institution's most recent Call...

  18. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  19. 28 CFR 94.22 - Categories of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categories of expenses. 94.22 Section 94.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.22 Categories of expenses. The...

  20. 28 CFR 94.22 - Categories of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Categories of expenses. 94.22 Section 94.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.22 Categories of expenses. The...

  1. 28 CFR 94.22 - Categories of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categories of expenses. 94.22 Section 94.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.22 Categories of expenses. The...

  2. 28 CFR 94.22 - Categories of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Categories of expenses. 94.22 Section 94.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.22 Categories of expenses. The...

  3. 28 CFR 94.22 - Categories of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Categories of expenses. 94.22 Section 94.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.22 Categories of expenses. The...

  4. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  5. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  6. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  7. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  8. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  9. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  10. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  11. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  12. Labeling Bias and Categorical Induction: Generative Aspects of Category Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    When a person is characterized categorically with a label (e.g., Linda is a feminist), people tend to think that the attributes associated with that person are central and long lasting (S. Gelman & G. D. Heyman, 1999). This bias, which is related to category-based induction and stereotyping, has been thought to arise because a category label…

  13. Learning Vowel Categories from Maternal Speech in Gurindji Kriol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Caroline; Meakins, Felicity; Muawiyath, Shujau

    2012-01-01

    Distributional learning is a proposal for how infants might learn early speech sound categories from acoustic input before they know many words. When categories in the input differ greatly in relative frequency and overlap in acoustic space, research in bilingual development suggests that this affects the course of development. In the present…

  14. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that...

  15. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that...

  16. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that...

  17. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that...

  18. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that are subject to the requirements of the Acid Rain Program and any other electricity generating units that...

  19. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  20. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following processes: taconite iron ore processing, integrated iron and steel manufacturing, cokemaking not...