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Sample records for ad pervasive developmental

  1. Fragmented Visuospatial Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter; van den Broek, Pieter J. A.; van der Pijll, Angela C. A. M.; Gabreels, Fons; van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2006-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger Syndrome (AS) may be characterised by a similar perceptual focus on details as children with autistic disorder (AD). This was tested by analysing their performance in a visuoperceptual task [the Children's Embedded Figure Test (CEFT)] and a…

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  3. [Gender dysphoria in pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the

  4. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  5. Is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Less Stable than Autistic Disorder? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondeau, Emelie; Klein, Leslie S.; Masse, Andre; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the stability of the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). A Medline search found eight studies reiterating a diagnostic assessment for PDD-NOS. The pooled group included 322 autistic disorder (AD) and 122 PDD-NOS cases. We used percentage of individuals with same diagnose at Times 1 and 2 as…

  6. Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews whether Rett syndrome is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The paper analyzes internal and external diagnostic validity and discusses whether Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder or a mental disorder. The paper concludes that data support the idea of classifying Rett syndrome as a subtype of PDD.…

  7. Injury Treatment among Children with Autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Zhou, Li; Mann, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the differences in the frequency and type of injury for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) compared with typically developing peers, when both groups are insured by Medicaid. The relative rate (RR) of emergency/hospital treatment of injury for children with autism or PDD compared to controls was…

  8. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Two Canadian Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Coo, Helen; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.; Noonan, Andrea; Breitenbach, Marlene; Ramji, Nasreen; Prosick, Talia; Bedard, Angela; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the proportion of children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) has increased in the past two decades, there is no consensus on the prevalence of these conditions. The accompanying large rise in demand for services, together with uncertainty regarding the extent to which the observed…

  9. Neonatal diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic agenesis and pervasive developmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Giannattasio, Alessandro; Pintaudi, Maria; Mancardi, Maria Margherita; Battaglia, Francesca Maria; Veneselli, Edvige; Lorini, Renata; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggested a link between type 1 diabetes mellitus and pervasive developmental disorder. Moreover, permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic agenesis can be associated with neurological deficit involving cerebellar functions, but no association with pervasive developmental disorder has been described so far. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of a child with pancreatic agenesis, mental retardation and pervasive developmental disorder is reported. PMID:19646249

  10. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool. PMID:20856598

  11. Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912

  12. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Retrospective case series of aripiprazole augmentation in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeni; Cho, Soo-Churl; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun

    2010-09-01

    Due to co-morbidities and treatment resistant nature of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), diverse combinations of regimens have been tried. This retrospective study aimed to explore adjunctive use of aripiprazole in children with PDD. Changes in illness severity were measured by Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) in 14 aripiprazole-treated patients with PDD. Improvement of illness severity was observed after aripiprazole add-on (5.8±0.8 to 4.9±1.0, Z=-2.75, p=0.001). Mean dosage was 7.7 mg/day [standard deviation (SD) 3.3, range 5-15]. A higher mean dosage was observed in group with improvement in symptoms (t=-2.33, df =12, p=0.004). The target symptoms most effectively improved after using aripiprazole were positive psychotic symptoms (mean CGI-I: 2.0±1.4, 3 responders/4 patients, 75% response) followed by aggressive behavior (2.5±1.7, 3/4, 75%), self-injurious behavior (2.0±1.0, 2/3, 67%), stereotypic behavior (2.7±1.2, 2/3, 67%), tic (2.8±1.0, 2/4, 50%), irritability (3.5±2.1, 1/2, 50%), obsessive behavior (2.5±2.1, 1/3, 33%), hyperactivity (3.4±1.6, 3/7, 43%) and mood fluctuation (3, 0/1, no response). Five patients (35%) discontinued aripiprazole due to treatment-emergent adverse effects (akathisia, insomnia, withdrawal). The results of this study suggest that aripiprazole augmentation may be used safely in maladaptive behaviors of some populations of PDD. However, future studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  14. Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Giacomo, Andrea; Serrazzanetti, Diana Isabella; Cristofori, Fernanda; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Gobbetti, Marco; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autism (AD) in comparison to healthy children (HC). Bacterial tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses were carried out to determine total bacteria (16S rDNA) and metabolically active bacteria (16S rRNA), respectively. The main bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia) significantly (P<0.05) changed among the three groups of children. As estimated by rarefaction, Chao and Shannon diversity index, the highest microbial diversity was found in AD children. Based on 16S-rRNA and culture-dependent data, Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcus were present at the highest level in fecal samples of PDD-NOS and HC children. Caloramator, Sarcina and Clostridium genera were the highest in AD children. Compared to HC, the composition of Lachnospiraceae family also differed in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. Except for Eubacterium siraeum, the lowest level of Eubacteriaceae was found on fecal samples of AD children. The level of Bacteroidetes genera and some Alistipes and Akkermansia species were almost the highest in PDD-NOS or AD children as well as almost all the identified Sutterellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were the highest in AD. Compared to HC children, Bifidobacterium species decreased in AD. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds of fecal samples were markedly affected in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. If the gut microbiota differences among AD and PDD-NOS and HC children are one of the concomitant causes or the consequence of autism, they may have implications regarding specific diagnostic test, and/or for treatment and prevention.

  15. Retrospective Study of Quetiapine in Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Jou, Roger J.; Handen, Benjamin L.

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in a clinic specialized in treating individuals with developmental disabilities to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Ten consecutive outpatients (age = 12.0 [plus or minus] 5.1 years) treated with quetiapine (dose = 477…

  16. Lorazepam, fluoxetine and packing therapy in an adolescent with pervasive developmental disorder and catatonia.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Angèle; Gheorghiev, Charles; Jutard, Claire; Bodeau, Nicolas; Kloeckner, Anja; Pitron, Victor; Cohen, David; Bonnot, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Packing therapy is an adjunct symptomatic treatment used for autism and/or catatonia. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy with pervasive developmental disorder who developed catatonia. At admission, catatonic symptoms were severe and the patient required a feeding tube. Lorazepam up to 15 mg/day moderately improved the catatonic symptoms. On day 36 we added fluoxetine and on day 62 we added packing therapy (twice per week, 10 sessions). After three packing sessions, the patient showed a significant clinical improvement (P<0.001). At discharge (day 96), he was able to return to his special education program. Although we do not consider packing as a psychodynamic treatment, this case challenges the concept of embodied self that has opened new perspectives on a dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Indeed, better body representation following packing sessions, as shown in patient's drawing, paralleled clinical improvement, and supports the concept of embodied self. This concept may serve as a link between psychoanalysis and attachment theory, developmental psychology with the early description of "sense of self", and cognitive neurosciences that more and more support the concept of embodied cognition. Further clinical studies are necessary to clarify the efficacy and underlying mechanism of packing treatment and to understand how patient's experience may illustrate the concept of embodied self.

  17. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mugno, Diego; Ruta, Liliana; D'Arrigo, Valentina Genitori; Mazzone, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL) in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs), Cerebral Palsy (CP) or Mental Retardation (MR) as compared to a control group (CG); to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD), High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS); and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers) of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers) of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001) and social relationships (p = 0.0001) and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001) and health (p = 0.005). Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001), psychological (p = 0.0001) and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001) and in the physical (p = 0.0001) and social relationships (p = 0.0001) domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001) and psychological (p = 0.03) well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub-groups, but

  18. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  19. Is Long-Term Prognosis for Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Different from Prognosis for Autistic Disorder? Findings from a 30-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that…

  20. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  1. Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Client-Centered Approach. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie C.

    This guide to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) first provides a review of the literature on defining characteristics of PDD/ASD, causes of PDD, and diagnosis of PDD. Review of intervention and treatment comprises the major portion of the paper. After briefly considering parent education, this section…

  2. Sex Differences in WISC-III Profiles of Children with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Using the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), 26 girls with high-functioning (IQ greater than or equal to 70) pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) (mean age, 8.2 years) were compared with 116 boys with HFPDD (mean age, 9.0 years). Compared with the boys, the girls scored significantly…

  3. A New Way with Autistic and Other Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arnold; Eller-Miller, Eileen

    This monograph describes the program of the Language and Cognitive Development Center (Massachusetts), which serves toddlers and school-aged children with autism or other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). An introduction presents incidence figures, the program's philosophy, the program's approach to assessment, intervention with children…

  4. Brief Report: Representational Momentum for Dynamic Facial Expressions in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of…

  5. Validation of an Interview-Based Rating Scale Developed in Japan for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tani, Iori; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Adachi, Jun; Hara, Koichi; Ogasawara, Megumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Kamio, Yoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Taku; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), an interview-based instrument for evaluating PDDs, has been developed in Japan with the aim of providing a method that (1) can be used to evaluate PDD symptoms and related support needs and (2) is simpler and easier than the currently used "gold…

  6. Parent and Teacher Agreement in the Assessment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmari, P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Parents and teachers of 83 young children diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder rated each child on the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Although there was good agreement between informants on the VABS, there was virtually no agreement on the ABC, with parents reporting more autistic and…

  7. Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

  8. Symbolization Levels in Communicative Behaviors of Children Showing Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlas, Jeffrey A.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    1988-01-01

    A total of 48 children (aged 4-14) with severe pervasive developmental disturbance, exhibiting mutism, echolalia, or nonecholalic speech, were observed in their communicative behaviors across modalities. Levels of symbolization in gesture, play, and drawing were significantly intercorrelated and were most strongly correlated with the criterion…

  9. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  10. "Crack Kids" in School: What To Do, How To Do It. Pervasively Developmentally Delayed (PDD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom-Winn, Danni; Dunagan, Dianne E.

    This book addresses the educational needs of children who are pervasively developmentally delayed (PDD), especially those exposed to drugs prenatally and those with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, autism, hyperactivity, Aspberger Syndrome, other heath impairments, attention deficit disorder, and childhood aphasia. The first chapter recommends the use of…

  11. Quality of Life of Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Baud, M. A.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe quality of life (QoL) and global evolution of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in three different groups. Individualized programs for PDD were compared to traditional programs for intellectual disabilities. Behavioural disorders were repeatedly evaluated using the Aberrant Behaviour…

  12. The Co-Occurrence of Nonaffective Psychosis and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Fiona E.; Miltsiou, Eleni; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) were originally conceptualised as a form of ("infantile") psychosis. Recently, the disorders have been viewed as separate constructs. However, there is evidence of overlapping psychopathology, pathophysiology, and occurrence of the two syndromes. Methods: A historical overview is provided. A…

  13. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  14. Brief Report: Neuroanatomic Observations of the Brain in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews neuroanatomic studies on syndromes classified as Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Findings in autism and Asperger's syndrome suggest that these two disorders may represent a continuum along a neurobiological spectrum with a common neuroanatomic substrate, while Rett syndrome appears to be clinically and anatomically distinct…

  15. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolov, Roumen N.; Bearss, Karen E.; Lettinga, Jelle; Erickson, Craig; Rodowski, Maria; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Vitiello, Benedetto; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shah, Bhavik; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods: One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were assessed comprehensively prior to…

  16. Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan K.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Cronin, Pegeen; Grados, Marco; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Koenig, Kathleen; Lam, Kristen S. L.; McGough, James; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales (CYBOCS) modified for pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: Raters from five Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were trained to reliability. The modified scale (CYBOCS-PDD), which contains only…

  17. Audiovisual Speech Integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously…

  18. Hemispheric Processing of Idioms and Irony in Adults with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban-Bezalel, Ronit; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have pointed to difficulties in comprehension of figurative language. Using the divided visual field paradigm, the present study examined hemispheric processing of idioms and irony in 23 adults with PDD and in 24 typically developing (TD) adults. The results show that…

  19. Sleep Correlates of Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a significant problem in the general pediatric population, and it occurs even more frequently in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Much time and energy have been spent examining the characteristics that predispose children to insomnia and it is likely that equivalent factors influence sleep in PDDs.…

  20. Molecular and Cytogenic Analyses on Brazilian Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estecio, Marcos Roberto Higino; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Fridman, Cintia; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated cytogenetic and molecular parameters in 30 Brazilian youths with autism or other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The high frequency of chromosomopathies found support the hypothesis that PDDs may develop as a consequence to chromosomal abnormalities and justify the cytogenetic and molecular assessment during diagnosis…

  1. Brief Report: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Can Evolve into ADHD--Case Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; Dixon, Pamela; Paul, Jennifer; Levin, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Despite prominent attentional symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) the relationship between PDD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has received little direct examination. In addition, outcome studies of children with PDD often focus on language, educational placement, or adaptive skills, but seldom on loss of the…

  2. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  3. Facial Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Information from Faces and Voices in Individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research, it is still debated whether impairments in social skills of individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) are related to specific deficits in the early processing of emotional information. We aimed to test both automatic processing of facial affect as well as the integration of auditory and visual…

  4. Regression of Language and Non-Language Skills in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, A. -A. S.; Fombonne, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As part of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), there is a subgroup of individuals reported to have a different onset of symptom appearance consisting of an apparently normal early development, followed by a loss of verbal and/or non-verbal skills prior to 2 years of age. This study aims at comparing the symptomatology of…

  5. Mental Development and Autistic Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the features of mental development and autistic behavior in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from the viewpoint of remedial therapy. The Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), designed to be completed by children's caregivers, were used. A…

  6. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  7. Pervasive Developmental Disorders: PDD-NOS, Asperger's Disorder and Autism. Parent Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Karen

    This information booklet is designed for parents who have a child who has been diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or Asperger's Disorder. It provides information on: (1) the definition of PDD; (2) the five subtypes of PDD, including PDD "not otherwise specified," Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, childhood…

  8. ERPs and Eye Movements Reflect Atypical Visual Perception in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Many studies of eye tracking or event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) have yielded inconsistent results on attentional processing. However, recent studies have indicated that there are specific abnormalities in early processing that are probably related to perception. ERP amplitudes in…

  9. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  10. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  11. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  12. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and…

  13. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  14. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  15. Pervasive developmental disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome: the Leuven experience in 59 subjects and controls.

    PubMed

    Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Govers, Veerle; Vermeulen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the co-morbidity of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in 59 Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) individuals and in 59 non-specific mentally retarded controls, matched for IQ, gender, and age. The 'Pervasive Developmental Disorder Mentally Retardation Scale' (PDD-MRScale), a screening questionnaire based on the DSM-III-R criteria for PDD, has been applied in the PWS group and in the control group. Results of the present study revealed a striking autistic-like behavioral phenotype in the majority of the PWS individuals, particularly deficits in the quality of language and communication and of imagination and interests. This intersection with autistic symptomatology is an important addition to the behavioral phenotype in PWS persons. A first approach to delineate subtypes of autistic symptomalogy among PWS persons was performed. Nineteen percent of the PWS group did meet the full diagnostic DSM-III-R criteria for PDD in comparison with 15% in the control group. Results revealed that a higher IQ in PWS does not protect to develop genuine PDD and that uniparental disomy/imprinting mutation as genetic origin seems to be an additional risk factor for developing genuine PDD. The results of the present study suggest the importance of reconsidering the commonly recognized obsessive-compulsive like behavior in PWS persons within the broader spectrum of autism disorders.

  16. Is long-term prognosis for pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified different from prognosis for autistic disorder? Findings from a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-06-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that differed significantly between the AD and PDD NOS groups (89% vs. 72%, p < 0.05). The lower rate of disability pension award in the PDD NOS group was predicted by better psychosocial functioning. The lack of substantial differences in prognosis between the groups supports a dimensional description of autism spectrum disorder, in line with proposed DSM-V revision.

  17. Using cluster ensemble and validation to identify subtypes of pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jess J; Lee, Phil-Hyoun; Holden, Jeanette J A; Shatkay, Hagit

    2007-10-11

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavior. Given the diversity and varying severity of PDD, diagnostic tools attempt to identify homogeneous subtypes within PDD. Identifying subtypes can lead to targeted etiology studies and to effective type-specific intervention. Cluster analysis can suggest coherent subsets in data; however, different methods and assumptions lead to different results. Several previous studies applied clustering to PDD data, varying in number and characteristics of the produced subtypes. Most studies used a relatively small dataset (fewer than 150 subjects), and all applied only a single clustering method. Here we study a relatively large dataset (358 PDD patients), using an ensemble of three clustering methods. The results are evaluated using several validation methods, and consolidated through an integration step. Four clusters are identified, analyzed and compared to subtypes previously defined by the widely used diagnostic tool DSM-IV.

  18. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Portoghese, Claudia; Martinelli, Domenico; Fanizza, Isabella; L’Abate, Luciano; Margari, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills. PMID:19590730

  19. Brief report: Representational momentum for dynamic facial expressions in pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of expressed emotion in 13 individuals with PDD and 13 typically developing controls. We presented dynamic and static emotional (fearful and happy) expressions. Participants were asked to match a changeable emotional face display with the last presented image. The results showed that both groups perceived the last image of dynamic facial expression to be more emotionally exaggerated than the static facial expression. This finding suggests that individuals with PDD have an intact perceptual mechanism for processing dynamic information in another individual's face.

  20. Hemispheric Processing of Idioms and Irony in Adults With and Without Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saban-Bezalel, Ronit; Mashal, Nira

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies on individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have pointed to difficulties in comprehension of figurative language. Using the divided visual field paradigm, the present study examined hemispheric processing of idioms and irony in 23 adults with PDD and in 24 typically developing (TD) adults. The results show that adults with PDD were relatively unimpaired in understanding figurative language. While the TD group demonstrated a right hemisphere advantage in processing the non-salient meanings of idioms as well as the ironic endings of paragraphs, the PDD group processed these stimuli bilaterally. Our findings suggest that brain lateralization is atypical in adults with PDD. Successful performance along with bilateral brain activation suggests that the PDD group uses a compensation mechanism.

  1. Pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism and pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of language and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of PDDs, some of the behavioral symptoms may be treated pharmacologically. In addition to relieving some of the daily stress in the lives of patients and their families, improvement of these behavioral symptoms, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, and self-injury, removes some of the hindrances to other rehabilitative efforts. This article discusses the efficacy and tolerability of various medications and alternative interventions in addressing the symptoms of autism and other PDDs.

  2. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism symptoms and lower cognitive scores at 2; 89.5% met criteria for ASD at 4. Cluster 3 had the lowest cognitive scores and most impaired social/communication skills at 2, but no repetitive behaviors; 60% diagnosed with Autistic Disorder at 4. Results shed light on outcomes for different PDD-NOS types and raise questions regarding the increased importance of repetitive behaviors in DSM-5. PMID:25374133

  3. Social behaviour in pervasive developmental disorders: effects of informant, group and "theory-of-mind".

    PubMed

    Hughes, C; Soares-Boucaud, I; Hochmann, J; Frith, U

    1997-12-01

    Theory of mind skills and a range of social behaviour in everyday life were assessed in a sample of 21 children with pervasive developmental disorders and 22 normally-developing preschoolers. Parents, teachers and therapists were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and a new supplementary scale, the "Echelle d'Adaptation Sociale pour Enfants" (EASE). Teachers and therapists were able to differentiate subtle forms of social problems in everyday life between subgroups of children diagnosed later to have either autism (n = 13) or PDDNOS (n = 8), according to DSM-III-R (1) criteria. This study offers a (small) cross-cultural replication of recent work suggesting that differences in the mentalising skills of children with autism are reflected in the everyday social behaviour of this group. A significant effect of informant was found for the PDD group, and this effect was particularly pronounced when children with autism were considered separately. The implications of informant differences are discussed.

  4. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), and (2) how profiles related to…

  5. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  6. Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavior Problems: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Johnson, Cynthia; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Ramadan, Yaser; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Lecavalier, Luc; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Mulick, James A.; Hall, Kristy L.; Dziura, James; Ritz, Louise; Trollinger, Stacie; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have serious, functionally impairing behavioral problems. We tested whether combined treatment (COMB) with risperidone and parent training (PT) in behavior management is superior to medication alone (MED) in improving severe behavioral problems in children with PDDs. Method:…

  7. Brief Report: Interpretation of Facial Expressions, Postures, and Gestures in Children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder not Otherwise Specified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, M.; Jackson, A. E.; van Geert, P. L. C.; Minderaa, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    A Dutch study failed to find differences in the ability of 31 normally intelligent children (ages 6-12) with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and matched controls to recognize and label emotional states in various nonverbal expressive modalities, such as facial expressions, bodily postures, and gestures. (CR)

  8. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  9. Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

  10. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  11. Clinical significance of tics and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the clinical significance of co-occurring tics and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as indicators of a more complex symptomatology in children with and without pervasive developmental disorder. Parents and teachers completed a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-referenced rating scale for 3- to 5- (n = 182/135) and 6- to 12- (n = 301/191) year-old children with pervasive developmental disorder and clinic controls, respectively. The percentage of children with tic behaviors varied with age: preschoolers (25%, 44%) versus elementary schoolchildren (60%, 66%) (parent and teacher ratings, respectively). For many psychiatric symptoms, screening prevalence rates were highest for the ADHD + tics group and lowest for the group with symptoms of neither, but the pattern of group differences varied by age group and informant. In general, there were few differences between the ADHD only and tics only groups. The pattern of ADHD/tic group differences was similar for both children with and without pervasive developmental disorder. We concluded that these findings support the notion that the co-occurrence of ADHD and tics is an indicator of a more complex psychiatric symptomatology in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

  12. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  13. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  14. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  15. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  16. [Prospective assessment of children with pervasive developmental disorder after 2 years of day-hospital treatment].

    PubMed

    Poinso, F; Dubois, B; Chatel, C; Viellard, M; Bastard-Rosset, D; Girardot, A-M; Grandgeorge, P; De Martino, S; Sokolowsky, M; Salle-Collemiche, X; Da Fonseca, D

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has not been systematically assessed in French day-care units. In this prospective study, 11 children with a diagnosis of PDD were followed up for 2years in a day-care unit in the Marseille university hospital. The treatment they received is based on an initial assessment by the "Centre Ressources Autisme" (CRA PACA) and further included a continued observation of the child and an assessment of the child's abilities and needs. This treatment used various therapeutic approaches 10h weekly and also included parental counseling and coordinated work with schools. Treatment in our day-care unit can be categorized as eclectic, non-intensive therapy. It is based on methods such as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), Floor Time Play, speech and language therapy, developmental therapy, and psychotherapy. International studies on intensive behavioral therapies suggest that this treatment is superior to non-behavioral and/or non-intensive treatment. They suggest its efficiency is due both to the nature of the treatment (behavioral) and to its intensity (more than 25h a week). In this study, the CRA diagnosed children using the ADI and ADOS. The 11 children (mean age, 3years 5months) were tested twice, with the Vineland and CARS scales. The first assessment was on admission to the day hospital and the second was 2years later. The results showed developmental progress with a mean increase of 13.5 months at the Vineland Scale, and a decrease of the autism severity score on the CARS. The treatment presented here proves to be efficient; if compared to similar results in international studies, we obtained better results than their eclectic intensive or non-intensive treatment comparison group.

  17. Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

  18. Sleep problems of children with pervasive developmental disorders: correlation with parental stress.

    PubMed

    Doo, Sylvia; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2006-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sleep problems in Chinese children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in Hong Kong and their relationship to parental stress. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six child assessment centres. All parents of the children with PDD completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, and questions on sleep practice. A total of 210 out of 250 questionnaires (response rate 84%) were returned. Mean age of the children was 3 years 6 months (SD 1 y 4 mo; range 2 y-7 y 7 mo; 168 males, 25 females). The prevalence of parent-defined sleep problems in various sleep domains ranged from 9.3 to 45.6%, with 67.9% of children having significant problems in at least one sleep domain. The most common problems reported were bedtime resistance and parasomnias. Similar sleep problems occurred in all the PDD subgroups. The factor most significantly associated with sleep problems was the occurrence of sleep problems before the age of 2 years. The parents of children with PDD with sleep problems experienced a higher level of stress than those whose children had no sleep problems. A high prevalence of significant sleep problems was reported in Chinese children in Hong Kong with PDD. A higher stress level among the parents of those children with PDD with sleep problems suggests the need for systematic early detection and management of sleep problems in children with PDD.

  19. Union and separation in the therapy of pervasive developmental disorders and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of psychotherapy for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in the context of the curative effects of the movement of images. The 'autistic spectrum' is widened here and includes not only PDD, but also ADHD. The main common characteristic in these two sets of disorders seems to be the lack of a subject, which manifests itself as the absence of awareness of otherness and difficulties with boundaries and language. In these cases a normal psychotherapy is ineffective as it presupposes an established subject. However a psychotherapeutic approach with these patients can contribute to the emergence of a subject. In severe cases the process of union and separation which is enacted either in the therapeutic relationship or in symbolic play leads to the birth of a subject, and of language. In milder cases, such as ADHD, the moments of separation and confrontation with the therapist suffice. I will discuss a case of my own with Asperger's syndrome in which union and separation in the play therapy occurred simultaneously. This indicates that union and separation are not a consecutive process, but are simultaneous and lead to dialectical movement. However, in neurotic cases with an established subjectivity the symbolic meaning of image plays a central role. This corresponds to Jung's understanding of image in alchemy.

  20. Are pervasive developmental disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder distinct disorders?

    PubMed

    Hattori, Junri; Ogino, Tatsuya; Abiru, Kiyoko; Nakano, Kousuke; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2006-07-01

    We studied the relationship between patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and ADHD Rating Scale-IV. The ASSQ scores of the PDD group and the ADHD group were significantly higher than the control group. Furthermore, the PDD group scored higher than the ADHD group. Both groups also showed higher scores than the control group in all three domains, that is, restricted and repetitive behavior, social interaction, and communication problem. The PDD and the ADHD group showed no significant difference in the domains of communication problem, and restricted and repetitive behavior. The PDD group had a higher score than the ADHD group only in the social interaction domain. In total score, inattention score, and hyperactivity/impulsivity score on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, both groups were significantly higher than the control group. Between the ADHD and the PDD groups, there was no significant difference in the three scores. The patients with strictly diagnosed ADHD had many PDD-related symptoms, and the patients with PDD had many ADHD-related symptoms. It therefore seems difficult to make a distinction between ADHD and PDD by using the present diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV. We should evaluate each patient in terms of both sets of criteria.

  1. Psycho-educational Horseback Riding to Facilitate Communication Ability of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Keino, Hiromi; Funahashi, Atsushi; Keino, Hiroomi; Miwa, Chihiro; Hosokawa, Masanori; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Kawakita, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied a novel psycho-educational horseback riding (PEHR) program to the treatment of four Japanese children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in order to facilitate the acquisition of verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The behavioral changes in each child were evaluated using a psychological and behavioral scale. The scale for evaluating the effect of Human-Equips-Interaction on Mental activity (HEIM scale) was designed to assess the behavioral improvement of children based on the following 10 items: Human relationships, Imitation, Emotional expression, Sudden physical movement, Fixative behavior, Adaptation to change, Visual response, Fear or nervousness, and Verbal and nonverbal communication. After taking part in the PEHR program for several months, all subjects showed remarkably improved HEIM scores and marked improvements were observed in eye contact with others (instructors, side walkers, and leaders) in the riding area. A statistical difference was found in items 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9. However, no statistical difference was found in items 4, 5, and 10. As the program progressed, the children showed enhanced verbal and nonverbal communication skills, and became more expressive in their emotional and empathetic interaction with their parents. These observations suggest that the normal functioning of pleasurable emotions and empathy may facilitate further improvements in joint attention, imitation and empathy, and may result in successful verbal expression by PDD children. Therefore, horseback riding can play a very important role in the psycho-educational support required for the communication ability of PDD children.

  2. Using virtual reality environment to improve joint attention associated with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or dangerous consequences to deal with. Joint attention is a critical skill in the disorder characteristics of children with PDD. The absence of joint attention is a deficit frequently affects their social relationship in daily life. Therefore, this study designed the Joint Attention Skills Learning (JASL) systems with data glove tool to help children with PDD to practice joint attention behavior skills. The JASL specifically focus the skills of pointing, showing, sharing things and behavior interaction with other children with PDD. The system is designed in playroom-scene and presented in the first-person perspectives for users. The functions contain pointing and showing, moving virtual objects, 3D animation, text, speaking sounds, and feedback. The method was employed single subject multiple-probe design across subjects' designs, and analysis of visual inspection in this study. It took 3 months to finish the experimental section. Surprisingly, the experiment results reveal that the participants have further extension in improving the joint attention skills in their daily life after using the JASL system. The significant potential in this particular treatment of joint attention for each participant will be discussed in details in this paper.

  3. Laboratorial diagnosis of fragile-X syndrome: experience in a sample of individuals with pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Carlos Eduardo; Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani; Marques-de-Faria, Antonia Paula; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia

    2005-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a frequent genetic disease associated to developmental disorders, including learning disability, mental retardation, behavioral problems and pervasive developmental disorders (autism and related conditions). We studied a sample of 82 individuals (69 males and 13 females) presenting with pervasive developmental disorders using three techniques for the diagnosis of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Cytogenetic analysis detected the fragile site in four males, but only one showed a consistent positive rate. Molecular study based on the PCR technique was inconclusive for most females (92.3%), which where latter submitted to Southern blotting analysis, and for one male (1.4%), excluding the FRAXA mutation in the remaining male individuals (98.6%). Molecular tests using the Southern blotting technique confirmed only one positive case (1.2%) in a male subject. These results showed that Southern blotting analysis of the FRAXA mutation has the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of FXS but also validated the PCR technique as a confinable screening test.

  4. The metaphor and sarcasm scenario test: a new instrument to help differentiate high functioning pervasive developmental disorder from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Taeko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Maeoka, Yukinori; Shiota, Madoka; Wright, Edward Charles; Wada, Ayako

    2004-08-01

    It is sometimes difficult to discriminate high functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD) in young children because of the behavioral similarities between the two. For adequate diagnosis, understanding fundamental differences in their social cognitive abilities might become significant. In order to detect the differences in social cognitive abilities between AD/HD and HFPDD, a new test, the Metaphor and Sarcasm Scenario Test (MSST) was developed. One hundred and ninety-nine normal school children (the control group), 29 AD/HD children and 54 HFPDD children were involved. The results showed that the inability to understand a sarcastic situation was specific to children with HFPDD, both children with AD/HD and HFPDD could not equally understand metaphor. The correlation between the comprehension of sarcasm and success in the theory of mind task was remarkably high but not for comprehension of metaphor. In conclusion, the MSST has the potential to discriminate HFPDD from AD/HD in young children.

  5. Pharmacotherapy for Hyperactivity in Children with Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Langworthy, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    A review of 41 studies on pharmacological treatments for children with autism and pervasive personality disorder not otherwise specified, found empirical evidence for significant reductions in hyperactive symptoms was strongest for the antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and naltrexone. A theoretical model is proposed for using attentional…

  6. [Pervasive developmental disorder in adults; importance of diagnosis in concern to the type of ego structure with PDD].

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    Most adult patients with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who consult with psychiatrists for the first time may have normal intelligence. In diagnosing high-functioning PDD to adult patients, we should pay much attention to psychological consistency which exists between developmental problems in childhood, developed personality, recent problems in social adjustment, and manifested psychiatric symptoms. In order to understand these relationships, considering the patients' type of ego structure ("PDD ego type") seems to be useful. "PDD ego type" is characterized by their unique self-universe image which takes form of grid one (just like a touch panel), which is decisively different from the form of a radial or concentric circle held by most people (Jung, C.G). This self-universe image characterizes adult PDD patients' psychiatric symptoms, unsuitable social performance, and their "personality."

  7. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale for young children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and cognition-that collectively make up the construct of autism. Using scores from 199 children (aged 1-6 years) diagnosed with autistic disorder, the authors submitted data to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In the 1st series of analyses, the authors analyzed a user-specified 3-factor solution using principal axis factor analysis with a promax rotation to evaluate the assertion of a correlated 3-factor structure. Next, the authors analyzed 1-factor and 2-factor solutions to determine if they provided a better factor structure for the data. In the 2nd series, the authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses, which compared the theorized hierarchical 2nd-order factor model with 5 plausible competing models. The results of the exploratory analyses supported the 3-factor solution. With the confirmatory analyses, the 2nd-order factor model provided the best fit for the data. The exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the theoretical assumptions undergirding the development of the PDDRS. The authors discuss theoretical implications, practical implications, and areas for further research.

  8. The Neuropathology of Developmental Dysphasia: Behavioral, Morphological, and Physiological Evidence for a Pervasive Temporal Processing Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews research toward defining the neuropathological mechanisms responsible for developmental dysphasia. Hypothesizes that higher level auditory processing dysfunction may result from more basic temporal processing deficits which interfere with resolution of brief duration stimuli. Suggests two alternative hypotheses regarding the…

  9. 'All that glitters is not gold': misdiagnosis of psychosis in pervasive developmental disorders--a case series.

    PubMed

    Dossetor, David R

    2007-10-01

    The early literature established the validity of the distinction between early onset schizophrenia and autism. In the modern context of increasing recognition of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and a growing interest in very early onset schizophrenia and other childhood onset psychoses, this clinical distinction is often difficult to make. This article looks at problems arising from overdiagnosing psychosis in those with PDD. Four case examples of misattributed diagnosis of psychosis are described. The features that were mistaken for psychotic phenomena are described and explained and successfully treated in the context of a diagnosis of PDD. The article describes problems of reliability of ascertaining subjective mental phenomena and the range of mental phenomena that need to be recognized in PDD. The overlap of abnormal perceptions and cognitions in both these conditions is described with reference to the literature. It is evident that more needs to be done to improve diagnostic reliability of psychosis in PDD, by improving clinical awareness and research tools.

  10. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of…

  11. Adaptive Behavior in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Microanalysis of Scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Miles, Stephanie; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred; Coflin, Megan; Booker, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings…

  12. A Case Study Evaluation of a Transfer-of-Stimulus Control Toilet Training Procedure for a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1996-01-01

    This case study describes the use of transfer-of-stimulus prompting procedures to develop toilet skills with a seven-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. By first having the child sit on the toilet with her diaper on for two weeks and then taking the diaper off, the child learned to urinate in the toilet. (CR)

  13. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  14. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  15. Development of a Screening Scale for High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo; Tachimori, Hisateru; Saito, Mari; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compile a screening scale for high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), using the Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS). The 72 participants (IQ greater than or equal to 70) were divided into 3 groups after IQ matching depending on their diagnoses: i.e., PDD,…

  16. Parent-Rated Anxiety Symptoms in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Frequency and Association with Core Autism Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Scahill, Lawrence; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; White, Susan Williams; Lecavalier, Luc; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2008-01-01

    Background: In addition to the core symptoms, children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) often exhibit other problem behaviors such as aggression, hyperactivity, and anxiety, which can contribute to overall impairment and, therefore, become the focus of clinical attention. Limited data are available on the prevalence of anxiety in these…

  17. The Pervasive Developmental Disorders of Childhood: Who Are These Children and What Role Does the Educational Professional Play in Evaluation and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, James N.; And Others

    A child psychiatric consultant describes the category of pervasive developmental disorders of children, characterized by grossly deviant patterns of growth and maturation in cognitive, psychological, biological, and social development (not including disorders resulting from demonstrable brain damage). Theories of causation are reviewed and…

  18. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    PubMed

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  19. Determining Differences in Social Cognition between High-Functioning Autistic Disorder and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using New Advanced "Mind-Reading" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Miho; Wakabayashi, Akio; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in understanding the mental state of others ("mind-reading") have been well documented in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, it is unclear whether this deficit in social cognition differs between the subgroups of PDD defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text…

  20. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  1. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  2. An assessment of food acceptance in children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, W H; Castine, T; Nault, K; Green, G

    2001-10-01

    Some children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) have been reported to have atypical feeding behavior, such as sensitivity to food texture and selective preferences for particular foods. No systematic studies of feeding behavior in this population have been published. Munk and Repp (1994) developed methods for assessing feeding problems in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities that allow categorization of individual feeding patterns based on responses to repeated presentations of food. In this study, we systematically replicated the Munk and Repp procedures with children with autism and PDD-NOS. Thirty children, ages 3 to 14 years, were exposed to 12 food items across 6 sessions. Food acceptance, food expulsion, and disruptive behavior were recorded on a trial-by-trial basis. Approximately half of the participants exhibited patterns of food acceptance, indicating selectivity by food category or food texture. Others consistently accepted or rejected items across food categories. Whether these patterns of food acceptance are atypical remains to be determined by comparison with the feeding patterns of typically developing children and other children with developmental delays.

  3. Differences in finger length ratio between males with autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, ADHD, and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Esther I; Verheij, Fop; Wiegman, T; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2006-12-01

    Children with autism have a relatively shorter index finger (2D) compared with their ring finger (4D). It is often presumed that the 2D:4D ratio is associated with fetal testosterone levels and that high fetal testosterone levels could play a role in the aetiology of autism. It is unknown whether this effect is specific to autism. In this study, 2D:4D ratios of 144 males aged 6 to 14 years (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 11 mo]) with psychiatric disorders were compared with those of 96 males aged 6 to 13 years from the general population (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 10 mo]). Psychiatric disorders were divided into autism/Asperger syndrome (n=24), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n=26), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; n=68), and anxiety disorders (n=26). Males with autism/Asperger syndrome (p<0.05) and ADHD/ODD (p<0.05) had significantly lower (though not significantly; p=0.52) ratios than males with an anxiety disorder, and males with autism/Asperger syndrome had lower ratios than those in the comparison group. These results indicated that higher fetal testosterone levels may play a role, not only in the origin of autism, but also in the aetiology of PDD-NOS and of ADHD/ODD. Males with anxiety disorders might have been exposed to lower prenatal testosterone levels.

  4. Adaptive behavior in autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: microanalysis of scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rhea; Miles, Stephanie; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred; Coflin, Megan; Booker, Shelley

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate that the major area of difference between children with autism and those with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, was expressive communication; specifically, the use of elaborations in syntax and morphology and in pragmatic use of language to convey and to seek information in discourse. Linear discriminant function analysis revealed that scores on just three of these expressive communication item sets correctly identified subjects in the two diagnostic categories with 80% overall accuracy. Implications of these findings for both diagnosis and intervention with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders will be discussed.

  5. The Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A 7 Year Follow Up of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheij, C.; Louwerse, A.; van der Ende, J.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van Gool, A. R.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined…

  6. Effects of risperidone and parent training on adaptive functioning in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavioral problems

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Ritz, Louise; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patrcia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have deficits in social interaction, delayed communication and repetitive behavior as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show decline in adaptive skills compared to age mates over time. Method This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial randomized 124 children (4 through 13 years of age) with PDDs and serious behavior problems to medication alone (MED; N=49; risperidone 0.5 to 3.5 mg/day (if ineffective, switch to aripiprazole was permitted) or medication plus parent training (PT) (COMB; N=75). Parents of children in COMB received an average of 11.4 PT sessions. Standard scores and Age Equivalent scores on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were the outcome measures of primary interest. Results Seventeen subjects did not have a post-randomization Vineland. Thus, we used a mixed model with outcome conditioned on the baseline Vineland scores. Both groups showed improvement over the 24-week trial on all Vineland domains. Compared to MED, Vineland Socialization and Adaptive Composite Standard scores showed greater improvement in the COMB group (p = 0.01 and 0.05; effect sizes = 0.35.and 0.22, respectively). On Age Equivalent scores, Socialization and Communication domains showed greater improvement in COMB versus MED (p=0.03, 0.05; effect sizes = 0.33 and 0.14 respectively). Using logistic regression, children in the COMB group were twice as likely to make at least 6 months gain (equal to the passage of time) in the Vineland Communication Age Equivalent score compared to MED (p = 0.02). After controlling for IQ, this difference was no longer significant. Conclusion Reduction of serious maladaptive behavior promotes improvement in adaptive behavior. Medication plus PT shows modest additional benefit over medication alone. PMID:22265360

  7. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  8. The assessment of individual differences between young children with a pervasive developmental disorder by means of behaviour scales which are derived from direct observation.

    PubMed

    Althaus, M; Minderaa, R B; Dienske, H

    1994-02-01

    Data obtained by direct observation of 112 3-6-year-old normal children and 31 children with a pervasive developmental disorder aged 3-6 were used to construct behaviour scales by means of simultaneous component analysis. This is a technique for finding behaviour clusters (components) common to different groups by weighting the variables such that the resulting components maximize variance accounted for when summed over the groups (Milsap & Meredith, 1988, Psychometrika, 53, 123-134; Berge & Kiers, 1990, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie, 45, 221-226). An evaluation of the component structure that was found is given for both groups. Results show uncorrelated components for the normal group, while some of the same components are intercorrelated in the clinical group. Scales were constructed which are shown to have discriminative value with respect to subgroups within the group of patients.

  9. Effects of Behavior-Specific and General Praise, on Acquisition of Tacts in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Colleen; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Although behavior-specific praise is commonly recommended for use in clinical and educational settings for individuals with autism, only one study was found that compared the effects of behavior-specific praise and general praise with individuals with developmental disabilities. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

  10. Investigating the Impact of Adding an Environmental Focus to a Developmental Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth; McNeill, Kristopher; Wammer, Kristine; Lawrenz, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how adding environmental perspectives to a developmental chemistry course affected student learning of both general chemistry and environmental chemistry concepts. In addition to measuring learning changes, changes in students' environmental attitudes and behaviors were also measured. A pretest-posttest design measured…

  11. Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkmar, Fred R.; Lord, Catherine; Bailey, Anthony; Schultz, Robert T.; Klin, Ami

    2004-01-01

    The quantity and quality of research into autism and related conditions have increased dramatically in recent years. Consequently we selectively review key accomplishments and highlight directions for future research. More consistent approaches to diagnosis and more rigorous assessment methods have significantly advanced research, although the…

  12. Pervasive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  13. A case-control study evaluating the relationship between thimerosal-containing haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine administration and the risk for a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; King, Paul G; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55 % Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative. A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated automated medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing vaccines administered at specific times within the first 15 months of life among subjects diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (n = 534) in comparison to controls. The generally accepted biologically non-plausible linkage between Thimerosal exposure and subsequent diagnosis of febrile seizure (n = 5886) was examined as a control outcome. Cases diagnosed with PDD received significantly more organic Hg within the first 6 months of life (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, p < 0.001) and first 15 months of life (OR = 3.94, p < 0.0001) than controls, whereas cases diagnosed with febrile seizure were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic Hg. On a per microgram of organic Hg basis, cases diagnosed with a PDD in comparison to controls were at significantly greater odds (OR = 1.0197, p < 0.0001) of receiving increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life, whereas cases diagnosed febrile seizure were no more likely than controls (OR = 0.999, p > 0.20) to have received increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life. Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.

  14. Does routine child health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? – An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.

    PubMed Central

    Tebruegge, Marc; Nandini, Vridhagiri; Ritchie, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Background Recently changed guidelines for child health surveillance in the United Kingdom (U.K.) suggest targeted checks only, instead of the previously conducted routine or universal screening at 2 years and 3.5 years. There are concerns that these changes could lead to a delay in the detection of children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Recent U.K. studies have suggested that the prevalence of PDD is much higher than previously estimated. This study establishes to which extent the routine checks contributed to the early detection and assessment of cases of PDD. Simultaneously we have evaluated the process involved and estimate the prevalence of PDD in our district. Methods Retrospective study design utilising community medical files. Headteachers of schools (n = 75) within Maidstone district (Kent) were asked to report all children with an established diagnosis of autism or PDD attending year 4 (born '91 and '92 / n = 2536) in October 2000 based on educational records. Results 59 schools (78.7%) took part in the study. A total of 33 children were reported. 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (12 falsely reported). The prevalences were (per 10,000): PDD 82.8 (male to female ratio 6:1), childhood autism 23.7, Asperger's syndrome 11.8 and autistic spectrum disorder 47.3. Co-existing medical conditions were noted in 14.3%; 52.4% were attending mainstream schools. In 63.2% of cases concerns – mainly in the area of speech and language development (SLD) – had been documented at the 2 year check. At the 3.5 year check concerns were noted in 94.1% – the main area was again SLD (76.5%), although behavioural abnormalities were becoming more frequent (47.1%). A total of 13 children (68.4%) were referred for further assessment as a direct result of the checks. Conclusions The prevalences for different types of PDD were similar to figures published recently, but much higher than reported a few years ago. Analysis of our data suggests that

  15. Longitudinal Developmental Courses in Japanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osada, Hirokazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We followed up 67 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 31 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) for more than 10 years by reviewing medical records at a clinic for children with developmental disabilities. The participants' data were collected between their first visit to the clinic and the visit at…

  16. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancement of Social Skills Training in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    research is to identify better treatments for the core social and communication impairment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The main objective of this... autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We will evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and last effects of DCS given one hour prior to each of 10 weekly SST...09-1-0091 TITLE: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancement of Social Skills Training in Pervasive

  17. Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology in aged monkeys after infantile exposure to environmental metal lead (Pb): evidence for a developmental origin and environmental link for AD.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinfang; Basha, Md Riyaz; Brock, Brian; Cox, David P; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; McPherson, Christopher A; Harry, Jean; Rice, Deborah C; Maloney, Bryan; Chen, Demao; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Zawia, Nasser H

    2008-01-02

    The sporadic nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) argues for an environmental link that may drive AD pathogenesis; however, the triggering factors and the period of their action are unknown. Recent studies in rodents have shown that exposure to lead (Pb) during brain development predetermined the expression and regulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its amyloidogenic beta-amyloid (Abeta) product in old age. Here, we report that the expression of AD-related genes [APP, BACE1 (beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1)] as well as their transcriptional regulator (Sp1) were elevated in aged (23-year-old) monkeys exposed to Pb as infants. Furthermore, developmental exposure to Pb altered the levels, characteristics, and intracellular distribution of Abeta staining and amyloid plaques in the frontal association cortex. These latent effects were accompanied by a decrease in DNA methyltransferase activity and higher levels of oxidative damage to DNA, indicating that epigenetic imprinting in early life influenced the expression of AD-related genes and promoted DNA damage and pathogenesis. These data suggest that AD pathogenesis is influenced by early life exposures and argue for both an environmental trigger and a developmental origin of AD.

  18. Comparing Autism, PDD-NOS, and Other Developmental Disabilities on Parent-Reported Behavior Problems: Little Evidence for ASD Subtype Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Anne V.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the distinction between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) have been inconclusive. This study examined the validity of PDD-NOS by comparing it to AD and other developmental disorders (DD) on parent-reported behavior problems. Fifty-four children with PDD-NOS were individually…

  19. Towards Pervasive Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Towards Pervasive Robotics Artur M. Arsenio Artificial Intelligence Lab - Massachusetts Institute of Technology 545 Technology Square, Room NE43-936...MA 02139 arsenio@ai.mit.edu Abstract Pervasive robotics will require, in a near future, small, light and cheap robots that exhibit complex behaviors...These demands led to the development of the M2-M4 Macaco project - a robotic active vi- sion head. Macaco is a portable system, capable of emulating

  20. Autism Spectrum/Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yochum, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex disorder that is becoming more prevalent. Because of this increased prevalence, primary care providers must become more knowledgeable about the disorder so they can provide appropriate screening, evaluation, and treatment as part of an interdisciplinary team and to serve patients and families within the medical home.

  1. Use of medication in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sloman, L

    1991-03-01

    Medication does not cure PDD, and its use is generally not indicated. However, neuroleptics like haloperidol or trifluoperazine can be useful in the management of behavioral problems. The most common adverse reaction to their use is extrapyramidal effects. However, if one increases the dose gradually and keeps the total daily dose low, the incidence of extrapyramidal effects is likely to remain quite low. A number of drugs that have been used with PDD children and their effectiveness are reviewed. Guidelines for selecting and using an optimal medication for a given patient are also presented. The need to exercise caution in the use of chemicals with severely dysfunctional children, the etiology of whose pathology continues to remain elusive, is stressed.

  2. Children with pervasive refusal.

    PubMed

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-07-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  3. Pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Beverley, David

    2012-04-01

    We report here on a case of severe pervasive refusal syndrome. This is of interest for three reasons. Firstly, most reported cases are adolescent girls; our case is regarding an adolescent boy. Secondly, he was successfully treated at home and thirdly, the serology showed an apparent infective pre-cursor to the illness with evidence of possible autoimmune serology. A 14-year old boy deteriorated from a picture where diagnosed CFS/ME developed into Pervasive Refusal Syndrome. This included the inability to move or speak, with closed eyes, multiple tics, facial grimacing, heightened sensitivity to noise (hyperacusis) and touch (hyperaesthesia), and inability or unwillingness to eat anything except small amounts of sloppy food. Successful rehabilitation is reported. Finally the issue of nomenclature is discussed, raising the question whether Pervasive Refusal Syndrome would be better renamed in a way that does not imply that the condition is always volitional and oppositional, as this can distract focus away from an alliance between family and clinicians.

  4. Pervasive media violence.

    PubMed

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes.

  5. Plasmas: Diversity, pervasiveness and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1998-01-01

    When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, pervasiveness and potential: diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy, time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.

  6. Adaptive User Profiles in Pervasive Advertising Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Florian; Balz, Moritz; Kristes, Stefanie; Shirazi, Alireza Sahami; Mennenöh, Julian; Schmidt, Albrecht; Schröder, Hendrik; Goedicke, Michael

    Nowadays modern advertising environments try to provide more efficient ads by targeting costumers based on their interests. Various approaches exist today as to how information about the users' interests can be gathered. Users can deliberately and explicitly provide this information or user's shopping behaviors can be analyzed implicitly. We implemented an advertising platform to simulate an advertising environment and present adaptive profiles, which let users setup profiles based on a self-assessment, and enhance those profiles with information about their real shopping behavior as well as about their activity intensity. Additionally, we explain how pervasive technologies such as Bluetooth can be used to create a profile anonymously and unobtrusively.

  7. Pervasive transcription: detecting functional RNAs in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lybecker, Meghan; Bilusic, Ivana; Raghavan, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive, or genome-wide, transcription has been reported in all domains of life. In bacteria, most pervasive transcription occurs antisense to protein-coding transcripts, although recently a new class of pervasive RNAs was identified that originates from within annotated genes. Initially considered to be non-functional transcriptional noise, pervasive transcription is increasingly being recognized as important in regulating gene expression. The function of pervasive transcription is an extensively debated question in the field of transcriptomics and regulatory RNA biology. Here, we highlight the most recent contributions addressing the purpose of pervasive transcription in bacteria and discuss their implications.

  8. Distributed Pervasive Worlds: The Case of Exergames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Sedano, Carolina Islas

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive worlds are computing environments where a virtual world converges with the physical world through context-aware technologies such as sensors. In pervasive worlds, technology is distributed among entities that may be distributed geographically. We explore the concept, possibilities, and challenges of distributed pervasive worlds in a case…

  9. Studying the Elusive Experience in Pervasive Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenros, Jaakko; Waern, Annika; Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Studying pervasive games is inherently difficult and different from studying computer or board games. This article builds upon the experiences of staging and studying several playful pervasive technology prototypes. It discusses the challenges and pitfalls of evaluating pervasive game prototypes and charts methods that have proven useful in…

  10. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  11. On Designing a Pervasive Mobile Learning Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Vinni, Mikko; Sedano, Carolina Islas; Joy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the features, design and architecture of the Myst pervasive game platform that has been applied in creating pervasive mobile learning games in various contexts such as science festivals and museums in Finland. Based on our experiences with the development, we draw a set of design principles for creating successfully a…

  12. Skill Acquisition in Students with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Margalit, Matan

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine skill acquisition in field hockey of seven junior-high school students with PDD, who attended an inclusive class; and (b) to compare the degree of skill acquisition in field hockey of junior-high school students without disabilities who attend an inclusive class and those who attend a regular class.…

  13. Genetic Counseling in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily

    1998-01-01

    Provides a protocol for counseling families with an autistic member concerning the risk of having an autistic child. Reports data regarding empirical recurrence risks and identifies the key elements that influence recurrence risks for individual couples. Counseling expertise in both diagnosis and treatment of autism and in the genetics of complex…

  14. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  15. Emergence of Intraverbal Antonyms in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Garcia-Asenjo, Lorena; Williams, Gladys; Carnerero, Jose Julio

    2007-01-01

    In the type of intraverbal that consists of saying the opposite of a word, two intraverbals are related to one another because the response form of each intraverbal functions as part of a discriminative stimulus for the other (e.g., "cold" in response to "name the opposite of hot," and vice versa). Moreover, the contextual cue "Name the opposite…

  16. A Formalisation of Adaptable Pervasive Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchiarone, Antonio; Lafuente, Alberto Lluch; Marconi, Annapaola; Pistore, Marco

    Adaptable Pervasive Flows is a novel workflow-based paradigm for the design and execution of pervasive applications, where dynamic workflows situated in the real world are able to modify their execution in order to adapt to changes in their environment. In this paper, we study a formalisation of such flows by means of a formal flow language. More precisely, we define APFoL (Adaptable Pervasive Flow Language) and formalise its textual notation by encoding it in Blite, a formalisation of WS-BPEL. The encoding in Blite equips the language with a formal semantics and enables the use of automated verification techniques. We illustrate the approach with an example of a Warehouse Case Study.

  17. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  18. Personal Pervasive Environments: Practice and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Francisco J.; Guardiola, Gorka; Soriano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience designing and developing two different systems to enable personal pervasive computing environments, Plan B and the Octopus. These systems were fully implemented and have been used on a daily basis for years. Both are based on synthetic (virtual) file system interfaces and provide mechanisms to adapt to changes in the context and reconfigure the system to support pervasive applications. We also present the main differences between them, focusing on architectural and reconfiguration aspects. Finally, we analyze the pitfalls and successes of both systems and review the lessons we learned while designing, developing, and using them. PMID:22969340

  19. The game mechanics of pervasive applications: visiting the uncanny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentès, Annie; Jutant, Camille

    2012-03-01

    "When I use a word", Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean - neither more nor less." "The question is", said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many different things". "The question is", said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master - that's all". [Carroll 2007 (1865)] In pervasive games, a virtual layer with its own logic is added to the everyday, common meaning of objects, places, and people. The departure of the signifier ("things") from the signified (what they mean on the virtual level) is the semiotic process that allows for a double reading of the environment. Such a divorce has been explored in other cultural products (books, movies). It has been qualified as the "uncanny mode". This article analyzes how pervasive games use their own brand of uncanny. In particular, it shows how mobility becomes the way to uncover the hidden layers of the environment and serves as a tool to experience and eventually reduce or augment the uncanny. Finally, we can point to a typology of four main types of storytelling related to different types of mobility: games that use mimetic narrative strategies veering towards "realism"; games based on the "absurd"; "aloof" games that remain independent from places; games that present a specific play on this double reading of the world and develop the "Uncanny" as a genre.

  20. Dynamic Pervasive Storytelling in Long Lasting Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pløhn, Trygve; Louchart, Sandy; Aalberg, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive gaming is a reality-based gaming genre originating from alternative theatrical forms in which the performance becomes a part of the players' everyday life. In recent years much research has been done on pervasive gaming and its potential applications towards specific domains. Pervasive games have been effective with regards to…

  1. Improving Mobile Infrastructure for Pervasive Personal Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    ISR model of mobile computing, users take advantage of pervasive de- ployments of inexpensive, mass-market PC hardware rather than carrying portable ...carry one’s computing environment in a portable computer. Instead, an exact replica of the last checkpointed state of a user’s entire computing...restricted. The same assumption applies to a portable computer that is physically safeguarded by the user at all times. In contrast, physical access to

  2. Addressing Security Challenges in Pervasive Computing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-10

    the Dengue Decision Support System that has been developed at Colorado State University. Further, to accommodate the dynamic nature of pervasive...Expressiveness of Events using Parameter Con- texts", Proceedings of the 12th East European Conferences on Advances in Databases and Information Systems...Anura Jayasumana and Indrajit Ray, " Key Pre-distribution Based Secure Backbone Design for Wireless Sensor Networks", Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE

  3. Finessing the Academic and Social-Emotional Balance: A Revised Developmental Advising Model for Students with Learning Disabilities or AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryser, Jeannine; Alden, Peg

    2005-01-01

    Advisor perceptions of and responses to the social and emotional needs of college students with learning disabilities (LDs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) are studied. Through a mixed-method approach of surveys and focus groups, four themes emerged: social-emotional issues that students present in the advising relationship;…

  4. Pervasive refusal syndrome - A clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Seshadri, Shekhar; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2015-10-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome is described as a condition comprising varying degrees of refusal across several domains; social withdrawal; resistance to treatment and is potentially life threatening with no detectable organic cause. Female predominance, refusal to eat with low weight, body image distortion, depressive features, premorbid personality issues similar to eating disorders have been noted, with 67% cases having complete recovery. In this paper, we describe what is probably the first case reported from India, of a child, who presented with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and treated with electroconvulsive therapy along with medications, but, sadly had a fatal outcome.

  5. Dynamic Privacy Management in Pervasive Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Nan-Wei; Laibowitz, Mathew; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a dynamic privacy management system aimed at enabling tangible privacy control and feedback in a pervasive sensor network. Our work began with the development of a potentially invasive sensor network (with high resolution video, audio, and motion tracking capabilities) featuring different interactive applications that created incentive for accepting this network as an extension of people's daily social space. A user study was then conducted to evaluate several privacy management approaches - an active badge system for both online and on-site control, on/off power switches for physically disabling the hardware, and touch screen input control. Results from a user study indicated that an active badge for on-site privacy control is the most preferable method among all provided options. We present a set of results that yield insight into the privacy/benefit tradeoff from various sensing capabilities in pervasive sensor networks and how privacy settings and user behavior relate in these environments.

  6. Behavioral Reference Model for Pervasive Healthcare Systems.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbi, Arezoo; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges. Integrity and reliability of healthcare systems are of critical importance, as even the slightest error may put the patients' lives in danger; therefore acquiring a behavioral model for these systems and developing the tools required to model their behaviors are of significant importance. The high-level designs may contain some flaws, therefor the system must be fully examined for different scenarios and conditions. This paper presents a software architecture for development of healthcare systems based on pervasive computing concepts, and then models the behavior of described system. A set of solutions are then proposed to improve the design's qualitative characteristics including, availability, interoperability and performance.

  7. Developmental Education: Resilience and Academic Success in Rural Appalachian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    The need for developmental education is ever present in higher education as more students annually enter college underprepared for entry level college coursework. Underpreparedness is a pervasive concern in higher education. Community colleges in particular are the primary means of shepherding developmental education. Academic underpreparedness is…

  8. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  9. A Conceptual Framework and Principles for Trusted Pervasive Health

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Bernd Gerhard; Seppälä, Antto Veikko; Sorvari, Hannu Olavi; Nykänen, Pirkko Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous computing technology, sensor networks, wireless communication and the latest developments of the Internet have enabled the rise of a new concept—pervasive health—which takes place in an open, unsecure, and highly dynamic environment (ie, in the information space). To be successful, pervasive health requires implementable principles for privacy and trustworthiness. Objective This research has two interconnected objectives. The first is to define pervasive health as a system and to understand its trust and privacy challenges. The second goal is to build a conceptual model for pervasive health and use it to develop principles and polices which can make pervasive health trustworthy. Methods In this study, a five-step system analysis method is used. Pervasive health is defined using a metaphor of digital bubbles. A conceptual framework model focused on trustworthiness and privacy is then developed for pervasive health. On that model, principles and rules for trusted information management in pervasive health are defined. Results In the first phase of this study, a new definition of pervasive health was created. Using this model, differences between pervasive health and health care are stated. Reviewed publications demonstrate that the widely used principles of predefined and static trust cannot guarantee trustworthiness and privacy in pervasive health. Instead, such an environment requires personal dynamic and context-aware policies, awareness, and transparency. A conceptual framework model focused on information processing in pervasive health is developed. Using features of pervasive health and relations from the framework model, new principles for trusted pervasive health have been developed. The principles propose that personal health data should be under control of the data subject. The person shall have the right to verify the level of trust of any system which collects or processes his or her health information. Principles require that

  10. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  11. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  12. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  13. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2016-03-17

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  14. The Implications of Pervasive Computing on Network Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, R.

    Mark Weiser's late-1980s vision of an age of calm technology with pervasive computing disappearing into the fabric of the world [1] has been tempered by an industry-driven vision with more of a feel of conspicuous consumption. In the modified version, everyone carries around consumer electronics to provide natural, seamless interactions both with other people and with the information world, particularly for eCommerce, but still through a pervasive computing fabric.

  15. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  16. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  17. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  18. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  19. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  20. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  1. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  2. "What Are You Viewing?" Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Raimund; Baillie, Lynne; Fröhlich, Peter; Egger, Sebastian; Grechenig, Thomas

    The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user's media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.

  3. [Pervasive refusal syndrome is a severe child psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hulgaard, Ditte; Wacher, Jeanette; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Gitte

    2015-10-26

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) is a severe, pervasive and potentially life-threatening disorder, which was first de--scribed in 1991, as a syndrome of child psychiatric disorder. Little has been written about PRS. We report a case story of a ten-year-old boy developing all symptoms of PRS, including inability to eat, move or speak. Psychopharmacological treat-ment was not successful. Full rehabilitation was reported after a period of inpatient treatment and outpatient follow-up. Different aetiological factors for PRS have been proposed. A number of these are presented in the case story.

  4. Distinguishing Developmental from Chronic Career Indecision: Self-Efficacy, Autonomy, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon; Deschnes, Andree

    2006-01-01

    Career indecision can be divided into two categories: developmental and chronic indecision. The former is generally viewed as a developmentally normal problem resulting from a lack of information on the self and on the world of work, whereas the latter is defined as a pervasive inability to make a decision about one's career. The goals of the…

  5. Developmental Discourses as a Regime of Truth in Research with Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2016-01-01

    While developmental discourses have been heavily critiqued in relation to education systems, less attention has been paid to how these impact the data collection process in classroom research. This article utilises Foucault's concept of regime of truth to highlight the pervasiveness of developmental discourses when conducting research in primary…

  6. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

  7. Novel pervasive scenarios for home management: the Butlers architecture.

    PubMed

    Denti, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts today aim to energy saving, promoting the user's awareness and virtuous behavior in a sustainability perspective. Our houses, appliances, energy meters and devices are becoming smarter and connected, domotics is increasing possibilities in house automation and control, and ambient intelligence and assisted living are bringing attention onto people's needs from different viewpoints. Our assumption is that considering these aspects together allows for novel intriguing possibilities. To this end, in this paper we combine home energy management with domotics, coordination technologies, intelligent agents, ambient intelligence, ubiquitous technologies and gamification to devise novel scenarios, where energy monitoring and management is just the basic brick of a much wider and comprehensive home management system. The aim is to control home appliances well beyond energy consumption, combining home comfort, appliance scheduling, safety constraints, etc. with dynamically-changeable users' preferences, goals and priorities. At the same time, usability and attractiveness are seen as key success factors: so, the intriguing technologies available in most houses and smart devices are exploited to make the system configuration and use simpler, entertaining and attractive for users. These aspects are also integrated with ubiquitous and pervasive technologies, geo-localization, social networks and communities to provide enhanced functionalities and support smarter application scenarios, hereby further strengthening technology acceptation and diffusion. Accordingly, we first analyse the system requirements and define a reference multi-layer architectural model - the Butlers architecture - that specifies seven layers of functionalities, correlating the requirements, the corresponding technologies and the consequent value-added for users in each layer. Then, we outline a set of notable scenarios of increasing functionalities and complexity, discuss the structure of the

  8. Attachment in Toddlers with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n = 20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n = 14), Mental Retardation (n = 12), Language Development Disorder (n = 16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n = 18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often…

  9. Building Efficient Wireless Infrastructures for Pervasive Computing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive computing is an emerging concept that thoroughly brings computing devices and the consequent technology into people's daily life and activities. Most of these computing devices are very small, sometimes even "invisible", and often embedded into the objects surrounding people. In addition, these devices usually are not isolated, but…

  10. How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school…

  11. A Divided Attention Experiment with Pervasively Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meere, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Task performance of 12 pervasive hyperactives and controls (ages 8-13) was studied in a divided attention reaction time experiment. Hyperactives were slower than controls, had more variable reaction times, and made more frequent errors. Task inefficiency in hyperactives could not be explained by a divided attention deficiency or impulsive…

  12. Pervasive Computing and Communication Technologies for U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young C.

    2014-01-01

    The development of digital information transfer, storage and communication methods influences a significant effect on education. The assimilation of pervasive computing and communication technologies marks another great step forward, with Ubiquitous Learning (U-learning) emerging for next generation learners. In the evolutionary view the 5G (or…

  13. Pervasive Learning Games: Explorations of Hybrid Educational Gamescapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Siobhan

    2006-01-01

    Pervasive gaming has tremendous potential as a learning tool and represents an interesting development in the field of video games and education. The literature surrounding video games and education is vast: For more than 20 years, educationalists have been discussing the potential that exists for the application of video games to learning.…

  14. A SCORM Compliant Courseware Authoring Tool for Supporting Pervasive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Te-Hua; Chang, Flora Chia-I

    2007-01-01

    The sharable content object reference model (SCORM) includes a representation of distance learning contents and a behavior definition of how users should interact with the contents. Generally, SCORMcompliant systems were based on multimedia and Web technologies on PCs. We further build a pervasive learning environment, which allows users to read…

  15. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  16. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  17. A Social Adjustment Enhancement Intervention for High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marjorie; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 20-week social adjustment enhancement curriculum for boys aged 8-12. The curriculum was designed to address three areas hypothesized to be deficient in persons with HFA, AS, and PDDNOS: emotion recognition and understanding; theory of mind; and executive functions/real life type problem solving. Parents…

  18. Trial Design Challenges when Combining Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Swiezy, Naomi; Mulick, James; Stigler, Kimberly; Bearss, Karen; Ritz, Louise; Wagner, Ann; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a 24-week, randomized trial designed to test whether risperidone plus structured parent training would be superior to risperidone only on measures of noncompliance, irritability and adaptive functioning. In this model, medication reduces tantrums, aggression and self-injury; parent training promotes…

  19. A Girl with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Complex Chromosome Rearrangement Involving 8p and 10p

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaigenbaum, L; Sonnenberg, L. K.; Heshka, T.; Eastwood, S.; Xu, J.

    2005-01-01

    We report a 4-year-old girl with a "de novo", apparently balanced complex chromosome rearrangement. She initially presented for assessment of velopharyngeal insufficiency due to hypernasal speech. She has distinctive facial features (long face, broad nasal bridge, and protuberant ears with simplified helices), bifid uvula, strabismus,…

  20. Potential benefits and limits of psychopharmacological therapies in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Massimo; Nobile, Maria; Cattaneo, Dario; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The core symptoms of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are impairment in reciprocal social interaction, communication, narrow interests, and stereotyped behaviour. These are frequently severe and persistent, although their severity may change over the course of life. Furthermore, the frequently associated symptoms of self-injury, aggressive behaviour, impulsivity, poor attention, anxiety, depression, and sleep disruption, can become a major source of additional distress and interference in functioning. The causes of autism are not yet known, but there is a general consensus that ASDs are highly heritable. Comprehension of the neurobiological basis for autism-spectrum disorders is still in its initial stages: a large body of research, however, has established ASD signs and symptoms are of neurological origin, and suggest that autism is a distributed neural system disorder, which disproportionately impairs many higher order abilities. Currently available medical treatments, primarily address co-morbid symptoms, rather than core symptoms. Thus, in spite of recent advances in psychopharmacology, the treatment approach still has important limits and shows poor efficacy on global outcomes. A potential pathway for improving clinical outcomes is that of the personalised treatment for autism, by using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) - a valuable tool for drugs with narrow therapeutic index - as well as systematic genetic background assessment, foreseen in future applications. However, it is already possible to implement an active surveillance programme to address safety concerns and to optimise therapeutic drug interventions in ASD.

  1. Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Obstetric Complications in Children and Adolescents with Tuberous Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rebecca J.; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the role of obstetric complications in determining phenotypic manifestations in tuberous sclerosis (TS), a disorder associated with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison of 43 children with TS and 40 unaffected siblings found children with TS experienced more obstetric complications, but these were related to mild rather…

  2. [Autistic psychopathy or pervasive developmental disorder: how has Asperger's syndrome changed in the past sixty years?].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Gen; Ichihashi, Kayo

    2007-03-01

    Bosch (1970) was the first author who used "Asperger's syndrome" in English literature. In those days, "Kanner's syndrome" i.e. autism, which had been under schizophrenic-versus-undeveloped arguments from the 1960's, was always contrasted with Asperger's "autistic psychopathy in children". From then on there have been vicissitudes over the notion of "Asperger's syndrome" and its clinical presentation. Nowadays, the restricted notion of "Asperger's syndrome" is dominant and used in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. However, debates concerning the aspect of Asperger s "psychopathy" in clinical study and practice have long disappeared. In daily life, when we describe someone as "like Asperger's", it means a personality deviation that is to the degree of Asperger's "psychopathy". The history of Asperger's "psychopathy" is still developing in our culture.

  3. Repetitive Thoughts and Behavior in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Treatment with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Christopher J.; Kresch, Laura E.; Posey, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from two studies indicate the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) clomipramine is more efficacious than the relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine and placebo in children with autism. A study of the selective SRI fluvoxamine found it to be significantly better than placebo for reducing repetitive…

  4. A social adjustment enhancement intervention for high functioning autism, Asperger's syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder NOS.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Marjorie; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Anders, Thomas F

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 20-week social adjustment enhancement curriculum for boys aged 8-12. The curriculum was designed to address three areas hypothesized to be deficient in persons with HFA, AS, and PDDNOS: emotion recognition and understanding; theory of mind; and executive functions/real life type problem solving. Parents attended a semi-structured concurrent psychoeducational training meeting during children's sessions. Statistically significant improvements in facial expression recognition, and problem solving were reported for intervention group children compared to waiting list control group children. For the intervention group (the only group for whom data were available), older and less cognitively able boy's scores on a depression inventory decreased significantly more than younger children's. Mother's depression scores tended to decrease and there were significant reductions in child problem behaviors reported. Results are discussed in the context of individual differences in participant cognitive levels and profiles, symptom severity, and affect-related variables.

  5. Developmental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1994-01-01

    Developmental evaluation is proposed as a term to describe certain long-term partnering relationships with clients who are, themselves, engaged in ongoing program development. Rather than a model, developmental evaluation is a relationship founded on a shared purpose and is a way of being useful in innovative settings. (SLD)

  6. Middleware for Pervasive Spaces: Balancing Privacy and Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaguer, Daniel; Hore, Bijit; Diallo, Mamadou H.; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    Middleware for pervasive spaces has to meet conflicting requirements. It has to both maximize the utility of the information exposed and ensure that this information does not violate users' privacy. In order to resolve these conflicts, we propose a framework grounded in utility theory where users dynamically control the level of disclosure about their information. We begin by providing appropriate definitions of privacy and utility for the type of applications that would support collaborative work in an office environment—current definitions of privacy and anonymity do not apply in this context. We propose a distributed solution that, given a user's background knowledge, maximizes the utility of the information being disclosed to information recipients while meeting the privacy requirements of users. We implement our solution in the context of a real pervasive space middleware and provide experiments that demonstrate its behaviour.

  7. Autonomic Computing for Pervasive ICT - A Whole-System Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackleton, M.; Saffre, F.; Tateson, R.; Bonsma, E.; Roadknight, C.

    Pervasive ICT [1] heralds a world full of vast numbers of devices and software entities that are able to communicate with one another. For devices, the communication will typically be via wireless networking technologies such as WiFi, Bluetooth, or 3G. A key challenge to realising the pervasive ICT vision, or at least to make it a truly useful vision, is the development of an associated set of technologies that will allow these underlying components to be assembled in real time, to provide useful applications and services. Initial progress towards this goal is proceeding under several initiatives such as Web Services, GRID computing, and peer-to-peer (P2P) computing. These areas in fact have many fundamental underlying concerns in common.

  8. Augmented notebooks for pervasive learning in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Bricon-Souf, Nathalie; Leroy, Nicolas; Renard, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Medical e-learning can benefit from the new technologies, and pervasive learning resources and tools worth to be introduced in the medical context. Micro-learning seems to be an interesting way for pervasive learning. But it is still difficult to propose pedagogical resources that are built by learners, from meaningful experiments. We conducted an analysis of the exchanges performed by Health care professionals in the hospital in order to understand where and when educational exchanges appear. We analyzed the type of documents exchanged. The residents' paper notebooks caught our attention first because it answers some clinician-needs and second because the computerization of such a notebook could add a collaborative dimension to the pedagogical resources. We propose a model of an augmented resident's notebook and we briefly describe an implementation using Content Management System and WIKI, before setting the discussion and the conclusion sections.

  9. The pervasive role of biological cohesion in bedform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie A.; Aspden, Rebecca J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Peakall, Jeff; Paterson, David M.; Schindler, Robert J.; Ye, Leiping; Lichtman, Ian D.; Bass, Sarah J.; Davies, Alan G.; Manning, Andrew J.; Thorne, Peter D.

    2015-02-01

    Sediment fluxes in aquatic environments are crucially dependent on bedform dynamics. However, sediment-flux predictions rely almost completely on clean-sand studies, despite most environments being composed of mixtures of non-cohesive sands, physically cohesive muds and biologically cohesive extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) generated by microorganisms. EPS associated with surficial biofilms are known to stabilize sediment and increase erosion thresholds. Here we present experimental data showing that the pervasive distribution of low levels of EPS throughout the sediment, rather than the high surficial levels of EPS in biofilms, is the key control on bedform dynamics. The development time for bedforms increases by up to two orders of magnitude for extremely small quantities of pervasively distributed EPS. This effect is far stronger than for physical cohesion, because EPS inhibit sand grains from moving independently. The results highlight that present bedform predictors are overly simplistic, and the associated sediment transport processes require re-assessment for the influence of EPS.

  10. Pervasively Altered Hematite-Rich Deposits Southeast of Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rice, J. W.; Yen, A. S.; deSouza, P. A., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of Home Plate and its surroundings in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater has added substantially to the water story on Mars. Textural, morphological, and geochemical evidence from Home Plate point towards an explosive origin, probably a hydrovolcanic explosion [1]. High silica deposits in the immediate vicinity of Home Plate suggest hydrothermal alteration [e.g. 2,3]. Pervasively altered deposits rich in hematite were investigated to the southeast of Home Plate. Of these, the target Halley, the target KingGeorgeIsland on the GrahamLand outcrop, and the targets Montalva and Riquelme on the Troll outcrop were investigated in situ with the Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), the Microscopic Imager (MI), and the Moessbauer (MB) spectrometer (Fig. 1).

  11. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  12. Towards pervasive computing in health care – A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Orwat, Carsten; Graefe, Andreas; Faulwasser, Timm

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolving concepts of pervasive computing, ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence are increasingly influencing health care and medicine. Summarizing published research, this literature review provides an overview of recent developments and implementations of pervasive computing systems in health care. It also highlights some of the experiences reported in deployment processes. Methods There is no clear definition of pervasive computing in the current literature. Thus specific inclusion criteria for selecting articles about relevant systems were developed. Searches were conducted in four scientific databases alongside manual journal searches for the period of 2002 to 2006. Articles included present prototypes, case studies and pilot studies, clinical trials and systems that are already in routine use. Results The searches identified 69 articles describing 67 different systems. In a quantitative analysis, these systems were categorized into project status, health care settings, user groups, improvement aims, and systems features (i.e., component types, data gathering, data transmission, systems functions). The focus is on the types of systems implemented, their frequency of occurrence and their characteristics. Qualitative analyses were performed of deployment issues, such as organizational and personnel issues, privacy and security issues, and financial issues. This paper provides a comprehensive access to the literature of the emerging field by addressing specific topics of application settings, systems features, and deployment experiences. Conclusion Both an overview and an analysis of the literature on a broad and heterogeneous range of systems are provided. Most systems are described in their prototype stages. Deployment issues, such as implications on organization or personnel, privacy concerns, or financial issues are mentioned rarely, though their solution is regarded as decisive in transferring promising systems to a stage of regular

  13. Pervasive refusal syndrome among asylum-seeking children.

    PubMed

    Von Folsach, Liv Lyngå; Montgomery, Edith

    2006-07-01

    A number of asylum-seeking children in Sweden have developed a pervasive loss of function associated with profound social withdrawal. The syndrome is called Depressive Devitalization. The aim of this study was to identify possible aetiological factors, outline the similarities between Depressive Devitalization and Pervasive Refusal Syndrome and to explore possible differential diagnoses. The research was based on a literature study. Databases searched included PsychINFO, Medline, Pub med, COCHRANE and PILOTS. Possible aetiological factors identified included: Children having a perfectionist, ambitious and conscientious premorbid personality, psychiatric problems of children and parents, and traumatic events. Symptoms between the two syndromes differed only in pattern of refusal and neurological symptoms. None of the differential diagnoses explored could account for all features. The individual impact of aetiological factors requires further investigation. Children might previously have been diagnosed with a number of differential diagnoses, though none of these accounts for all symptoms seen in the syndromes. Depressive Devitalization and Pervasive Refusal Syndrome are suggested to be subgroups of the same refusal syndrome.

  14. Attachment in toddlers with autism and other developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Naber, Fabiënne B A; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-07-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n=20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n=14), Mental Retardation (n=12), Language Development Disorder (n=16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n=18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often securely attached. Severity of autism was associated with more attachment insecurity, and lower developmental level increased the chance for disorganized attachment. Attachment disorganization was related to increased heart rate during the SSP. Controlling for basal cortisol and developmental level, more autistic symptoms predicted lower cortisol responses to the SSP. The findings support the importance of disorganized attachment for children with autism.

  15. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  16. Comparison of motor and process skills among children with different developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the motor and process skills of children with different developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Thirty-nine children with developmental disabilities participated in this study which was conducted at N hospital in South Korea. [Methods] The motor and process skills of the participants were compared among three different disabilities: pervasive developmental disorder, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disorder. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Significant differences in motor skills were found among the diagnoses. The cerebral palsy group showed poorer motor skills than the pervasive developmental disability and intellectual disability groups. [Conclusion] The findings have clinical implications for strategies of rehabilitation for children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26644670

  17. [Pervasive refusal syndrome in a 12-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ann-Margrethe Rønholt; Thelle, Thomas

    2011-04-18

    We describe a formerly healthy boy aged 12 years with a two-month history of severe coughing and abdominal pain leading to school absence. During admission he became increasingly immobilised and unable to perform activities of daily life, and finally simply adopted the foetal position and needed gastric tube feeding. Gradual restitution was achieved during a 34-month stay as an inpatient at a child psychiatric department. He fulfilled all proposed criteria of the pervasive refusal syndrome. At a follow-up at the age of 20 years, he was pursuing a normal independent life with his girlfriend and was attending higher education.

  18. Architectures and economics for pervasive broadband satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The size of a satellite network necessary to provide pervasive high-data-rate business communications is estimated, and one possible configuration is described which could interconnect most organizations in the United States. Within an order of magnitude, such a network might reasonably have a capacity equivalent to 10,000 simultaneous 3-Mbps channels, and rely primarily upon a cluster of approximately 3-5 satellites in a single orbital slot. Nominal prices for 3-6 Mbps video conference services might then be approximately $2000 monthly lease charge plus perhaps 70 cents per minute one way.

  19. Volcano Monitoring: A Case Study in Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Nina; Anusuya-Rangappa, Lohith; Shirazi, Behrooz A.; Song, Wenzhan; Huang, Renjie; Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Lahusen, Rick

    Recent advances in wireless sensor network technology have provided robust and reliable solutions for sophisticated pervasive computing applications such as inhospitable terrain environmental monitoring. We present a case study for developing a real-time pervasive computing system, called OASIS for optimized autonomous space in situ sensor-web, which combines ground assets (a sensor network) and space assets (NASA’s earth observing (EO-1) satellite) to monitor volcanic activities at Mount St. Helens. OASIS’s primary goals are: to integrate complementary space and in situ ground sensors into an interactive and autonomous sensorweb, to optimize power and communication resource management of the sensorweb and to provide mechanisms for seamless and scalable fusion of future space and in situ components. The OASIS in situ ground sensor network development addresses issues related to power management, bandwidth management, quality of service management, topology and routing management, and test-bed design. The space segment development consists of EO-1 architectural enhancements, feedback of EO-1 data into the in situ component, command and control integration, data ingestion and dissemination and field demonstrations.

  20. Large brains in autism: the challenge of pervasive abnormality.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Martha R

    2005-10-01

    The most replicated finding in autism neuroanatomy-a tendency to unusually large brains-has seemed paradoxical in relation to the specificity of the abnormalities in three behavioral domains that define autism. We now know a range of things about this phenomenon, including that brains in autism have a growth spurt shortly after birth and then slow in growth a few short years afterward, that only younger but not older brains are larger in autism than in controls, that white matter contributes disproportionately to this volume increase and in a nonuniform pattern suggesting postnatal pathology, that functional connectivity among regions of autistic brains is diminished, and that neuroinflammation (including microgliosis and astrogliosis) appears to be present in autistic brain tissue from childhood through adulthood. Alongside these pervasive brain tissue and functional abnormalities, there have arisen theories of pervasive or widespread neural information processing or signal coordination abnormalities (such as weak central coherence, impaired complex processing, and underconnectivity), which are argued to underlie the specific observable behavioral features of autism. This convergence of findings and models suggests that a systems- and chronic disease-based reformulation of function and pathophysiology in autism needs to be considered, and it opens the possibility for new treatment targets.

  1. Pervasive assistive technology for people with dementia: a UCD case.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Rønn-Andersen, Kristoffer V H; Bień, Paulina; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Forchhammer, Birgitte Hysse; Maier, Anja M

    2016-12-01

    Smart mobile and wearable technology offers exciting opportunities to support people with dementia (PwD). Its ubiquity and popularity could even benefit user adoption - a great challenge for assistive technology (AT) for PwD that calls for user-centred design (UCD) methods. This study describes a user-centred approach to developing and testing AT based on off-the-shelf pervasive technologies. A prototype is created by combining a smartphone, smartwatch and various applications to offer six support features. This is tested among five end-users (PwD) and their caregivers. Controlled usability testing was followed by field testing in a real-world context. Data is gathered from video recordings, interaction logs, system usability scale questionnaires, logbooks, application usage logs and interviews structured on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model. The data is analysed to evaluate usability, usefulness and user acceptance. Results show some promise for user adoption, but highlight challenges to be overcome, emphasising personalisation and familiarity as key considerations. The complete findings regarding usability issues, usefulness of support features and four identified adoption profiles are used to provide a set of recommendations for practitioners and further research. These contribute toward UCD practices for improved smart, pervasive AT for dementia.

  2. Pervasive assistive technology for people with dementia: a UCD case

    PubMed Central

    Rønn-Andersen, Kristoffer V.H.; Bień, Paulina; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Forchhammer, Birgitte Hysse; Maier, Anja M.

    2016-01-01

    Smart mobile and wearable technology offers exciting opportunities to support people with dementia (PwD). Its ubiquity and popularity could even benefit user adoption – a great challenge for assistive technology (AT) for PwD that calls for user-centred design (UCD) methods. This study describes a user-centred approach to developing and testing AT based on off-the-shelf pervasive technologies. A prototype is created by combining a smartphone, smartwatch and various applications to offer six support features. This is tested among five end-users (PwD) and their caregivers. Controlled usability testing was followed by field testing in a real-world context. Data is gathered from video recordings, interaction logs, system usability scale questionnaires, logbooks, application usage logs and interviews structured on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model. The data is analysed to evaluate usability, usefulness and user acceptance. Results show some promise for user adoption, but highlight challenges to be overcome, emphasising personalisation and familiarity as key considerations. The complete findings regarding usability issues, usefulness of support features and four identified adoption profiles are used to provide a set of recommendations for practitioners and further research. These contribute toward UCD practices for improved smart, pervasive AT for dementia. PMID:28008366

  3. Power-Hop: A Pervasive Observation for Real Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Papalexakis, Evangelos; Hooi, Bryan; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been shown to exhibit universal properties, with one of the most consistent patterns being the scale-free degree distribution, but are there regularities obeyed by the r-hop neighborhood in real networks? We answer this question by identifying another power-law pattern that describes the relationship between the fractions of node pairs C(r) within r hops and the hop count r. This scale-free distribution is pervasive and describes a large variety of networks, ranging from social and urban to technological and biological networks. In particular, inspired by the definition of the fractal correlation dimension D2 on a point-set, we consider the hop-count r to be the underlying distance metric between two vertices of the network, and we examine the scaling of C(r) with r. We find that this relationship follows a power-law in real networks within the range 2 ≤ r ≤ d, where d is the effective diameter of the network, that is, the 90-th percentile distance. We term this relationship as power-hop and the corresponding power-law exponent as power-hop exponent h. We provide theoretical justification for this pattern under successful existing network models, while we analyze a large set of real and synthetic network datasets and we show the pervasiveness of the power-hop. PMID:26974560

  4. Pervasive translational regulation of the cell signalling circuitry underlies mammalian development

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kotaro; Shi, Zhen; Zhulyn, Olena; Denans, Nicolas; Barna, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The degree and dynamics of translational control during mammalian development remain poorly understood. Here we monitored translation of the mammalian genome as cells become specified and organize into tissues in vivo. This identified unexpected and pervasive translational regulation of most of the core signalling circuitry including Shh, Wnt, Hippo, PI3K and MAPK pathways. We further identify and functionally characterize a complex landscape of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) across 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) of key signalling components. Focusing on the Shh pathway, we demonstrate the importance of uORFs within the major SHH receptor, Ptch1, in control of cell signalling and neuronal differentiation. Finally, we show that the expression of hundreds of mRNAs underlying critical tissue-specific developmental processes is largely regulated at the translation but not transcript levels. Altogether, this work reveals a new layer of translational control to major signalling components and gene regulatory networks that diversifies gene expression spatially across developing tissues. PMID:28195124

  5. Pervasive and dynamic protein binding sites of the mRNA transcriptome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-RNA interactions are integral components of nearly every aspect of biology, including regulation of gene expression, assembly of cellular architectures, and pathogenesis of human diseases. However, studies in the past few decades have only uncovered a small fraction of the vast landscape of the protein-RNA interactome in any organism, and even less is known about the dynamics of protein-RNA interactions under changing developmental and environmental conditions. Results Here, we describe the gPAR-CLIP (global photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunopurification) approach for capturing regions of the untranslated, polyadenylated transcriptome bound by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in budding yeast. We report over 13,000 RBP crosslinking sites in untranslated regions (UTRs) covering 72% of protein-coding transcripts encoded in the genome, confirming 3' UTRs as major sites for RBP interaction. Comparative genomic analyses reveal that RBP crosslinking sites are highly conserved, and RNA folding predictions indicate that secondary structural elements are constrained by protein binding and may serve as generalizable modes of RNA recognition. Finally, 38% of 3' UTR crosslinking sites show changes in RBP occupancy upon glucose or nitrogen deprivation, with major impacts on metabolic pathways as well as mitochondrial and ribosomal gene expression. Conclusions Our study offers an unprecedented view of the pervasiveness and dynamics of protein-RNA interactions in vivo. PMID:23409723

  6. Developmental Dependencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Researchers have long focused upon the problems of student/adolescent drug use; however, such a limited perspective may actually provide inaccurate information as to the actual nature and extent of total drug use. It may be more appropriate to emphasize a lifespan developmental perspective regarding drug abuse behaviors, insofar as drug use must…

  7. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined.

  8. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  9. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, Fiona; Prior, Cara; Bates, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  10. Collaborative editing within the pervasive collaborative computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-09-11

    Scientific collaborations are established for a wide variety of tasks for which several communication modes are necessary, including messaging, file-sharing, and collaborative editing. In this position paper, we describe our work on the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) which aims to facilitate scientific collaboration within widely distributed environments. The PCCE provides a persistent space in which collaborators can locate each other, exchange messages synchronously and asynchronously and archive conversations. Our current interest is in exploring research and development of shared editing systems with the goal of integrating this technology into the PCCE. We hope to inspire discussion of technology solutions for an integrated approach to synchronous and asynchronous communication and collaborative editing.

  11. Pervasive transcription constitutes a new level of eukaryotic genome regulation

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Julia; Morillon, Antonin

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, it has become increasingly evident that the expression of eukaryotic genomes is far more complex than had been previously noted. The idea that the transcriptome is derived exclusively from protein-coding genes and some specific non-coding RNAs—such as snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs or rRNAs—has been swept away by numerous studies indicating that RNA polymerase II can be found at almost any genomic location. Pervasive transcription is widespread and, far from being a futile process, has a crucial role in controlling gene expression and genomic plasticity. Here, we review recent findings that point to cryptic transcription as a fundamental component of the regulation of eukaryotic genomes. PMID:19680288

  12. Designing an architectural style for Pervasive Healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rafe, Vahid; Hajvali, Masoumeh

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the Pervasive Healthcare (PH) systems are considered as an important research area. These systems have a dynamic structure and configuration. Therefore, an appropriate method for designing such systems is necessary. The Publish/Subscribe Architecture (pub/sub) is one of the convenient architectures to support such systems. PH systems are safety critical; hence, errors can bring disastrous results. To prevent such problems, a powerful analytical tool is required. So using a proper formal language like graph transformation systems for developing of these systems seems necessary. But even if software engineers use such high level methodologies, errors may occur in the system under design. Hence, it should be investigated automatically and formally that whether this model of system satisfies all their requirements or not. In this paper, a dynamic architectural style for developing PH systems is presented. Then, the behavior of these systems is modeled and evaluated using GROOVE toolset. The results of the analysis show its high reliability.

  13. 7SK-BAF axis controls pervasive transcription at enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan A.; Do, Brian T.; Rubin, Adam J.; Calo, Eliezer; Lee, Byron; Kuchelmeister, Hannes; Rale, Michael; Chu, Ci; Kool, Eric T.; Wysocka, Joanna; Khavari, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA functions at enhancers remain mysterious. Here we show that the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA) inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating nucleosome position. 7SK occupies enhancers and super enhancers genome-wide in mouse and human cells, and 7SK is required to limit eRNA initiation and synthesis in a manner distinct from promoter pausing. Clustered elements at super enhancers uniquely require 7SK to prevent convergent transcription and DNA damage signaling. 7SK physically interacts with the BAF chromatin remodeling complex, recruit BAF to enhancers, and inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating chromatin structure. In turn, 7SK occupancy at enhancers coincides with Brd4 and is exquisitely sensitive to the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. Thus, 7SK employs distinct mechanisms to counteract diverse consequences of pervasive transcription that distinguish super enhancers, enhancers, and promoters. PMID:26878240

  14. Lying in the Name of the Collective Good: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Wang, Lingfeng; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental origin of "blue lies", a pervasive form of lying in the adult world that is told purportedly to benefit a collective. Seven, 9-, and 11-year-old Chinese children were surreptitiously placed in a real-life situation where they decided whether to lie to conceal their group's cheating behavior. Children…

  15. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities among People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A.; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we…

  16. Epileptic Encephalopathies and Their Relationship to Developmental Disorders: Do Spikes Cause Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Barry R.

    2004-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies are progressive clinical and electroencephalographic syndromes where deterioration is thought to be caused by frequent seizures and abundant EEG epileptiform activity. Seizures occur in approximately 10-15% of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and 8-10% have epileptiform EEG abnormalities without…

  17. Descriptors of Friendship between Secondary Students with and without Autism or Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from an interpretevist, qualitative study exploring the connections and dynamics of friendship among three groups of secondary school-aged young adults. Each group included an individual with autism or intellectual and developmental disabilities who had extensive or pervasive support needs, and at least one high…

  18. Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Morphological modularity and assessment of developmental processes within the vole dental row (Microtus arvalis, Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Laffont, Rémi; Renvoisé, Elodie; Navarro, Nicolas; Alibert, Paul; Montuire, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of mammalian tooth formation is increasing, through numerous genetic and developmental studies. The prevalence of teeth in fossil remains has led to an intensive description of evolutionary patterns within and among lineages based on tooth morphology. The extent to which developmental processes have influenced tooth morphologies and therefore the role of these processes in these evolutionary patterns are nonetheless challenging. Recent methodological advances have been proposed allowing the inference of developmental processes from adult morphologies and the characterization of the degree of developmental integration/modularity of morphological traits by studying the patterns of variation within and among individuals. This study focuses on the geometric shape of the lower molars of the vole species Microtus arvalis. Our results suggest (i) quasi-independence of each molar at the developmental level (developmental modules), even slightly stronger for the third molar supporting some genetic and developmental hypotheses and (ii) more pervasive integration processes among molars at the morphological level.

  20. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  1. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  2. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1)...

  3. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1)...

  4. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1)...

  5. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a..., levels of public assistance, numbers of persons or families in poverty or similar data. (b)...

  6. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a..., levels of public assistance, numbers of persons or families in poverty or similar data. (b)...

  7. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a..., levels of public assistance, numbers of persons or families in poverty or similar data. (b)...

  8. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1)...

  9. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a..., levels of public assistance, numbers of persons or families in poverty or similar data. (b)...

  10. Pervasive Learning--Using Games to Tear down the Classroom Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pløhn, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive gaming is a new and emerging gaming genre where the physical and social aspects of the real world are integrated into the game and blends into the player's everyday life. Given the nature of pervasive games, it may be possible to use that type of game as a tool to support learning in a university course by providing a gameplay where the…

  11. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Duguleana, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. PMID:26167533

  12. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Duguleana, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems.

  13. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the acquisition of school level arithmetic skills present in approximately 3-6% of the population. At the behavioral level DD is characterized by poor retrieval of arithmetic facts from memory, the use of immature calculation procedures and counting strategies, and the atypical representation and processing of numerical magnitude. At the neural level emerging evidence suggests DD is associated with atypical structure and function in brain regions associated with the representation of numerical magnitude. The current state of knowledge points to a core deficit in numerical magnitude representation in DD, but further work is required to elucidate causal mechanisms underlying the disorder.

  14. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  15. Transcription leads to pervasive replisome instability in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mangiameli, Sarah M; Merrikh, Christopher N; Wiggins, Paul A; Merrikh, Houra

    2017-01-01

    The canonical model of DNA replication describes a highly-processive and largely continuous process by which the genome is duplicated. This continuous model is based upon in vitro reconstitution and in vivo ensemble experiments. Here, we characterize the replisome-complex stoichiometry and dynamics with single-molecule resolution in bacterial cells. Strikingly, the stoichiometries of the replicative helicase, DNA polymerase, and clamp loader complexes are consistent with the presence of only one active replisome in a significant fraction of cells (>40%). Furthermore, many of the observed complexes have short lifetimes (<8 min), suggesting that replisome disassembly is quite prevalent, possibly occurring several times per cell cycle. The instability of the replisome complex is conflict-induced: transcription inhibition stabilizes these complexes, restoring the second replisome in many of the cells. Our results suggest that, in contrast to the canonical model, DNA replication is a largely discontinuous process in vivo due to pervasive replication-transcription conflicts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19848.001 PMID:28092263

  16. Pervasive refusal syndrome. Three German cases provide further illustration.

    PubMed

    Jans, Thomas; Ball, Juliane; Preiss, Maike; Haberhausen, Michael; Warnke, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J

    2011-09-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) has been proposed as a new diagnostic entity among child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by a cluster of life-threatening symptoms including refusal of hood intake, decreased or complete lack of mobilization, and lack of communication as well as retreat from normal life activities. Active refusal to accept help as well as neglect of personal care have been core features of PRS in the limited number of cases reported in the last decade. There have, however; been cases with predominantly passive resistance, indicating the possibility that there may be a continuum from active refusal to passive resistance within PRS. Postulating this continuum allows for the integration of "depressive devitalization" -- a refusal syndrome mainly characterized by passive resistance -- into the concept of PRS. Here, three case vignettes of adolescent patients with PRS are presented. The patients' symptomatology can be allocated on this continuum of PRS. PRS and dissociative disorders are compared in greater detail and contrasted within this discussion of differential diagnoses at the poles of such a continuum. PRS is a useful diagnosis for cases involving symptoms of predominating refusal and retreat which cannot satisfactorily be classified by existing diagnostic categories, and which can mostly clearly be separated from dissociative disorder.

  17. Pervasive upper mantle melting beneath the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hier-Majumder, Saswata; Tauzin, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    We report from converted seismic waves, a pervasive seismically anomalous layer above the transition zone beneath the western US. The layer, characterized by an average shear wave speed reduction of 1.6%, spans over an area of ∼ 1.8 ×106 km2 with thicknesses varying between 25 and 70 km. The location of the layer correlates with the present location of a segment of the Farallon plate. This spatial correlation and the sharp seismic signal atop of the layer indicate that the layer is caused by compositional heterogeneity. Analysis of the seismic signature reveals that the compositional heterogeneity can be ascribed to a small volume of partial melt (0.5 ± 0.2 vol% on average). This article presents the first high resolution map of the melt present within the layer. Despite spatial variations in temperature, the calculated melt volume fraction correlates strongly with the amplitude of P-S conversion throughout the region. Comparing the values of temperature calculated from the seismic signal with available petrological constraints, we infer that melting in the layer is caused by release of volatiles from the subducted Farallon slab. This partially molten zone beneath the western US can sequester at least 1.2 ×1017 kg of volatiles, and can act as a large regional reservoir of volatile species such as H or C.

  18. Nonadaptive radiation: Pervasive diet specialization by drift in scale insects?

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nate B; Peterson, Daniel A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2016-10-01

    At least half of metazoan species are herbivorous insects. Why are they so diverse? Most herbivorous insects feed on few plant species, and adaptive host specialization is often invoked to explain their diversification. Nevertheless, it is possible that the narrow host ranges of many herbivorous insects are nonadaptive. Here, we test predictions of this hypothesis with comparative phylogenetic analyses of scale insects, a group for which there appear to be few host-use trade-offs that would select against polyphagy, and for which passive wind-dispersal should make host specificity costly. We infer a strong positive relationship between host range and diversification rate, and a marked asymmetry in cladogenetic changes in diet breadth. These results are consonant with a system of pervasive nonadaptive host specialization in which small, drift- and extinction-prone populations are frequently isolated from persistent and polyphagous source populations. They also contrast with the negative relationship between diet breadth and taxonomic diversification that has been estimated in butterflies, a disparity that likely stems from differences in the average costs and benefits of host specificity and generalism in scale insects versus butterflies. Our results indicate the potential for nonadaptive processes to be important to diet-breadth evolution and taxonomic diversification across herbivorous insects.

  19. Sensorized Garment Augmented 3D Pervasive Virtual Reality System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulrez, Tauseef; Tognetti, Alessandro; de Rossi, Danilo

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has matured to a point where humans can navigate in virtual scenes; however, providing them with a comfortable fully immersive role in VR remains a challenge. Currently available sensing solutions do not provide ease of deployment, particularly in the seated position due to sensor placement restrictions over the body, and optic-sensing requires a restricted indoor environment to track body movements. Here we present a 52-sensor laden garment interfaced with VR, which offers both portability and unencumbered user movement in a VR environment. This chapter addresses the systems engineering aspects of our pervasive computing solution of the interactive sensorized 3D VR and presents the initial results and future research directions. Participants navigated in a virtual art gallery using natural body movements that were detected by their wearable sensor shirt and then mapped the signals to electrical control signals responsible for VR scene navigation. The initial results are positive, and offer many opportunities for use in computationally intelligentman-machine multimedia control.

  20. Learning from failure in health care: frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, A

    2004-01-01

    The notion that hospitals and medical practices should learn from failures, both their own and others', has obvious appeal. Yet, healthcare organisations that systematically and effectively learn from the failures that occur in the care delivery process, especially from small mistakes and problems rather than from consequential adverse events, are rare. This article explores pervasive barriers embedded in healthcare's organisational systems that make shared or organisational learning from failure difficult and then recommends strategies for overcoming these barriers to learning from failure, emphasising the critical role of leadership. Firstly, leaders must create a compelling vision that motivates and communicates urgency for change; secondly, leaders must work to create an environment of psychological safety that fosters open reporting, active questioning, and frequent sharing of insights and concerns; and thirdly, case study research on one hospital's organisational learning initiative suggests that leaders can empower and support team learning throughout their organisations as a way of identifying, analysing, and removing hazards that threaten patient safety. PMID:15576689

  1. A reliable architectural style for designing pervasive healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Rafe, Vahid; Hajvali, Masoumeh

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of wireless communication technologies opened the way to the definition of innovative e-Health systems aimed at providing a continuous and remote support to patients and new instruments to improve the workflow of the medical personnel. Nowadays, pervasive healthcare systems are a major step in this regard. The safety-critical systems on one hand and their failure in communication (i.e. sending and receiving messages) in other hand may lead to disaster results in the systems. Moreover, the need for high quality services in such systems, and the access to various types of Quality of Services such as reliability in software development has been increasing in the past years. In this paper, firstly we extend the core meta-model of the previously designed style for designing the structures of such systems in order to reach a high level of reliability in messaging. Secondly, their configuration mechanisms in controlling the communicative errors will be modeled using graph transformation rules. Finally, the correctness of the model is analyzed by model checking techniques. The results of the analysis show its high reliability.

  2. Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Sjøvold, Torstein; González-José, Rolando; Santos, Mauro; Hernández, Miquel; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2012-04-01

    It has long been unclear whether the different derived cranial traits of modern humans evolved independently in response to separate selection pressures or whether they resulted from the inherent morphological integration throughout the skull. In a novel approach to this issue, we combine evolutionary quantitative genetics and geometric morphometrics to analyze genetic and phenotypic integration in human skull shape. We measured human skulls in the ossuary of Hallstatt (Austria), which offer a unique opportunity because they are associated with genealogical data. Our results indicate pronounced covariation of traits throughout the skull. Separate simulations of selection for localized shape changes corresponding to some of the principal derived characters of modern human skulls produced outcomes that were similar to each other and involved a joint response in all of these traits. The data for both genetic and phenotypic shape variation were not consistent with the hypothesis that the face, cranial base, and cranial vault are completely independent modules but relatively strongly integrated structures. These results indicate pervasive integration in the human skull and suggest a reinterpretation of the selective scenario for human evolution where the origin of any one of the derived characters may have facilitated the evolution of the others.

  3. Framework of sensor-based monitoring for pervasive patient care.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidis, Andreas K; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Adami, Ilia; Kouroubali, Angelina; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-09-01

    Sensor-based health systems can often become difficult to use, extend and sustain. The authors propose a framework for designing sensor-based health monitoring systems aiming to provide extensible and usable monitoring services in the scope of pervasive patient care. The authors' approach relies on a distributed system for monitoring the patient health status anytime-anywhere and detecting potential health complications, for which healthcare professionals and patients are notified accordingly. Portable or wearable sensing devices measure the patient's physiological parameters, a smart mobile device collects and analyses the sensor data, a Medical Center system receives notifications on the detected health condition, and a Health Professional Platform is used by formal caregivers in order to review the patient condition and configure monitoring schemas. A Service-oriented architecture is utilised to provide extensible functional components and interoperable interactions among the diversified system components. The framework was applied within the REMOTE ambient-assisted living project in which a prototype system was developed, utilising Bluetooth to communicate with the sensors and Web services for data exchange. A scenario of using the REMOTE system and preliminary usability results show the applicability, usefulness and virtue of our approach.

  4. Video summarization and personalization for pervasive mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Lin, Ching-Yung; Smith, John R.

    2001-12-01

    We have designed and implemented a video semantic summarization system, which includes an MPEG-7 compliant annotation interface, a semantic summarization middleware, a real-time MPEG-1/2 video transcoder on PCs, and an application interface on color/black-and-white Palm-OS PDAs. We designed a video annotation tool, VideoAnn, to annotate semantic labels associated with video shots. Videos are first segmentated into shots based on their visual-audio characteristics. They are played back using an interactive interface, which facilitate and fasten the annotation process. Users can annotate the video content with the units of temporal shots or spatial regions. The annotated results are stored in the MPEG-7 XML format. We also designed and implemented a video transmission system, Universal Tuner, for wireless video streaming. This system transcodes MPEG-1/2 videos or live TV broadcasting videos to the BW or indexed color Palm OS devices. In our system, the complexity of multimedia compression and decompression algorithms is adaptively partitioned between the encoder and decoder. In the client end, users can access the summarized video based on their preferences, time, keywords, as well as the transmission bandwidth and the remaining battery power on the pervasive devices.

  5. Pervasive Sound Sensing: A Weakly Supervised Training Approach.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel; Caulfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Modern smartphones present an ideal device for pervasive sensing of human behavior. Microphones have the potential to reveal key information about a person's behavior. However, they have been utilized to a significantly lesser extent than other smartphone sensors in the context of human behavior sensing. We postulate that, in order for microphones to be useful in behavior sensing applications, the analysis techniques must be flexible and allow easy modification of the types of sounds to be sensed. A simplification of the training data collection process could allow a more flexible sound classification framework. We hypothesize that detailed training, a prerequisite for the majority of sound sensing techniques, is not necessary and that a significantly less detailed and time consuming data collection process can be carried out, allowing even a nonexpert to conduct the collection, labeling, and training process. To test this hypothesis, we implement a diverse density-based multiple instance learning framework, to identify a target sound, and a bag trimming algorithm, which, using the target sound, automatically segments weakly labeled sound clips to construct an accurate training set. Experiments reveal that our hypothesis is a valid one and results show that classifiers, trained using the automatically segmented training sets, were able to accurately classify unseen sound samples with accuracies comparable to supervised classifiers, achieving an average F -measure of 0.969 and 0.87 for two weakly supervised datasets.

  6. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J.; Waldie, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  7. [Developmental dyslexia].

    PubMed

    Galaburda, A M; Cestnick, L

    2003-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia makes up an important proportion of the known learning disorders. Until the late 1970s most research on dyslexia was carried out by educators and educational psychologists, but soon after the publication of some dyslexic cases with focal disorders of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex, interest in the neurobiological and neurocognitive underpinnings of dyslexia grew, especially in Europe and North America. There are at least two types of developmental dyslexia--phonological and surface. Surface dyslexia refers to a disorder in which the difficulty lies in reading irregular words, whereas phonological dyslexia is characterized by difficulty with pseudowords. Phonological dyslexia is the more common of the two types. Surface dyslexia does not present a major problem in a language such as Spanish, where the number of irregular words is indeed very small. Still, in languages such as English, where irregular words are common, the phonological type of developmental dyslexia is much more common. Phonologic dyslexics have problems with phonological awareness, that is, the conscious knowledge and manipulation of speech sounds, which is the most proximate explanation for their difficulty in reading pseudowords. Many, but not all, phonologic dyslexics also have problems processing rapidly changing sounds, even if not linguistic, and some slow sounds, too. The same group tends to have visual problems, especially involving the so-called magnocellular pathway of the visual system, which, among others, has the role of analyzing movement. Accompanying these perceptual and cognitive deficits, phonologic dyslexics also show abnormal brain activation to phonological tasks, as shown in functional magnetic resonance studies (figure). In addition, dyslexic brains show focal malformations, ectopias and microgyria, of the cerebral cortex, involving mainly the left perisylvian region and the word form area in the temporo-occipital junction. There are also

  8. Low Cost Intelligent Pervasive Location Tracking (iPLOT) in All Environments for the Management of Crime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer; Ochieng, Washington; Walsh, David; Brodin, Gary; Kemp, Andy; Cooper, John; Son Le, Thanh

    2006-05-01

    This paper details the current status of the development of an ‘automatic’ low-cost system based on wireless communications technology to provide continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. This task requires a multi-disciplinary approach combining communications systems design, digital signal processing to extract ranges and, importantly, approaches from the field of geodesy to develop novel network positioning techniques for ad-hoc networks. Such a network will support a number of services relevant to crime management where seamless tracking is required. The paper discusses the process for developing the system, christened intelligent pervasive location tracking (iPLOT), with a particular reference to user and system requirements, and how these have been used to explore a network positioning strategy.

  9. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  10. Evidence for Pervasive Cold Climates Throughout Most of Mars History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2004-05-01

    Evidence from a variety of sources suggests that Mars has a significant water inventory. However, it appears that this inventory has been frozen throughout much of Mars history. Infrared spectral mapping by the TES and THEMIS orbital instruments has shown that the martian surface is dominated by unweathered volcanic rocks, including olivine-rich basalts in numerous areas. THEMIS 100-m scale multispectral imaging reveals compositional variations at these scales. However these compositional differences are due to differences in the composition of igneous materials. Regions of high (~20 percent) olivine abundance basalts have been mapped at the scales of individual flows and rock layers, including exposures at multiple layers with the Valles Marineris system, demonstrating that large regions of Mars have not experienced significant surface or sub-surface water at any time in their history. THEMIS has not detected mineralogical evidence for carbonate rock layers at 100-m scales, despite the discovery by the MGS TES of minor carbonate in the martian dust. The existing carbonates can be produced by surface-atmosphere interactions, without requiring the presence and erosion of a carbonate rock source. THEMIS imaging has, however, shown evidence for extensive ice deposits in the mid- to high-latitude regions, some of which show evidence for recent downslope flow. These mantles preferentially occur on pole-facing slopes in mid-latitudes and are interpreted to be remnants of once-extensive snows deposited during recent periods of high obliquity. Melting of these deposits during intervening warmer periods may form the young gullies that are also observed at these latitudes. A pervasive surface mantle found from 30 to 50o in both hemispheres has been interpreted by Mustard et al. (2001) to result from ice-cemented soils that have formed recently and are currently being devolatilized. The poleward transition from a dissected to continuous surface on this mantle corresponds to a

  11. Developmental trajectory of time perspective: From children to older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Chen, Xing-Jie; Wang, Ya

    2016-12-01

    Time perspective is a fundamental dimension of the psychological time construct, with a pervasive and powerful influence on human behavior. However, the developmental trajectory of time perspective across a human lifespan remains unclear. The current study aimed to portray the developmental trajectory of all dimensions of time perspectives from children to older adults in a large sample. A total of 1,901 individuals (aged 9-84 years) completed measures of time perspective. They were then divided into five age groups: children, teenagers, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Results suggested that each time perspective showed a unique developmental pattern across the lifespan. Moreover, perceived economic situation and education were related to some dimensions of time perspective.

  12. Towards Distributed Service Discovery in Pervasive Computing Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    applications to discover remote services residing on stable networked machines in the wired network . Some of these protocols (e.g. UPnP) can also be... network . The mobility of the nodes was assumed to follow random-waypoint [26] pattern. We used an application layer packet generation function to generate...Traditional P2P networks derive basic boot-strap support from some trusted hosts that are robust and available. We cannot assume such support in an ad-hoc

  13. Distorting Value Added: The Use of Longitudinal, Vertically Scaled Student Achievement Data for Growth-Based, Value-Added Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martineau, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal, student performance-based, value-added accountability models have become popular of late and continue to enjoy increasing popularity. Such models require student data to be vertically scaled across wide grade and developmental ranges so that the value added to student growth/achievement by teachers, schools, and districts may be…

  14. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves.

    PubMed

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A; Stahler, Daniel R; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cole, Steven W; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species' high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging.

  15. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  16. Challenges in Securing the Interface Between the Cloud and Pervasive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing presents an opportunity for pervasive systems to leverage computational and storage resources to accomplish tasks that would not normally be possible on such resource-constrained devices. Cloud computing can enable hardware designers to build lighter systems that last longer and are more mobile. Despite the advantages cloud computing offers to the designers of pervasive systems, there are some limitations of leveraging cloud computing that must be addressed. We take the position that cloud-based pervasive system must be secured holistically and discuss ways this might be accomplished. In this paper, we discuss a pervasive system utilizing cloud computing resources and issues that must be addressed in such a system. In this system, the user's mobile device cannot always have network access to leverage resources from the cloud, so it must make intelligent decisions about what data should be stored locally and what processes should be run locally. As a result of these decisions, the user becomes vulnerable to attacks while interfacing with the pervasive system.

  17. Use of a Direct Observational Measure in a Trial of Risperidone and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Lecavalier, Luc; Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James A.; White, Susan W.; Bearss, Karen; Hollway, Jill A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Dziura, James; Yu, Sunkyung; Sacco, Kelley; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2013-01-01

    A Structured Observational Analog Procedure (SOAP), an analogue measure of parent-child interactions, was used to assess treatment outcome in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and serious behavior problems. It served as a secondary outcome measure in a 24-week, randomized trial of risperidone (MED; N=49) versus risperidone plus parent training (COMB; n=75) (ages 4–13 years). At 24-weeks, there was 28 % reduction in child inappropriate behavior during a Demand Condition (p=.0002) and 12 % increase in compliance to parental requests (p=.004) for the two treatment conditions combined. Parents displayed 64 % greater use of positive reinforcement (p=.001) and fewer repeated requests for compliance (p<.0001). In the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), COMB parents used significantly more positive reinforcement (p=.01) and fewer restrictive statements (p<.05) than MED parents. The SOAP is sensitive to change in child and parent behavior as a function of risperidone alone and in combination with PMT and can serve as a valuable complement to parent and clinician-based measures. PMID:23730123

  18. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  19. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  20. Effects of a Weighted Vest on Problem Behaviors during Functional Analyses in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Shawn P.; Peterson, Lloyd; Frieder, Jessica E.; Peterson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Weighted vests are a specific form of Sensory Integration Therapy (SIT) (Honaker, 2005a) that are intended to help individuals resolve sensory related issues thereby decreasing the symptoms (e.g., hyperness, lack of attention, etc.) of the sensory issue and are also often recommended as an intervention for problem behaviors exhibited by children…

  1. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancementof Social Skills Training in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    psychiatric history, as well as a complete physical and mental status exam . This included a detailed history of previous psychotropic drug...0.87). Finally, only one serious adverse event (one instance of making a suicidal comment at school when angry) was reported in the placebo group. 3...only one serious adverse event (one instance of making a suicidal comment at school when angry) was reported in the placebo group. Insert Table 5

  2. Secretin Is an Ineffective Treatment for Pervasive Developmental Disabilities: A Review of 15 Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, Horvath et al. [Horvath, K., Stefanatos, G., Sokolski, K. N., Wachtel, R., Nabors, L., & Tildon, J. T. (1998). Improved social and language skills after secretin administration in patients with autism spectrum disorders. "Journal of the Association of the Academy of Minority Physicians," 9, 9-15] reported an uncontrolled…

  3. Commentary: Considerations on the Pharmacological Treatment of Compulsions and Stereotypies with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses study results that indicate the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) clomipramine is more efficacious than the relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine and placebo in treating repetitive or ritualized behaviors in children with autism. The need for concurrent genetic and biochemical…

  4. Use of a Direct Observational Measure in a Trial of Risperidone and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Handen, Benjamin L; Johnson, Cynthia R; Butter, Eric M; Lecavalier, Luc; Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J; Arnold, L Eugene; Swiezy, Naomi B; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Mulick, James A; White, Susan W; Bearss, Karen; Hollway, Jill A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Dziura, James; Yu, Sunkyung; Sacco, Kelley; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2013-06-01

    A Structured Observational Analog Procedure (SOAP), an analogue measure of parent-child interactions, was used to assess treatment outcome in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and serious behavior problems. It served as a secondary outcome measure in a 24-week, randomized trial of risperidone (MED; N=49) versus risperidone plus parent training (COMB; n=75) (ages 4-13 years). At 24-weeks, there was 28 % reduction in child inappropriate behavior during a Demand Condition (p=.0002) and 12 % increase in compliance to parental requests (p=.004) for the two treatment conditions combined. Parents displayed 64 % greater use of positive reinforcement (p=.001) and fewer repeated requests for compliance (p<.0001). In the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), COMB parents used significantly more positive reinforcement (p=.01) and fewer restrictive statements (p<.05) than MED parents. The SOAP is sensitive to change in child and parent behavior as a function of risperidone alone and in combination with PMT and can serve as a valuable complement to parent and clinician-based measures.

  5. Autism and Attachment: An Attachment-Based Intervention Guide for Children with Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulice, Pat

    This guide presents methods for promoting integrated development in autistic children, through the use of attachment-based activities. The first section reviews the literature on autism, including its etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and attachment research. The second section describes the Minneapolis Children's Medical Center program, called…

  6. Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

  7. Review of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-like symptoms in children and adolescents with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Brieana M; Findling, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that contribute to difficulties in psychosocial functioning are frequently able to be addressed by pharmacotherapy. This article reviews what is known about the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from developmental disorders and comorbid ADHD/ADHD-like symptoms.

  8. Pervasive generation of oppositely oriented spacers during CRISPR adaptation.

    PubMed

    Shmakov, Sergey; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Semenova, Ekaterina; Logacheva, Maria D; Datsenko, Kirill A; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-05-01

    During the process of prokaryotic CRISPR adaptation, a copy of a segment of foreign deoxyribonucleic acid referred to as protospacer is added to the CRISPR cassette and becomes a spacer. When a protospacer contains a neighboring target interference motif, the specific small CRISPR ribonucleic acid (crRNA) transcribed from expanded CRISPR cassette can protect a prokaryotic cell from virus infection or plasmid transformation and conjugation. We show that in Escherichia coli, a vast majority of plasmid protospacers generate spacers integrated in CRISPR cassette in two opposing orientations, leading to frequent appearance of complementary spacer pairs in a population of cells that underwent CRISPR adaptation. When a protospacer contains a spacer acquisition motif AAG, spacer orientation that generates functional protective crRNA is strongly preferred. All other protospacers give rise to spacers oriented in both ways at comparable frequencies. This phenomenon increases the repertoire of available spacers and should make it more likely that a protective crRNA is formed as a result of CRISPR adaptation.

  9. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  10. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  11. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  12. Behaviour and Emotional Problems in Toddlers with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Developmental Delay: Associations with Parental Mental Health and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, S.; Gray, K.; Taffe, J.; Tonge, B.; Sweeney, D.; Einfeld, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural and emotional problems occur at a high rate in children and adolescents with intellectual disability, often from a young age. Some studies have indicated that children and adolescents with autism present with even higher rates. Less is known about the presentation, development and family impact of these difficulties in…

  13. The Pervasiveness of 1/f Scaling in Speech Reflects the Metastable Basis of Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Christopher T.; Anderson, Gregory G.; Holden, John G.; Van Orden, Guy C.

    2008-01-01

    Human neural and behavioral activities have been reported to exhibit fractal dynamics known as "1/f noise," which is more aptly named "1/f scaling." Some argue that 1/f scaling is a general and pervasive property of the dynamical substrate from which cognitive functions are formed. Others argue that it is an idiosyncratic property of…

  14. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment...) Unemployment. Unemployment is demonstrated by: (1) The most recent data available indicating that the...

  15. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment...) Unemployment. Unemployment is demonstrated by: (1) The most recent data available indicating that the...

  16. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment...) Unemployment. Unemployment is demonstrated by: (1) The most recent data available indicating that the...

  17. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment...) Unemployment. Unemployment is demonstrated by: (1) The most recent data available indicating that the...

  18. The Pervasiveness and Impact of Electronic Communication Technologies in Organizations: A Survey of Major American Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.; And Others

    A survey of the Fortune 500 corporations was conducted to ascertain the pervasiveness and perceived impact of five electronic communication technologies (electronic mail, videotex, interactive computers, video teleconferencing, and word processing). Ninety-four corporations responded to a 53-item questionnaire and follow-up survey. Analysis of the…

  19. Developing Online Learning Resources: Big Data, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing to Support Pervasive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing online learning resources (OLR) from multi channels in learning activities promise extended benefits from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred that emphasises pervasive learning anywhere and anytime. While compiling big data, cloud computing, and semantic web into OLR offer a broader spectrum of…

  20. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  1. Pervasive Knowledge, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing: E-Learning 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2015-01-01

    Embedding Web 2.0 in learning processes has extended learning from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred institution that emphasises learning anywhere and anytime. While deploying Semantic Web into e-learning offers a broader spectrum of pervasive knowledge acquisition to enrich users' experience in learning.…

  2. Understanding Pervasive Language Impairment in Young Children: Exploring Patterns in Narrative Language and Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Anna Jeddeloh

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…

  3. The Pervasiveness and Impact of Corporate Quality Circles: A Survey of Major American Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.; And Others

    To assess the pervasiveness of quality circles in American corporations, as well as to ascertain perceptions of their impact in terms of various organizational outcomes, a 45-item questionnaire was mailed to personnel directors of the Fortune 500 corporations. Some time after the initial mailing, a follow-up mailing was executed to maximize the…

  4. Curiosity, Interest and Engagement in Technology-Pervasive Learning Environments: A New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.; Chauncey, Sarah A.; McKenna, H. Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for developing new ways to study curiosity in the context of today's pervasive technologies and unprecedented information access. Curiosity is defined in this paper in a way which incorporates the concomitant constructs of interest and engagement. A theoretical model for curiosity, interest and engagement in new…

  5. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  6. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  7. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  8. The fission yeast CENP-B protein Abp1 prevents pervasive transcription of repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Daulny, Anne; Mejía-Ramírez, Eva; Reina, Oscar; Rosado-Lugo, Jesus; Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Auer, Herbert; Zaratiegui, Mikel; Azorin, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed producing cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). However, the mechanisms regulating pervasive transcription are not well understood. Here, we report that the fission yeast CENP-B homolog Abp1 plays an important role in preventing pervasive transcription. We show that loss of abp1 results in the accumulation of CUTs, which are targeted for degradation by the exosome pathway. These CUTs originate from different types of genomic features, but the highest increase corresponds to Tf2 retrotransposons and rDNA repeats, where they map along the entire elements. In the absence of abp1, increased RNAPII-Ser5P occupancy is observed throughout the Tf2 coding region and, unexpectedly, RNAPII-Ser5P is enriched at rDNA repeats. Loss of abp1 also results in Tf2 derepression and increased nucleolus size. Altogether these results suggest that Abp1 prevents pervasive RNAPII transcription of repetitive DNA elements (i.e., Tf2 and rDNA repeats) from internal cryptic sites.

  9. Mobile Autonomous Sensing Unit (MASU): A Framework That Supports Distributed Pervasive Data Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Esunly; Lopez, David; Meseguer, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Royo, Dolors; Santos, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive data sensing is a major issue that transverses various research areas and application domains. It allows identifying people’s behaviour and patterns without overwhelming the monitored persons. Although there are many pervasive data sensing applications, they are typically focused on addressing specific problems in a single application domain, making them difficult to generalize or reuse. On the other hand, the platforms for supporting pervasive data sensing impose restrictions to the devices and operational environments that make them unsuitable for monitoring loosely-coupled or fully distributed work. In order to help address this challenge this paper present a framework that supports distributed pervasive data sensing in a generic way. Developers can use this framework to facilitate the implementations of their applications, thus reducing complexity and effort in such an activity. The framework was evaluated using simulations and also through an empirical test, and the obtained results indicate that it is useful to support such a sensing activity in loosely-coupled or fully distributed work scenarios. PMID:27409617

  10. Instructional Technology in Appalachian Kentucky 1929-2011: Countering the Pervasive Narrative of Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleton, Kimberely Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    The prevalent public narrative based on Roger's (2003) model of innovation diffusion categorizes teachers as laggards; rigidly entrenched in outdated practices and unwilling to change. As new instructional technologies failed to be adopted into classrooms, this public narrative served as a pervasive explanation, widely accepted as characteristic…

  11. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  12. A Learning Outcome-Oriented Approach towards Classifying Pervasive Games for Learning Using Game Design Patterns and Contextual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Birgit; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Mobile and in particular pervasive games are a strong component of future scenarios for teaching and learning. Based on results from a previous review of practical papers, this work explores the educational potential of pervasive games for learning by analysing underlying game mechanisms. In order to determine and classify cognitive and affective…

  13. Developmental Stages in Dynamic Plant Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Waters, Geoff; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    During the growth of red beet plants in a closed environment plant growth chamber, a change in metabolism was observed (decreasing photosynthetic quotient) which was not predicted by a previously developed simple dynamic model of photosynthesis and respiration reactions. The incorporation of developmental stages into the model allowed for the representation of this change in metabolism without adding unnecessary complexity. Developmental stages were implemented by dividing the model into two successive sub-models with independent yields. The transition between the phases was detected based on online measurements. Results showed an accurate prediction of carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes.

  14. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  15. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  16. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  17. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  18. Creating Innovative Solutions for Future Hotel Rooms with Intelligent Multimedia and Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, Nalin K.

    Pervasive computing and intelligent multimedia technologies are becoming increasingly important to the modern way of living. However, many of their potential applications have not been fully realized yet. This chapter explores how innovative applications can be developed to meet the needs of the next generation hotels. Futuristic hotel rooms aim to be more than “home-away-from-home,” and as a consequence, offer tremendous opportunities for developing innovative applications of pervasive computing and intelligent multimedia. Next generation hotels will make increased use of technology products to attract new customers. High end TV screens, changeable room ambiance, biometric guest recognition, and electronic check-in facilities are some of the features already being implemented by some hotels. Entirely futuristic hotels in the sea, the stratosphere or the outer space, are also being proposed. All of these provide many novel opportunities for developing innovative solutions using intelligent multimedia and ubiquitous computing.

  19. Towards a flexible middleware for context-aware pervasive and wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Muro, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Conte, Gianni

    2012-11-01

    Ambient intelligence and wearable computing call for innovative hardware and software technologies, including a highly capable, flexible and efficient middleware, allowing for the reuse of existing pervasive applications when developing new ones. In the considered application domain, middleware should also support self-management, interoperability among different platforms, efficient communications, and context awareness. In the on-going "everything is networked" scenario scalability appears as a very important issue, for which the peer-to-peer (P2P) paradigm emerges as an appealing solution for connecting software components in an overlay network, allowing for efficient and balanced data distribution mechanisms. In this paper, we illustrate how all these concepts can be placed into a theoretical tool, called networked autonomic machine (NAM), implemented into a NAM-based middleware, and evaluated against practical problems of pervasive computing.

  20. [Rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiu-jin; Wang, Zhen-xin; Dai, Xiao-min; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2006-06-01

    Application of controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers can improve the efficiency of fertilizers and reduce the environmental pollution. Controlled-release urea (coated urea) is one of the controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers developed quickly in the recent years. The rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane is the most important index of the capacity of controlled release. There is a maximum absorption at lambda=426 nm with complex in acidic solution, using p-dimethylaminozenzaldehyde as color reagent, and the absorbance exhibits a linear reponses to the urea concentration over the range of 7.5-210 microg x mL(-1). The method for determining the rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane was realized through determining the content of urea in the liquor, the recovery efficiency of the method is 96.1%-103.9%.

  1. Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Cooperative Environments in a Global Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajah, Kirusnapillai; Speirs, Neil

    The increasing number of devices that are invisibly embedded into our surrounding environment as well as the proliferation of wireless communication and sensing technologies are the basis for visions like ambient intelligence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. In this context, the objective of PECES EU project is the creation of a comprehensive software layer to enable the seamless cooperation of embedded devices across various smart spaces on a global scale in a context-dependent, secure and trustworthy manner.

  2. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  3. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  4. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  5. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  6. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  7. Autism in community pre-schoolers: developmental profiles.

    PubMed

    Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-09-01

    Autism is often a complex developmental disorder. The aim of the present study was to describe the developmental characteristics of 129 1-4-year-old children (102 boys, 27 girls) referred for clinical assessment (mean age 2.9 years) due to suspicion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) after community screening at Child Health Care centers. All children were clinically assessed at the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic (CNC) in Gothenburg by a research team (neurodevelopmental examination, structured interviews and general cognitive and language examinations). Of the 129 children, 100 met diagnostic criteria for ASD (69 with autistic disorder, and 31 with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified). The remaining 29 children had a variety of developmental disorders, most often attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), language disorder, borderline intellectual functioning, and intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) with (n=25) or without (n=4) autistic traits (AT). IDD was found in 36% of the 100 children with ASD, and in 4% of the 25 children with AT. Of the children with ASD, 56% had language disorder with no or just a few words at the initial assessment at the CNC, many of whom in combination with IDD. Hyperactivity was found in 37% of those with ASD and in 40% of those with AT. Epilepsy was found in 6% of the total group and in 7% of those with a diagnosis of ASD. Of the latter group 11% had a history of regression, while none of the AT cases had a similar background. When results were compared with a non-screened preschool ASD group of 208 children, referred for ASD intervention at a mean age of 3.4 years, very similar developmental profiles were seen. In conclusion, early community ASD screening appears to systematically identify those children who are in need of intervention and follow-up.

  8. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  9. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed.

  10. The Growth of Complexity and Accuracy in L2 French: Past Observations and Recent Applications of Developmental Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agren, Malin; Granfeldt, Jonas; Schlyter, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question of the growth of accuracy and complexity in L2 French from the perspective of developmental sequences of morphosyntax, developmental stages and linguistic profiling. The six developmental stages for L2 French proposed by Bartning and Schlyter (2004) are presented and exemplified and new results are added to the…

  11. Developmental Profiles of Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders Identified Prospectively in a Community-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal, study charted the developmental profiles of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) identified through routine developmental surveillance. 109 children with Autistic Disorder (AD), "broader" ASD, and developmental and/or language delays (DD/LD) were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning…

  12. [Outreach clinic program at elementary schools to support students with developmental disabilities].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yuji; Niimi, Taemi; Ishida, Shuichi

    2010-07-01

    In an attempt to support children with developmental disabilities, a pediatric neurologist and a special support education coordinator visited 13 elementary schools over a period of two years to hold consultation with teachers who were educating pupils with learning and behavior problems. A total of 36 cases were discussed. Among these, 16 children (44%) had already received a medical examination before our visit, and 10 children (28%) consulted a doctor afterwards. The behavioral problems of 20 cases were suggested to stem from pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). We observed that 4.3% of children had learning skill problems, and 2.6% of children had difficulties controlling their behavior in ordinary elementary school classes. We also enlightened teachers about the prognosis of developmental disabilities and how to best handle them. In conclusion, cooperation between medical and educational staffs is important for adequate treatment, education, and prevention of morbid emotional disorders.

  13. Developmental variations in the impact of intimate partner violence exposure during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Kathryn H.; Barnes, Sarah E.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive problem impacting individuals around the globe. The consequences of IPV extend beyond the adults in the relationship, as children witness a significant proportion of such violence. Exposure to IPV during childhood has devastating effects across multiple domains of functioning. Methods: This article reviews empirical studies of the effects of exposure to IPV by developmental stage. Results: The psychological, social, physical, and cognitive consequences of witnessing IPV are examined across development; from the impact of prenatal exposure to effects in infancy and toddlerhood, the preschool years, school-aged children, and adolescence. Conclusions: The review concludes by providing suggestions for future research based on the identified developmental variations, recommendations for developmentally-sensitive interventions for children who have witnessed IPV, and directions for policy to address the issue of violence exposure early in the lives of children. PMID:26804945

  14. The transition experience of developmentally impaired young adults living in a structured apartment setting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Geraldine S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to identify the lived experience of young adults with a history of pervasive developmental disorder and associated difficulties with aggressive behavior transitioning into independent living through a transitional apartment program. Nine men and 1 woman, aged 18 to 24 years, were interviewed. Nine were interviewed in their apartment, and 1 was interviewed in an adjacent staff office. Individuals were dealing with normative transition issues of adolescence compounded by significant developmental and psychiatric impairments that tended to delay their developmental trajectories. Themes of poor physical health and loss were identified. The research emphasized the need for individually tailored transition services based on needs and level of disability.

  15. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... with visual or fine motor coordination (for example, writing, using scissors, tying shoelaces, or tapping one finger ... take notes may help children who have trouble writing. Children with developmental coordination disorder are more likely ...

  16. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  17. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  18. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals. PMID:22294880

  19. Automatically augmenting lifelog events using pervasively generated content from millions of people.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Aiden R; Smeaton, Alan F

    2010-01-01

    In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor's output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one's life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with "Web 2.0" content collected by millions of other individuals.

  20. The Schooling Experience of Adolescent Boys with AD/HD: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Kathryn; Mercer, K. Louise; Carrington, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experience of schooling of six adolescent boys diagnosed with AD/HD from the perspectives of the boys, their mothers and their teachers. The study utilised social constructionism as the theoretical orientation and the Dynamic Developmental Theory (DDT) of AD/HD as the explanatory framework. Utilising a multiple,…

  1. Neurocognitive accounts of developmental dyscalculia and its remediation.

    PubMed

    Iuculano, T

    2016-01-01

    Numbers are one of the most pervasive stimulus categories in our environment and an integral foundation of modern society. Yet, up to 20% of individuals fail to understand, represent, and manipulate numbers and form the basis of arithmetic, a condition termed developmental dyscalculia (DD). Multiple cognitive and neural systems including those that serve numerical, mnemonic, visuospatial, and cognitive control functions have independently been implicated in the etiology of DD, yet most studies have not taken a comprehensive or dynamic view of the disorder. This chapter supports the view of DD as a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that is the result of multiple aberrancies at one or multiple levels of the information processing hierarchy, which supports successful arithmetic learning, and suggests that interventions should target all these systems to achieve successful outcomes, at the behavioral and neural levels.

  2. CHEMICAL PRIORITIZATION FOR DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Defining a predictive model of developmental toxicity from in vitro and high-throughput screening (HTS) assays can be limited by the availability of developmental defects data. ToxRefDB (www.epa.gov/ncct/todrefdb) was built from animal studies on data-rich environmental chemicals, and has been used as an anchor for predictive modeling of ToxCast™ data. Scaling to thousands of untested chemicals requires another approach. ToxPlorer™ was developed as a tool to query and extract specific facts about defined biological entities from the open scientific literature and to coherently synthesize relevant knowledge about relationships, pathways and processes in toxicity. Here, we investigated the specific application of ToxPlorer to weighting HTS assay targets for relevance to developmental defects as defined in the literature. First, we systemically analyzed 88,193 Pubmed abstracts selected by bulk query using harmonized terminology for 862 developmental endpoints (www.devtox.net) and 364,334 dictionary term entities in our VT-KB (virtual tissues knowledgebase). We specifically focused on entities corresponding to genes/proteins mapped across of >500 ToxCast HTS assays. The 88,193 devtox abstracts mentioned 244 gene/protein entities in an aggregated total of ~8,000 occurrences. Each of the 244 assays was scored and weighted by the number of devtox articles and relevance to developmental processes. This score was used as a feature for chemical prioritization by Toxic

  3. Follow-up study of four cases of pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Suzy; Reid, Corrine; Rao, Sushma; Grahame, Victoria; Kaplan, Carole

    2011-05-01

    The term pervasive refusal syndrome was first mentioned in a paper detailing a sample study of four children by Bryan Lask and colleagues in 1991. This article presents a sample of four children diagnosed with Pervasive Refusal Syndrome, three girls and a boy, seen within a specialist NHS inpatient unit in the North East of England, and describes the main features presented. The main focus of the article will be on long-term prognosis and outcome in relation to day to day functioning and activities. Each of the cases has been followed up once at an interval of between 3 and 16 years after discharge, and the outcomes are presented here. Results suggest that two of the young people with PRS made a complete recovery in the long term, that one was impaired by anorexia nervosa at follow-up, and the remaining young person was reluctant to be interviewed, so it is unclear how well she has maintained her initial discharge recovery.

  4. Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Judy; Banko, Katherine M.; Pierce, W. David

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in psychology and education is that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation to perform activities. Over the past 30 years, more than 100 experimental studies have been conducted on this topic. In 1994, Cameron and Pierce conducted a meta-analysis of this literature and concluded that negative effects of reward were limited and could be easily prevented in applied settings. A more recent meta-analysis of the literature by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) shows pervasive negative effects of reward. The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations. Our results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task. Rewards given for low-interest tasks enhance free-choice intrinsic motivation. On high-interest tasks, verbal rewards produce positive effects on free-choice motivation and self-reported task interest. Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance. When rewards are linked to level of performance, measures of intrinsic motivation increase or do not differ from a nonrewarded control group. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are addressed. PMID:22478353

  5. The pervasive nature of unconscious social information processing in executive control

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans not only have impressive executive abilities, but we are also fundamentally social creatures. In the cognitive neuroscience literature, it has long been assumed that executive control mechanisms, which play a critical role in guiding goal-directed behavior, operate on consciously processed information. Although more recent evidence suggests that unconsciously processed information can also influence executive control, most of this literature has focused on visual masked priming paradigms. However, the social psychological literature has demonstrated that unconscious influences are pervasive, and social information can unintentionally influence a wide variety of behaviors, including some that are likely to require executive abilities. For example, social information can unconsciously influence attention processes, such that simply instructing participants to describe a previous situation in which they had power over someone or someone else had power over them has been shown to unconsciously influence their attentional focus abilities, a key aspect of executive control. In the current review, we consider behavioral and neural findings from a variety of paradigms, including priming of goals and social hierarchical roles, as well as interpersonal interactions, in order to highlight the pervasive nature of social influences on executive control. These findings suggest that social information can play a critical role in executive control, and that this influence often occurs in an unconscious fashion. We conclude by suggesting further avenues of research for investigation of the interplay between social factors and executive control. PMID:22557956

  6. Simulating the pervasive fracture and fragmentation of materials and structures using randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations.

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Joseph E.

    2008-09-01

    Under extreme loading conditions most often the extent of material and structural fracture is pervasive in the sense that a multitude of cracks are nucleating, propagating in arbitrary directions, coalescing, and branching. Pervasive fracture is a highly nonlinear process involving complex material constitutive behavior, material softening, localization, surface generation, and ubiquitous contact. Two primary applications in which pervasive fracture is encountered are (1) weapons effects on structures and (2) geomechanics of highly jointed and faulted reservoirs. A pure Lagrangian computational method based on randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations is proposed as a rational approach for simulating the pervasive fracture of materials and structures. Each Voronoi cell is formulated as a finite element using the reproducing kernel method. Fracture surfaces are allowed to nucleate only at the intercell faces. The randomly seeded Voronoi cells provide an unbiased network for representing cracks. In this initial study two approaches for allowing the new surfaces to initiate are studied: (1) dynamic mesh connectivity and the instantaneous insertion of a cohesive traction when localization is detected, and (2) a discontinuous Galerkin approach in which the interelement tractions are an integral part of the variational formulation, but only become active once localization is detected. Pervasive fracture problems are extremely sensitive to initial conditions and system parameters. Dynamic problems exhibit a form of transient chaos. The primary numerical challenge for this class of problems is the demonstration of model objectivity and, in particular, the identification and demonstration of a measure of convergence for engineering quantities of interest.

  7. Apomixis: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Koltunow, Anna M; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2003-01-01

    The term apomixis encompasses a suite of processes whereby seeds form asexually in plants. In contrast to sexual reproduction, seedlings arising from apomixis retain the genotype of the maternal parent. The transfer of apomixis and its effective utilization in crop plants (where it is largely absent) has major advantages in agriculture. The hallmark components of apomixis include female gamete formation without meiosis (apomeiosis), fertilization-independent embryo development (parthenogenesis), and developmental adaptations to ensure functional endosperm formation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis, a developmentally fascinating phenomenon in plants, is critical for the successful induction and utilization of apomixis in crop plants. This review draws together knowledge gained from analyzing ovule, embryo, and endosperm development in sexual and apomictic plants. It consolidates the view that apomixis and sexuality are closely interrelated developmental pathways where apomixis can be viewed as a deregulation of the sexual process in both time and space.

  8. Environmental risk factors and the developmental basis for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Nasser H; Basha, M Riyaz

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical manifestations appear in old age. The hallmark pathological features of AD (amyloid plaques and associated proteins) are present in normal aging indivduals, suggesting that AD may result from the acceleration of normal age-related processes in the brain. The sporadic nature of most AD cases strongly argues for an environmental link that may drive AD pathogenesis; however, it is unclear when this environmental stress may occur. Therefore it is important to identify an environmental trigger(s) and to pinpoint the period during which such factors pose the greatest risk. Recently, we reported that developmental exposure of rats to the xenobiotic metal lead (Pb) resulted in a delayed overexpression (20 months later) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its amyloidogenic Abeta product. Similarly, aged monkeys exposed to Pb as infants also responded in the same way. These data suggest that environmental influences occurring during brain development predetermine the expression and regulation of APP later in life, potentially influencing the course of amyloidogenesis, and argue for both an environmental trigger and a developmental origin of AD. In this review, we present evidence for the developmental basis of neurodegeneration and discuss mechanisms that may explain how perturbations during development can have long-term or delayed consequences in the aging brain.

  9. Applied Developmental Science, Social Justice, and Socio-Political Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…

  10. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  11. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  12. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  13. Developmental disorders of vision.

    PubMed

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  14. Hypothalamic hamartoma, precocious puberty and gelastic seizures: a special model of "epileptic" developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Deonna, T; Ziegler, A L

    2000-03-01

    Based on a review of the literature and a detailed longitudinal single case study of a child with early onset gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma, the authors review the arguments suggesting that the acquired cognitive and behavioral symptoms seen in the majority of cases of this special epileptic syndrome result from a direct effect of the seizures. The early neurobehavioral profile of the case presented in this paper and that of a previous study is particular and combines features of a pervasive developmental and an attention deficit disorder which are probably closely related to the particular location of the epilepsy and its spread from the hypothalamus.

  15. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work provides a brief review of basic concepts in developmental neurotoxicology, as well as current representative testing guidelines for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of xenobiotics. Historically, DNT was initially recognized as a “functional” teratoge...

  16. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  17. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  18. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  19. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  20. Trends in Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David

    This paper contains an overview of policy decisions being made at the state and national levels about learning assistance activities in higher education and developmental education. The principles driving those decisions are also outlined. Some policymakers want to fine the high schools from which under prepared students have graduated; others…

  1. Proposal: Developmental Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Phoebe

    Three program objectives are articulated for establishing a developmental education program to increase retention and graduation rates among academically disadvantaged students at Triton College: (1) instituting horizontal (teaching basic skills) and vertical (assisting in the transfer of basic skills to students' total educational programs)…

  2. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  3. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  4. Handbook of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L., Ed.; Horner, Robert H., Ed.; Snell, Martha E., Ed.; Blacher, Jan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This authoritative handbook reviews the breadth of current knowledge about developmental disabilities: neuroscientific and genetic foundations; the impact on health, learning, and behavior; and effective educational and clinical practices. Leading authorities analyze what works in intervening with diverse children and families, from infancy…

  5. Standardized Developmental Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlam, David; Byrne, Maureen

    The feasibility of standardized assessment of features of children's organization of knowledge and the demonstration of differences in organization between stages of development were investigated. It was possible to standardize developmentally derived instruments, in the same way as empirically derived tests because such evaluations concern the…

  6. Developmental Composition in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Gretchen Nadeen

    This thesis was a descriptive study of developmental writing programs in two- and four-year colleges. The following areas were investigated: identifying students who need extra language skills help; placing students in flexible programs so they can learn what they individually need to know; evaluating materials to teach skills; evaluating…

  7. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  8. Learning Developmental Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, James M.; Weintraub, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an educational intervention designed to promote the ability and willingness of MBA students to lead through coaching. MBA leadership students are trained to serve as coaches for undergraduate business students in a developmental assessment center. In this compelling context, their main source of influence is the ability to…

  9. Developmental Purposes of Commercial Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed are 45 table, target, manipulative, active, and creative games with such developmental purposes as associative learning, tactile discrimination, and visual motor integration. Information includes the name of the item, distributor, price, description, and developmental purpose. (JYC)

  10. Pervasive access to images and data--the use of computing grids and mobile/wireless devices across healthcare enterprises.

    PubMed

    Pohjonen, Hanna; Ross, Peeter; Blickman, Johan G; Kamman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies are transforming the workflows in healthcare enterprises. Computing grids and handheld mobile/wireless devices are providing clinicians with enterprise-wide access to all patient data and analysis tools on a pervasive basis. In this paper, emerging technologies are presented that provide computing grids and streaming-based access to image and data management functions, and system architectures that enable pervasive computing on a cost-effective basis. Finally, the implications of such technologies are investigated regarding the positive impacts on clinical workflows.

  11. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  12. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  13. Analyses of Allele-Specific Gene Expression in Highly Divergent Mouse Crosses Identifies Pervasive Allelic Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, James J; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sun, Wei; Huang, Shunping; Pakatci, Isa Kemal; Kim, Yunjung; Wang, Jeremy R; Morgan, Andrew P; Calaway, John D; Aylor, David L; Yun, Zaining; Bell, Timothy A; Buus, Ryan J; Calaway, Mark E; Didion, John P; Gooch, Terry J; Hansen, Stephanie D; Robinson, Nashiya N; Shaw, Ginger D; Spence, Jason S; Quackenbush, Corey R; Barrick, Cordelia J; Nonneman, Randal J.; Kim, Kyungsu; Xenakis, James; Xie, Yuying; Valdar, William; Lenarcic, Alan B; Wang, Wei; Welsh, Catherine E; Fu, Chen-Ping; Zhang, Zhaojun; Holt, James; Guo, Zhishan; Threadgill, David W; Tarantino, Lisa M; Miller, Darla R; Zou, Fei; McMillan, Leonard; Sullivan, Patrick F; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Complex human traits are influenced by variation in regulatory DNA through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Since regulatory elements are conserved between humans and mice, a thorough annotation of cis regulatory variants in mice could aid in this process. Here we provide a detailed portrait of mouse gene expression across multiple tissues in a three-way diallel. Greater than 80% of mouse genes have cis regulatory variation. These effects influence complex traits and usually extend to the human ortholog. Further, we estimate that at least one in every thousand SNPs creates a cis regulatory effect. We also observe two types of parent-of-origin effects, including classical imprinting and a novel, global allelic imbalance in favor of the paternal allele. We conclude that, as with humans, pervasive regulatory variation influences complex genetic traits in mice and provide a new resource toward understanding the genetic control of transcription in mammals. PMID:25730764

  14. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  15. A General Pediatrics and Integrative Medicine Approach to Pervasive Refusal Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Helmschmidt, Elisabeth; Madeleyn, René; Kindt, Reinhard; Möller, Christoph; Kienle, Gunver Sophia; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) describes children with social withdrawal who become unable to walk, eat, or care for themselves. This case report examines whether an integrative medicine approach is useful for treating PRS. Case Presentation A seven-year-old girl with symptoms most consistent with PRS and depression was admitted to a pediatric ward in Germany that integrates conventional pediatric and psychosomatic care with anthroposophic medicine. She was integrated into the structured activities of the ward and received massages, movement therapy, and color light therapy. Her parents were fully integrated into her care. After four weeks, she talked again, showed increased appetite, and supported herself when moved passively. She made a full recovery within four weeks after hospital discharge. Discussion Integration of parents and an integrative medicine approach providing a variety of comforting sensory experiences was helpful for this patient with PRS. PMID:27644046

  16. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  17. Ribosome profiling reveals pervasive translation outside of annotated protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Ingolia, Nicholas T; Brar, Gloria A; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Harris, Michael S; Talhouarne, Gaëlle J S; Jackson, Sarah E; Wills, Mark R; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2014-09-11

    Ribosome profiling suggests that ribosomes occupy many regions of the transcriptome thought to be noncoding, including 5' UTRs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Apparent ribosome footprints outside of protein-coding regions raise the possibility of artifacts unrelated to translation, particularly when they occupy multiple, overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we show hallmarks of translation in these footprints: copurification with the large ribosomal subunit, response to drugs targeting elongation, trinucleotide periodicity, and initiation at early AUGs. We develop a metric for distinguishing between 80S footprints and nonribosomal sources using footprint size distributions, which validates the vast majority of footprints outside of coding regions. We present evidence for polypeptide production beyond annotated genes, including the induction of immune responses following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Translation is pervasive on cytosolic transcripts outside of conserved reading frames, and direct detection of this expanded universe of translated products enables efforts at understanding how cells manage and exploit its consequences.

  18. Pervasive selection for and against antibiotic resistance in inhomogeneous multistress environments.

    PubMed

    Chait, Remy; Palmer, Adam C; Yelin, Idan; Kishony, Roy

    2016-01-20

    Antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria coexist in natural environments with low, if detectable, antibiotic concentrations. Except possibly around localized antibiotic sources, where resistance can provide a strong advantage, bacterial fitness is dominated by stresses unaffected by resistance to the antibiotic. How do such mixed and heterogeneous conditions influence the selective advantage or disadvantage of antibiotic resistance? Here we find that sub-inhibitory levels of tetracyclines potentiate selection for or against tetracycline resistance around localized sources of almost any toxin or stress. Furthermore, certain stresses generate alternating rings of selection for and against resistance around a localized source of the antibiotic. In these conditions, localized antibiotic sources, even at high strengths, can actually produce a net selection against resistance to the antibiotic. Our results show that interactions between the effects of an antibiotic and other stresses in inhomogeneous environments can generate pervasive, complex patterns of selection both for and against antibiotic resistance.

  19. Design and Development of Non-Contact Bio-Potential Electrodes for Pervasive Health Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Anthony J.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2017-01-01

    For the advent of pervasive bio-potential monitoring, it will be necessary to utilize a combination of cheap, quick to apply, low-noise electrodes and compact electronics with wireless technologies. Once available, all electrical activity resulting from the processes of the human body could be actively and constantly monitored without the need for cumbersome application and maintenance. This could significantly improve the early diagnosis of a range of different conditions in high-risk individuals, opening the possibility for new treatments and interventions as conditions develop. This paper presents the design and implementation of compact, non-contact capacitive bio-potential electrodes utilising a low impedance current-to-voltage configuration and a bootstrapped voltage follower, demonstrating results applicable to research applications for capacitive electrocardiography and capacitive electromyography. The presented electrodes use few components, have a small surface area and are capable of acquiring a range of bio-potential signals. PMID:28045439

  20. Four-decade record of pervasive grounding line retreat along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Frazer D. W.; Bingham, Robert G.; Gourmelen, Noel; Tett, Simon F. B.; Muto, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Changes to the grounding line, where grounded ice starts to float, can be used as a remotely sensed measure of ice-sheet susceptibility to ocean-forced dynamic thinning. Constraining this susceptibility is vital for predicting Antarctica's contribution to rising sea levels. We use Landsat imagery to monitor grounding line movement over four decades along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica, an area little monitored despite potential for future ice losses. We show that ~65% of the grounding line retreated from 1990 to 2015, with pervasive and accelerating retreat in regions of fast ice flow and/or thinning ice shelves. Venable Ice Shelf confounds expectations in that, despite extensive thinning, its grounding line has undergone negligible retreat. We present evidence that the ice shelf is currently pinned to a sub-ice topographic high which, if breached, could facilitate ice retreat into a significant inland basin, analogous to nearby Pine Island Glacier.

  1. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  2. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing

    2013-11-15

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  3. The critical satellite technical issues of future pervasive broadband low-cost communication networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The critical technical issues of signal waveform design, projected spacecraft technology, satellite launch options, and satellite cost are discussed for future pervasive broadband communication networks. With DPCM video signal encoding, 32 Mb/s user-to-user data rate per channel, 10% overhead, two orthogonal polarizations, and crosstalk loss limited to 1 dB, TFM permits about 75 channels/GHz of frequency allocation. The BOM (beginning of mission) weight and power of a baseline 400-channel multibeam satellite is about 1800 kg and 5000 W. Each 35 Mb/s channel can support 1 to 10 video channels. The weight and power estimates assume hardened digital logic, composite materials for a multibeam antenna structure, high-efficiency solar cells, batteries, and amplifiers. Based on a cost model for large communication satellites, the total space segment cost of two active satellites and one spare would be about $485 M.

  4. ReSCo: A Middleware Component for Reliable Service Composition in Pervasive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J; Kumar, Mohan; Wright, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Service composition schemes create high-level application services by combining several basic services. Service composition schemes for dynamic, open systems, such as those found in pervasive environments, must be cognizant of the possibility of failures and attacks. In open systems, it is seldom feasible to guarantee the reliability of each node prior to access; however, there may be several possible ways to compose the same high-level service, each having a different (though possibly overlapping) set of nodes that can satisfy the composition. We approach this problem with a Reliable Service Composition middleware component, ReSCo, to determine trustworthy compositions and nodes for service composition in dynamic, open systems. ReSCo is a modular, adaptive middleware component that selects from possible composition paths and nodes to enhance reliability of service compositions. ReSCo can work with a broad range of both service composition algorithms and trust establishment mechanisms.

  5. Depleting Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the transcription termination factor Rho causes pervasive transcription and rapid death.

    PubMed

    Botella, Laure; Vaubourgeix, Julien; Livny, Jonathan; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2017-03-28

    Rifampicin, which inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, provides one of the most effective treatments for tuberculosis. Inhibition of the transcription termination factor Rho is used to treat some bacterial infections, but its importance varies across bacteria. Here we show that Rho of Mycobacterium tuberculosis functions to both define the 3' ends of mRNAs and silence substantial fragments of the genome. Brief inactivation of Rho affects over 500 transcripts enriched for genes of foreign DNA elements and bacterial virulence factors. Prolonged inactivation of Rho causes extensive pervasive transcription, a genome-wide increase in antisense transcripts, and a rapid loss of viability of replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis in vitro and during acute and chronic infection in mice. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of Rho may provide an alternative strategy to treat tuberculosis with an efficacy similar to inhibition of RNA polymerase.

  6. Pervasive community care platform: Ambient Intelligence leveraging sensor networks and mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Several powerful trends are contributing to an aging of much of the world's population, especially in economically developed countries. To mitigate the negative effects of rapidly ageing populations, societies must act early to plan for the welfare, medical care and residential arrangements of their senior citizens, and for the manpower and associated training needed to execute these plans. This paper describes the development of an Ambient Intelligent Community Care Platform (AICCP), which creates an environment of Ambient Intelligence through the use of sensor network and mobile agent (MA) technologies. The AICCP allows caregivers to quickly and accurately locate their charges; access, update and share critical treatment and wellness data; and automatically archive all records. The AICCP presented in this paper is expected to enable caregivers and communities to offer pervasive, accurate and context-aware care services.

  7. Pervasive seismic wave reflectivity and metasomatism of the Tonga mantle wedge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingcai; Lay, Thorne; Flanagan, Megan P; Williams, Quentin

    2007-05-11

    Subduction zones play critical roles in the recycling of oceanic lithosphere and the generation of continental crust. Seismic imaging can reveal structures associated with key dynamic processes occurring in the upper-mantle wedge above the sinking oceanic slab. Three-dimensional images of reflecting interfaces throughout the upper-mantle wedge above the subducting Tonga slab were obtained by migration of teleseismic recordings of underside P- and S-wave reflections. Laterally continuous weak reflectors with tens of kilometers of topography were detected at depths near 90, 125, 200, 250, 300, 330, 390, 410, and 450 kilometers. P- and S-wave impedances decreased at the 330-kilometer and 450-kilometer reflectors, and S-wave impedance decreased near 200 kilometers in the vicinity of the slab and near 390 kilometers, just above the global 410-kilometer increase. The pervasive seismic reflectivity results from phase transitions and compositional zonation associated with extensive metasomatism involving slab-derived fluids rising through the wedge.

  8. Depleting Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the transcription termination factor Rho causes pervasive transcription and rapid death

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Laure; Vaubourgeix, Julien; Livny, Jonathan; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Rifampicin, which inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, provides one of the most effective treatments for tuberculosis. Inhibition of the transcription termination factor Rho is used to treat some bacterial infections, but its importance varies across bacteria. Here we show that Rho of Mycobacterium tuberculosis functions to both define the 3′ ends of mRNAs and silence substantial fragments of the genome. Brief inactivation of Rho affects over 500 transcripts enriched for genes of foreign DNA elements and bacterial virulence factors. Prolonged inactivation of Rho causes extensive pervasive transcription, a genome-wide increase in antisense transcripts, and a rapid loss of viability of replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis in vitro and during acute and chronic infection in mice. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of Rho may provide an alternative strategy to treat tuberculosis with an efficacy similar to inhibition of RNA polymerase. PMID:28348398

  9. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  10. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip A A A What's in this article? What ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Outlook Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a problem with the way a ...

  11. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  12. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  13. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  14. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  15. Developmental effects of dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, L S

    1995-01-01

    The potent developmental toxicity of dioxin in multiple species has been known for a number of years. However, recent studies have indicated that dioxin also induces functional developmental defects, many of which are delayed. Subtle structural deficits, not detectable at birth, have also been described in multiple species and in both sexes. Certain defects have been reported not only in animals but also in children prenatally exposed to complex mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. None of the effects can be attributed to modulation of any one endocrine system. For example, dioxin does not bind to the estrogen receptor, but it can cause effects that are both estrogenic and antiestrogenic. However, viewing dioxin and related compounds as endocrine disruptors that may alter multiple pathways sheds some light on the complexities of this potent class of growth dysregulators. PMID:8593882

  16. Rethinking Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this issue are all based on the invited addresses given by the authors at the 2013 biennial meeting of the Society for the Study of Human Development. All of the authors address the unfolding paradigm shift in developmental sciences, from reductionism to relational developmental system theories. This theoretical stance involves the recognition of Individual ↔ context transactions, with multiple co-acting partners existing in dynamic relationships across the lifespan and life course. The articles address not only theoretical issues, but also methodological advances and their applications. While acknowledging the importance of new data collection and analytical techniques that permit the testing of more complex theoretical models, the articles demonstrate that well-designed questions from this theoretical perspective can also yield novel findings which are highly relevant to current real-world problems and social policy issues. PMID:25598750

  17. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    PeBenito, R; Fisch, C B; Fisch, M L

    1988-09-01

    The tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and right-left disorientation make up Gerstmann's syndrome. The tetrad has been infrequently described in children with learning disability and has been called developmental Gerstmann's syndrome (DGS). Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome may occur in brain-damaged and apparently normal children. Five children in whom DGS occurred in association with brain abnormalities underwent long-term observation, which indicated persistence of the deficits. The identification of these cases suggests that DGS may not be as rare as previously thought and may often be unrecognized. Testing for the Gerstmann elements in learning-disabled children may identify otherwise undiagnosed cases of DGS and should be routinely employed in the neurologic examination. Until appropriate teaching methods for DGS are found, "bypassing" the deficits and utilizing the child's strengths, plus counseling, seem to offer an effective treatment approach.

  18. Genetic influence on the expression of hand preferences in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence in support of the right-shift theory and developmental instability.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W D; Dahl, J F; Pilcher, D

    2001-07-01

    Genetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pervasive representation of right-handedness in humans, whereas random, nongenetic factors have been posited to explain the lack of population-level right-handedness in nonhuman primates. We report evidence that hand preferences in chimpanzees are heritable, even among related individuals raised in different environments. Furthermore, we report that the degree of heritability is modified by factors associated with developmental instability, notably, offspring parity. The data are interpreted to reconcile both genetic models for handedness and hypotheses suggesting that developmental instability influences variation in handedness.

  19. Genetic Influence on the Expression of Hand Preferences in Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes): Evidence in Support of the Right-Shift Theory and Developmental Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William D.; Dahl, Jeremy F.; Pilcher, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pervasive representation of right-handedness in humans, whereas random, nongenetic factors have been posited to explain the lack of population-level right-handedness in nonhuman primates. We report evidence that hand preferences in chimpanzees are heritable, even among related individuals raised in different environments. Furthermore, we report that the degree of heritability is modified by factors associated with developmental instability, notably, offspring parity. The data are interpreted to reconcile both genetic models for handedness and hypotheses suggesting that developmental instability influences variation in handedness. PMID:11476096

  20. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  1. The Pervasiveness of Racial Prejudice in Higher Education in the U.S.: Raising Awareness and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Justina O.

    2007-01-01

    Racial diversity is one of the greatest strengths of America?s higher education system. But racial prejudice is entrenched and pervasive in many campuses of institutions of higher learning. A close observation reveals that racial prejudice is not restricted to any race. As much as one would like to believe that simply passing legislations and…

  2. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  3. Qualitative Evaluation of the Design Variables of a Teaching Intervention to Expose Accounting Students to Pervasive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviers, Herman Albertus

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to evaluate the design variables of a newly developed teaching intervention, "The Amazing Tax Race". It comprises a race against time in which accounting students participate within teams in multiple tax-related activities so that they are exposed to pervasive skills. The findings provide…

  4. Evolutionary and Developmental Modules

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; d’Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E.; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:23730285

  5. Developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2007-09-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter order within words. So far, only cases of acquired LPD have been reported. This study presents selective LPD in its developmental form, via the testing of II Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental dyslexia. The study explores the types of errors and effects on reading in this dyslexia, using a variety of tests: reading aloud, lexical decision, same-different decision, definition and letter naming. The findings indicate that individuals with developmental LPD have a deficit in the letter position encoding function of the orthographic visual analyser, which leads to underspecification of letter position within words. Letter position errors occur mainly in adjacent middle letters, when the error creates another existing word. The participants did not show an output deficit or phonemic awareness deficit. The selectivity of the deficit, causing letter position errors but no letter identity errors and no migrations between words, supports the existence of letter position encoding function as separate from letter identification and letter-to-word binding.

  6. Copper in developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Alm, Per A

    2005-01-01

    It has previously been reported that men with developmental stuttering showed reduced concentration of copper in the blood, and a negative correlation between the copper level and the severity of stuttering. Disorders of copper metabolism may result in dysfunction of the basal ganglia system and dystonia, a motor disorder sharing some traits of stuttering. It has been shown that copper ions affect the dopamine and the GABA systems. With this background we investigated the plasma level of copper, the copper binding protein ceruloplasmin, and the estimated level of free copper in stuttering adults. Sixteen men with developmental stuttering were compared with 16 men without speech problems. The samples were assayed in one batch in a pseudorandom and counterbalanced order. No significant differences were found between stuttering men and the control group in any of the biological variables, and no negative correlation between copper and the general severity of stuttering was shown. On the contrary, an explorative analysis resulted in a positive correlation between high plasma copper and superfluous muscular activity during stuttering (r=0.51, p=0.04). This result indicates that there is no relation between developmental stuttering and low plasma copper in the main population of stuttering adults.

  7. Evolutionary developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-02-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.

  8. Developmental and behavior problems predict parenting stress in young children with global delay.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Raymond C

    2012-03-01

    To identify parent-reported symptoms that predict parenting stress in preschoolers with global developmental delay, 201 parents/guardians of 142 boys and 59 girls with global delay, mean age 39.1 months (range, 18 to 63 months) were studied retrospectively. Parents completed the following: (a) a semistructured interview; (b) the Child Development Inventory, (c) Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5, and the (d) Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Forty-two percent of parents described clinically significant parenting stress (≥ 85th percentile). The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form subscales Difficult Child and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interactions were elevated. Parental stress increased with higher gross motor development and decreased as social and fine-motor ratios increased. Furthermore, stress increased when parents reported higher levels on the Emotionally Reactive and Withdrawn scale scores and when parents reported Pervasive Developmental and Oppositional Defiant Problems. In mobile children with global delay, behavior problems predict parenting stress.

  9. Developmental risks and psychosocial adjustment among low-income Brazilian youth.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia H; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; De Morais, Normanda Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to developmental risks in three domains (community, economic, and family), and relations between risks and psychosocial well-being, were examined among 918 impoverished Brazilian youth aged 14-19 (M = 15.8 years, 51.9% female) recruited in low-income neighborhoods in one city in Southern Brazil. High levels of developmental risks were reported, with levels and types of risks varying by gender, age, and (to a lesser extent) race. Associations between levels of risks in the various domains and indicators of psychological (e.g., self-esteem, negative emotionality) and behavioral (e.g., substance use) adjustment differed for male and female respondents. Findings build on prior research investigating the development of young people in conditions of pervasive urban poverty and reinforce the value of international research in this endeavor.

  10. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  11. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  12. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  13. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  14. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  15. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  16. "Hypothesis for the Modern RNA World": A pervasive Non-coding RNA-Based Genetic Regulation is a Prerequisite for the Emergence of Multicellular Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Stadler, Peter F.; Prohaska, Sonja J.

    2011-12-01

    The transitions to multicellularity mark the most pivotal and distinctive events in life's history on Earth. Although several transitions to "simple" multicellularity (SM) have been recorded in both bacterial and eukaryotic clades, transitions to complex multicellularity (CM) have only happened a few times in eukaryotes. A large number of cell types (associated with large body size), increased energy consumption per gene expressed, and an increment of non-protein-coding DNA positively correlate with CM. These three factors can indeed be understood as the causes and consequences of the regulation of gene expression. Here, we discuss how a vast expansion of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNAs) regulators rather than large numbers of novel protein regulators can easily contribute to the emergence of CM. We also propose that the evolutionary advantage of RNA-based gene regulation derives from the robustness of the RNA structure that makes it easy to combine genetic drift with functional exploration. We describe a model which aims to explain how the evolutionary dynamic of ncRNAs becomes dominated by the accessibility of advantageous mutations to innovate regulation in complex multicellular organisms. The information and models discussed here outline the hypothesis that pervasive ncRNA-based regulatory systems, only capable of being expanded and explored in higher eukaryotes, are prerequisite to complex multicellularity. Thereby, regulatory RNA molecules in Eukarya have allowed intensification of morphological complexity by stabilizing critical phenotypes and controlling developmental precision. Although the origin of RNA on early Earth is still controversial, it is becoming clear that once RNA emerged into a protocellular system, its relevance within the evolution of biological systems has been greater than we previously thought.

  17. Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) 21 years on: a re-conceptualisation and a renaming.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Kenneth P; Lask, Bryan; Owen, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-one years ago, Lask and colleagues first described pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) as a child's "dramatic social withdrawal and determined refusal to walk, talk, eat, drink, or care for themselves in any way for several months" in the absence of an organic explanation. PRS has been conceptualised in a variety of ways since then. These have included a form of post-traumatic stress disorder, learnt helplessness, 'lethal mothering', loss of the internal parent, apathy or the 'giving-up' syndrome, depressive devitalisation, primitive 'freeze', severe loss of activities of daily living and 'manipulative' illness, meaning the possibility that the children have been drugged to increase chances of asylum in asylum-seeking families. Others have insisted that PRS is simply depression, conversion disorder, catatonia or a factitious condition. This paper reviews these conceptualisations, explores some of the central complexities around PRS and proposes a neurobiological explanatory model, based upon autonomic system hyper-arousal. It touches upon the clinical implications and suggests a new name for the condition reflecting what we believe to be a more sophisticated understanding of the disorder than was available when it was first described.

  18. Evidence for a pervasive 'idling-mode' activity template in flying and pedestrian insects.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew M; Jones, Hayley B C; Hill, Jane K; Pearson, Aislinn J; Wilson, Kenneth; Wolf, Stephan; Lim, Ka S; Reynolds, Don R; Chapman, Jason W

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the complex movement patterns of animals in natural environments is a key objective of 'movement ecology'. Complexity results from behavioural responses to external stimuli but can also arise spontaneously in their absence. Drawing on theoretical arguments about decision-making circuitry, we predict that the spontaneous patterns will be scale-free and universal, being independent of taxon and mode of locomotion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity patterns of the European honeybee, and multiple species of noctuid moth, tethered to flight mills and exposed to minimal external cues. We also reanalysed pre-existing data for Drosophila flies walking in featureless environments. Across these species, we found evidence of common scale-invariant properties in their movement patterns; pause and movement durations were typically power law distributed over a range of scales and characterized by exponents close to 3/2. Our analyses are suggestive of the presence of a pervasive scale-invariant template for locomotion which, when acted on by environmental cues, produces the movements with characteristic scales observed in nature. Our results indicate that scale-finite complexity as embodied, for instance, in correlated random walk models, may be the result of environmental cues overriding innate behaviour, and that scale-free movements may be intrinsic and not limited to 'blind' foragers as previously thought.

  19. Context-aware access control for pervasive access to process-based healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Koufi, Vassiliki; Vassilacopoulos, George

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare is an increasingly collaborative enterprise involving a broad range of healthcare services provided by many individuals and organizations. Grid technology has been widely recognized as a means for integrating disparate computing resources in the healthcare field. Moreover, Grid portal applications can be developed on a wireless and mobile infrastructure to execute healthcare processes which, in turn, can provide remote access to Grid database services. Such an environment provides ubiquitous and pervasive access to integrated healthcare services at the point of care, thus improving healthcare quality. In such environments, the ability to provide an effective access control mechanism that meets the requirement of the least privilege principle is essential. Adherence to the least privilege principle requires continuous adjustments of user permissions in order to adapt to the current situation. This paper presents a context-aware access control mechanism for HDGPortal, a Grid portal application which provides access to workflow-based healthcare processes using wireless Personal Digital Assistants. The proposed mechanism builds upon and enhances security mechanisms provided by the Grid Security Infrastructure. It provides tight, just-in-time permissions so that authorized users get access to specific objects according to the current context. These permissions are subject to continuous adjustments triggered by the changing context. Thus, the risk of compromising information integrity during task executions is reduced.

  20. Pervasive Mitochondrial Sequence Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of Wild Carrot, Daucus carota spp. carota L.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McCauley, David E

    2015-01-01

    Exceptions to the generally accepted rules that plant mitochondrial genomes are strictly maternally inherited and that within-individual sequence diversity in those genomes, i.e., heteroplasmy, should be minimal are becoming increasingly apparent especially with regard to sequence-level heteroplasmy. These findings raise questions about the potential significance of such heteroplasmy for plant mitochondrial genome evolution. Still studies quantifying the amount and consequences of sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations are rare. In this study, we report pervasive sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations of wild carrot, a close relative of the cultivated crop. In order to assay directly for this heteroplasmy, we implemented a quantitative PCR assay that can detect and quantify intra-individual SNP variation in two mitochondrial genes (Cox1 and Atp9). We found heteroplasmy in > 60% of all wild carrot populations surveyed and in > 30% of the 140 component individuals that were genotyped. Heteroplasmy ranged from a very small proportion of the total genotype (e.g., 0.995:0.005) to near even mixtures (e.g., 0.590:0.410) in some individuals. These results have important implications for the role of intra-genomic recombination in the generation of plant mitochondrial genome genotypic novelty. The consequences of such recombination are evident in the results of this study through analysis of the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the SNP sites at the two genes studied.

  1. Persistent and pervasive compositional shifts of western boreal forest plots in Canada.

    PubMed

    Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2017-02-01

    Species compositional shifts have important consequences to biodiversity and ecosystem function and services to humanity. In boreal forests, compositional shifts from late-successional conifers to early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves have been postulated based on increased fire frequency associated with climate change truncating stand age-dependent succession. However, little is known about how climate change has affected forest composition in the background between successive catastrophic fires in boreal forests. Using 1797 permanent sample plots from western boreal forests of Canada measured from 1958 to 2013, we show that after accounting for stand age-dependent succession, the relative abundances of early-successional deciduous broadleaves and early-successional conifers have increased at the expense of late-successional conifers with climate change. These background compositional shifts are persistent temporally, consistent across all forest stand ages and pervasive spatially across the region. Rising atmospheric CO2 promoted early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves, and warming increased early-successional conifers at the expense of late-successional conifers, but compositional shifts were not associated with climate moisture index. Our results emphasize the importance of climate change on background compositional shifts in the boreal forest and suggest further compositional shifts as rising CO2 and warming will continue in the 21st century.

  2. Evidence for a hormonal tactic maximizing green turtle reproduction in response to a pervasive ecological stressor.

    PubMed

    Jessop, T S; Hamann, M; Read, M A; Limpus, C J

    2000-06-01

    Mortality of breeding sea turtles due to excessive heat exposure after nesting activities is an unusual feature of the Raine Island green turtle rookery. Breeding turtles that fail to return to the ocean after oviposition can experience increasing body temperatures that exceed lethal limits (>39 degrees C) as ambient temperatures rise after sunrise. We investigated how acute increases in body temperature influenced plasma corticosterone (B) concentrations of individual turtles. Furthermore, interactions between progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) and increasing body temperature and the glucocorticoid corticosterone were examined for negative correlations. Breeding green turtles exhibited a 16-fold mean increase in plasma corticosterone concentration as body temperature (cloacal) rose from 28.2 to 40.7 degrees C in less than 6 h. However, the absolute increase in plasma B was small and much less than expected, despite the lethal stressor. Comparatively, the maximal B response to lethal heat stress was similar to plasma B concentrations obtained from breeding female turtles exposed to 8 h of capture stress. However, the maximal B response of breeding turtles exposed to heat and capture stressors was significantly less than the B response of nonbreeding adult female turtles subjected to an 8-h capture stressor. No negative correlations were observed between plasma T and plasma B, between plasma T and body temperature, between plasma P and plasma B, or between plasma P and body temperature. Our findings provide further evidence that reduced adrenocortical function operates in breeding green turtles in the presence of even the most pervasive of environmental stressors.

  3. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm-3) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm-3). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.

  4. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm(-3)) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm(-3)). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.

  5. Why Does Public Transport Not Arrive on Time? The Pervasiveness of Equal Headway Instability

    PubMed Central

    Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The equal headway instability phenomenon is pervasive in public transport systems. This instability is characterized by an aggregation of vehicles that causes inefficient service. While equal headway instability is common, it has not been studied independently of a particular scenario. However, the phenomenon is apparent in many transport systems and can be modeled and rectified in abstraction. Methodology We present a multi-agent simulation where a default method with no restrictions always leads to unstable headways. We discuss two methods that attempt to achieve equal headways, called minimum and maximum. Since one parameter of the methods depends on the passenger density, adaptive versions—where the relevant parameter is adjusted automatically—are also put forward. Our results show that the adaptive maximum method improves significantly over the default method. The model and simulation give insights of the interplay between transport design and passenger behavior. Finally, we provide technological and social suggestions for engineers and passengers to help achieve equal headways and thus reduce delays. Conclusions The equal headway instability phenomenon can be avoided with the suggested technological and social measures. PMID:19862321

  6. An Ontology for Telemedicine Systems Resiliency to Technological Context Variations in Pervasive Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Bults, Richard G. A.; Van Sinderen, Marten J.; Widya, Ing; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data are crucial for any medical case to study and understand a patient’s condition and to give the patient the best possible treatment. Pervasive healthcare systems apply information and communication technology to enable the usage of ubiquitous clinical data by authorized medical persons. However, quality of clinical data in these applications is, to a large extent, determined by the technological context of the patient. A technological context is characterized by potential technological disruptions that affect optimal functioning of technological resources. The clinical data based on input from these technological resources can therefore have quality degradations. If these degradations are not noticed, the use of this clinical data can lead to wrong treatment decisions, which potentially puts the patient’s safety at risk. This paper presents an ontology that specifies the relation among technological context, quality of clinical data, and patient treatment. The presented ontology provides a formal way to represent the knowledge to specify the effect of technological context variations in the clinical data quality and the impact of the clinical data quality on a patient’s treatment. Accordingly, this ontology is the foundation for a quality of data framework that enables the development of telemedicine systems that are capable of adapting the treatment when the quality of the clinical data degrades, and thus guaranteeing patients’ safety even when technological context varies. PMID:27170903

  7. Maintaining Privacy in Pervasive Computing - Enabling Acceptance of Sensor-based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppera, A.; Burbridge, T.

    During the 1980s, Mark Weiser [1] predicted a world in which computing was so pervasive that devices embedded in the environment could sense their relationship to us and to each other. These tiny ubiquitous devices would continually feed information from the physical world into the information world. Twenty years ago, this vision was the exclusive territory of academic computer scientists and science fiction writers. Today this subject has become of interest to business, government, and society. Governmental authorities exercise their power through the networked environment. Credit card databases maintain our credit history and decide whether we are allowed to rent a house or obtain a loan. Mobile telephones can locate us in real time so that we do not miss calls. Within another 10 years, all sorts of devices will be connected through the network. Our fridge, our food, together with our health information, may all be networked for the purpose of maintaining diet and well-being. The Internet will move from being an infrastructure to connect computers, to being an infrastructure to connect everything [2, 3].

  8. Incorporation of pervasive impurities on HVPE GaN growth directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, J. A.; Culbertson, J. C.; Mahadik, N. A.; Glaser, E. R.; Sochacki, T.; Bockowski, M.; Lee, S. K.; Shim, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    High crystallinity thick films with low free carrier concentration (≤1×1015/cm3) and low compensation are required for many GaN-based electronic device applications. It has been demonstrated that low pressure chemical vapor and molecular beam epitaxy techniques can reproducibility deposit homoepitaxial films with low residual impurity concentrations. However, their typical slow growth rates prevent their utilization for thick film growth. Presently, hydride vapor phase epitaxy is the sole method that can deposit films with residual impurity concentrations ≤5×1016/cm3 at hundreds of microns per hour growth rate. It is crucial to verify if this method can reproducibly deliver thick free-standing GaN films of high crystalline quality with exceptionally low and uniform free carrier concentration. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and low temperature photoluminescence experiments were carried out on a number of samples prepared by dicing a free-standing wafer into several pieces perpendicular and parallel to the major growth directions; namely, c-plane {0001}, a-plane {11-20}, and m-plane {1-100}. SIMS depth profiles were employed to identify and quantify the concentration of the pervasive impurities. Spatial maps of a Raman line sensitive to free-carrier concentration were measured to determine the spatial distribution of the net impurity concentration. The reduced concentration of un-compensated shallow donors was also verified by low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance.

  9. A Pervasive Social Networking Application: I-NFC enabled Florist Smart Advisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swee Wen, Khoo; Mahinderjit Singh, Manmeet

    2016-11-01

    Location based service is an information and entertainment service, accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and utilizing the ability to make use of the geographical position of the mobile device. NFC location based service is using one of the modes of NFC such as peer-to-peer, reader/writer, and card emulation to obtain the information of the object and then get the location of the object. In this paper, the proposed solution is I- NFC-enabled Pervasive Social Networking apps for florists. It combines the NFC location based service with Online Social Network (OSN). In addition, a smart advisor in the system to provide output in making their own decision while purchasing products.The development of the system demonstrates that a designed commerce site is provided which enable a communication between NFC-enabled smartphone, NFC-enabled application and OSN. GPS functionalities also implemented to provide map and location of business services. Smart advisor also designed to provide information for users who do not have ideas what to purchase.

  10. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  11. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  12. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  13. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  14. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  15. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  16. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  17. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  18. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  19. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  20. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  1. Developmental programming and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nuyt, Anne Monique; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review There is a growing body of evidence linking adverse events or exposures during early life and adult-onset diseases. After important epidemiological studies from many parts of the world, research now focuses on mechanisms of organ dysfunction and on refining the understanding of the interaction between common elements of adverse perinatal conditions, such as nutrition, oxidants, and toxins exposures. This review will focus on advances in our comprehension of developmental programming of hypertension. Recent findings Recent studies have unraveled important mechanisms of oligonephronia and impaired renal function, altered vascular function and structure as well as sympathetic regulation of the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, interactions between prenatal insults and postnatal conditions are the subject of intensive research. Prematurity vs. intrauterine growth restriction modulate differently programming of high blood pressure. Along with antenatal exposure to glucocorticoids and imbalanced nutrition, a critical role for perinatal oxidative stress is emerging. Summary While the complexity of the interactions between antenatal and postnatal influences on adult blood pressure is increasingly recognized, the importance of postnatal life in (positively) modulating developmental programming offers the hope of a critical window of opportunity to reverse programming and prevent or reduce related adult-onset diseases. PMID:19434052

  2. Brief Report: An Unusual Manifestation of Diagnostic Overshadowing of Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified--A Five Year Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meera, S. S.; Kaipa, Ramesh; Thomas, Jaslin; Shivashankar, N.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders present with a range of comorbid conditions. Occasionally one of the comorbid conditions manifests so strongly that the primary condition goes unnoticed by the clinician. This tendency to overlook comorbid health problems in the presence of a disability is referred to as diagnostic overshadowing. This is a…

  3. Effects of No-No Prompting on Teaching Expressive Labeling of Facial Expressions to Children with and without a Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Johnson, Valerie A.; Courtemanche, Andrea B.; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching is a systematic form of instruction found to be effective for children diagnosed with autism. Three areas of discrete trial teaching warranting more research are the effectiveness and efficiency of various prompting procedures, the effectiveness of implementing teaching in a group instructional format, and the ability of…

  4. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of D-Cycloserine for the Enhancement of Social Skills Training in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    can enhance the efficacy of social skills training (SST) in the treatment of children and young adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We...and communication impairment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The main objective of this application is to determine whether D-cycloserine (DCS...stable seizure disorders and 2) up to two concomitant psychotropic non-glutamatergic drugs. Approval also received for the addition of the Autism

  5. Lack of expansion of triplet repeats in the FMR1, FRAXE, and FRAXF loci in male multiplex families with autism and pervasive developmental disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Julien-Inalsingh, C.; Wing, M.

    1996-08-09

    Sib, twin, and family studies have shown that a genetic cause exists in many cases of autism, with a portion of cases associated with a fragile X chromosome. Three folate-sensitive fragile sites in the Xq27{r_arrow}Xq28 region have been cloned and found to have polymorphic trinucleotide repeats at the respective sites; these repeats are amplified and methylated in individuals who are positive for the different fragile sites. We have tested affected boys and their mothers from 19 families with two autistic/PDD boys for amplification and/or instability of the triplet repeats at these loci and concordance of inheritance of alleles by affected brothers. In all cases, the triplet repeat numbers were within the normal range, with no individuals having expanded or premutation-size alleles. For each locus, there was no evidence for an increased frequency of concordance, indicating that mutations within these genes are unlikely to be responsible for the autistic/PDD phenotypes in the affected boys. Thus, we think it is important to retest those autistic individuals who were cytogenetically positive for a fragile X chromosome, particularly cases where there is no family history of the fragile X syndrome, using the more accurate DNA-based testing procedures. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  7. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  8. Micro-trace fossils reveal pervasive reworking of Pliocene sapropels by low-oxygen-adapted benthic meiofauna.

    PubMed

    Löhr, S C; Kennedy, M J

    2015-03-12

    Animal burrowers leave an indelible signature on the sedimentary record in most marine environments, with the seeming exception of low-oxygen environments. In modern sedimentary settings, however, sub-millimetre-sized benthic animals (meiofauna) are adapted to low oxygen and even sulfidic conditions. Almost nothing is known about their impact on ancient marine sediments because they leave few recognizable traces. Here we show, in classic Pliocene-aged anoxic facies from the Mediterranean, the first reported trace fossil evidence of meiofaunal activity and its relation to changing oxygenation. A novel approach utilizing electron imaging of ion-polished samples shows that meiofauna pervasively reworked sediment under oxygen-depleted conditions that excluded macrofauna, fragmenting organic laminae and emplacing 15- to 70-μm-diameter faecal pellets without macroscopically influencing the fabric. The extent of reworking raises the question: how pervasively altered are other sediments presently assumed to lack animal influence and how far into the geological record does this influence extend?

  9. From black box to toolbox: Outlining device functionality, engagement activities, and the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.; Brendryen, Håvar; Seeley, John R.; Tyler, Milagra S.; Woolley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    mHealth interventions that deliver content via mobile phones represent a burgeoning area of health behavior change. The current paper examines two themes that can inform the underlying design of mHealth interventions: (1) mobile device functionality, which represents the technological toolbox available to intervention developers; and (2) the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions, which determines how intervention content can be delivered concurrently using mobile phones, personal computers, and other devices. We posit that developers of mHealth interventions will be better able to achieve the promise of this burgeoning arena by leveraging the toolbox and functionality of mobile devices in order to engage participants and encourage meaningful behavior change within the context of a carefully designed pervasive information architecture. PMID:25750862

  10. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  11. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  12. Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation with developmental screening by parent report, parents completed a developmental screen (the Child Development Review), a pediatrician performed a direct developmental evaluation (Capute Scales), and a psychologist administered the...

  13. Pervasive interactions between ungulate browsers and disturbance regimes promote temperate forest herbaceous diversity.

    PubMed

    Royo, Alejandro A; Collins, Rachel; Adams, Mary Beth; Kirschbaum, Chad; Carson, Walter P

    2010-01-01

    Disruptions to historic disturbance and herbivory regimes have altered plant assemblages in forests worldwide. An emerging consensus suggests that these disruptions often result in impoverished forest biotas. This is particularly true for eastern U.S. deciduous forests where large gaps and understory fires were once relatively common and browsers were far less abundant. Although much research has focused on how disturbance and browsers affect tree diversity, far less attention has been devoted to forest understories where the vast majority (>75%) of the vascular species reside. Here we test the hypothesis that the reintroduction of disturbances resembling historic disturbance regimes and moderate levels of ungulate browsing enhance plant diversity. We explore whether once-common disturbances and their interaction with the top-down influence of browsers can create conditions favorable for the maintenance of a rich herbaceous layer in a region recognized as a temperate biodiversity hotspot in West Virginia, U.S.A. We tested this hypothesis via a factorial experiment whereby we manipulated canopy gaps (presence/absence) of a size typically found in old-growth stands, low-intensity understory fire (burned/unburned), and deer browsing (fenced/unfenced). We tracked the abundance and diversity of more than 140 herb species for six years. Interactions among our treatments were pervasive. The combination of canopy gaps and understory fire increased herbaceous layer richness, cover, and diversity well beyond either disturbance alone. Furthermore, we documented evidence that deer at moderate levels of abundance promote herbaceous richness and abundance by preferentially browsing fast-growing pioneer species that thrive following co-occurring disturbances (i.e., fire and gaps). This finding sharply contrasts with the negative impact browsers have when their populations reach levels well beyond those that occurred for centuries. Although speculative, our results suggest that

  14. A Pervasive Parallel Processing Framework for Data Visualization and Analysis at Extreme Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, Kenneth; Geveci, Berk

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the computing world from teraflop to petaflop has been relatively effortless, with several of the existing programming models scaling effectively to the petascale. The migration to exascale, however, poses considerable challenges. All industry trends infer that the exascale machine will be built using processors containing hundreds to thousands of cores per chip. It can be inferred that efficient concurrency on exascale machines requires a massive amount of concurrent threads, each performing many operations on a localized piece of data. Currently, visualization libraries and applications are based off what is known as the visualization pipeline. In the pipeline model, algorithms are encapsulated as filters with inputs and outputs. These filters are connected by setting the output of one component to the input of another. Parallelism in the visualization pipeline is achieved by replicating the pipeline for each processing thread. This works well for today’s distributed memory parallel computers but cannot be sustained when operating on processors with thousands of cores. Our project investigates a new visualization framework designed to exhibit the pervasive parallelism necessary for extreme scale machines. Our framework achieves this by defining algorithms in terms of worklets, which are localized stateless operations. Worklets are atomic operations that execute when invoked unlike filters, which execute when a pipeline request occurs. The worklet design allows execution on a massive amount of lightweight threads with minimal overhead. Only with such fine-grained parallelism can we hope to fill the billions of threads we expect will be necessary for efficient computation on an exascale machine.

  15. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer’s Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Bayard E.; Austin, Daniel; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals’ health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients’ and caregivers’ ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) at the Oregon Health and Science University have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system, ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence, and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies. PMID:26113819

  16. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer's Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Bayard E; Austin, Daniel; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals' health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients' and caregivers' ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) at the Oregon Health and Science University have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system, ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence, and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies.

  17. Pervasive selection or is it…? Why are FST outliers sometimes so frequent?

    PubMed

    Bierne, Nicolas; Roze, Denis; Welch, John J

    2013-04-01

    It is now common for population geneticists to estimate FST for a large number of loci across the genome, before testing for selected loci as being outliers to the FST distribution. One surprising result of such FST scans is the often high proportion (>1% and sometimes >10%) of outliers detected, and this is often interpreted as evidence for pervasive local adaptation. In this issue of Molecular Ecolog, Fourcade et al. (2013) observe that a particularly high rate of FST outliers has often been found in river organisms, such as fishes or damselflies, despite there being no obvious reason why selection should affect a larger proportion of the genomes of these organisms. Using computer simulations, Fourcade et al. (2013) show that the strong correlation in co-ancestry produced in long onedimensional landscapes (such as rivers, valleys, peninsulas, oceanic ridges or coastlines) greatly increases the neutral variance in FST, especially when the landscape is further reticulated into fractal networks. As a consequence, outlier tests have a high rate of false positives, unless this correlation can be taken into account. Fourcade et al.'s study highlights an extreme case of the general problem, first noticed by Robertson (1975a,b) and Nei & Maruyama (1975), that correlated co-ancestry inflates the neutral variance in FST when compared to its expectation under an island model of population structure. Similar warnings about the validity of outlier tests have appeared regularly since then but have not been widely cited in the recent genomics literature. We further emphasize that FST outliers can arise in many different ways and that outlier tests are not designed for situations where the genetic architecture of local adaptation involves many loci.

  18. Permian Basin maturation: proof for pervasive magmatic heat flow in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, Damien; van Wees, Jan Diederik; Fattah, Rader Abdul; Nelskamp, Suzanne; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-05-01

    The area of the Permian Basin is marked by significant Stephanian-Permian magmatism that is related to the Variscanorogenic collapse, resulting in pervasive mantle upwelling. Large extrusive evidence is visible in the North German Basin and in the Central North Sea. Theoretical models for tectonic heat flow and maturity evolution show that mantle upwelling, underplating, and intrusions are likely to have a significant effect on maturity-depth trends. Tectonic modelling of selected wells shows that tectonic subsidence and exhumation can be reconciled with a significant heat flow pulse at the Stephanian-Permian, and this could well explain the widespread elevated depth gradient of maturity in Carboniferous rocks. The quantitative assessment of heat flow, which is based on a kinematic model of the process of orogenic collapse, shows that the mantle upwelling and underplating at the base of the crust proposed by earlier studies in fact provides insufficient heat flow to explain strongly elevated maturity-depth trends. However, the Southern part of the Texel IJsselmeer High shows unusually high maturation values that cannot be explained by the simple effect of burial alone. This area of high maturation is also associated with evidence of intrusive magmatic rocks. By modelling five wells in the Texel IJsselmeer High, we conclude that the burial of the sediments and a shallow intrusion in the upper crust provide an elevated heat flow mechanism that has a regional impact, consistent with observed high maturity-depth trends. In each well, the model that best matches the elevated maturity data of the Carboniferous demonstrates the impact of a large intrusion emplacement in the upper crust at the time of the collapse of the Variscan orogen. The impact of this magmatic intrusion at such a shallow depth is extremely likely to have brought the maturity to the gas window during the heat pulse, and, based on the tectonic subsidence record, the model allows us to position this

  19. Pervasive, genome-wide positive selection leading to functional divergence in the bacterial genus Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    An open question in bacterial genomics is the role that adaptive evolution of the core genome plays in diversification and adaptation of bacterial species, and how this might differ between groups of bacteria occupying different environmental circumstances. The genus Campylobacter encompasses several important human and animal enteric pathogens, with genome sequence data available for eight species. We estimate the Campylobacter core genome at 647 genes, with 92.5% of the nonrecombinant core genome loci under positive selection in at least one lineage and the same gene frequently under positive selection in multiple lineages. Tests are provided that reject recombination, saturation, and variation in codon usage bias as factors contributing to this high level of selection. We suggest this genome-wide adaptive evolution may result from a Red Queen macroevolutionary dynamic, in which species are involved in competition for resources within the mammalian and/or vertebrate gastrointestinal tract. Much reduced levels of positive selection evident in Streptococcus, as reported by the authors in an earlier work, may be a consequence of these taxa inhabiting less species-rich habitats, and more unique niches. Despite many common loci under positive selection in multiple Campylobacter lineages, we found no evidence for molecular adaptive convergence at the level of the same or adjacent codons, or even protein domains. Taken collectively, these results describe the diversification of a bacterial genus that involves pervasive natural selection pressure across virtually the entire genome, with this adaptation occurring in different ways in different lineages, despite the species tendency toward a common gastrointestinal habitat. PMID:19304960

  20. Interactive effects of three pervasive marine stressors in a post-disturbance coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Michael A.; Goldenberg, Silvan U.; Ly Thai Bach, Anne; Mills, Suzanne C.; Claudet, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly affected by natural, episodic disturbances that can abruptly and drastically alter communities. Although it has been shown that resilient ecosystems can eventually recover to pre-disturbed states, the extent to which communities in early stages of recovery could be affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors is poorly understood. Pervasive and rising anthropogenic stressors in coastal marine systems that could interactively affect the recovery of these systems following natural disturbances include high sedimentation, nutrient enrichment, and overfishing. Using a 6-month field experiment, we examined the effects of all combinations of these three stressors on key functional groups in the benthic community growing on simulated, post-disturbance reef patches within a system recovering from large-scale natural disturbances (corallivorous seastar outbreak and cyclone). Our study revealed that sedimentation, nutrient enrichment, and overfishing (simulated using exclusion cages) interactively affected coral survival and algal growth, with taxon-specific effects at multiple scales. First, our treatments affected corals and algae differently, with sedimentation being more detrimental to macroalgal growth but less detrimental to coral ( Porites rus) survival in caged plots, driving significant interactions between sedimentation and caging for both taxa. We also observed distinct responses between coral species and between algal functional groups, with the most extensive responses from algal turf biomass, for which sedimentation suppressed the synergistic (positive) combined effect of nutrient enrichment and caging. Our findings suggest that different combinations of ubiquitous anthropogenic stressors, related to either sea- or land-based activities, interactively influence community recovery from disturbance and may alter species compositions in the resulting community. Our findings further suggest that anthropogenic stressors could promote further

  1. "Developmental Review's" Most Influential Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    "Developmental Review" is a journal of literature reviews and theoretical analyses for developmental scientists. During its first quarter-century of publication, the quality of those articles resulted in a journal whose level of impact on the scientific literature is extremely high, currently in the top 10% of all journals indexed by "Social…

  2. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  3. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  4. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  5. Promoting Multiculturalism in Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the teaching profession needs to recognize the natural connections between multicultural and developmental education. Presents eight steps developmental educators can take to promote pluralism, including (1) establishing a clear link between cultural pluralism and institutional and programmatic mission and goals; (2) striving for…

  6. Developmental monitoring in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, C. E.; Roberts, W.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring child development is an essential part of primary health care. Successful surveillance depends on physicians' thorough knowledge of normal progress along the four developmental streams: motor, language, cognitive, and social and emotional. Being alert to "red flags" that suggest problems is important. Effective interventions can minimize developmental problems. PMID:8792021

  7. Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A.; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible etiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups. PMID:23140142

  8. Developmental anatomy of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Admiraal, Jeroen; Wright, Glenda M

    2010-02-01

    Lampreys are a group of aquatic chordates whose relationships to hagfishes and jawed vertebrates are still debated. Lamprey embryology is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it may shed light on vertebrate origins. For this and other reasons, lamprey embryology has been extensively researched by biologists from a range of disciplines. However, many of the key studies of lamprey comparative embryology are relatively inaccessible to the modern scientist. Therefore, in view of the current resurgence of interest in lamprey evolution and development, we present here a review of lamprey developmental anatomy. We identify several features of early organogenesis, including the origin of the nephric duct, that need to be re-examined with modern techniques. The homologies of several structures are also unclear, including the intriguing subendothelial pads in the heart. We hope that this review will form the basis for future studies into the phylogenetic embryology of this interesting group of animals.

  9. Deconstructing Pancreas Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Cecil M.; Goodyer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The relentless nature and increasing prevalence of human pancreatic diseases, in particular, diabetes mellitus and adenocarcinoma, has motivated further understanding of pancreas organogenesis. The pancreas is a multifunctional organ whose epithelial cells govern a diversity of physiologically vital endocrine and exocrine functions. The mechanisms governing the birth, differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, maturation, and maintenance of the endocrine and exocrine components in the pancreas have been discovered recently with increasing tempo. This includes recent studies unveiling mechanisms permitting unexpected flexibility in the developmental potential of immature and mature pancreatic cell subsets, including the ability to interconvert fates. In this article, we describe how classical cell biology, genetic analysis, lineage tracing, and embryological investigations are being complemented by powerful modern methods including epigenetic analysis, time-lapse imaging, and flow cytometry-based cell purification to dissect fundamental processes of pancreas development. PMID:22587935

  10. Developmental colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  11. Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible aetiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups.

  12. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  13. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  14. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  15. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  16. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  17. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  18. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  19. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  20. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  1. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  2. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing. PMID:20157427

  3. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they can inform high-risk research. Firstly, we tackle the state vs trait issue to outline the possible relationship between high-risk states and trait schizotypy. Second, we review the evidence suggesting that the consolidation of schizotypy, encompassing its 3 main dimensions, could be considered as a developmental mediator between very early risk factors and transition into high-risk states. Importantly, developmental dynamics between endophenotypes, as well as transactional and epigenetics mechanisms should enter modern conceptualizations of schizotypy. Finally, we present a developmental psychopathology perspective of schizotypy sensitive to both the multifinality and equifinality of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We conclude that schizotypy represents a crucial construct in a fully-developmental study of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. PMID:25548385

  4. The impact of a developmental science course on college success for underprepared health science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Candace A.

    Developmental education for the academically underprepared college student has been aimed at helping students succeed in college. However, developmental education courses have traditionally focused on reading, writing and math. This quantitative study examined the relationship between a developmental science course for underprepared health science students on grades achieved in college level medical terminology courses. The effect was measured by analyzing student grades retrieved from a college database of official school records through the use of correlation research methodology during a previous 2-year academic period at a selected independent 4-year right-to-try college. The results yielded a weakly positive correlation, but not statistically significant coefficient of 0.325 between grades for students who successfully completed the developmental science course and their subsequent success in a college-level science course. The study added to the gap in knowledge in terms of the effect a developmental science course has on grades in college-level science courses.

  5. Persistent and Pervasive Basal Freeze-on: Implications for the Preservation of the Oldest Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Braaten, D. A.; Corr, H. F.; Creyts, T. T.; Das, I.; Frearson, N.; Jordan, T. A.; Studinger, M.; Wolovick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate records from ice cores are based on the assumption that the stratigraphy is relatively simple and that the ice at the bottom of the ice sheet is undisturbed. The search for the oldest ice has targeted low accumulation areas such as Dome A and deep basins such as the Aurora Basin. The preservation of old ice will be significantly altered if there is widespread freeze-on at the base of the ice sheet. Previous evidence for basal freeze-on from the interior of major ice sheets has been limited to the thin layers of sediment-laden ice at the base of deep ice cores and the accretion ice from Lake Vostok. Here we present the first evidence for widespread freeze-on to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet from data collected by a seven nation International Polar Year Expedition to Dome A. In the extensive radar data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, we have identified distinct near-bed reflectors in the generally homogenous basal ice. The near-bed reflectors originate at the ice sheet bed coincident with flat, bright reflectors, sites associated with basal water. We interpret these near-bed reflectors as the interface between meteoric ice and ice frozen onto the base of the ice sheet. These frozen-on reflectors can be traced up to 100 km along flow. The thickness of the frozen-on basal ice reaches a maximum of 1100m that, in this case, represents 10-20% of the ice thickness along flowlines. In some sites, the frozen-on ice deflects the overlying meteoric ice upward 100's of meters indicating the ice accretion process influences the entire overlying ice sheet. The process of basal freeze-on beneath large ice sheets is likely persistent and pervasive. We infer that a significant fraction of the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet contains frozen-on ice and the process of widespread accretion must be considered in the search for the oldest ice. For example, the upper 70m thick accretion ice (accretion ice 1) from the Vostok ice core may be the result

  6. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  7. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Feiss, Léonard; Michel, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye’s visual input. PMID:23690677

  8. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  9. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  10. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  11. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  12. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  13. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  14. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  15. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  16. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  17. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  18. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  19. Systems Modeling in Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual starts off as a single cell, the progeny of which form complex structures that are themselves integrated into progressively larger systems. Developmental biology is concerned with how this cellular complexity and patterning arises through orchestration of cell divi...

  20. Five Developmental Stages of Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, J. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Precommunicative, semiphonetic, phonetic, transitional, and correct spelling are the developmental stages in the acquisition of spelling competency. Samples of children's early spelling patterns are presented. A system for classifying early spelling strategy is outlined. (DF)

  1. INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A book chapter in ?Molecular Toxicology: Transcriptional Targets? reviewed the role of intracellular signaling in the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals. This chapter covered a number of aspects including the development of the nervous system, role of intrace...

  2. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... developmental milestones of early literacy. Younger Than 6 Months: Never Too Young Unlike solid foods , it is ... counts, so have fun with it! 6–12 Months: Developing a Taste for Books Whatever babies are ...

  3. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure: Developmental Outcomes in the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period, the first month of life, carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills, and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs that limit characterizing potential impacts of prenatal tobacco exposure on the development of key self-regulatory processes and cannot disentangle short-term withdrawal effects from residual exposure-related impacts. In this study, pregnant participants (N = 304) were recruited prospectively during pregnancy and smoking was measured at multiple time points, using both self report and biochemical measures. Neonatal attention, irritable reactivity, and stress dysregulation were examined longitudinally at three time points during the first month of life, and physical growth indices were measured at birth. Tobacco-exposed infants showed significantly poorer attention skills after birth, and the magnitude of the difference between exposed and non-exposed groups attenuated across the neonatal period. In contrast, exposure-related differences in irritable reactivity were not evident and stable across the first month of life, but differed only marginally at 4-weeks of age. Third trimester smoking was associated with pervasive, deleterious, dose-response impacts on physical growth measured at birth, whereas nearly all smoking indicators throughout pregnancy predicted level and growth rates of early attention. The observed neonatal pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of tobacco on the developing nervous system and fits with developmental vulnerabilities observed later in life. PMID:21038943

  4. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  5. Developmental course of autistic social impairment in males.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N; Abbacchi, Anna M; Lavesser, Patricia D; Reed, Hannah; Givens, Leah; Chiang, Lily; Gray, Teddi; Gross, Maggie; Zhang, Yi; Todd, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that autistic social impairment (ASI) is continuously distributed in nature and that subtle autistic-like social impairments aggregate in the family members of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). This study examined the longitudinal course of quantitatively characterized ASI in 3- to 18-year-old boys with and without PDD. We obtained assessments of 95 epidemiologically ascertained male-male twin pairs and a clinical sample of 95 affected children using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), at two time points, spaced 1-5 years apart. Longitudinal course was examined as a function of age, familial loading for PDD, and autistic severity at baseline. Interindividual variation in SRS scores was highly preserved over time, with test-retest correlation of 0.90 for the entire sample. SRS scores exhibited modest general improvement over the study period; individual trajectories varied as a function of severity at baseline and were highly familial. Quantitative measurements of ASI reflect heritable traitlike characteristics. Such measurements can serve as reliable indices of phenotypic severity for genetic and neurobiologic studies, and have potential utility for ascertaining incremental response to intervention.

  6. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    PubMed

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories.

  7. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  8. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  9. Pervasive solar influence on Greenland temperature over the past 4000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Azuma, K. G.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    (Hegerl et al., 2011) possibly because of less accurate forcing reconstruction. The weak but pervasive solar influence on Greenland temperature over the past 4000 years provides important implications on current and future Greenland temperatures. Hegerl, G., Luterbacher, J., González-Rouco, F., Tett, S. F., Crowley, T., and Xoplaki, E.: Influence of human and natural forcing on European seasonal temperatures, Nat. Geosci., 4, 99-103, 2011. Kobashi, T., Kawamura, K., Severinghaus, J. P., Barnola, J.-M., Nakaegawa, T., Vinther, B. M., Johnsen, S. J., and Box, J. E.: High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air in an ice core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, 10.1029/2011GL049444, 2011. Kobashi, T., Shindell, D. T., Kodera, K., Box, J. E., Nakaegawa, T., and Kawamura, K.: On the origin of Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 years, Clim. Past, 9, 583-596, 2013.

  10. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    50 degrees NW, sub parallel to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault (trending 40 degrees NW in the area), which it intersects at an acute angle. The elongated structures in the relatively lithologically indistinct Coastal belt closely resemble structures defined by terrane fault boundaries and magnetic anomalies (produced mainly by tabular ophiolitic sources) in the adjacent lithologically heterogeneous Central belt. The distributions of mean vector direction and dispersion of magnetically-defined edges of the two datasets are very similar, and the global mean direction and dispersion agree to within 2 degrees. Many edges defined by the magnetic data are coincident with or continue the trend of mapped faults that form the structural boundaries between the Coastal belt and the Central belt terranes. The similarity of the pervasive structure in the Coastal belt evident from the aeromagnetic data with structure in the adjacent Central belt suggests that the structures within the two terranes are similar. This not only implies that structure in the Central belt can be used to inform further structural interpretations in the Coastal belt, but also suggests that the structural pattern seen in both terranes is the result of a younger tectonic overprinting that postdates the amalgamation of the two terranes.

  11. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  12. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.

  13. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  14. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  15. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

  16. The renaissance of developmental biology.

    PubMed

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.

  17. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD.

  18. Economical test methods for developmental neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, G

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of behavioral changes produced by prenatal or early postnatal exposure to potentially noxious agents requires both the designing of ad hoc tests and the adaptation of tests for adult animals to the characteristics of successive developmental stages. The experience in designing tests is still more limited than in the adaptation of tests, but several tests have already proven their usefulness; some examples are the suckling test, the homing test, and evaluations of dam-pup and pup-pup interactions. Functional observational batteries can exploit the development at specified postnatal ages of several reflexes and responses that are absent at birth in altricial rodent species with a short pregnancy such as the rat and the mouse. In neonates, the assessment of early treatment effects can rely not only on deviations from normal responding but also on changes in the time of appearance of otherwise normal response patterns. The same applies to other end points such as responses to pain and various types of spontaneous motor/exploratory activities, including reactivity to a variety of drug challenges that can provide information on the regulatory systems whose development may be affected by early treatments. In particular, the analysis of ontogenetic dissociations (i.e., differential early treatment effects depending jointly on developmental stage at the time of exposure, age of testing, and response end point) can be of considerable value in the study of treatments' mechanisms of action. Overall, it appears that behavioral teratological assessments can be effectively used both proactively, i.e., in risk assessment prior to any human exposure, and reactively. In the latter case, these assessments could have special value in the face of agents suspected to produce borderline changes in developing humans, whose innocuousness or noxiousness can be difficult to establish in the absence of hard evidence of teratogenicity. PMID:9182035

  19. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of developmental neurotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    1996-01-01

    Methodological issues in the design of prospective, longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity in humans are reviewed. A comprehensive assessment of potential confounding influences is important in these studies because inadequate assessment of confounders can threaten the validity of causal inferences drawn from the data. Potential confounders typically include demographic background variables, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, the quality of parental stimulation, the child's age at test, and the examiner. Exposure to other substances is assessed where significant exposure is expected in the target population. In most studies, control variables even weakly related to outcome are included in all multivariate statistical analyses, and a toxic effect is inferred only if the effect of exposure is significant after controlling for the potential confounders. Once a neurotoxic effect has been identified, suspected mediating variables may be added to the analysis to examine underlying processes or mechanisms through which the exposure may impact on developmental outcome. Individual differences in vulnerability may be examined in terms of either an additive compensatory model or a synergistic "risk and resilience" approach. Failure to detect real effects (Type II error) is of particular concern in these studies because public policy considerations make it likely that negative findings will be interpreted to mean that the exposure is safe. Important sources of Type II error include inadequate representation of highly exposed individuals, overcontrol for confounders, and inappropriate correction for multiple comparisons. Given the high cost and complexity of prospective, longitudinal investigations, cross-sectional pilot studies focusing on highly exposed individuals can be valuable for the initial identification of salient domains of impairment. PMID:9182034

  20. A Review of Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Aggression in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Julie; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Aggression can present as a significant problem behavior in individuals with a diagnosis of developmental disability. Much research has focused on the prevalence of aggression in individuals with varying degrees of severity of intellectual disability (AD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and co-morbidity of ID and ASD. Research has also focused on…