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Sample records for ad number category

  1. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  2. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  3. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers andmore » Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).« less

  4. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based but Not Information-Integration Category Learning: Further Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hejl, Kelli D.; Ing, A. David

    2004-01-01

    Category number effects on rule-based and information-integration category learning were investigated. Category number affected accuracy and the distribution of best-fitting models in the rule-based task but had no effect on accuracy and little effect on the distribution of best-fining models in the information-integration task. In the 2 category…

  5. Are numbers special? Comparing the generation of verbal materials from ordered categories (months) to numbers and other categories (animals) in an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Ischebeck, Anja; Heim, Stefan; Siedentopf, Christian; Zamarian, Laura; Schocke, Michael; Kremser, Christian; Egger, Karl; Strenge, Hans; Scheperjans, Filip; Delazer, Margarete

    2008-08-01

    Months, days of the week, and numbers differ from other verbal concepts because they are ordered in a sequence, whereas no order is imposed on members of other categories, such as animals or tools. Recent studies suggest that numbers activate a representation of their quantity within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) automatically, that is, in tasks that do not require the processing of quantity. It is unclear, however, whether ordered verbal materials in general and not only numbers activate the IPS in such tasks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study word generation of months, numbers, and animals were compared. Word generation of numbers and nonnumerical materials from an ordered category (months) activated the IPS more strongly than generating items from a not-ordered category such as animals or the verbal control conditions. An ROI analysis of three subregions within the anterior IPS revealed that the most anterior and lateral of these regions, human intraparietal area hIP2, shows a greater sensitivity to ordered materials than the other two areas, hIP1 and hIP3. Interestingly, no difference in activation was observed within the IPS between numbers and months suggesting that the activation of the IPS might not be modulated by the additional quantity information carried by numbers. PMID:17705220

  6. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  7. Psychological Distance between Categories in the Likert Scale: Comparing Different Numbers of Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakita, Takafumi; Ueshima, Natsumi; Noguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of options in the Likert scale influences the psychological distance between categories. The most important assumption when using the Likert scale is that the psychological distance between options is equal. The authors proposed a new algorithm for calculating the scale values of options by applying item…

  8. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based "and" Information-Integration Category Learning: A Reassessment of Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Roger D.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on…

  9. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, Laura

    2014-05-15

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  10. Adèlic formulas for string amplitudes in fields of algebraic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, V. S.; Sapuzhak, T. M.

    1996-06-01

    On the basis of the analysis on adèle groups (Tate's formula) for any field of algebraic numbers, a regularization of infinite adèlic products of gamma and beta functions of local fields is proposed. The formulas obtained are applied to representations of the four-point crossing symmetric Veneziano and Virasoro-Shapiro amplitudes through regularized adèlic products of the corresponding string (open and closed, resp.) amplitudes.

  11. Impact of the Number of Response Categories and Anchor Labels on Coefficient Alpha and Test-Retest Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Li-Jen

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,247 college students participated in this study on the effect of scale format on the reliability of Likert-type rating scales. The number of response categories ranged from 3 to 9. Anchor labels on the scales were provided for each response option or for the end points only. The results indicated that the scales with few response…

  12. An investigation of the time course of category congruence and priming distance effects in number classification tasks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J

    2012-09-01

    The issue investigated in the present research is the nature of the information that is responsible for producing masked priming effects (e.g., semantic information or stimulus-response [S-R] associations) when responding to number stimuli. This issue was addressed by assessing both the magnitude of the category congruence (priming) effect and the nature of the priming distance effect across trials using single-digit primes and targets. Participants made either magnitude (i.e., whether the number presented was larger or smaller than 5) or identification (i.e., press the left button if the number was either a 1, 2, 3, or 4 or the right button if the number was either a 6, 7, 8, or 9) judgments. The results indicated that, regardless of task instruction, there was a clear priming distance effect and a significantly increasing category congruence effect. These results indicated that both semantic activation and S-R associations play important roles in producing masked priming effects. PMID:22774804

  13. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  14. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  15. A Simulation Study to Assess the Effect of the Number of Response Categories on the Power of Ordinal Logistic Regression for Differential Item Functioning Analysis in Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Allahyari, Elahe; Jafari, Peyman; Bagheri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study uses simulated data to find what the optimal number of response categories is to achieve adequate power in ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis in psychometric research. Methods. A hypothetical ten-item quality of life scale with three, four, and five response categories was simulated. The power and type I error rates of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF were investigated under different combinations of ability distribution (θ), sample size, sample size ratio, and the magnitude of uniform DIF across reference and focal groups. Results. When θ was distributed identically in the reference and focal groups, increasing the number of response categories from 3 to 5 resulted in an increase of approximately 8% in power of OLR model for detecting uniform DIF. The power of OLR was less than 0.36 when ability distribution in the reference and focal groups was highly skewed to the left and right, respectively. Conclusions. The clearest conclusion from this research is that the minimum number of response categories for DIF analysis using OLR is five. However, the impact of the number of response categories in detecting DIF was lower than might be expected. PMID:27403207

  16. Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow.

    PubMed

    Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam

    2016-02-01

    Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models. PMID:26986411

  17. Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary McGee; Hudson, Richard, Ed.

    Written as an objective critical assessment, this book is the first linguistic theory guide to categorial grammars. Categorial grammars offer a radical alternative to the phrase-structure paradigm, with roots in the philosophy of language, logic, and algebra. Their historical evolution is outlined and their formal basis is discussed, beginning…

  18. Colourful categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  19. A study of the effectiveness of machine learning methods for classification of clinical interview fragments into a large number of categories.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mehedi; Kotov, Alexander; Idalski Carcone, April; Dong, Ming; Naar, Sylvie; Brogan Hartlieb, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of state-of-the-art supervised machine learning methods in conjunction with different feature types for the task of automatic annotation of fragments of clinical text based on codebooks with a large number of categories. We used a collection of motivational interview transcripts consisting of 11,353 utterances, which were manually annotated by two human coders as the gold standard, and experimented with state-of-art classifiers, including Naïve Bayes, J48 Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), AdaBoost, DiscLDA, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in conjunction with lexical, contextual (label of the previous utterance) and semantic (distribution of words in the utterance across the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count dictionaries) features. We found out that, when the number of classes is large, the performance of CNN and CRF is inferior to SVM. When only lexical features were used, interview transcripts were automatically annotated by SVM with the highest classification accuracy among all classifiers of 70.8%, 61% and 53.7% based on the codebooks consisting of 17, 20 and 41 codes, respectively. Using contextual and semantic features, as well as their combination, in addition to lexical ones, improved the accuracy of SVM for annotation of utterances in motivational interview transcripts with a codebook consisting of 17 classes to 71.5%, 74.2%, and 75.1%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the potential of using machine learning methods in conjunction with lexical, semantic and contextual features for automatic annotation of clinical interview transcripts with near-human accuracy. PMID:27185608

  20. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  1. Origins of the Second-Class Mail Category and the Business of Policymaking, 1863-1879. Journalism Monographs Number Ninety-Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielbowicz, Richard Burket

    The 1879 Post Office Act created the four categories of mailable matter used today and, in part, signalled the emergence of the modern mass circulated magazine. Between 1863 and 1879, Congress liberalized the terms on which regular periodicals could use the mails and put newspapers and magazines on the same footing. Requiring payment of postage at…

  2. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  3. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…

  4. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  5. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  6. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  7. Rethinking the Category 'Determiner'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Wayne E.

    1975-01-01

    The 'determiner' category was originally set up by structuralists for identifying nouns. The rewrite rule for 'determiners' in transformational generative grammar is inadequate for showing correspondences between type and token. An appraisal of quantity terms might eliminate the concept of the 'determiner,' and replace that category with one of…

  8. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  9. Blocking in Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking…

  10. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  11. Searching for Category-Consistent Features: A Computational Approach to Understanding Visual Category Representation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen-Ping; Maxfield, Justin T; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2016-06-01

    This article introduces a generative model of category representation that uses computer vision methods to extract category-consistent features (CCFs) directly from images of category exemplars. The model was trained on 4,800 images of common objects, and CCFs were obtained for 68 categories spanning subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels in a category hierarchy. When participants searched for these same categories, targets cued at the subordinate level were preferentially fixated, but fixated targets were verified faster when they followed a basic-level cue. The subordinate-level advantage in guidance is explained by the number of target-category CCFs, a measure of category specificity that decreases with movement up the category hierarchy. The basic-level advantage in verification is explained by multiplying the number of CCFs by sibling distance, a measure of category distinctiveness. With this model, the visual representations of real-world object categories, each learned from the vast numbers of image exemplars accumulated throughout everyday experience, can finally be studied. PMID:27142461

  12. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  13. Color categories in macaques.

    PubMed

    Sandell, J H; Gross, C G; Bornstein, M H

    1979-08-01

    This experiment investigated whether macaque monkeys partition the photic spectrum into the same four basic hue categories that humans do, i.e., blue, green, yellow, and red. Monkeys were trained to respond in the presence of one chromatic stimulus and were tested, in extinction, for generalization to others. In extinction, the monkeys responded at similar and high levels to stimuli that fell in the same basic human hue category as the training stimulus and at similar and much lower levels to stimuli that fell in a different human hue category from the training stimulus. It was concluded that macaques and humans categorize the spectrum in a similar fashion. PMID:113431

  14. Self-Organization with Additional Learning Based on Category Mapping and Its Application to Dynamic News Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Tetsuya; Nobuhara, Hajime

    The Internet news are texts which involve from various fields, therefore, when a text data that will show a rapid increase of the number of dimensions of feature vectors of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is added, these results cannot be reflected to learning. Furthermore, it is difficult for users to recognize the learning results because SOM can not produce any label information by each cluster. In order to solve these problems, we propose SOM with additional learning and dimensional by category mapping which is based on the category structure of Wikipedia. In this method, input vector is generated from each text and the corresponding Wikipedia categories extracted from Wikipedia articles. Input vectors are formed in the common category taking the hierarchical structure of Wikipedia category into consideration. By using the proposed method, the problem of reconfiguration of vector elements caused by dynamic changes in the text can be solved. Moreover, information loss in newly obtained index term can be prevented.

  15. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  16. Semantic Categories and Context in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick; Zapata, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This article extends recent findings that presenting semantically related vocabulary simultaneously inhibits learning. It does so by adding story contexts. Participants learned 32 new labels for known concepts from four different semantic categories in stories that were either semantically related (one category per story) or semantically unrelated…

  17. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  18. Category Coherence and Category-Based Property Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Hastie, Reid

    2004-01-01

    One important property of human object categories is that they define the sets of exemplars to which newly observed properties are generalized. We manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories and assessed the resulting strength of property inductions. We found that the theoretical coherence afforded to a category by…

  19. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  20. Beyond the Categories.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  1. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  2. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people…

  3. Quantum random number generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness — coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.

  4. Quantum random number generation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Bing

    2016-06-28

    Here, quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness -- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at amore » high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, where verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category which provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.« less

  5. A formula for the wall-amplified added mass coefficient for a solid sphere in normal approach to a wall and its application for such motion at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.-L.

    2010-12-01

    This work re-examines the potential flow theory for a sphere in normal approach to a wall, based on the classical results derived by Lamb [Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1932)] and Milne-Thomson [Theoretical Hydrodynamics, 5th ed. (Dover, New York, 1968)]. These authors generated an expression in which the kinetic energy for a sphere in an unbounded fluid is augmented by a wall correction function in terms of an infinite series that depends on the scaled center-to-wall distance, h∗=h/a, with a denoting the sphere radius. By truncating the series at the order of h∗-3, the resulting one-term correction function, 3/8h∗-3, is widely employed to approximate the wall-amplified added mass coefficient, CAM(h ∗), in multiphase flow research. Nonetheless, this work shows that this one-term correction deviates greatly from corrections including higher order terms when the interstitial gap drops below the half sphere radius. Thus, an explicit formula is developed, for all h∗, using a near-wall Padé approximation, an intermediate bridging function, and a far-field approximation. This proposed formula provides an efficient and reasonable approximation to the infinite series and thus may serve as an improved wall correction function as compared to the one-term formula. The developed formula is applied to compute the unsteady approach of a nonrotating sphere toward a wall in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number condition. In addition to Brenner's wall correction on the quasisteady viscous force [H. Brenner, "The slow motion of a sphere through a viscous fluid towards a plane surface," Chem. Eng. Sci. 16, 242 (1961)], the current formula is employed to modify both the added mass coefficient, from 1/2, and the history force. This latter force is modified by integrating the wall-modified potential flow theory with the boundary layer theory. If the one-term correction is used in the equation of motion, underestimation of the sphere motion and the force magnitudes are

  6. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  7. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  8. Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

  9. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, suggesting that they focused on feature-feature relations rather than summary categorical information. The results showed that people relied heavily on such correlations, even when there was no reason to think that the correlations exist in the population. The results suggested that people’s use of this strategy is largely unreflective, rather than strategically chosen. These findings have important implications for models of category-based induction, which generally ignore feature-feature relations. PMID:20526447

  10. FIM Levels as Ordinal Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses levels of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) as ordinal categories. Presents guidelines developed through the Rasch model that prompt an analyst to investigate whether rating categories produce observations on which meaningful measurement and inference about patient status can be based. (SLD)

  11. The Coordination of Unlike Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the account of coordination of unlike categories ought to be unified with the account of feature neutralization under phonological identity. Further argues that this unified account ought not be couched in terms of string of features, but rather in terms of the logic of categories. Study concludes with a discussion of the interactions…

  12. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

  13. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  14. The neurobiology of category learning.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Spiering, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    Many recent studies have examined the neural basis of category learning. Behavioral neuroscience results suggest that both the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia play important category-learning roles; neurons that develop category-specific firing properties are found in both regions, and lesions to both areas cause category-learning deficits. Similar studies indicate that the inferotemporal cortex does not mediate the learning of new categories. The cognitive neuroscience literature on category learning appears contradictory until the results are partitioned according to the type of category-learning task that was used. Three major tasks can be identified: rule based, information-integration, and prototype-distortion. Recent results are consistent with the hypotheses that (a) learning in rule-based tasks requires working memory and executive attention and is mediated by frontal-striatal circuits, (b) learning in information-integration tasks requires procedural memory and is mediated primarily within the basal ganglia, and (c) learning in prototype-distortion tasks depends on multiple memory systems, including the perceptual representation system. PMID:15537987

  15. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  16. Category-Generation Performance of Bilingual Children: The Influence of Condition, Category, and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Zlatic-Giunta, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how 44 bilingual (Spanish-English) children (ages 4-7) used taxonomic versus slot-filler strategies in a category-generation task presented in both languages. Younger bilingual children generated approximately equal numbers of items in both conditions, however, older bilingual children were beginning to demonstrate a taxonomic…

  17. Psychopathic disorder: a category mistake?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, C A

    1991-01-01

    Although the concept of psychopathy retains its currency in British psychiatry, apparently being meaningful as well as useful to practitioners (1), it is often taken to refer to a purely legal category with social control functions rather than a medical diagnosis with treatment implications. I wish, in this brief article, to suggest that it is essentially, and most usefully, an ethical category which stands outside the diagnostic framework of present-day psychiatry. PMID:1870086

  18. Data categories for marine planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  19. Categorial compositionality III: F-(co)algebras and the systematicity of recursive capacities in human cognition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2012-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities-e.g., finding the smallest number in a list-implies the capacity for certain others-finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order). The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities). The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of) the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc) assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants) can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language. PMID:22514704

  20. Development of inductive generalization with familiar categories.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Anna V; Godwin, Karrie E; Matlen, Bryan J

    2015-10-01

    Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition. In the developmental literature, two different theoretical accounts of this important process have been proposed: a naïve theory account and a similarity-based account. However, a number of recent findings cannot be explained within the existing theoretical accounts. We describe a revised version of the similarity-based account of inductive generalization with familiar categories. We tested the novel predictions of this account in two reported studies with 4-year-old children (N = 57). The reported studies include the first short-term longitudinal investigation of the development of children's induction with familiar categories, and it is the first study to explore the role of individual differences in semantic organization, general intelligence, working memory, and inhibition in children's induction. PMID:25737367

  1. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  2. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  3. Neural Correlates of Acquired Color Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Holmes, Amanda; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Ozgen, Emre; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Category training can induce category effects, whereby color discrimination of stimuli spanning a newly learned category boundary is enhanced relative to equivalently spaced stimuli from within the newly learned category (e.g., categorical perception). However, the underlying mechanisms of these acquired category effects are not fully understood.…

  4. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  5. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture. PMID:26734985

  6. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  7. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development. PMID:22490623

  8. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  9. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  10. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  11. Hurricane Irene at Category 3

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video sequence taken by the crew of the ISS on Aug. 23, 2011 at approximately 2:15PM EST. At that time, Hurricane Irene was a Category 3 storm with peak winds estimated at 115mph, moving west-north...

  12. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Category 1 and Category 2 Radioactive Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Category 1 and Category 2 Radioactive Materials A Appendix... QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Category 1 and Category 2 Radioactive... are provided for practical usefulness only. Radioactive material Category 1(TBq) Category...

  14. D-branes, categories and

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Michael R.

    2001-07-01

    We show that boundary conditions in topological open string theory on Calabi--Yau (CY) manifolds are objects in the derived category of coherent sheaves, as foreseen in the homological mirror symmetry proposal of Kontsevich. Together with conformal field theory considerations, this leads to a precise criterion determining the supersymmetry preserving branes at any point in CY moduli space, completing the proposal of II-stability.

  15. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  16. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  17. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  18. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  19. AdS perturbations, isometries, selection rules and the Higgs oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Nivesvivat, Rongvoram

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of small-amplitude perturbations in the global anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is restricted by selection rules that forbid effective energy transfer between certain sets of normal modes. The selection rules arise algebraically because some integrals of products of AdS mode functions vanish. Here, we reveal the relation of these selection rules to AdS isometries. The formulation we discover through this systematic approach is both simpler and stronger than what has been reported previously. In addition to the selection rule considerations, we develop a number of useful representations for the global AdS mode functions, with connections to algebraic structures of the Higgs oscillator, a superintegrable system describing a particle on a sphere in an inverse cosine-squared potential, where the AdS isometries play the role of a spectrum-generating algebra.

  20. The AdS particle [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.

  1. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  2. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories.

    PubMed

    van der Zande, Patrick; Jesse, Alexandra; Cutler, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment 1, exposure to a visual idiosyncrasy in ambiguous audiovisually presented target words in a lexical decision task indeed resulted in retuning of the visual category boundary based on the disambiguating lexical context. In Experiment 2 it was tested whether lexical information retunes visual categories directly, or indirectly through the generalization from retuned auditory phonetic categories. Here, participants were exposed to auditory-only versions of the same ambiguous target words as in Experiment 1. Auditory phonetic categories were retuned by lexical knowledge, but no shifts were observed for the visual phonetic categories. Lexical knowledge can therefore guide retuning of visual phonetic categories, but lexically guided retuning of auditory phonetic categories is not generalized to visual categories. Rather, listeners adjust auditory and visual phonetic categories to talker idiosyncrasies separately. PMID:23862831

  3. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  4. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them. PMID:20661306

  5. Categorial Compositionality: A Category Theory Explanation for the Systematicity of Human Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe—replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them. PMID:20661306

  6. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  7. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into ‘‘exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the

  8. What Children Infer from Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Eldror, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Children hold the belief that social categories have essences. We investigated what kinds of properties children feel licensed to infer about a person based on social category membership. Seventy-two 4-6-year-olds were introduced to novel social categories defined as having one internal--psychological or biological--and one external--behavioral or…

  9. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories... airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a maximum...

  10. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  11. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he distinguished the…

  12. Optimum Response Categories for the Religious Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraska, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Likert response scales are widely used in the social sciences, typically to measure attitudes and personality. This study seeks to understand the optimal number of categories to include in a Likert scale measuring attitudes. Therefore, the author examined four versions of an attitude measure, the Religious Motivation Scale, ranging from a 4- to…

  13. Higher category theory as a paradigm for network applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonick, James R.

    2006-05-01

    The importance of network science to the present and future military is unquestioned. Networks of some type pervade every aspect of military operations-a situation that is shared by civilian society. However, several aspects of militarily oriented network science must be considered unique or given significantly greater emphasis than their civilian counterparts. Military, especially battlespace, networks must be mobile and robust. They must utilize diverse sensors moving in and out of the network. They must be able to survive various modes of attack and the destruction of large segments of their structure. Nodes often must pass on classifications made locally while other nodes must serve as combined sensor/classifiers or information coordinators. They must be capable of forming fluidly and in an ad hoc manner. In this paper, it will be shown how category theory, higher category theory, and topos theory provide just the model required by military network science. Category theory is a well-developed mathematical field that views mathematical structures abstractly, often revealing previously unnoticed correspondences. It has been used in database and software modeling, and in sensor and data fusion. It provides an advantage over other modeling formalisms both in its generality and in its extensive theory. Higher category theory extends the insights of category theory into higher dimensions, enhancing robustness. Topos theory was developed, in part, through the application of category theory to logic, but it also has geometric aspects. The motivation behind including topos theory in network science is the idea that a mathematical theory fundamental to geometry and logic should be applicable to the study of systems of spatially distributed information and analysis flow. The structures presented in this paper will have profound and far-reaching applications to military networks.

  14. A history of chorological categories.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, S

    2016-09-01

    One of the purposes of the research program referred to as "systematic biogeography" is the use of species distributions to identify regions and reconstruct biotic area relationships. The reverse, i.e. to group species according to the areas that they live in, leads to the recognition of chorological categories. Biogeographers, working under these two different approaches, have proposed several terms to refer to groups of species that have similar distributions, such as "element", "chorotype" and "component". A historical reconstruction, including semantic observations and philosophical implications, shows that these terms have been used in a variety of senses. The word "component" should not be used in biogeography. The word "element" has been used to identify both a group of species defined according to the biogeographic areas they occupy and a group of species with an assumed shared biogeographic history. It is especially because of the influence of the dispersalist paradigm, which dominated evolutionary thought until the mid-twentieth century, that the second definition has been frequently adopted. The term "element" is therefore ambiguous and its use should always be associated with an explicit definition. The word "chorotype" should be used to define groups of species with similar ranges when no causal assumption is made. The concept of "chorotype," finally, should not be confounded with other concepts such as distributional pattern, cenocron, horofauna, biota, endemic area, area of endemism, biotic element, and generalized track, which are also discussed in this paper. PMID:27619986

  15. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  16. 75 FR 40756 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Federal Regulations. The proposed rule was published on June 15, 2010 (75 FR 33902), and the public... of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear... requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The...

  17. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  18. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  19. A manual method for determining the fractional stability category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Ricardo

    1991-04-01

    A simplistic manual method has been developed for determining the atmospheric stability based on FSCAT, a computer code that calculates the fractional stability category. The FSCAT algorithm retains the simplicity of the well-known Pasquill stability category scheme, and it also allows a much finer semicontinuous resolution of the stability of the surface boundary layer. The manual method allows the user to obtain the same results as with FSCAT, using cloud, wind, and solar angle data with a decision tree method, to determine the insolation class number, the net radiation index, and the fractional stability category. This practical method can be a useful tool for field operations where use of computers may not be possible.

  20. Mapping AdS to dS spaces and back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Adriana; Fröb, Markus B.

    2015-03-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature, including scalar matter. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane. The map can also be used as a solution generator, and we obtain a Kerr/AdS solution with hyperbolic horizon from a known Kerr/dS one.

  1. Story Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swafford, Jane; McGinty, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A concrete approach to prime numbers is presented using rectangles and triangles to construct a building for each number so that each story represents a pair of factors and the triangular-shaped roof represents the number. (MP)

  2. Extensive training leads to temporal and spatial shifts of cortical activity underlying visual category selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Tim C; Ehinger, Benedikt V; Porada, Danja; Engel, Andreas K; König, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The human visual system is able to distinguish naturally occurring categories with exceptional speed and accuracy. At the same time, it exhibits substantial plasticity, permitting the seamless and fast learning of entirely novel categories. Here we investigate the interplay of these two processes by asking how category selectivity emerges and develops from initial to extended category learning. For this purpose, we combine a rapid event-related MEG adaptation paradigm, an extension of fMRI adaptation to high temporal resolution, a novel spatiotemporal analysis approach to separate adaptation effects from other effect origins, and source localization. The results demonstrate a spatiotemporal shift of cortical activity underlying category selectivity: after initial category acquisition, the onset of category selectivity was observed starting at 275ms together with stronger activity in prefrontal cortex. Following extensive training over 22 sessions, adding up to more than 16.600 trials, the earliest category effects occurred at a markedly shorter latency of 113ms and were accompanied by stronger occipitotemporal activity. Our results suggest that the brain balances plasticity and efficiency by relying on different mechanisms to recognize new and re-occurring categories. PMID:27063060

  3. New categories for traditional medicine in the Economic Botany Data Collection Standard.

    PubMed

    Gruca, Marta; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Macía, Manuel J; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-09-11

    The Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (EBDCS) has been successfully followed by ethnobotanists investigating plant uses in many parts of the world. However, we have encountered some cases in our study of traditional medicine where the standard seems incomplete and inaccurate when it is applied to plant uses of rural or indigenous societies in developing countries. We propose two categories to be added to the EBDCS: Cultural Diseases and Disorders, and Ritual/Magical Uses. Adding these categories, we believe will give a more accurate insight into traditional medicine and will contribute to developing an integrative ethnomedicinal data collection protocol, which will make ethnomedicinal studies more comparable. PMID:24971798

  4. Temporal dynamics of visual category representation in the macaque inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Vahabie, Abdol-Hossein; Kiani, Roozbeh; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Araabi, Babak Nadjar; Esteky, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Object categories are recognized at multiple levels of hierarchical abstractions. Psychophysical studies have shown a more rapid perceptual access to the mid-level category information (e.g., human faces) than the higher (superordinate; e.g., animal) or the lower (subordinate; e.g., face identity) level. Mid-level category members share many features, whereas few features are shared among members of different mid-level categories. To understand better the neural basis of expedited access to mid-level category information, we examined neural responses of the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of macaque monkeys viewing a large number of object images. We found an earlier representation of mid-level categories in the IT population and single-unit responses compared with superordinate- and subordinate-level categories. The short-latency representation of mid-level category information shows that visual cortex first divides the category shape space at its sharpest boundaries, defined by high/low within/between-group similarity. This short-latency, mid-level category boundary map may be a prerequisite for representation of other categories at more global and finer scales. PMID:27169503

  5. Innovations Without Added Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereghino, Edward

    1974-01-01

    There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

  6. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  7. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  8. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  9. Attention flexibly alters tuning for object categories

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiye G.; Kastner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Using functional MRI (fMRI) and a sophisticated forward encoding and decoding approach across the cortical surface, a new study examines how attention alternates tuning functions across a large set of semantic categories. The results suggest a dynamic attention mechanism that allocates greater resources to the attended and related semantic categories at the expense of unattended ones. PMID:23756038

  10. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  11. SUSTAIN: A Network Model of Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Bradley C.; Medin, Douglas L.; Gureckis, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN…

  12. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  13. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  14. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  15. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  16. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  17. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  18. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  19. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  20. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  1. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  2. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  3. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  4. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  5. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  6. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  7. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  8. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.62 Toxicity Category... being the highest toxicity category. Most human hazard, precautionary statements, and human personal... 0.2 mg/liter >0.2 thru 2 mg/liter >2 thru 20 mg/liter >20 mg/liter Eye irritation Corrosive;...

  9. Induction with cross-classified categories.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G L; Ross, B H

    1999-11-01

    One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly cross-classified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories. PMID:10586578

  10. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  11. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  12. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  13. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Tureav, V.G. )

    1992-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds.

  14. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  15. Hadrons in AdS/QCD correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-03-01

    We present a holographical soft wall model that is able to reproduce not only Regge spectra for hadrons with arbitrary integer spin, but also with spin 1/2 and 3/2, and with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators that create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein equations and the AdS metric used.

  16. Program distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: Instructions and category scope notes: Revision 75

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.F. Jr.; Amburn, D.

    1989-08-01

    The DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in conjunction with DOE Program Offices establishes distribution categories for research, development, and technological reports emanating from DOE programs. The revised category numbers and scope notes contained in this publication were coordinated between OSTI and DOE Program Offices with input from DOE Field Offices. Decisions regarding whether reports will be distributed are made by Program Offices in conjunction with DOE Field Offices and OSTI. This revision of DOE/OSTI-4500 contains the revised distribution category numbers and scope notes along with the printed copy requirement, which shows the number of copies required to make program distribution.

  17. Category Induction via Distributional Analysis: Evidence from a Serial Reaction Time Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Ruskin H.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Category formation lies at the heart of a number of higher-order behaviors, including language. We assessed the ability of human adults to learn, from distributional information alone, categories embedded in a sequence of input stimuli using a serial reaction time task. Artificial grammars generated corpora of input strings containing a…

  18. Perceived Marital Quality and Family Life-Cycle Categories: A Further Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explored questions about the power of family life-cycle categories to predict marital quality, the trend of marital quality over the family life-cycle, and relationships between perceived marital quality and family life-cycle categories. Results indicated family life-cycle and total number of children were significant predictors of marital…

  19. 40 CFR 720.87 - Categories or proposed categories of uses of a new chemical substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... uses of a new chemical substance. 720.87 Section 720.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... categories of use of a new chemical substance may assert a claim of confidentiality for this information. (b... Public Access to Information § 720.87 Categories or proposed categories of uses of a new...

  20. 40 CFR 720.87 - Categories or proposed categories of uses of a new chemical substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... uses of a new chemical substance. 720.87 Section 720.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... categories of use of a new chemical substance may assert a claim of confidentiality for this information. (b... Public Access to Information § 720.87 Categories or proposed categories of uses of a new...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.101 - Exhaust emission standards for Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information equivalent to such in-use data, such as data from research engines or similar engine models that... Category 2 engines. You may also use NOX or NOX+HC emission credits to comply with the alternate NOX+HC... Category 1 engines and Category 2 engines. 1042.101 Section 1042.101 Protection of...

  2. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  3. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines. 1042.310 Section 1042.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.310 Engine selection for Category 1...

  4. Altered Implicit Category Learning in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Shott, Megan E.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Jappe, Leah M.; Pryor, Tamara; Maddox, W. Todd; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Frank, Guido K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent research has identified specific cognitive deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), including impairment in executive functioning and attention. Another such cognitive process, implicit category learning has been less studied in AN. This study examined whether implicit category learning is impaired in AN. Method Twenty-one women diagnosed with AN and 19 control women (CW) were administered an implicit category learning task in which they were asked to categorize simple perceptual stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories. Category membership was based on a linear integration (i.e., an implicit task) of two stimulus dimensions (orientation and spatial frequency of the stimulus). Results AN individuals were less accurate on implicit category learning relative to age-matched CW. Model-based analyses indicated that, even when AN individuals used the appropriate (i.e., implicit) strategy they were still impaired relative to CW who also used the same strategy. In addition, task performance in AN patients was worse the higher they were in self-reported novelty seeking and the lower they were in sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions These results indicate that AN patients have implicit category learning deficits, and given this type of learning is thought to be mediated by striatal dopamine pathways, AN patients may have deficits in these neural systems. The finding of significant correlations with novelty seeking and sensitivity to punishment suggests that feedback sensitivity is related to implicit learning in AN. PMID:22201300

  5. Number relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Number relativity 1.Every equation of the relativity is just the way to understand through to solve one question of the math problem. We just add the hypothesis into the number. 2. Sequence of number is the machine physics for software(computer) as the number order is program equation as calculator. 3. When zero is denominator, it is not existing as it is doing something by nothing. So nothing means time as we put zero denominator into time. My personal physics imagine.

  6. Leftist Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.

  7. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  8. On Which Abilities Are Category Fluency and Letter Fluency Grounded? A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of 53 Alzheimer's Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bizzozero, Ilaria; Scotti, Stefania; Clerici, Francesca; Pomati, Simone; Laiacona, Marcella; Capitani, Erminio

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In Alzheimer's dementia (AD), letter fluency is less impaired than category fluency. To check whether category fluency and letter fluency depend differently on semantics and attention, 53 mild AD patients were given animal and letter fluency tasks, two semantic tests (the Verbal Semantic Questionnaire and the BORB Association Match test), and two attentional tests (the Stroop Colour-Word Interference test and the Digit Cancellation test). Methods We conducted a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to check the extent to which category fluency and letter fluency tasks were related to semantics and attention, viewed as latent variables. Results Both types of fluency tasks were related to the latent variable Semantics but not to the latent variable Attention. Conclusions Our findings warn against interpreting the disproportionate impairment of AD patients on category and letter fluency as a contrast between semantics and attention. PMID:23885263

  9. Superharmonic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Graeme L.

    2009-03-01

    Let tau(n) denote the number of positive divisors of a natural number n>1 and let sigma(n) denote their sum. Then n is superharmonic if sigma(n)mid n^ktau(n) for some positive integer k . We deduce numerous properties of superharmonic numbers and show in particular that the set of all superharmonic numbers is the first nontrivial example that has been given of an infinite set that contains all perfect numbers but for which it is difficult to determine whether there is an odd member.

  10. Impact of feature saliency on visual category learning

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi

    2015-01-01

    People have to sort numerous objects into a large number of meaningful categories while operating in varying contexts. This requires identifying the visual features that best predict the ‘essence’ of objects (e.g., edibility), rather than categorizing objects based on the most salient features in a given context. To gain this capacity, visual category learning (VCL) relies on multiple cognitive processes. These may include unsupervised statistical learning, that requires observing multiple objects for learning the statistics of their features. Other learning processes enable incorporating different sources of supervisory information, alongside the visual features of the categorized objects, from which the categorical relations between few objects can be deduced. These deductions enable inferring that objects from the same category may differ from one another in some high-saliency feature dimensions, whereas lower-saliency feature dimensions can best differentiate objects from distinct categories. Here I illustrate how feature saliency affects VCL, by also discussing kinds of supervisory information enabling reflective categorization. Arguably, principles debated here are often being ignored in categorization studies. PMID:25954220

  11. Infinite Index Subfactors and the GICAR Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Vaughan F. R.; Penneys, David

    2015-10-01

    Given a II1-subfactor of arbitrary index, we show that the rectangular GICAR category, also called the rectangular planar rook category, faithfully embeds as A - A bimodule maps among the bimodules . As a corollary, we get a lower bound on the dimension of the centralizer algebras for infinite index subfactors, and we also get that is nonabelian for , where is the Jones tower for . We also show that the annular GICAR/planar rook category acts as maps amongst the A-central vectors in , although this action may be degenerate. We prove these results in more generality using bimodules. The embedding of the GICAR category builds on work of Connes and Evans, who originally found GICAR algebras inside Temperley-Lieb algebras with finite modulus.

  12. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-05-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4} -obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  13. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  14. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... category: (1) Extra large; (2) Large; (3) Medium; and (4) Small, breakfast, petite, or economy. (c... count which falls within the range of 60 to 85 prunes, inclusive, per pound; and (4) Small,...

  15. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... category: (1) Extra large; (2) Large; (3) Medium; and (4) Small, breakfast, petite, or economy. (c... count which falls within the range of 60 to 85 prunes, inclusive, per pound; and (4) Small,...

  16. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... category: (1) Extra large; (2) Large; (3) Medium; and (4) Small, breakfast, petite, or economy. (c... count which falls within the range of 60 to 85 prunes, inclusive, per pound; and (4) Small,...

  17. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category: (1) Extra large; (2) Large; (3) Medium; and (4) Small, breakfast, petite, or economy. (c... count which falls within the range of 60 to 85 prunes, inclusive, per pound; and (4) Small,...

  18. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... category: (1) Extra large; (2) Large; (3) Medium; and (4) Small, breakfast, petite, or economy. (c... count which falls within the range of 60 to 85 prunes, inclusive, per pound; and (4) Small,...

  19. On the evolution of coarse categories.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Friederike

    2012-08-21

    We compare the evolutionary fitness of different cultures (or populations), where we think of culture as partitioning a set of decision situations into categories of situations treated the same. Information about optimal behavior in each category is passed on via a process of noisy cultural transmission. We show that coarse partitions (distinguishing less situations) can provide higher evolutionary fitness even if there are no explicit costs to holding finer partitions. PMID:22659044

  20. 12 CFR 208.40 - Authority, purpose, scope, other supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories. (a) Authority. Subpart D of Regulation H (12 CFR... section 38 (section 38) of the FDI Act as added by section 131 of the Federal Deposit Insurance... determining the supervisory actions authorized under section 38 of the FDI Act. (Section 38 of the FDI...

  1. 12 CFR 208.40 - Authority, purpose, scope, other supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories. (a) Authority. Subpart D of Regulation H (12 CFR... subject to the timing provisions at 12 CFR 217.1(f) and the transitions at 12 CFR part 217, subpart G. ... section 38 (section 38) of the FDI Act as added by section 131 of the Federal Deposit...

  2. 12 CFR 208.40 - Authority, purpose, scope, other supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories. (a) Authority. Subpart D of Regulation H (12 CFR... section 38 (section 38) of the FDI Act as added by section 131 of the Federal Deposit Insurance... determining the supervisory actions authorized under section 38 of the FDI Act. (Section 38 of the FDI...

  3. 12 CFR 208.40 - Authority, purpose, scope, other supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories. (a) Authority. Subpart D of Regulation H (12 CFR... section 38 (section 38) of the FDI Act as added by section 131 of the Federal Deposit Insurance... determining the supervisory actions authorized under section 38 of the FDI Act. (Section 38 of the FDI...

  4. 12 CFR 208.40 - Authority, purpose, scope, other supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supervisory authority, and disclosure of capital categories. (a) Authority. Subpart D of Regulation H (12 CFR... section 38 (section 38) of the FDI Act as added by section 131 of the Federal Deposit Insurance... determining the supervisory actions authorized under section 38 of the FDI Act. (Section 38 of the FDI...

  5. Category-Specific Naming Deficit in Alzheimer's Disease: The Effect of a Display by Domain Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2007-01-01

    A category-specific naming effect penalizing living things has often been reported in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in other brain damaged populations, while the opposite dissociation (i.e., lower accuracy in naming nonliving than living things) is much rarer. In this study, we investigated whether the use of line drawings…

  6. 76 FR 12556 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen Generators Installed in a Lavatory AGENCY: Federal... affected airplanes identified above. This AD requires modifying the chemical oxygen generators in...

  7. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  8. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  9. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  10. Closed-Shell Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations: A New Category of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to calculate the harmonic frequencies and intensities of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations that explore both size and electronic structure effects of the infrared spectroscopic properties of these species. The sample extends the size range of PAH species considered to more than 50 carbon atoms and includes several representatives from each of two heretofore unexplored categories of PAH cations: (1) fully benzenoid PAH cations whose carbon skeleton is composed of an odd number of carbon atoms (C(sub odd) PAHs); and (2) protonated PAH cations (HPAH+). Unlike the radical electronic structures of the PAH cations that have been the subject of previous theoretical and experimental work, the species in these two classes have a closed-shell electronic configuration. The calculated spectra of circumcoronene, C54H18 in both neutral and (radical) cationic form are also reported and compared with those of the other species. Overall, the C(sub odd) PAHs spectra are dominated by strong CC stretching modes near 1600 cm(exp -1) and display spectra that are remarkably insensitive to molecular size. The HPAH+ species evince a more complex spectrum consistent with the added contributions of aliphatic modes and their generally lower symmetry. Finally, for both classes of closed-shell cations, the intensity of the aromatic CH stretching modes is found to increase with molecular size far out of proportion with the number of CH groups, approaching a value more typical of neutral PAHs for the largest species studied.

  11. Enhanced Weight based DSR for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samant; Jain, Sweta

    2011-12-01

    Routing in ad hoc network is a great problematic, since a good routing protocol must ensure fast and efficient packet forwarding, which isn't evident in ad hoc networks. In literature there exists lot of routing protocols however they don't include all the aspects of ad hoc networks as mobility, device and medium constraints which make these protocols not efficient for some configuration and categories of ad hoc networks. Thus in this paper we propose an improvement of Weight Based DSR in order to include some of the aspects of ad hoc networks as stability, remaining battery power, load and trust factor and proposing a new approach Enhanced Weight Based DSR.

  12. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  13. An xp model on AdS2 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  14. Number Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Terese A.

    2004-01-01

    This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number…

  15. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  16. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

  17. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  18. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

  19. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PMID:23421513

  20. God's categories: the effect of religiosity on children's teleological and essentialist beliefs about categories.

    PubMed

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these stances to categories in different domains. Israeli secular and orthodox Jewish 1st and 5th graders responded to questions assessing these three types of beliefs. The results revealed that secular children did not differ from orthodox children with respect to their essentialist beliefs about the stability of animal category membership, and their teleological construal of artifacts. In turn, secular children did differ from orthodox children with respect to their essentialist beliefs about the stability of social category membership, and their teleological construal of both animal and social categories. These findings intimate that while essentialist beliefs about animals, and teleological beliefs about artifacts do not require cultural input in order to emerge, essentialist beliefs about social categories, and teleological beliefs about both animal and social categories do. PMID:19058796

  1. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  2. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  3. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    PubMed Central

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  4. Concepts and Categories: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    One of the most provocative and exciting issues in cognitive science is how neural specificity for semantic categories of common objects arises in the functional architecture of the brain. More than two decades of research on the neuropsychological phenomenon of category-specific semantic deficits has generated detailed claims about the organization and representation of conceptual knowledge. More recently, researchers have sought to test hypotheses developed on the basis of neuropsychological evidence with functional imaging. From those two fields, the empirical generalization emerges that object domain and sensory modality jointly constrain the organization of knowledge in the brain. At the same time, research within the embodied cognition framework has highlighted the need to articulate how information is communicated between the sensory and motor systems, and processes that represent and generalize abstract information. Those developments point toward a new approach for understanding category specificity in terms of the coordinated influences of diverse regions and cognitive systems. PMID:18767921

  5. Category clustering calculator for free recall

    PubMed Central

    Senkova, Olesya; Otani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The free recall measure is one of the most popular measures in memory research. Using this measure, researchers can assess not only the amount of recall but also the strategy participants used to recall the material. Category clustering is a strategy participants often use when the input list is categorized. Unfortunately, computing category clustering measures is laborious. The present paper introduces a calculator that computes these measures for each participant using a platform that is accessible to most researchers in an attempt to make these measures more user-friendly. PMID:23717345

  6. Geodesics on path spaces and double category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Saikat

    2016-09-01

    Let M be a Riemannian manifold and 𝒫M be the space of all smooth paths on M. We describe geodesics on path space 𝒫M. Normal neighborhoods on 𝒫M have been discussed. We identify paths on M under “back-track” equivalence. Under this identification, we show that if M is complete, then geodesics on the path space yield a double category. This double category has a natural interpretation in terms of the worldsheets generated by freely moving (without any external force) strings.

  7. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  8. Per aspirin ad astra...

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

  9. 10 CFR 37.71 - Additional requirements for transfer of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.71 Section 37.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. A licensee transferring a category 1 or category 2 quantity of radioactive material to...

  10. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  11. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sample size is one engine or one percent of the projected U.S.-directed production volume for all your Category 1 engine families, whichever is greater. (2) For Category 2 engines, the minimum sample size is... the model year. For further testing to reach the minimum sample size, randomly select a...

  12. 40 CFR 720.87 - Categories or proposed categories of uses of a new chemical substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Categories or proposed categories of uses of a new chemical substance. 720.87 Section 720.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 720.87...

  13. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  14. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  15. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  16. The Stability and Flexibility of Spatial Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Alycia M.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined the flexibility and stability with which children and adults organize locations into categories based on their spatiotemporal experience with locations. Seven-, 9-, 11-year-olds, and adults learned the locations of 20 objects in an open, square box. During learning, participants experienced the locations in four…

  17. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  18. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  19. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  20. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  1. Aging and the Category-Recall Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Patricia E.; Meggison, David L.

    A sorting-recall procedure was used to investigate how long-term memory in elderly subjects is affected by categorical organization. Sixty-four young adults (average age 20 years) and retirees (average age 67) sorted 48 unrelated words into two, four, six, or eight categories prior to recall. High- and low-frequency lists were tested, a…

  2. Revision of the Halstead Category Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.; Levy, Marie

    1987-01-01

    Implemented a method of abbreviating the Category Test of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. The revision shortened the scales and reorganized Subtests 5 and 6 into two new scales using separate principles. Demonstrated it to be as accurate as the full test in predicting the presence or absence of brain damage in subjects.…

  3. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  4. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  5. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  6. Right-of-Way Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The thrust of this document is vegetation management in public service rights-of-way such as along utility lines, railroads and highways. Different categories of herbicides are discussed with attention given to how they should be applied, the…

  7. Learning about Tool Categories via Eavesdropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Brenda; Seston, Rebecca; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that toddlers will form enduring artifact categories after direct exposure to an adult using a novel tool. Four studies explored whether 2- (N = 48) and 3-year-olds (N = 32) demonstrate this same capacity when learning by eavesdropping. After surreptitiously observing an adult use 1 of 2 artifacts to operate a bell via a…

  8. Listeners Retune Phoneme Categories across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch…

  9. Addressing Behavior Needs by Disability Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serfass, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with identified behavioral needs were provided a different level of behavioral intervention based on their special education disability category verification. A second purpose of this study was to determine what caused potential differences as interpreted by individuals working in the…

  10. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption categories. 2.105 Section 2.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures... similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal...

  11. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  12. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  13. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  14. When Does Fading Enhance Perceptual Category Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In…

  15. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  16. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  17. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  18. What We Eat In America Food Categories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) Food Categories is to provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each of the 7,000+ codes in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) are sorted into 150 mutually exclusive food categ...

  19. Eyetracking and Selective Attention in Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, B.; Hoffman, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    An eyetracking version of the classic Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) experiment was conducted. Forty years of research has assumed that category learning often involves learning to selectively attend to only those stimulus dimensions useful for classification. We confirmed that participants learned to allocate their attention optimally. We…

  20. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compère, Geoffrey

    2009-04-01

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS4. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdSd are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0≤|m|<1/2lAdS. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is “renormalized” accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/lAdS to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS4 supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  1. DichotomY IdentitY: Euler-Bernoulli Numbers, Sets-Multisets, FD-BE Quantum-Statistics, 1 /f0 - 1 /f1 Power-Spectra, Ellipse-Hyperbola Conic-Sections, Local-Global Extent: ``Category-Semantics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, G.-C.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Seminal Apostol[Math.Mag.81,3,178(08);Am.Math.Month.115,9,795(08)]-Rota[Intro.Prob. Thy.(95)-p.50-55] DichotomY equivalence-class: set-theory: sets V multisets; closed V open; to Abromowitz-Stegun[Hdbk.Math.Fns.(64)]-ch.23,p.803!]: numbers/polynomials generating-functions: Euler V Bernoulli; to Siegel[Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.,(1989)-5-papers!] power-spectrum: 1/ f {0}-White V 1/ f {1}-Zipf/Pink (Archimedes) HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY; to analytic-geometry Conic-Sections: Ellipse V (via Parabola) V Hyperbola; to Extent/Scale/Radius: Locality V Globality, Root-Causes/Ultimate-Origins: Dimensionality: odd-Z V (via fractal) V even-Z, to Symmetries/(Noether's-theorem connected)/Conservation-Laws Dichotomy: restored/conservation/convergence=0- V broken/non-conservation/divergence=/=0: with asymptotic-limit antipodes morphisms/ crossovers: Eureka!!!; "FUZZYICS"=''CATEGORYICS''!!! Connection to Kummer(1850) Bernoulli-numbers proof of FLT is via Siegel(CCNY;1964) < (1994)[AMS Joint Mtg. (2002)-Abs.973-60-124] short succinct physics proof: FLT = Least-Action Principle!!!

  2. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  3. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  4. Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus

    2013-07-01

    We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.

  5. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  6. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  7. Neural Changes Associated with Nonspeech Auditory Category Learning Parallel Those of Speech Category Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Holt, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Native language experience plays a critical role in shaping speech categorization, but the exact mechanisms by which it does so are not well understood. Investigating category learning of nonspeech sounds with which listeners have no prior experience allows their experience to be systematically controlled in a way that is impossible to achieve by studying natural speech acquisition, and it provides a means of probing the boundaries and constraints that general auditory perception and cognition bring to the task of speech category learning. In this study, we used a multimodal, video-game-based implicit learning paradigm to train participants to categorize acoustically complex, nonlinguistic sounds. Mismatch negativity responses to the nonspeech stimuli were collected before and after training to investigate the degree to which neural changes supporting the learning of these nonspeech categories parallel those typically observed for speech category acquisition. Results indicate that changes in mismatch negativity resulting from the nonspeech category learning closely resemble patterns of change typically observed during speech category learning. This suggests that the often-observed “specialized” neural responses to speech sounds may result, at least in part, from the expertise we develop with speech categories through experience rathr than from properties unique to speech (e.g., linguistic or vocal tract gestural information). Furthermore, particular characteristics of the training paradigm may inform our understanding of mechanisms that support natural speech acquisition. PMID:19929331

  8. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  9. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  10. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100 ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400 ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  11. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    PubMed

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  12. Clustering header categories extracted from web tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Embley, David W.; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Seth, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Revealing related content among heterogeneous web tables is part of our long term objective of formulating queries over multiple sources of information. Two hundred HTML tables from institutional web sites are segmented and each table cell is classified according to the fundamental indexing property of row and column headers. The categories that correspond to the multi-dimensional data cube view of a table are extracted by factoring the (often multi-row/column) headers. To reveal commonalities between tables from diverse sources, the Jaccard distances between pairs of category headers (and also table titles) are computed. We show how about one third of our heterogeneous collection can be clustered into a dozen groups that exhibit table-title and header similarities that can be exploited for queries.

  13. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  14. [Some observations regarding the category 'gender'].

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Ana Elisa

    2008-01-01

    In the present work a critical analysis of the indiscriminate use of the category "gender" is carried out, pointing out the different problems derived from it. The mentioned problems appear at different levels, their ontological-epistemological character being accentuated in some and their practical or political aspects in others. Finally, certain questions will be outlined as to continue thinking their scientific use and the heuristic value of their implementation. PMID:19835028

  15. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  16. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    PubMed

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  17. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  18. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals. PMID:20830631

  19. Improving Causality Induction with Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning. PMID:24883419

  20. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  1. Category fluency performance in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The influence of affective categories.

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L

    2006-02-28

    Semantic fluency (SF) and phonological fluency (PF) were examined in large groups of schizophrenia patients, bipolar patients and controls. As well as standard SF categories (animals and food), fluency to two affective categories, happy and fear was measured, i.e. participants were asked to produce as many words as they could that resulted in or are associated with fear or happiness. Schizophrenia patients showed SF and PF deficits. Bipolar patients showed PF deficits. Thus, PF is argued to be a good cognitive marker in both disorders. Severity of delusions was related to SF performance in all patients. The patient groups showed different patterns on the affective categories compared to controls: the bipolar patients were better and produced more words, especially to the happiness category, and the schizophrenia patients were impaired and produced less words. The results suggest an interesting interaction between psychotic illnesses, fluency and emotion. PMID:16376054

  2. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  3. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  4. Statistical Inference in the Learning of Novel Phonetic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Learning a phonetic category (or any linguistic category) requires integrating different sources of information. A crucial unsolved problem for phonetic learning is how this integration occurs: how can we update our previous knowledge about a phonetic category as we hear new exemplars of the category? One model of learning is Bayesian Inference,…

  5. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... of the source category. (a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category... geologic formations. (b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under...

  6. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  7. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... of the source category. (a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category... geologic formations. (b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under...

  8. Spectral probes of the holographic Fermi ground state: Dialing between the electron star and AdS Dirac hair

    SciTech Connect

    Cubrovic, Mihailo; Liu Yan; Schalm, Koenraad; Sun Yawen; Zaanen, Jan

    2011-10-15

    We argue that the electron star and the anti-de Sitter (AdS) Dirac hair solution are two limits of the free charged Fermi gas in AdS. Spectral functions of holographic duals to probe fermions in the background of electron stars have a free parameter that quantifies the number of constituent fermions that make up the charge and energy density characterizing the electron star solution. The strict electron star limit takes this number to be infinite. The Dirac hair solution is the limit where this number is unity. This is evident in the behavior of the distribution of holographically dual Fermi surfaces. As we decrease the number of constituents in a fixed electron star background the number of Fermi surfaces also decreases. An improved holographic Fermi ground state should be a configuration that shares the qualitative properties of both limits.

  9. Toward a dual-learning systems model of speech category learning

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Koslov, Seth R.; Maddox, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article, we describe a neurobiologically constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, unidimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application, we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions. PMID:25132827

  10. Discriminating taxonomic categories and domains in mental simulations of concepts of varying concreteness.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew J; Murphy, Brian; Poesio, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Most studies of conceptual knowledge in the brain focus on a narrow range of concrete conceptual categories, rely on the researchers' intuitions about which object belongs to these categories, and assume a broadly taxonomic organization of knowledge. In this fMRI study, we focus on concepts with a variety of concreteness levels; we use a state of the art lexical resource (WordNet 3.1) as the source for a relatively large number of category distinctions and compare a taxonomic style of organization with a domain-based model (an example domain is Law). Participants mentally simulated situations associated with concepts when cued by text stimuli. Using multivariate pattern analysis, we find evidence that all Taxonomic categories and Domains can be distinguished from fMRI data and also observe a clear concreteness effect: Tools and Locations can be reliably predicted for unseen participants, but less concrete categories (e.g., Attributes, Communications, Events, Social Roles) can only be reliably discriminated within participants. A second concreteness effect relates to the interaction of Domain and Taxonomic category membership: Domain (e.g., relation to Law vs. Music) can be better predicted for less concrete categories. We repeated the analysis within anatomical regions, observing discrimination between all/most categories in the left mid occipital and left mid temporal gyri, and more specialized discrimination for concrete categories Tool and Location in the left precentral and fusiform gyri, respectively. Highly concrete/abstract Taxonomic categories and Domain were segregated in frontal regions. We conclude that both Taxonomic and Domain class distinctions are relevant for interpreting neural structuring of concrete and abstract concepts. PMID:24168217

  11. Hadronic spectra in AdS/QCD correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-08-04

    We present an holographical soft wall model which is able to reproduce Regge spectra for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators that create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein's equations and the AdS metric.

  12. Value Added Based on Educational Positions in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Bosker, Roel J.; de Wolf, Inge F.; Doolaard, Simone; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating added value as an indicator of school effectiveness in the context of educational accountability often occurs using test or examination scores of students. This study investigates the possibilities for using scores of educational positions as an alternative indicator. A number of advantages of a value added indicator based on…

  13. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  14. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  15. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical... radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  16. 10 CFR 37.21 - Personnel access authorization requirements for category 1 or category 2 quantities of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.21 Section 37.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background... 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General. (1) Each licensee that possesses...

  17. 10 CFR 37.79 - Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during shipment. 37.79 Section 37.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit §...

  18. A Critical Analysis of Problems with the LBOTE Category on the NAPLaN Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creagh, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The National Assessment Program: Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLaN) is an annual literacy and numeracy test for all Australian students, and results from the test are disaggregated into a number of categories including language background other than English (LBOTE). For this and other categories, results on each section of the test are aggregated into…

  19. On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…

  20. Behavioral Evidence for Differences in Social and Non-Social Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gamond, Lucile; Tallon-Baudry, Catherine; Guyon, Nicolas; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Hugueville, Laurent; George, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait…) or non-social (tall, thin). Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance) and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission. PMID:22912624

  1. Acoustic and perceptual categories of vocal elements in the warble song of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Smith, Edward W; Dooling, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    The warble songs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are composed of a number of complex, variable acoustic elements that are sung by male birds in intimate courtship contexts for periods lasting up to several minutes. If these variable acoustic elements can be assigned to distinct acoustic-perceptual categories, it provides the opportunity to explore whether birds are perceptually sensitive to the proportion or sequential combination of warble elements belonging to different categories. By the inspection of spectrograms and by listening to recordings, humans assigned the acoustic elements in budgerigar warble from several birds to eight broad, overlapping categories. A neural-network program was developed and trained on these warble elements to simulate human categorization. The classification reliability between human raters and between human raters and the neural network classifier was better than 80% both within and across birds. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical task, budgerigars were tested on large sets of these elements from different acoustic categories and different individuals. The birds consistently showed high discriminability for pairs of warble elements drawn from between acoustic categories and low discriminability for pairs drawn from within acoustic categories. With warble elements reliably assigned to different acoustic categories by humans and birds, it affords the opportunity to ask questions about the ordering of elements in natural warble streams and the perceptual significance of this ordering. PMID:22142040

  2. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  3. On a categorial aspect of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan; Nieznański, Edward

    Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation. Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.

  4. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examine developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-aged children on two separate information integration paradigms due to children’s more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also higher for adults on a unidimensional rule-based task due to children’s more frequent use of the irrelevant dimension to guide their behavior. Results across these two studies suggest that the ability to learn categorization structures may be dependent upon a child’s ability to inhibit output from the explicit system. PMID:21377688

  5. Warped AdS3/dipole-CFT duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    String theory contains solutions with {{SL}}( {{2},{R}} ){{R}} × {{U}}{( {1} )_L} -invariant warped AdS3 (WAdS3) factors arising as continuous deformations of ordinary AdS3 factors. We propose that some of these are holographically dual to the IR limits of nonlocal dipole-deformed 2D D-brane gauge theories, referred to as "dipole CFTs". Neither the bulk nor boundary theories are currently well-understood, and consequences of the proposed duality for both sides is investigated. The bulk entropy-area law suggests that dipole CFTs have (at large N) a high-energy density of states which does not depend on the deformation parameter. Putting the boundary theory on a spatial circle leads to closed timelike curves in the bulk, suggesting a relation of the latter to dipole-type nonlocality.

  6. New boundary conditions for AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3ℓ}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

  7. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  8. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  9. Superradiance and instability of small rotating charged AdS black holes in all dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Alikram N.

    2016-02-01

    Rotating small AdS black holes exhibit the superradiant instability to low-frequency scalar perturbations, which is amenable to a complete analytic description in four dimensions. In this paper, we extend this description to all higher dimensions, focusing on slowly rotating charged AdS black holes with a single angular momentum. We divide the spacetime of these black holes into the near-horizon and far regions and find solutions to the scalar wave equation in each of these regions. Next, we perform the matching of these solutions in the overlap between the regions, by employing the idea that the orbital quantum number ℓ can be thought of as an approximate integer. Thus, we obtain the complete low-frequency solution that allows us to calculate the complex frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, whose imaginary part is determined by a small damping parameter. Finally, we find a remarkably instructive expression for the damping parameter, which appears to be a complex quantity in general. We show that the real part of the damping parameter can be used to give a universal analytic description of the superradiant instability for slowly rotating charged AdS black holes in all spacetime dimensions.

  10. Alday-Maldacena Duality and AdS Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.

  11. Hippocampal Activation during Episodic and Semantic Memory Retrieval: Comparing Category Production and Category Cued Recall

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M.; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest. PMID:18420234

  12. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: `forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times t ˜ S BH , the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1 /c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify `information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.

  13. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbäck, Mikael

    2008-02-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are “bound” to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background BNS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten.

  14. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  15. Bringing Meaning to Numbers: The Impact of Evaluative Categories on Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ellen; Dieckmann, Nathan F.; Vastfjall, Daniel; Mertz, C. K.; Slovic, Paul; Hibbard, Judith H.

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers are often quite poor at using numeric information in decisions. The results of 4 experiments demonstrate that a manipulation of evaluative meaning (i.e., the extent to which an attribute can be mapped onto a good/bad scale; this manipulation is accomplished through the addition of visual boundary lines and evaluative labels to a…

  16. Limits of Generalization between Categories and Implications for Theories of Category Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Phillips, W. Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of the studies. The current study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars, but not antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features. PMID:20952784

  17. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    PubMed

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect. PMID:26106058

  18. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  19. Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Giribet, Gaston; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

    2009-05-01

    We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1/(2l2), spacetimes with Schrödinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Spacetimes that are asymptotically AdS3, both for the Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by meff2 = m2-1/(2l2). For the critical value m2 = -1/(2l2), the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS3 space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.

  20. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  1. Fit factors for quarter masks and facial size categories.

    PubMed

    Han, D H

    2000-05-01

    Respirator fit testing is necessary before entering hazardous working environments to ensure that the respirator, when worn, satisfies a minimum fit and that the wearer knows when the respirator fits properly. In the many countries that do not have fit testing or total inward leakage regulations (including Korea), however, many workers wearing respirators may be potentially exposed to hazardous environments. It is necessary to suggest a useful tool to provide an alternative for fit testing in these countries. This study was conducted to evaluate fitting performance for quarter-mask respirators, and fit factors in facial size categories based on face lengths and lip lengths of the wearers. A total of 778 subjects (408 males, 370 females) were fit tested for three quarter masks: Sejin Co. SK-6 (Ulsan, Korea), Yongsung Co. YS-2010 S (Seoul, Korea), and 3 M Co. Series 7500 Medium (MN, USA) masks with a PortaCount 8020 (TSI Co., USA). A facial dimension survey of the subjects was conducted to develop facial size categories, on the basis of face length and lip length. Geometric mean fit factors (GMFFs) of Series 7500 Medium were found to be the highest of the three respirators. All of the respirators were more suitable for males than females in fitting performance. The Series 7500 Medium fitted a large number of the males tested, since the GMFFs for males were above 100 for every box of facial size categories, and high pass proportion rates were shown at an individual fit factor level of 100. The YS-2010 S provides an adequate fit for males in a limited range of facial dimensions. The Series 7500 Medium is more limited in providing adequate fit for females at specific facial dimensions than for males. For adequate fitting performance, the SK-6 is not preferentially recommended for Korean male and female workers due to low GMFFs and pass proportions. The result of this study indicates that after more accurate studies are performed, facial size categories, on the basis of

  2. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude ɛ on time-scales of order 1/ ɛ 2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive relations for the coefficients of the time-averaged theory that are likely to be useful for evaluating them more efficiently in numerical simulations.

  3. LBT-AdOpt control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fini, Luca; Puglisi, Alfio; Riccardi, Armando

    2004-09-01

    The LBT-AdOpt subsystem is a complex machine which includes several software controlled parts. It is essentially divided into two parts: a real-time loop which implements the actual adaptive optics control loop, from the wavefront sensor to the deformable secondary mirror, and a supervisor which performs a number of coordination and diagnostics tasks. The coordination and diagnostics task are essential for the proper operation of the system both as an aid for the preparation of observations and because only a continuous monitoring of dynamic system parameters can guarantee optimal performances and system safety during the operation. In the paper we describe the overall software architecture of the LBT-AdOpt supervisor and we discuss the functionalities required for a proper operation.

  4. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process.

  5. The structure and formation of natural categories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  6. [Toothpastes: ingredients, brands, categories and their utilization].

    PubMed

    Yavnai, N

    2010-04-01

    Toothpaste is one of the most widely used dental products, with the largest sales. Its use is one of the most popular oral hygiene behaviors in developed countries. In the last 30 years there has been a large variety of changes in toothpaste composition. One of the main changes is utilizing the toothpaste as a delivery system for therapeutic agents to the oral cavity. A large variety of toothpastes can be found on the market, for different purposes: caries prevention, gingivitis prevention, anti calculus formation, dentine hypersensitivity prevention and for teeth whitening. Toothpastes have a wide range of ingredients: abrasives, humectants, preservatives, thickening or binding agents, detergents, flavoring agents and therapeutic agents. This review provides details on the ingredients of dentifrices, the evidence about the different brands and categories, and questions about their utilization. PMID:21250403

  7. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  8. Deafness for the meanings of number words

    PubMed Central

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. PMID:17915265

  9. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  10. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  11. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  12. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  13. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  14. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  15. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  16. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  17. Language, Perceptual Categories and their Interaction: Insights from Computational Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belpaeme, Tony; Bleys, Joris

    How do humans acquire perceptual categories? This question is far from being resolved. Specifically the balance between the influence of nature and nurture on perceptual categories remains the topic of heated debate. We present a computational model and take as case study colour categories to study two issues in perceptual category acquisition. The first issue is the effect of linguistic communication on categories during their acquisition: we demonstrate how categories can become coordinated under the influence of language. The second issue concerns the amount of coordination needed between the categories of individuals in order to achieve unambiguous communication. We show that, depending on how strictly linguistic utterances are interpreted, coordination of the individuals' categories is not always a prerequisite for successful communication.

  18. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  19. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  20. 12 CFR 6.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part as of the date the national bank or... association of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part or that...

  1. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  2. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  3. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  4. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  5. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  6. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  7. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  8. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  9. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  10. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1)...

  13. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  14. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  15. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  16. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  17. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  18. Fuzzy Document Clustering Approach using WordNet Lexical Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharib, Tarek F.; Fouad, Mohammed M.; Aref, Mostafa M.

    Text mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. This area is growing rapidly mainly because of the strong need for analysing the huge and large amount of textual data that reside on internal file systems and the Web. Text document clustering provides an effective navigation mechanism to organize this large amount of data by grouping their documents into a small number of meaningful classes. In this paper we proposed a fuzzy text document clustering approach using WordNet lexical categories and Fuzzy c-Means algorithm. Some experiments are performed to compare efficiency of the proposed approach with the recently reported approaches. Experimental results show that Fuzzy clustering leads to great performance results. Fuzzy c-means algorithm overcomes other classical clustering algorithms like k-means and bisecting k-means in both clustering quality and running time efficiency.

  19. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  20. 75 FR 62694 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... the Code of Federal Regulations. The proposed rule was published on June 15, 2010 (75 FR 33902) and... searching on Docket ID: NRC-2010-0194. On July 14, 2010 (75 FR 40756), the NRC noticed the availability of... and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material; Draft Guidance Document for Comment; Extension...

  1. 40 CFR 94.106 - Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 94.105(b), the Not to Exceed... section refers to percent of maximum test speed. (iv) See Figure B-1 for an illustration of this Not to... Figure B-2 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone. (3)...

  2. 40 CFR 94.106 - Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 94.105(b), the Not to Exceed... section refers to percent of maximum test speed. (iv) See Figure B-1 for an illustration of this Not to... Figure B-2 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone. (3)...

  3. 40 CFR 94.106 - Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 94.105(b), the Not to Exceed... section refers to percent of maximum test speed. (iv) See Figure B-1 for an illustration of this Not to... Figure B-2 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone. (3)...

  4. Neural Changes Associated with Nonspeech Auditory Category Learning Parallel Those of Speech Category Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ran; Holt, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Native language experience plays a critical role in shaping speech categorization, but the exact mechanisms by which it does so are not well understood. Investigating category learning of nonspeech sounds with which listeners have no prior experience allows their experience to be systematically controlled in a way that is impossible to achieve by…

  5. Category Labels Induce Boundary-Dependent Perceptual Warping in Learned Speech Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native…

  6. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  7. Life Coping Skills Categories and Sub-Categories. Areas of the Information Needs of Disadvantaged Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead State Univ., KY. Appalachian Adult Education Center.

    The major categories and subcategories of the information needs of disadvantaged adults are listed. The list was compiled by the Appalachian Adult Education Center (AAEC) in its research and demonstration projects and by consultants to the center from other projects working with adult information needs. The list can be used 1) to assess library…

  8. Braided Tensor Categories and Extensions of Vertex Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kirillov, Alexander; Lepowsky, James

    2015-08-01

    Let V be a vertex operator algebra satisfying suitable conditions such that in particular its module category has a natural vertex tensor category structure, and consequently, a natural braided tensor category structure. We prove that the notions of extension (i.e., enlargement) of V and of commutative associative algebra, with uniqueness of unit and with trivial twist, in the braided tensor category of V-modules are equivalent.

  9. categoryCompare, an analytical tool based on feature annotations

    PubMed Central

    Flight, Robert M.; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Mohammad, Fahim; Bunge, Mary B.; Moon, Lawrence D. F.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Rouchka, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of high-throughput—omics data initially focuses on relative or raw levels of a particular feature, such as an expression value for a transcript, protein, or metabolite. At a second level, analyses of annotations including known or predicted functions and associations of each individual feature, attempt to distill biological context. Most currently available comparative- and meta-analyses methods are dependent on the availability of identical features across data sets, and concentrate on determining features that are differentially expressed across experiments, some of which may be considered “biomarkers.” The heterogeneity of measurement platforms and inherent variability of biological systems confounds the search for robust biomarkers indicative of a particular condition. In many instances, however, multiple data sets show involvement of common biological processes or signaling pathways, even though individual features are not commonly measured or differentially expressed between them. We developed a methodology, categoryCompare, for cross-platform and cross-sample comparison of high-throughput data at the annotation level. We assessed the utility of the approach using hypothetical data, as well as determining similarities and differences in the set of processes in two instances: (1) denervated skin vs. denervated muscle, and (2) colon from Crohn's disease vs. colon from ulcerative colitis (UC). The hypothetical data showed that in many cases comparing annotations gave superior results to comparing only at the gene level. Improved analytical results depended as well on the number of genes included in the annotation term, the amount of noise in relation to the number of genes expressing in unenriched annotation categories, and the specific method in which samples are combined. In the skin vs. muscle denervation comparison, the tissues demonstrated markedly different responses. The Crohn's vs. UC comparison showed gross similarities in inflammatory

  10. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  11. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  12. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2015-07-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS = δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  13. Fake gaps in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-11-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS3/CFT2.

  14. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  15. Difference in Fractional Occurrences of Precipitation Categories in Terms of Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamoto, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Kentaroh

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the precipitation stage and water cloud properties was studied in the mid-latitudes using space-borne radar and radiometer data, with a focus on a comparison between continental (over China) and oceanic (over the northwest Pacific) clouds. More specifically, fractional occurrences of the precipitation categories were investigated in terms of two-dimensional representations of cloud parameters, such as combinations of optical depth - effective particle radius, and liquid water path - droplet number density. As a result, systematic changes in the transition regarding pairs of the cloud parameters were well captured for all precipitation categories. The transition pattern was similar for both land and oceanic clouds. Notably, the ranges of all values of cloud parameters (except cloud droplet number density) were considerably larger for oceanic clouds for the precipitating category.

  16. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  17. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  18. Eyetracking Reveals Multiple-Category Use in Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Category information is used to predict properties of new category members. When categorization is uncertain, people often rely on only one, most likely category to make predictions. Yet studies of perception and action often conclude that people combine multiple sources of information near-optimally. We present a perception-action analog of…

  19. 14 CFR 29.59 - Takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff path: Category A. 29.59 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.59 Takeoff path: Category A. (a) The takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point at...

  20. 14 CFR 29.59 - Takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff path: Category A. 29.59 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.59 Takeoff path: Category A. (a) The takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point at...

  1. 14 CFR 29.59 - Takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff path: Category A. 29.59 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.59 Takeoff path: Category A. (a) The takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point at...

  2. 14 CFR 29.59 - Takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path: Category A. 29.59 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.59 Takeoff path: Category A. (a) The takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point at...

  3. 14 CFR 29.59 - Takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path: Category A. 29.59 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.59 Takeoff path: Category A. (a) The takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point at...

  4. 39 CFR 3004.51 - Fees-request category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fees-request category. 3004.51 Section 3004.51 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PUBLIC RECORDS AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 3004.51 Fees—request category. (a) The level of fee charged depends on the request category....

  5. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... product category designated in Round 2 (73 FR 27954, May 14, 2008) and a subcategory for wheel bearing and chassis grease to the greases product category designated in Round 3 (73 FR 27974, May 14, 2008). In... products? Will a product category create a high demand for biobased feed stock? Does manufacturing...

  6. Empirical Validation of a New Category System: One Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak; And Others

    This study found that data from previous research can be used to validate a new observational category system and that subscripting of the original ten categories of the Flanders Interaction Analysis System is useful in identifying more specific behaviors which correlate with student achievement. The new category system was the Expanded…

  7. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  8. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  9. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  10. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  11. 29 CFR 4044.13 - Priority category 3 benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., in a plan with a termination date of September 1, 2012, the benefits in priority category 3 are those... throughout the 5-year period from September 2, 2007, to September 1, 2012, is included in priority category 3... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Priority category 3 benefits. 4044.13 Section 4044.13...

  12. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Notice of capital category. 565.3 Section 565.3... § 565.3 Notice of capital category. (a) Effective date of determination of capital category. A savings...; (2) A final report of examination is delivered to the savings association; or (3) Written notice...

  13. 40 CFR 98.390 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... source category. This source category consists of petroleum refineries and importers and exporters of... distillation of crude oil. (b) A refiner is the owner or operator of a petroleum refinery. (c) Importer has...

  14. Users as Research Inventions: How Research Categories Perpetuate Inequities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervin, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Examines traditional categories of information/communication system users. Argues that these categories lead to a view of communication systems that make "haves" and "have-nots" inevitable. Describes several alternative communication-based user categories that view users as actors within the information system. (SR)

  15. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... classification categories. As set forth in Executive Order 12065, official information or material which requires... three categories: Namely, Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential, depending on its degree of significance... provided by statute. The three classification categories are defined as follows: (a) Top Secret. Top...

  16. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A person who applies for a Category II pilot authorization must hold: (1) At least a private or...

  17. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A person who applies for a Category II pilot authorization must hold: (1) At least a private or...

  18. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.67 Category II pilot authorization requirements. (a) General. A person who applies for a Category II pilot authorization must hold: (1) At least a private or...

  19. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

  20. Memory Errors Reveal a Bias to Spontaneously Generalize to Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that, from a young age, humans are able to generalize information learned about a subset of a category to the category itself. Here, we propose that--beyond simply being able to perform such generalizations--people are "biased" to generalize to categories, such that they routinely make spontaneous, implicit…

  1. Children's Conceptions of Characteristic Features of Category Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Fabio; Bennett, Mark; Agostini, Luisa; Malucchi, Lucilla; Ferguson, Nicola

    2000-01-01

    Investigates children's conceptions of the characteristic features of category members. Hypothesized that (1) children initially perceive category members in terms of individual characteristics and (2) only later do children conceive of category members in terms of shared beliefs and values. Two separate studies confirm the hypotheses. (CMK)

  2. 40 CFR 98.160 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.160 Definition of the source category. (a) A hydrogen production source category consists of facilities that produce hydrogen gas sold as a product to other entities. (b) This source category comprises process units that produce hydrogen...

  3. The Linguistic Construction of Social Categories in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Deblinger-Tangi, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarteners treat certain social categories as natural kinds. This study addressed how children pick out social categories. Ninety-one 19-and 26-month-olds were familiarized to exemplars of categories of people (e.g., Blacks-Whites, men-women) and animals (e.g., cows-horses). Participants then saw a picture matching the familiarization…

  4. Cross-Classification and Category Representation in Children's Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2007-01-01

    Items commonly belong to many categories. Cross-classification is the classification of a single item into more than one category. This research explored 2- to 6-year-old children's use of 2 different category systems for cross-classification: script (e.g., school-time items, birthday party items) and taxonomic (e.g., animals, clothes). The…

  5. 40 CFR 98.320 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.320 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of active underground coal mines, and any underground...

  6. 40 CFR 98.430 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... Contained in Pre-Charged Equipment or Closed-Cell Foams § 98.430 Definition of the source category. (a) The source category, importers and exporters of fluorinated GHGs contained in pre-charged equipment or...

  7. 40 CFR 98.320 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.320 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of active underground coal mines, and any underground...

  8. 40 CFR 98.320 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.320 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of active underground coal mines, and any underground...

  9. 40 CFR 98.320 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.320 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of active underground coal mines, and any underground...

  10. 40 CFR 98.300 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98....300 Definition of the source category. (a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment use source category consists of all electric transmission and distribution equipment and servicing...

  11. 40 CFR 98.300 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98....300 Definition of the source category. (a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment use source category consists of all electric transmission and distribution equipment and servicing...

  12. 40 CFR 98.300 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98....300 Definition of the source category. (a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment use source category consists of all electric transmission and distribution equipment and servicing...

  13. 40 CFR 98.300 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98....300 Definition of the source category. (a) The electrical transmission and distribution equipment use source category consists of all electric transmission and distribution equipment and servicing...

  14. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  15. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-09-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMGΛ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS2, which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMGΛ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δFml and its logarithmic partner δFlog⁡4th.

  16. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  17. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  18. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  19. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  20. Adding value to your work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although value can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding value to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373

  1. 10 CFR 37.75 - Preplanning and coordination of shipment of category 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.75 Section 37.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. (a) Each licensee that plans to transport, or deliver to a carrier for...

  2. Assessing the Neural Basis of Uncertainty in Perceptual Category Learning through Varying Levels of Distortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Reka; Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of new perceptual categories involves learning to extract that information from a wide range of often noisy sensory inputs, which is critical for selecting between a limited number of responses. To identify brain regions involved in visual classification learning under noisy conditions, we developed a task on the basis of the…

  3. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  4. 77 FR 32071 - Seaway Regulations and Rules: Periodic Update, Various Categories

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...: Periodic Update, Various Categories AGENCY: Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, DOT. ACTION... that may be imposed. 15. In Schedule II to Subpart A of Part 401--Table of Speeds, revise section number 2 to read as follows: Schedule II to Subpart A of Part 401--Table of Speeds \\1\\ Maximum speed...

  5. Categorial compositionality II: universal constructions and a general theory of (quasi-)systematicity in human cognition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2011-08-01

    A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour) must explain the systematicity property--why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1) syntactically compositional representations; and (2) processes that are sensitive to--compatible with--their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention) of employing the same mode of (concatenative) compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities). Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages), where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes). An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-)systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions. PMID:21857816

  6. Categorial Compositionality II: Universal Constructions and a General Theory of (Quasi-)Systematicity in Human Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A complete theory of cognitive architecture (i.e., the basic processes and modes of composition that together constitute cognitive behaviour) must explain the systematicity property—why our cognitive capacities are organized into particular groups of capacities, rather than some other, arbitrary collection. The classical account supposes: (1) syntactically compositional representations; and (2) processes that are sensitive to—compatible with—their structure. Classical compositionality, however, does not explain why these two components must be compatible; they are only compatible by the ad hoc assumption (convention) of employing the same mode of (concatenative) compositionality (e.g., prefix/postfix, where a relation symbol is always prepended/appended to the symbols for the related entities). Architectures employing mixed modes do not support systematicity. Recently, we proposed an alternative explanation without ad hoc assumptions, using category theory. Here, we extend our explanation to domains that are quasi-systematic (e.g., aspects of most languages), where the domain includes some but not all possible combinations of constituents. The central category-theoretic construct is an adjunction involving pullbacks, where the primary focus is on the relationship between processes modelled as functors, rather than the representations. A functor is a structure-preserving map (or construction, for our purposes). An adjunction guarantees that the only pairings of functors are the systematic ones. Thus, (quasi-)systematicity is a necessary consequence of a categorial cognitive architecture whose basic processes are functors that participate in adjunctions. PMID:21857816

  7. Exploring the effect of a middle response category on response style in attitude measurement.

    PubMed

    Moors, Guy

    2008-12-01

    In this research we focus on the link between response style behaviour in answering rating data such as Likert scales and the number of response categories that is offered. In a split-ballot experiment two versions of a questionnaire were randomly administered. The questionnaires only differed in the number of response categories, i.e. 5 vs. 6 categories. In both samples a latent-class confirmatory factor analysis revealed an extreme response style factor. The 6-response categories version, however, revealed the more consistent set of effects. As far as the content latent-class factors, i.e. familistic values and ethnocentrism, are concerned, results were fairly similar. However, a somewhat deviant pattern regarding the familistic values items in the 6-response categories version suggested that this set of items is less homogeneous than the set of ethnocentric items. The effect of gender, age and education was also tested and revealed similarities as well as differences between the two samples. PMID:20084107

  8. Typicality sharpens category representations in object-selective cortex.

    PubMed

    Iordan, Marius Cătălin; Greene, Michelle R; Beck, Diane M; Fei-Fei, Li

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of categorization is to identify generalizable classes of objects whose members can be treated equivalently. Within a category, however, some exemplars are more representative of that concept than others. Despite long-standing behavioral effects, little is known about how typicality influences the neural representation of real-world objects from the same category. Using fMRI, we showed participants 64 subordinate object categories (exemplars) grouped into 8 basic categories. Typicality for each exemplar was assessed behaviorally and we used several multi-voxel pattern analyses to characterize how typicality affects the pattern of responses elicited in early visual and object-selective areas: V1, V2, V3v, hV4, LOC. We found that in LOC, but not in early areas, typical exemplars elicited activity more similar to the central category tendency and created sharper category boundaries than less typical exemplars, suggesting that typicality enhances within-category similarity and between-category dissimilarity. Additionally, we uncovered a brain region (cIPL) where category boundaries favor less typical categories. Our results suggest that typicality may constitute a previously unexplored principle of organization for intra-category neural structure and, furthermore, that this representation is not directly reflected in image features describing natural input, but rather built by the visual system at an intermediate processing stage. PMID:27079531

  9. ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.

  10. Assessment of interdisciplinary communication for Category 1 caesarean sections.

    PubMed

    Kasa, S P B; Galimberti, A; Wrench, I J

    2013-10-01

    We assessed how often the urgency of Category 1 caesarean sections was incorrectly recorded by the anaesthetic and theatre teams. Category 1 caesarean sections were identified over a 15-month period (September 2010 to November 2011), from the daily audit of emergency caesarean sections undertaken by the obstetric team. The categories of urgency as recorded by the attending anaesthetist and theatre team were noted for each case. There were 236 Category 1 caesarean sections identified, of which 47 were incorrectly recorded as Category 2 by either the anaesthetist alone (34), the theatre team alone (1) or both (12). Where the category of urgency was correctly recorded, 11.6% of cases had a decision-to-delivery interval of more than 30 min compared with 27.7% of cases recorded as Category 2 (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test). PMID:24127955

  11. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chen-Chieh; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  12. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  13. Animal Detection Precedes Access to Scene Category

    PubMed Central

    Crouzet, Sébastien M.; Joubert, Olivier R.; Thorpe, Simon J.; Fabre-Thorpe, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    The processes underlying object recognition are fundamental for the understanding of visual perception. Humans can recognize many objects rapidly even in complex scenes, a task that still presents major challenges for computer vision systems. A common experimental demonstration of this ability is the rapid animal detection protocol, where human participants earliest responses to report the presence/absence of animals in natural scenes are observed at 250–270 ms latencies. One of the hypotheses to account for such speed is that people would not actually recognize an animal per se, but rather base their decision on global scene statistics. These global statistics (also referred to as spatial envelope or gist) have been shown to be computationally easy to process and could thus be used as a proxy for coarse object recognition. Here, using a saccadic choice task, which allows us to investigate a previously inaccessible temporal window of visual processing, we showed that animal – but not vehicle – detection clearly precedes scene categorization. This asynchrony is in addition validated by a late contextual modulation of animal detection, starting simultaneously with the availability of scene category. Interestingly, the advantage for animal over scene categorization is in opposition to the results of simulations using standard computational models. Taken together, these results challenge the idea that rapid animal detection might be based on early access of global scene statistics, and rather suggests a process based on the extraction of specific local complex features that might be hardwired in the visual system. PMID:23251545

  14. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  15. Are There Natural Categories of Solar Wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.

    2014-12-01

    What seem to be the most obvious categories of solar wind, such as fast and slow, often turn out to be difficult to pin down on closer examination. For example, while slow winds tend to be dense and nonAlfvenic, there are significant exceptions, with some slow winds being not only very Alfvenic but also exhibiting many fast wind traits. Here we use "unsupervised" data mining to look for "natural" solar wind types. We use a set of variables to represent the state of the system and apply what are now standard algorithms to look for natural clustering of these variables. We have done this process for the solar wind density, speed, a carbon charge state ratio (6+ to 5+), the cross-helicity, and the "residual energy." When using the first three of these, we find two groups that tend to be slow and fast, but with the boundary between the groups that is a combination of speed and density. When all five variables are used, the best characterization of the states is as three basic groups in the cross-helicity vs residual energy space, i.e., in terms of "turbulence" measures rather than simple parameters. The three-variable case is largely but not completely reproduced in its subspace. We will suggest what the results could mean for the understanding of issues such as solar wind acceleration.

  16. Another look at interpreting risk categories.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have shown that simple rating scales can accurately rank sex offenders' long-term risk of recidivism. But when using these scales as prediction tools, evaluators often wish to translate categories of risk into probabilities of recidivism. D. M. Doren (2004) has recently suggested that evaluators may use the recidivism percentages published in original studies of the RRASOR and STATIC-99 without regard to differences in populations or base rates. This article explains why Doren's computations should lead to a different conclusion, and describes how simply comparing percentages across studies can mislead researchers and clinicians. Instead, investigators should isolate and examine the detection properties of risk assessment instruments alone, independent of the population- or setting-specific base rate. This article explains this process, using an imaginary study to illustrate how base rates and the properties of risk assessment instruments yield estimated probabilities of recidivism. The article also shows why Doren's results imply that the percentages of recidivism associated with scores on the RRASOR and STATIC-99 scores may vary across study populations. The article offers recommendations for researchers who design and evaluate actuarial methods of assessing risk and for clinicians who interpret results from risk assessment instruments. PMID:16639536

  17. Category-dependent and category-independent goal-value codes in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Daniel; Rangel, Antonio; O'Doherty, John P

    2013-04-01

    To choose between manifestly distinct options, it is suggested that the brain assigns values to goals using a common currency. Although previous studies have reported activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) correlating with the value of different goal stimuli, it remains unclear whether such goal-value representations are independent of the associated stimulus categorization, as required by a common currency. Using multivoxel pattern analyses on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we found a region of medial prefrontal cortex to contain a distributed goal-value code that is independent of stimulus category. More ventrally in the vmPFC, we found spatially distinct areas of the medial orbitofrontal cortex to contain unique category-dependent distributed value codes for food and consumer items. These results implicate the medial prefrontal cortex in the implementation of a common currency and suggest a ventral versus dorsal topographical organization of value signals in the vmPFC. PMID:23416449

  18. Drag cancellation by added-mass pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgio-Serchi, F.; Weymouth, G. D.

    2016-07-01

    A submerged body subject to a sudden shape-change experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. While this phenomenon has been studied for single actuation events, application to sustained propulsion requires studying \\textit{periodic} shape-change. We do so in this work by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. We develop an analytical model to investigate the relationship between added-mass variation and viscous damping and demonstrate its range of application with fully coupled fluid-solid Navier-Stokes simulations at large Stokes number. Our results demonstrate that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the viscous damping of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius $r_0$. A quasi-linear relationship is found to link the terminal amplitude of the oscillations $X$, to the extent of size change $a$, with $X/a$ peaking at values from 4 to 4.75 depending on the details of the shape-change kinematics. In addition, it is found that pumping in the frequency range of $1-\\frac{a}{2r_0}<\\omega^2/\\omega_n^2<1+\\frac{a}{2r_0}$ is required for sustained oscillations. The results of this analysis shed light on the role of added-mass recovery in the context of shape-changing bodies and biologically-inspired underwater vehicles.

  19. Polarization and entanglement of photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, K.; Silva, J. B. R.; Gonçalves, J. R.; Vasconcelos, H. M.

    2013-04-01

    Polarization of light has been used extensively in quantum information processing, and quantum entanglement is essential to many areas of research, including quantum computing. Here we investigate the degree of polarization and the entanglement of a family of quantum states known as photon-added entangled coherent states. Such states could serve as means of entanglement distribution and quantum key distribution. Using the quantum Stokes parameters and the Q function, we demonstrate that, in general, the degree of polarization of two two-mode photon-added coherent states increases significantly with the number of added photons. And using the concurrence, we show that the amount of entanglement in this kind of superposition presents a behavior that is dependent on whether or not the number of added photons in each mode is the same.

  20. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  1. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  2. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  3. Vortex hair on AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Gustainis, Peter C.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Wills, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

  4. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  5. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of an 0.065-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XRSSM-N-9a (REGULUS II) Missile at Mach Numbers from 1.6 to 2.0 (TED No. NACA AD 3122)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofstetter, William R.

    1957-01-01

    The static longitudinal and lateral stability charaetefistics of an 0 .065-scale model of the XRSSM-N-9a (REGULUS II) Missile at Mach number range of 1.6 to 2.0 at a Reynolds number per foot of 2.0(exp 8)

  6. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  7. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  8. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O( N 0) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large- N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  9. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Maillard, Antoine; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

    2015-10-01

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS—including both collapsing and noncollapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasiperiodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this paper we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic noncollapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.

  10. Functional categories for future flight deck designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of each new system on the flight deck, the danger of increasing overall operator workload while reducing crew understanding of critical mission information exists. The introduction of more powerful onboard computers, larger databases, and the increased use of electronic display media may lead to a situation of flight deck 'sophistication' at the expense of losses in flight crew capabilities and situational awareness. To counter this potentially negative impact of new technology, research activities are underway to reassess the flight deck design process. The fundamental premise of these activities is that a human-centered, systems-oriented approach to the development of advanced civil aircraft flight decks will be required for future designs to remain ergonomically sound and economically competitive. One of the initial steps in an integrated flight deck process is to define the primary flight deck functions needed to support the mission goals of the vehicle. This would allow the design team to evaluate candidate concepts in relation to their effectiveness in meeting the functional requirements. In addition, this would provide a framework to aid in categorizing and bookkeeping all of the activities that are required to be performed on the flight deck, not just activities of the crew or of a specific system. This could then allow for a better understanding and allocation of activities in the design, an understanding of the impact of a specific system on overall system performance, and an awareness of the total crew performance requirements for the design. One candidate set of functional categories that could be used to guide an advanced flight deck design are described.

  11. Autism Disorder (AD): An Updated Review for Paediatric Dentists

    PubMed Central

    J., Udhya; M.M, Varadharaja; J., Parthiban; Srinivasan, Ila

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion of interest in Autism Disorder (AD). Knowledge and awareness on the condition has grown exponentially at all levels among the general public, parents, health professionals, the research community and more recently, at parliamentary level. The world has begun to recognize the scope of this problem and act internationally and locally to improve the lives of the growing number of individuals and families affected by this devastating disorder. This article reviews the dental literature since 1969 and it summarizes characteristics of patients with AD, oral health status and dental management of patients with AD. PMID:24701555

  12. Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    We propose a class of AdS/CFT dual pairs which have small internal dimensions on the gravity side. Starting from known Freund-Rubin AdS/CFT dual pairs, we use 7-branes to nearly cancel the curvature energy of the internal dimensions while maintaining their stabilization. This leads to a new corner of the landscape - a class of AdS solutions with a hierarchically large AdS radius - with a dual field theory given (implicitly) by the infrared limit of a concrete brane construction involving D3-branes, 7-branes, and curvature. We first construct a class of hierarchical AdS5/CFT4 dual pairs with a simple formula for the number of degrees of freedom which we interpret in the dual QFT. We then generalize these to AdS4/CFT3 duals, and suggest extensions of the method to obtain de Sitter solutions.

  13. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  14. Preserved neurogenesis in non-demented individuals with AD neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Briley, David; Ghirardi, Valeria; Woltjer, Randy; Renck, Alicia; Zolochevska, Olga; Taglialatela, Giulio; Micci, Maria-Adelaide

    2016-01-01

    Rare individuals remain cognitively intact despite the presence of neuropathology usually associated with fully symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which we refer to as Non-Demented with Alzheimer's disease Neuropathology (NDAN). Understanding the involved mechanism(s) of their cognitive resistance may reveal novel strategies to treat AD-related dementia. In the pursuit of this goal, we determined the number of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) and investigated the expression of several miRNAs in NDAN and AD subjects. Laser-capture microdissection of autopsy human hippocampus DG and qRT-PCR miRNA analyses were combined with immunofluorescence in this study. The number of SOX2(+) NSCs in the DG was significantly increased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD subjects. Further, the prevalence of SOX2(+) NSCs was found to correlate with cognitive capacity. Neurogenesis-regulating miRNAs were decreased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD patients. An increased number of NSCs and new neurons in NDAN individuals is associated with a unique expression of regulating miRNAs and strongly support a role of neurogenesis in mediating, in part, the ability of these individuals to resist the pathological burden of AD. PMID:27298190

  15. Preserved neurogenesis in non-demented individuals with AD neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Briley, David; Ghirardi, Valeria; Woltjer, Randy; Renck, Alicia; Zolochevska, Olga; Taglialatela, Giulio; Micci, Maria-Adelaide

    2016-01-01

    Rare individuals remain cognitively intact despite the presence of neuropathology usually associated with fully symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which we refer to as Non-Demented with Alzheimer’s disease Neuropathology (NDAN). Understanding the involved mechanism(s) of their cognitive resistance may reveal novel strategies to treat AD-related dementia. In the pursuit of this goal, we determined the number of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) and investigated the expression of several miRNAs in NDAN and AD subjects. Laser-capture microdissection of autopsy human hippocampus DG and qRT-PCR miRNA analyses were combined with immunofluorescence in this study. The number of SOX2+ NSCs in the DG was significantly increased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD subjects. Further, the prevalence of SOX2+ NSCs was found to correlate with cognitive capacity. Neurogenesis-regulating miRNAs were decreased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD patients. An increased number of NSCs and new neurons in NDAN individuals is associated with a unique expression of regulating miRNAs and strongly support a role of neurogenesis in mediating, in part, the ability of these individuals to resist the pathological burden of AD. PMID:27298190

  16. Who gets blamed for intimate partner violence? The relative contributions of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, and observer attitudes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cindy; Moore, Todd; Crone, Travis; Defreitas, Stacie Craft; Rhatigan, Deborah

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, observer sex category, and observer attitudes on attributions of blame and behavioral stability for partner violence. Data were collected from 728 college-aged students enrolled at 2 universities in the United States. Results demonstrated that males and females attributed less blame and behavioral stability to female perpetrators than male perpetrators, especially if the perpetrator was provoked. Moreover, attitudes toward women and violence were important for predicting attributions, and some of the evidence for observer effects was reduced to nonsignificance once these variables were added to the model. PMID:22628383

  17. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  18. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  19. 77 FR 44434 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion On May 13, 2010, at 75 FR 26889, the Federal Register published our notice... the helicopter. AD 2002-09-04, Amendment 39-12737 (67 FR 22349, May 3, 2002), was issued for the Bell... those in this AD. AD 2007-22-02, Amendment 39-15238 (72 FR 60760, October 26, 2007), superseded AD...

  20. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-01-14

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  1. Exact results for the low energy AdS 4 × 3 string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Tateo, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    We derive the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations for the relativistic sigma model describing the AdS 4 × 3 string II A theory at strong coupling (i.e. in the Alday-Maldacena decoupling limit). The corresponding Y -system involves an infinite number of Y functions and is of a new type, although it shares a peculiar feature with the Y -system for AdS 4 × 3. A truncation of the equations at level p and a further generalisation to generic rank N allow us an alternative description of the theory as the N =4, p = ∞ representative in an infinite family of models corresponding to the conformal cosets ( N -1) p × U(1), perturbed by a relevant composite field ϕ ( N,p) = ϕ[( N -1) p ] × ϕ [U(1)] that couples the two independent conformal field theories. The calculation of the ultraviolet central charge confirms the conjecture by Basso and Rej and the conformal dimension of the perturbing operator, at every N and p, is obtained using the Y-system periodicity. The conformal dimension of ϕ[( N -1) p ] matches that of the field identified by Fendley while discussing integrability issues for the purely bosonic N -1 sigma model.

  2. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  3. On thermodynamics of charged AdS black holes in extended phases space via M2-branes background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, M.; El Moumni, H.; Masmar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a recent work on asymptotically AdS_4 black holes in M-theory, we investigate both thermodynamics and the thermodynamical geometry of Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes from M2-branes. More precisely, we study AdS black holes in AdS4× S7, with the number of M2-branes interpreted as a thermodynamical variable. In this context, we calculate various thermodynamical quantities including the chemical potential, and examine their phase transitions along with the corresponding stability behaviors. In addition, we also evaluate the thermodynamical curvatures of the Weinhold, Ruppeiner, and Quevedo metrics for M2-branes geometry to study the stability of such a black object. We show that the singularities of these scalar curvature's metrics reproduce similar stability results to those obtained by the phase transition diagram via the heat capacities in different ensembles either when the number of the M2 branes or the charge is held fixed. Also, we note that all results derived in Belhaj et al. (Eur Phys J C 76(2):73, 2016) are recovered in the limit of the vanishing charge.

  4. The Diagnostic Performance of Thyroid US in Each Category of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Yoon; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Ko, Eun Young; Oh, Young Lyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of thyroid ultrasonography (US) in each category of the Bethesda system and analyze false positive/negative findings using US. This retrospective study included 622 thyroid nodules in 592 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy of US in each category of the Bethesda system were evaluated. False positive/negative cases of US were analyzed. Out of the 622 total thyroid FNAs, 179 (28.8%) were malignant. The malignancy rates for the 6 categories were as follows: I (nondiagnostic): 9.7%, II (benign): 2.5%, III (atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance): 37.5%, IV (suspicious for follicular neoplasm): 5.7%, V (suspicious for malignancy): 100%, and VI (malignancy): 100%. The accuracies of US for the 6 categories were 92.5%, 95.6%, 70.8%, 94.3%, 95%, and 92.4% in category order. US showed the lowest sensitivity (50%) in Category IV. Category III demonstrated relatively low sensitivity (66.7%) and specificity (73.3%) due to a high incidence of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and a low number of category III nodules. The most optimal performance of US was revealed in Category I with 88.9% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity. In 22 US false positive cases, the most frequent finding was associated with marked hypoechogenicity and the least finding was noncircumscribed margin. The most common US features of 19 false negative cases were circumscribed iso or hypoechoic nodules. These results highlight the excellent diagnostic performance of US in category I of the Bethesda system and the lowest sensitivity of US in category IV. Awareness of US interpreters regarding these pitfalls can minimize false positive/negative diagnoses and prevent unnecessary interventions. PMID:27348515

  5. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  6. A role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Naomi H.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Goldwater, Sharon; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants segment words from fluent speech during the same period when they are learning phonetic categories, yet accounts of phonetic category acquisition typically ignore information about the words in which sounds appear. We use a Bayesian model to illustrate how feedback from segmented words might constrain phonetic category learning by providing information about which sounds occur together in words. Simulations demonstrate that word-level information can successfully disambiguate overlapping English vowel categories. Learning patterns in the model are shown to parallel human behavior from artificial language learning tasks. These findings point to a central role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition and provide a framework for incorporating top-down constraints into models of category learning. PMID:24219848

  7. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups. PMID:23613213

  8. The linguistic construction of social categories in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Diesendruck, Gil; Deblinger-Tangi, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarteners treat certain social categories as natural kinds. This study addressed how children pick out social categories. Ninety-one 19- and 26-month-olds were familiarized to exemplars of categories of people (e.g., Blacks-Whites, men-women) and animals (e.g., cows-horses). Participants then saw a picture matching the familiarization category and another that did not, and were asked to select which was like the familiarization pictures. For half of the participants, a label was attached to familiarization exemplars, while for the other half, no label was mentioned. The main finding was that for the younger toddlers, labels significantly improved recognition of the categories of people, but not of animals. These results are taken to support the notion that social categories are indeed culturally constructed. PMID:23711159

  9. Topics in Number Theory: The Number Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batra, Laj, Ed.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains nine topics in number theory. Suggested questions for the teacher, short investigations, and possible exercises for the student are included. Chapter 1 is an introduction to sequences and series using geoboard activities involving triangular numbers, square numbers, rectangular numbers, and pentagonal numbers. The…

  10. Deriving semantic structure from category fluency: clustering techniques and their pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Longenecker, Julia; Verheyen, Steven; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Assessing verbal output in category fluency tasks provides a sensitive indicator of cortical dysfunction. The most common metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors. Two main observations have been made about the structure of the output, first that there is a temporal component to it with words being generated in spurts, and second that the clustering pattern may reflect a search for meanings such that the ‘clustering’ is attributable to the activation of a specific semantic field in memory. A number of sophisticated approaches to examining the structure of this clustering have been developed, and a core theme is that the similarity relations between category members will reveal the mental semantic structure of the category underlying an individual’s responses, which can then be visualized by a number of algorithms, such as MDS, hierarchical clustering, ADDTREE, ADCLUS or SVD. Such approaches have been applied to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, and the general conclusion has been that the clinical condition systematically distorts the semantic structure in the patients, as compared to the healthy controls. In the present paper we explore this approach to understanding semantic structure using category fluency data. On the basis of a large pool of patients with schizophrenia (n=204) and healthy control participants (n=204), we find that the methods are problematic and unreliable to the extent that it is not possible to conclude that any putative difference reflects a systematic difference between the semantic representations in patients and controls. Moreover, taking into account the unreliability of the methods, we find that the most probable conclusion to be made is that no difference in underlying semantic representation exists. The consequences of these findings to understanding semantic structure, and the use of category fluency data, in cortical dysfunction are discussed. PMID:24275165

  11. Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table ... mmHg, or millimeters of mercury) Category Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Normal Less than 120 And ...

  12. Neural pattern similarity reveals the inherent intersection of social categories.

    PubMed

    Stolier, Ryan M; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2016-06-01

    We provide evidence that neural representations of ostensibly unrelated social categories become bound together by their overlapping stereotype associations. While viewing faces, multi-voxel representations of gender, race, and emotion categories in the fusiform and orbitofrontal cortices were stereotypically biased and correlated with subjective perceptions. The findings suggest that social-conceptual knowledge can systematically alter the representational structure of social categories at multiple levels of cortical processing, reflecting bias in visual perceptions. PMID:27135216

  13. Missing top of the AdS resonance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ϕN and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.

  14. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  15. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  16. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  17. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  18. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  19. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  20. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  1. Category learning in the context of co-presented items.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Janet K; Livingston, Kenneth R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2011-05-01

    A series of four studies explore how the presentation of multiple items on each trial of a categorization task affects the course of category learning. In a three-category supervised classification task involving multi-dimensionally varying artificial organism-like stimuli, learners are shown a target plus two context items on every trial, with the context items' category membership explicitly identified. These triads vary in whether one, two, or all three categories are represented. This presentation context can support within-category comparison and/or between-category contrast. The most successful learning occurs when all categories are represented in each trial. This pattern occurs across two different underlying category structures and across variations in learners' prior knowledge of the relationship between the target and context items. These results appear to contrast with some other recent findings and make clear the potential importance of context-based inter-item evaluation in human category learning, which has implications for psychological theory and for real-world learning environments. PMID:21080030

  2. Deferred Feedback Sharply Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Roeder, Jessica; Church, Barbara A.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The controversy over multiple category-learning systems is reminiscent of the controversy over multiple memory systems. Researchers continue to seek paradigms to sharply dissociate explicit category-learning processes (featuring verbalizeable category rules) from implicit category-learning processes (featuring learned stimulus-response associations that lie outside of declarative cognition). We contribute a new dissociative paradigm, adapting from comparative psychology the technique of deferred-rearranged reinforcement. Participants learned matched category tasks that had either a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a multidimensional, information-integration solution. They received feedback only after each block of trials, with their positive outcomes grouped and their negative outcomes grouped. Deferred-rearranged reinforcement qualitatively eliminated implicit, information-integration category learning. It left intact explicit, rule-based category learning. Moreover, implicit category learners—facing deferred-rearranged reinforcement—turned by default and information-processing necessity to rule-based strategies that poorly suited their nominal category task. The results represent one of the strongest explicit-implicit dissociations yet seen in the categorization literature. PMID:24335605

  3. Deferred feedback sharply dissociates implicit and explicit category learning.

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Roeder, Jessica L; Church, Barbara A; Ashby, F Gregory

    2014-02-01

    The controversy over multiple category-learning systems is reminiscent of the controversy over multiple memory systems. Researchers continue to seek paradigms to sharply dissociate explicit category-learning processes (featuring category rules that can be verbalized) from implicit category-learning processes (featuring learned stimulus-response associations that lie outside declarative cognition). We contribute a new dissociative paradigm, adapting the technique of deferred-rearranged reinforcement from comparative psychology. Participants learned matched category tasks that had either a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a multidimensional, information-integration solution. They received feedback either immediately or after each block of trials, with the feedback organized such that positive outcomes were grouped and negative outcomes were grouped (deferred-rearranged reinforcement). Deferred reinforcement qualitatively eliminated implicit, information-integration category learning. It left intact explicit, rule-based category learning. Moreover, implicit-category learners facing deferred-rearranged reinforcement turned by default and information-processing necessity to rule-based strategies that poorly suited their nominal category task. The results represent one of the strongest explicit-implicit dissociations yet seen in the categorization literature. PMID:24335605

  4. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  5. Aversive learning modulates cortical representations of object categories.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Kragel, Philip A; Martin, Alex; LaBar, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Experimental studies of conditioned learning reveal activity changes in the amygdala and unimodal sensory cortex underlying fear acquisition to simple stimuli. However, real-world fears typically involve complex stimuli represented at the category level. A consequence of category-level representations of threat is that aversive experiences with particular category members may lead one to infer that related exemplars likewise pose a threat, despite variations in physical form. Here, we examined the effect of category-level representations of threat on human brain activation using 2 superordinate categories (animals and tools) as conditioned stimuli. Hemodynamic activity in the amygdala and category-selective cortex was modulated by the reinforcement contingency, leading to widespread fear of different exemplars from the reinforced category. Multivariate representational similarity analyses revealed that activity patterns in the amygdala and object-selective cortex were more similar among exemplars from the threat versus safe category. Learning to fear animate objects was additionally characterized by enhanced functional coupling between the amygdala and fusiform gyrus. Finally, hippocampal activity co-varied with object typicality and amygdala activation early during training. These findings provide novel evidence that aversive learning can modulate category-level representations of object concepts, thereby enabling individuals to express fear to a range of related stimuli. PMID:23709642

  6. Pigeons acquire multiple categories in parallel via associative learning: A parallel to human word learning?

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Brooks, Daniel I.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons’ categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed. PMID:25497520

  7. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  8. Linear combinations of biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy with three ordinal diagnostic categories

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Le; Xiong, Chengjie; Crane, Paul; Tian, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have addressed the problem of finding the optimal linear combination of biomarkers to maximize the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for scenarios with binary disease status. In practice, many disease processes such as Alzheimer can be naturally classified into three diagnostic categories such as normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and for such diseases the volume under the ROC surface (VUS) is the most commonly used index of diagnostic accuracy. In this article, we propose a few parametric and nonparametric approaches to address the problem of finding the optimal linear combination to maximize the VUS. We carried out simulation studies to investigate the performance of the proposed methods. We apply all of the investigated approaches to a real data set from a cohort study in early stage AD. PMID:22865796

  9. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input

    PubMed Central

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T.; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Notman, Leslie A.; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest. PMID:27252669

  10. Generalising semantic category disambiguation with large lexical resources for fun and profit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Semantic Category Disambiguation (SCD) is the task of assigning the appropriate semantic category to given spans of text from a fixed set of candidate categories, for example Protein to “Fibrin”. SCD is relevant to Natural Language Processing tasks such as Named Entity Recognition, coreference resolution and coordination resolution. In this work, we study machine learning-based SCD methods using large lexical resources and approximate string matching, aiming to generalise these methods with regard to domains, lexical resources and the composition of data sets. We specifically consider the applicability of SCD for the purposes of supporting human annotators and acting as a pipeline component for other Natural Language Processing systems. Results While previous research has mostly cast SCD purely as a classification task, we consider a task setting that allows for multiple semantic categories to be suggested, aiming to minimise the number of suggestions while maintaining high recall. We argue that this setting reflects aspects which are essential for both a pipeline component and when supporting human annotators. We introduce an SCD method based on a recently introduced machine learning-based system and evaluate it on 15 corpora covering biomedical, clinical and newswire texts and ranging in the number of semantic categories from 2 to 91. With appropriate settings, our system maintains an average recall of 99% while reducing the number of candidate semantic categories on average by 65% over all data sets. Conclusions Machine learning-based SCD using large lexical resources and approximate string matching is sensitive to the selection and granularity of lexical resources, but generalises well to a wide range of text domains and data sets given appropriate resources and parameter settings. By substantially reducing the number of candidate categories while only very rarely excluding the correct one, our method is shown to be applicable to manual

  11. Number Theory in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beougher, Elton E.

    The paper presents reasons for teaching topics from number theory to elementary school students: (1) it can help reveal why numbers "act" in a certain way when added, multiplied, etc., (2) it offers drill material in new areas of mathematics, (3) it can develop interest - as mathematical enrichment, (4) it offers opportunities for students to…

  12. Multiple Subject Barycentric Discriminant Analysis (MUSUBADA): How to Assign Scans to Categories without Using Spatial Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Hervé; Williams, Lynne J.; Connolly, Andrew C.; Gobbini, M. Ida; Dunlop, Joseph P.; Haxby, James V.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new discriminant analysis (DA) method called Multiple Subject Barycentric Discriminant Analysis (MUSUBADA) suited for analyzing fMRI data because it handles datasets with multiple participants that each provides different number of variables (i.e., voxels) that are themselves grouped into regions of interest (ROIs). Like DA, MUSUBADA (1) assigns observations to predefined categories, (2) gives factorial maps displaying observations and categories, and (3) optimally assigns observations to categories. MUSUBADA handles cases with more variables than observations and can project portions of the data table (e.g., subtables, which can represent participants or ROIs) on the factorial maps. Therefore MUSUBADA can analyze datasets with different voxel numbers per participant and, so does not require spatial normalization. MUSUBADA statistical inferences are implemented with cross-validation techniques (e.g., jackknife and bootstrap), its performance is evaluated with confusion matrices (for fixed and random models) and represented with prediction, tolerance, and confidence intervals. We present an example where we predict the image categories (houses, shoes, chairs, and human, monkey, dog, faces,) of images watched by participants whose brains were scanned. This example corresponds to a DA question in which the data table is made of subtables (one per subject) and with more variables than observations. PMID:22548125

  13. Performance evaluation of reactive and proactive routing protocol in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Salima; Cizeron, Eddy; Issaka, Hafiz; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard is widely deployed. This technology is used to support multiple types of communication services (data, voice, image) with different QoS requirements. MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) does not require a fixed infrastructure. Mobile nodes communicate through multihop paths. The wireless communication medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics. Furthermore, node mobility creates a continuously changing communication topology in which paths break and new one form dynamically. The routing table of each router in an adhoc network must be kept up-to-date. MANET uses Distance Vector or Link State algorithms which insure that the route to every host is always known. However, this approach must take into account the adhoc networks specific characteristics: dynamic topologies, limited bandwidth, energy constraints, limited physical security, ... Two main routing protocols categories are studied in this paper: proactive protocols (e.g. Optimised Link State Routing - OLSR) and reactive protocols (e.g. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector - AODV, Dynamic Source Routing - DSR). The proactive protocols are based on periodic exchanges that update the routing tables to all possible destinations, even if no traffic goes through. The reactive protocols are based on on-demand route discoveries that update routing tables only for the destination that has traffic going through. The present paper focuses on study and performance evaluation of these categories using NS2 simulations. We have considered qualitative and quantitative criteria. The first one concerns distributed operation, loop-freedom, security, sleep period operation. The second are used to assess performance of different routing protocols presented in this paper. We can list end-to-end data delay, jitter, packet delivery ratio, routing load, activity distribution. Comparative study will be presented with number of networking context consideration and the results show

  14. 40 CFR 1515.13 - Fees for categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1515.13 Section 1515.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FREEDOM OF... records to requesters in this category for the cost of duplication alone, excluding charges for the first... provide records to requesters in this category for the cost of duplication alone, excluding charges...

  15. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  16. 11 CFR 9405.5 - Categories of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categories of exemptions. 9405.5 Section 9405.5 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 9405.5 Categories of exemptions. (a) No FOIA requests under 5 U.S.C. 552 shall be denied release unless the record...

  17. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nontransport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than the weight that would allow... power off stalling speed in the takeoff configuration, whichever is greater. (b) For the purposes of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes:...

  18. Can Semi-Supervised Learning Explain Incorrect Beliefs about Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lang, Jonathan; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with 88 college-aged participants explored how unlabeled experiences--learning episodes in which people encounter objects without information about their category membership--influence beliefs about category structure. Participants performed a simple one-dimensional categorization task in a brief supervised learning phase, then…

  19. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  20. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  1. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  2. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  3. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. 29.181 Section 29.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed...

  4. 40 CFR 98.150 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....150 Section 98.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.150 Definition of the source category. The HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 destruction source category consists...

  5. A comparison of different category scales for estimating disease severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales are widely used for assessing disease severity, including for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale, but reports show tha...

  6. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in a flight simulator or flight training device; or (ii) 40 hours of simulated instrument flight time... simulator or flight training device; and (v) Must be accomplished in an aircraft of the same category and... flight simulator that— (A) Represents an aircraft of the same category and class, and type, as...

  7. 5 CFR 9301.9 - Fees for categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees for categories of requesters. 9301.9 Section 9301.9 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act Costs § 9301.9 Fees for categories...

  8. 5 CFR 9301.9 - Fees for categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees for categories of requesters. 9301.9 Section 9301.9 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act Costs § 9301.9 Fees for categories...

  9. Learning Vowel Categories from Maternal Speech in Gurindji Kriol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Caroline; Meakins, Felicity; Muawiyath, Shujau

    2012-01-01

    Distributional learning is a proposal for how infants might learn early speech sound categories from acoustic input before they know many words. When categories in the input differ greatly in relative frequency and overlap in acoustic space, research in bilingual development suggests that this affects the course of development. In the present…

  10. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required to monitor and report to EPA CO2 emissions year-round according to 40 CFR part 75. (b) This source... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that...

  11. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required to monitor and report to EPA CO2 mass emissions year-round according to 40 CFR part 75. (b) This... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source category. (a) The electricity generation source category comprises electricity generating units that...

  12. 40 CFR 98.30 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.30 Section 98.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources § 98.30 Definition of the source category. Link to...

  13. 40 CFR 98.30 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.30 Section 98.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources § 98.30 Definition of the source category. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... There are four categories of FOIA requesters: Commercial use requesters; educational and noncommercial... specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA receives a... reasonably describe the records sought. Moreover, in the case of such a request, NASA will not consider...

  15. 14 CFR 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... There are four categories of FOIA requesters: Commercial use requesters; educational and noncommercial... specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA receives a... reasonably describe the records sought. Moreover, in the case of such a request, NASA will not consider...

  16. 14 CFR § 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requesters. There are four categories of FOIA requesters: Commercial use requesters; educational and... prescribes specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA.... Requesters must reasonably describe the records sought. Moreover, in the case of such a request, NASA...

  17. 14 CFR 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... There are four categories of FOIA requesters: Commercial use requesters; educational and noncommercial... specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA receives a... reasonably describe the records sought. Moreover, in the case of such a request, NASA will not consider...

  18. Decoding the neural representation of fine-grained conceptual categories.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Marta; Vaghi, Matilde Maria Serena; Perani, Daniela; Tettamanti, Marco

    2016-05-15

    Neuroscientific research on conceptual knowledge based on the grounded cognition framework has shed light on the organization of concrete concepts into semantic categories that rely on different types of experiential information. Abstract concepts have traditionally been investigated as an undifferentiated whole, and have only recently been addressed in a grounded cognition perspective. The present fMRI study investigated the involvement of brain systems coding for experiential information in the conceptual processing of fine-grained semantic categories along the abstract-concrete continuum. These categories consisted of mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-, mouth action-, hand action-, and leg action-related meanings. Thirty-five sentences for each category were used as stimuli in a 1-back task performed by 36 healthy participants. A univariate analysis failed to reveal category-specific activations. Multivariate pattern analyses, in turn, revealed that fMRI data contained sufficient information to disentangle all six fine-grained semantic categories across participants. However, the category-specific activity patterns showed no overlap with the regions coding for experiential information. These findings demonstrate the possibility of detecting specific patterns of neural representation associated with the processing of fine-grained conceptual categories, crucially including abstract ones, though bearing no anatomical correspondence with regions coding for experiential information as predicted by the grounded cognition hypothesis. PMID:26883065

  19. 12 CFR 702.102 - Statutory net worth categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statutory net worth categories. 702.102 Section... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification § 702.102 Statutory net worth categories. (a) Net worth... credit union shall be classified (Table 1)— (1) Well capitalized if it has a net worth ratio of...

  20. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.340 Section 98.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source...

  1. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  2. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  3. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  4. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  5. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a wet-process phosphoric acid process line used to produce phosphoric acid. A wet-process phosphoric acid process line...

  6. 40 CFR 98.150 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.150 Section 98.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.150 Definition of the source category. The...

  7. 40 CFR 98.180 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lead-bearing scrap materials (including but not limited to, lead-acid batteries) are recycled by... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.180 Definition of the source category. The lead production source category consists of primary lead smelters and secondary lead smelters....

  8. 40 CFR 98.180 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lead-bearing scrap materials (including but not limited to, lead-acid batteries) are recycled by... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.180 Definition of the source category. The lead production source category consists of primary lead smelters and secondary lead smelters....

  9. 40 CFR 98.180 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lead-bearing scrap materials (including but not limited to, lead-acid batteries) are recycled by... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.180 Definition of the source category. The lead production source category consists of primary lead smelters and secondary lead smelters....

  10. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  11. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  12. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  13. 40 CFR 98.120 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Fluorinated Gas Production § 98.120 Definition of the source category. (a) The fluorinated gas production source category consists of processes that produce a fluorinated gas from any raw material or feedstock chemical, except for processes that generate HFC-23...

  14. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted... of the following sources at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills: Landfills, landfill gas...

  15. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  16. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  17. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  18. 40 CFR 98.400 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids § 98.400 Definition of the source category. This supplier category consists of natural gas liquids fractionators and local natural gas distribution companies. (a) Natural gas liquids fractionators are......

  19. 12 CFR 324.402 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the FDIC-supervised institution's capital category has changed as... FDI Act and this subpart H on the basis of the FDIC-supervised institution's most recent Call...

  20. 22 CFR 62.41 - Change of category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of category. 62.41 Section 62.41 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Status of Exchange Visitors § 62.41 Change of category. (a) The Department of State may, in its discretion, permit an exchange visitor to change his or...