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  1. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... surroundings, and repetitive body movements or behavior patterns. Autism (a developmental brain disorder characterized by impaired social ... TTY) Fax: 301-984-1473 MAAP Services for Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and PDD P.O. Box 524 ...

  2. Fragmented Visuospatial Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter; van den Broek, Pieter J. A.; van der Pijll, Angela C. A. M.; Gabreels, Fons; van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2006-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger Syndrome (AS) may be characterised by a similar perceptual focus on details as children with autistic disorder (AD). This was tested by analysing their performance in a visuoperceptual task [the Children's Embedded Figure Test (CEFT)] and a…

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  4. [Gender dysphoria in pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the

  5. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  6. Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children (ages 2-11) with pervasive developmental disorders. Slightly more than half of parents reported a sleep problem in their child. All of the children exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. (Contains references.)…

  7. Early Symptoms and Recognition of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Hutzelmeyer-Nickels, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are characterised by the presence of abnormalities in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive patterns of behaviours. Although early symptoms of the disorder often appear during the first two years of life, its diagnosis is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to analyse the delay between…

  8. Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilincaslan, Ayse; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autistic disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (NOS), in a clinical sample of 126 children and adolescents (75 males, 51 females; age range 4-18y, mean 8y 8mo, SD 3y 8mo) with tetraplegic, hemiplegic,…

  9. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Two Canadian Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Coo, Helen; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.; Noonan, Andrea; Breitenbach, Marlene; Ramji, Nasreen; Prosick, Talia; Bedard, Angela; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the proportion of children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) has increased in the past two decades, there is no consensus on the prevalence of these conditions. The accompanying large rise in demand for services, together with uncertainty regarding the extent to which the observed…

  10. Injury Treatment among Children with Autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Zhou, Li; Mann, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the differences in the frequency and type of injury for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) compared with typically developing peers, when both groups are insured by Medicaid. The relative rate (RR) of emergency/hospital treatment of injury for children with autism or PDD compared to controls was…

  11. Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews whether Rett syndrome is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The paper analyzes internal and external diagnostic validity and discusses whether Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder or a mental disorder. The paper concludes that data support the idea of classifying Rett syndrome as a subtype of PDD.…

  12. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool. PMID:20856598

  13. Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified: primary care perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cascio, R S; Kilmon, C A

    1997-07-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD, NOS), a developmental-neurologic spectrum disorder, occurs in 10 to 12 of every 10,000 children. PDD, NOS is characterized by a spectrum of significant problems that may vary substantially in range and expression. These may include visual/spatial, kinesthetic, verbal/linguistic, and musical/rhythmic problems. Social skill deficits are also common, as are restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Symptoms of PDD, NOS are often expressed differently among children with the disorder and can be mistakenly attributed to other problems such as attention deficits, oppositional behavior, or stress reactions. Clinicians may encounter children in their practice who exhibit symptoms of PDD, NOS and must be familiar with this disorder so that appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be provided. Families also need ongoing, anticipatory guidance to help them cope with the behavioral aspects of the disorder. PMID:9253013

  14. Psychological interventions in pervasive developmental disorder: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Hameed, Noufal T.; Pandey, Jyoti Mishra; Mitra, Sayantanava; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are characterized by several impairments in the domains of social communication, social interaction and expression of social attachment, and other aspects of development like symbolic play. As the role of drugs in treating these impairments is extremely limited, a variety of psychological interventions have been developed to deal with them. Some of these have strong empirical support, while others are relatively new and hence controversial. Though it may prove to be a daunting task to begin with, the final reward of being able to improve the life of a child with PDD is enormous and hugely satisfying. Therefore, knowledge of these psychological interventions is important for a mental health professional, in order to be effective in the profession. Present paper presents an overview of these techniques in the management of PDD. PMID:25788797

  15. The molecular basis of cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Persons with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit a range of cognitive deficits that hamper their quality of life, including difficulties involving communication, sociability, and perspective-taking. In recent years, a variety of studies in mice that model genetic syndromes with a high risk of PDD have provided insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with these disorders. What is less appreciated is how the molecular anomalies affect neuronal and circuit function to give rise to the cognitive deficits associated with PDD. In this review, we describe genetic mutations that cause PDD and discuss how they alter fundamental social and cognitive processes. We then describe efforts to correct cognitive impairments associated with these disorders and identify areas of further inquiry in the search for molecular targets for therapeutics for PDD. PMID:22904374

  16. The use of intonation to communicate in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fine, J; Bartolucci, G; Ginsberg, G; Szatmari, P

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to employ a functional linguistic approach to explore pragmatic failure in the spontaneous speech of subjects with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Patterns of intonation use were compared among subjects with Asperger's syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and psychiatric out-patient controls (OPC) with a variety of non-specific social problems. Written transcripts and audio-recordings were used to measure rates of various intonation types relative to the amount of speech produced. The major finding of the study was that the HFA subjects less often tend to employ useful patterns of intonation for communication than the AS or OPC groups. This suggests that HFA either send random intonation signals to hearers or else demonstrate systematic misuse of the linguistic system. AS subjects differed little from the controls. The implications of these results for understanding the communicative failure of PDD subjects is discussed. PMID:1918227

  17. Reliability and Validity of the "Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale" and the "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating scale (Eaves, 2003) and the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (Gilliam, 1995) were investigated in this study. One hundred thirty-four individuals with autism, other pervasive developmental disorders, or conditions frequently confused with autism participated in the study. The…

  18. Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912

  19. Shadow Enhancers Are Pervasive Features of Developmental Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cannavò, Enrico; Khoueiry, Pierre; Garfield, David A.; Geeleher, Paul; Zichner, Thomas; Gustafson, E. Hilary; Ciglar, Lucia; Korbel, Jan O.; Furlong, Eileen E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Embryogenesis is remarkably robust to segregating mutations and environmental variation; under a range of conditions, embryos of a given species develop into stereotypically patterned organisms. Such robustness is thought to be conferred, in part, through elements within regulatory networks that perform similar, redundant tasks. Redundant enhancers (or “shadow” enhancers), for example, can confer precision and robustness to gene expression, at least at individual, well-studied loci. However, the extent to which enhancer redundancy exists and can thereby have a major impact on developmental robustness remains unknown. Here, we systematically assessed this, identifying over 1,000 predicted shadow enhancers during Drosophila mesoderm development. The activity of 23 elements, associated with five genes, was examined in transgenic embryos, while natural structural variation among individuals was used to assess their ability to buffer against genetic variation. Our results reveal three clear properties of enhancer redundancy within developmental systems. First, it is much more pervasive than previously anticipated, with 64% of loci examined having shadow enhancers. Their spatial redundancy is often partial in nature, while the non-overlapping function may explain why these enhancers are maintained within a population. Second, over 70% of loci do not follow the simple situation of having only two shadow enhancers—often there are three (rols), four (CadN and ade5), or five (Traf1), at least one of which can be deleted with no obvious phenotypic effects. Third, although shadow enhancers can buffer variation, patterns of segregating variation suggest that they play a more complex role in development than generally considered. PMID:26687625

  20. Shadow Enhancers Are Pervasive Features of Developmental Regulatory Networks.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Enrico; Khoueiry, Pierre; Garfield, David A; Geeleher, Paul; Zichner, Thomas; Gustafson, E Hilary; Ciglar, Lucia; Korbel, Jan O; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2016-01-11

    Embryogenesis is remarkably robust to segregating mutations and environmental variation; under a range of conditions, embryos of a given species develop into stereotypically patterned organisms. Such robustness is thought to be conferred, in part, through elements within regulatory networks that perform similar, redundant tasks. Redundant enhancers (or "shadow" enhancers), for example, can confer precision and robustness to gene expression, at least at individual, well-studied loci. However, the extent to which enhancer redundancy exists and can thereby have a major impact on developmental robustness remains unknown. Here, we systematically assessed this, identifying over 1,000 predicted shadow enhancers during Drosophila mesoderm development. The activity of 23 elements, associated with five genes, was examined in transgenic embryos, while natural structural variation among individuals was used to assess their ability to buffer against genetic variation. Our results reveal three clear properties of enhancer redundancy within developmental systems. First, it is much more pervasive than previously anticipated, with 64% of loci examined having shadow enhancers. Their spatial redundancy is often partial in nature, while the non-overlapping function may explain why these enhancers are maintained within a population. Second, over 70% of loci do not follow the simple situation of having only two shadow enhancers-often there are three (rols), four (CadN and ade5), or five (Traf1), at least one of which can be deleted with no obvious phenotypic effects. Third, although shadow enhancers can buffer variation, patterns of segregating variation suggest that they play a more complex role in development than generally considered. PMID:26687625

  1. Treatment options for the management of pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kathryn; Carter, K Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (previously known as pervasive developmental disorders) is characterized by social communication deficits, impaired functioning, and restrictive or repetitive behaviors and interests. Patients with autism spectrum disorder also commonly experience core maladaptive behaviors such as aggression and irritability, self-injurious behaviors, hyperactivity, and sleep abnormalities. These behaviors may be sources of stress for caregivers and patients alike and may require pharmacologic management. Risperidone and aripiprazole are frequently used to treat both irritability and self-injurious behavior related to autism spectrum disorder. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has also been studied for self-injurious behaviors, although long-term data are lacking when used in the autism spectrum disorder population. Methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and guanfacine are all potential options for the treatment of hyperactivity or attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in patients with autism spectrum disorder. Lastly, melatonin is the most widely researched medication strategy for the management of sleep disorders in autism spectrum disorder. Future studies reviewing new pharmacologic treatment approaches in combination with non-pharmacologic therapies are warranted to ensure that target behaviors of autism spectrum disorder are appropriately managed. PMID:27079778

  2. Pervasive developmental disorders in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kilincaslan, Ayse; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autistic disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (NOS), in a clinical sample of 126 children and adolescents (75 males, 51 females; age range 4-18y, mean 8y 8mo, SD 3y 8mo) with tetraplegic, hemiplegic, diplegic, dyskinetic, or mixed types of cerebral palsy (CP); 28% could not crawl or walk even with support, 29% could move with support, and 43% walked independently. Participants were examined for PDD in two stages. In the first stage, probable participants were determined by direct observation, Autism Behavior Checklist score, and medical reports. In the second stage, those with 'probable' symptoms underwent psychiatric examination and their autistic symptoms were scored on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The final diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDD-NOS was given according to DSM-IV criteria. Fourteen (11%) and five (4%) of the participants met the criteria for autistic disorder and PDD-NOS respectively. Children with CP and PDD differed from those without PDD in terms of type of CP (p=0.02), presence of epilepsy (p<0.001), intellectual level (p<0.001), and level of speech (p<0.001). PDD was more common in children with tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP, and in children with epilepsy, learning disability, and low level of speech. The findings corroborate the notion that CP is a complex disorder, often associated with additional impairments. PDD is not rare in CP and should be considered in patients with comorbid conditions such as epilepsy, learning disability, and language delay and in the presence of tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP types. PMID:19335564

  3. Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome of Children with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Giacomo, Andrea; Serrazzanetti, Diana Isabella; Cristofori, Fernanda; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Gobbetti, Marco; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autism (AD) in comparison to healthy children (HC). Bacterial tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses were carried out to determine total bacteria (16S rDNA) and metabolically active bacteria (16S rRNA), respectively. The main bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia) significantly (P<0.05) changed among the three groups of children. As estimated by rarefaction, Chao and Shannon diversity index, the highest microbial diversity was found in AD children. Based on 16S-rRNA and culture-dependent data, Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcus were present at the highest level in fecal samples of PDD-NOS and HC children. Caloramator, Sarcina and Clostridium genera were the highest in AD children. Compared to HC, the composition of Lachnospiraceae family also differed in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. Except for Eubacterium siraeum, the lowest level of Eubacteriaceae was found on fecal samples of AD children. The level of Bacteroidetes genera and some Alistipes and Akkermansia species were almost the highest in PDD-NOS or AD children as well as almost all the identified Sutterellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were the highest in AD. Compared to HC children, Bifidobacterium species decreased in AD. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds of fecal samples were markedly affected in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. If the gut microbiota differences among AD and PDD-NOS and HC children are one of the concomitant causes or the consequence of autism, they may have implications regarding specific diagnostic test, and/or for treatment and prevention. PMID:24130822

  4. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  5. Is Long-Term Prognosis for Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Different from Prognosis for Autistic Disorder? Findings from a 30-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that…

  6. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and…

  7. Factor Analysis of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale with Teacher Ratings of Students with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Eaves, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale (PDDRS; Eaves, 2003) is a rating scale that is used in the screening process for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The PDDRS contains three scales: Arousal, Affect, and Cognition. In this study, the construct validity of the PDDRS was examined with teacher ratings from a sample of 168…

  8. Interventions for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.; Robertson, Janet; Yasamy, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although interventions for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have been the focus of research effort and evidence reviews in many Western countries, this evidence has not been assessed in the context of low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries especially in terms of the fit with different cultures and resources.…

  9. Sex Differences in WISC-III Profiles of Children with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Using the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), 26 girls with high-functioning (IQ greater than or equal to 70) pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) (mean age, 8.2 years) were compared with 116 boys with HFPDD (mean age, 9.0 years). Compared with the boys, the girls scored significantly…

  10. Face Recognition in Children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, M.; Althaus, M.; de Sonneville, L. M. J.; Stant, A. D.; Jackson, A. E.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the accuracy and speed of face recognition in 26 children (ages 7-10) with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Subjects needed an amount of time to recognize the faces that almost equaled the time they needed to recognize abstract patterns that were difficult to distinguish. (Contains references.)…

  11. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  12. Mental Development and Autistic Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the features of mental development and autistic behavior in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from the viewpoint of remedial therapy. The Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), designed to be completed by children's caregivers, were used. A…

  13. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  14. Regression of Language and Non-Language Skills in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, A. -A. S.; Fombonne, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As part of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), there is a subgroup of individuals reported to have a different onset of symptom appearance consisting of an apparently normal early development, followed by a loss of verbal and/or non-verbal skills prior to 2 years of age. This study aims at comparing the symptomatology of…

  15. A Preliminary Study on Screening Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Schoolchildren in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    To study prevalence rates of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) symptoms and differences between subtypes in school age Iranian children. A random sample of 2,000 school age children from both genders was selected. A parent-completed, DSM-IV-referenced rating scale of PDD symptoms was used. About 1.9% of the sample obtained screening cutoff…

  16. Promoting Social Skill Development in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Feasibility and Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; White, Susan Williams; Pachler, Maryellen; Lau, Monika; Lewis, Moira; Klin, Ami; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A randomized controlled design was employed to evaluate a social skills intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Aims included evaluating the acceptability of the program and gathering preliminary evidence on efficacy. Forty-four children, ages 8-11 years, were randomly assigned to treatment or wait list. Treatment…

  17. Sleep Correlates of Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a significant problem in the general pediatric population, and it occurs even more frequently in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Much time and energy have been spent examining the characteristics that predispose children to insomnia and it is likely that equivalent factors influence sleep in PDDs.…

  18. The Co-Occurrence of Nonaffective Psychosis and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Fiona E.; Miltsiou, Eleni; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) were originally conceptualised as a form of ("infantile") psychosis. Recently, the disorders have been viewed as separate constructs. However, there is evidence of overlapping psychopathology, pathophysiology, and occurrence of the two syndromes. Methods: A historical overview is provided. A…

  19. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  20. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  1. Validation of an Interview-Based Rating Scale Developed in Japan for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tani, Iori; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Adachi, Jun; Hara, Koichi; Ogasawara, Megumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Kamio, Yoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Taku; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), an interview-based instrument for evaluating PDDs, has been developed in Japan with the aim of providing a method that (1) can be used to evaluate PDD symptoms and related support needs and (2) is simpler and easier than the currently used "gold standard"…

  2. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  3. Quality of Life of Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Baud, M. A.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe quality of life (QoL) and global evolution of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in three different groups. Individualized programs for PDD were compared to traditional programs for intellectual disabilities. Behavioural disorders were repeatedly evaluated using the Aberrant Behaviour…

  4. Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

  5. Pervasive Developmental Disorders: PDD-NOS, Asperger's Disorder and Autism. Parent Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Karen

    This information booklet is designed for parents who have a child who has been diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or Asperger's Disorder. It provides information on: (1) the definition of PDD; (2) the five subtypes of PDD, including PDD "not otherwise specified," Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  6. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolov, Roumen N.; Bearss, Karen E.; Lettinga, Jelle; Erickson, Craig; Rodowski, Maria; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Vitiello, Benedetto; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shah, Bhavik; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods: One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were assessed comprehensively prior to…

  7. Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan K.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Cronin, Pegeen; Grados, Marco; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Koenig, Kathleen; Lam, Kristen S. L.; McGough, James; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales (CYBOCS) modified for pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: Raters from five Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were trained to reliability. The modified scale (CYBOCS-PDD), which contains only…

  8. Brief Report: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Can Evolve into ADHD--Case Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; Dixon, Pamela; Paul, Jennifer; Levin, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Despite prominent attentional symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) the relationship between PDD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has received little direct examination. In addition, outcome studies of children with PDD often focus on language, educational placement, or adaptive skills, but seldom on loss of the…

  9. Brief Report: Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Brazil--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paula, Cristiane S.; Ribeiro, Sabrina H.; Fombonne, Eric; Mercadante, Marcos T.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study presents preliminary results concerning the prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in South America. It was a three-phase study conducted in a typical town in Southeast Brazil. Case definition was based in a combination of standardized instruments and clinical evaluations by experts. The prevalence of PDD was…

  10. Brief Report: Representational Momentum for Dynamic Facial Expressions in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of…

  11. A New Way with Autistic and Other Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arnold; Eller-Miller, Eileen

    This monograph describes the program of the Language and Cognitive Development Center (Massachusetts), which serves toddlers and school-aged children with autism or other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). An introduction presents incidence figures, the program's philosophy, the program's approach to assessment, intervention with children…

  12. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. This variation seems to be related to the concepts…

  13. Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Client-Centered Approach. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie C.

    This guide to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) first provides a review of the literature on defining characteristics of PDD/ASD, causes of PDD, and diagnosis of PDD. Review of intervention and treatment comprises the major portion of the paper. After briefly considering parent education, this section…

  14. Hemispheric Processing of Idioms and Irony in Adults with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban-Bezalel, Ronit; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have pointed to difficulties in comprehension of figurative language. Using the divided visual field paradigm, the present study examined hemispheric processing of idioms and irony in 23 adults with PDD and in 24 typically developing (TD) adults. The results show that…

  15. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  16. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  17. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  18. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  19. Electrocortical Reflections of Face and Gaze Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Schuller, A-M.; Van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) show behavioral abnormalities in gaze and face processing, but recent studies have indicated that normal activation of face-specific brain areas in response to faces is possible in this group. It is not clear whether the brain activity related to gaze processing is also normal in…

  20. ERPs and Eye Movements Reflect Atypical Visual Perception in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Many studies of eye tracking or event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) have yielded inconsistent results on attentional processing. However, recent studies have indicated that there are specific abnormalities in early processing that are probably related to perception. ERP amplitudes in…

  1. Facial Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Information from Faces and Voices in Individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research, it is still debated whether impairments in social skills of individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) are related to specific deficits in the early processing of emotional information. We aimed to test both automatic processing of facial affect as well as the integration of auditory and visual…

  2. Audiovisual Speech Integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously…

  3. Brief Report: Neuroanatomic Observations of the Brain in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews neuroanatomic studies on syndromes classified as Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Findings in autism and Asperger's syndrome suggest that these two disorders may represent a continuum along a neurobiological spectrum with a common neuroanatomic substrate, while Rett syndrome appears to be clinically and anatomically distinct…

  4. Social Skills Groups for Asperger’s Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) including Asperger’s disorder are relatively rare conditions that can be very disabling for individuals affected. This article focuses on social skills therapy, looking at research that has been completed in a group therapy format and then using composite case examples to review basic techniques that have been used to teach social skills to children with a diagnosis of PDD. PMID:19727303

  5. [Review of assessment methods used to evaluate feeding for children with pervasive developmental disorder].

    PubMed

    Nadon, G; Ehrmann Feldman, D; Gisel, E

    2008-08-01

    Current evaluations used by occupational therapists to assess and treat feeding problems derive mainly from the domain of dysphagia. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with tools used, in research, for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and to determine if any of these meet the needs of occupational therapists. The following data bases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, HAPI and PsyINFO, using the terms pervasive developmental disorder, autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, eating behavior, eating disorder, food preference, food selectivity, feeding disorders, picky eater and child. All articles published between 1980 and 2006 (n=27) were reviewed. A total of 20 studies met our selection criteria. Assessment methods are compared using the Disability Creation Model (DCP). The DCP is the Quebec alternative to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). None of the evaluation tools reviewed met all factors that may influence eating in children with PDD. Implications for research and practice in occupational therapy are discussed. PMID:18562184

  6. [The effect of parent training program on children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders and/or pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kazunori; Matsuzaka, Tetsuo; Nagaoka, Tamao; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of 18 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD) and 6 with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) underwent a parent training (PT) program. After the program, the Beck Depression Inventory- II (BDI - II) score, which indicates parenting stress, significantly decreased from 15 to 8 (p=0.036). A total of 22 mothers had increased parenting self-esteem, and better parent-child relationships were noted in these cases. An analysis of children's behavior by using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist showed that introversion tendency, physical failure, aggressive behavior, and extroversion score improved significantly after PT (p<0.05). After PT, out-of-control behaviors improved in 19 children and continued in 5. We conclude that PT for mothers of children with AD/HD and/or high-functioning PDD is effective in improving both the parenting skills of mothers and adaptive behaviors of children. PMID:22844759

  7. Follow-Up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change during the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Asmundsdottir, Gudlaug; Hjartardottir, Sigrun; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis B.; Smaradottir, Hrafnhildur H.; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Smari, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group) and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient/developmental quotient (IQ/DQ) of the…

  8. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  9. Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting Procedure in 1:1 and Small Group Instruction to Teach Play Skills to Preschool Students with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colozzi, Gail A.; Ward, Louise W.; Crotty, Kerry E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the effectiveness of a simultaneous prompting procedure used in both 1:1 and small group instruction to teach pretend play skills to a group of preschool students, three having a diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder and one having a diagnosis of severe developmental disabilities. The study also assessed…

  10. A girl with pervasive developmental disorder and complex chromosome rearrangement involving 8p and 10p.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, L; Sonnenberg, L K; Heshka, T; Eastwood, S; Xu, J

    2005-06-01

    We report a 4-year-old girl with a de novo, apparently balanced complex chromosome rearrangement. She initially presented for assessment of velopharyngeal insufficiency due to hypernasal speech. She has distinctive facial features (long face, broad nasal bridge, and protuberant ears with simplified helices), bifid uvula, strabismus, and joint laxity. She is developmentally delayed, with language and cognitive skills approximately 2 SD below the mean expected for her age, and meets ADI, ADOS, and DSM-IV criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. She has poor eye contact, atypical communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviours and significant difficulties with processing sensory input. Her karyotype is characterized by the presence of two derivative chromosomes; 46,XX, der(8)(10pter- >10pl2.32::8p12- >8qter), der(l0)(8pter- >8p21.3::10p12.32- >10p11.23::8p21.3- > 8p12::10p11.23- >l0qter). The der(8) is a result of translocation of the segment 10p12.32-pter onto 8p12. The der(l0) has two 8p segments collectively from 8p12-pter in that the segment 8p21.3-pter is translocated onto 10p12.32 and the segment 8p12-p21.3 is inserted at 10p11.23. FISH analysis showed no microdeletion of the major locus at 22q11.2 nor for the minor locus at 10p13p14. This case suggests that aberrations at 8p12, 8p21.3, 10p11.23 and/or 10p12.32 may result in pervasive developmental disorder, associated with mild cognitive delay and specific facial anomalies. PMID:16119480

  11. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Portoghese, Claudia; Martinelli, Domenico; Fanizza, Isabella; L’Abate, Luciano; Margari, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills. PMID:19590730

  12. Quality of life of adults with pervasive developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gerber, F; Baud, M A; Giroud, M; Galli Carminati, G

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe quality of life (QoL) and global evolution of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in three different groups. Individualized programs for PDD were compared to traditional programs for intellectual disabilities. Behavioural disorders were repeatedly evaluated using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC) and QoL once a year. Little research has investigated this domain due to methodological problems with a non-verbal population. Two preliminary studies of individualized programs showed a significant reduction in behaviour disorders over the course of the study. The recent inclusion of a control group indicates that a traditional program reduces lethargy/social withdrawal (ABC factor 2). A good QoL was measured for the three groups. PMID:18266098

  13. A second visually impaired, mentally retarded male with pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder and Ganser's syndrome: diagnostic classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kerbeshian, J; Burd, L

    The authors report a second visually impaired, mentally retarded male who presents with symptoms consistent with atypical pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder, and a syndrome of approximate answers (Ganser's syndrome). Both this case and an earlier reported case are significant in that they identify two children with strikingly similar long-standing symptoms and developmental histories. Since these findings may have broader relevance to children with multiple coexisting disorders, diagnostic and intervention strategies in this population are reviewed. PMID:3459721

  14. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  15. Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

  16. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  17. Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavior Problems: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Johnson, Cynthia; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Ramadan, Yaser; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Lecavalier, Luc; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Mulick, James A.; Hall, Kristy L.; Dziura, James; Ritz, Louise; Trollinger, Stacie; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have serious, functionally impairing behavioral problems. We tested whether combined treatment (COMB) with risperidone and parent training (PT) in behavior management is superior to medication alone (MED) in improving severe behavioral problems in children with PDDs. Method:…

  18. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  19. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  20. Relationship between Motor and Executive Functioning in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing children. The potential relationship between motor…

  1. What Factors Are Related to a Negative Outcome of Self-Injurious Behaviour during Childhood in Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghdadli, A.; Picot, M. C.; Pry, R.; Michelon, C.; Burzstejn, C.; Lazartigues, A.; Aussilloux, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To explore the factors related to the outcome of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Children with PDD were assessed on individual and environmental variables at time 1 and 3 years later. A questionnaire about the presence or absence of SIB was also administered at both times in…

  2. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  3. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), and (2) how profiles related to…

  4. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  5. Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Young People with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Relative Prevalence, Effects of Subject Characteristics, and Empirical Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Parents or teachers rated 487 non-clinically referred young people with Pervasive Developmental Disorders on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. The objectives of the study were to examine the relative prevalence of specific behavior problems, assess the impact of subject characteristics, and derive an empirical classification of behavioral…

  6. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  7. Low-Dose Fluvoxamine Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Koenig, Kathleen; Anderson, George M.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    This prospective open-label study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of low-doze fluvoxamine in 14 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Although there was no response for the group as a whole, eight subjects were considered at least partial responders in intent-to-treat analyses. Results suggest fluvoxamine can be beneficial…

  8. Positive Effects of Methylphenidate on Social Communication and Self-Regulation in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Kasari, Connie L.; McCracken, James T.; Lee, Lisa S-Y.; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Witwer, Andrea; Kustan, Erin; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Posey, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of…

  9. Platelet Serotonin Levels in Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation: Diagnostic Group Differences, Within-Group Distribution, and Behavioral Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Erik J.; Anderson, George M.; Kema, Ido P.; De Bildt, Annelies; Van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Den Boer, Johan A.; Minderaa Ruud B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's and PDD-not otherwise…

  10. [Value of ancillary testing in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who seek general psychiatric services for various psychiatric problems. The diagnosis of PDD requires the careful collection of information about the patient's developmental history. A structured diagnostic interview is useful and should be performed, but has limitations now. The clinical value of the measurement of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient Japanese Version, and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale was demonstrated by a questionnaire survey that the authors conducted in 2010. These additional tests are useful if interpreted with caution. For example, a discrepancy between the performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and the verbal IQ in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale does not by itself diagnose PDD. We examined whether the Japanese version of the National Adult Reading Test (Japanese Adult Reading Test; JART), a valid scale for evaluating pre-morbid IQ in patients with schizophrenia, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) are useful for discriminating between PDD and schizophrenia. Sixteen patients with adult PDD and 16 patients with schizophrenia matched for age, education and sex participated in this study. In addition, the two groups were matched for JART and the Global Assessment of Functioning scores. All subjects were scored on the JART and WAIS-R after giving informed consent for the study. The result was that significant diagnosis-by-IQ examination interactions were found (F [1, 30]=10.049, P=0.003). Also, the WAIS-R scores of the PDD group were higher than those of the schizophrenia group (P=0.002) when the two groups were matched for JART. In conclusion, the comparison of IQ in the PDD group and in the schizophrenia group by JART and WAIS-R might be an easy and useful method for helping to discriminate between PDD and schizophrenia. In addition, the

  11. Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

  12. Union and separation in the therapy of pervasive developmental disorders and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of psychotherapy for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in the context of the curative effects of the movement of images. The 'autistic spectrum' is widened here and includes not only PDD, but also ADHD. The main common characteristic in these two sets of disorders seems to be the lack of a subject, which manifests itself as the absence of awareness of otherness and difficulties with boundaries and language. In these cases a normal psychotherapy is ineffective as it presupposes an established subject. However a psychotherapeutic approach with these patients can contribute to the emergence of a subject. In severe cases the process of union and separation which is enacted either in the therapeutic relationship or in symbolic play leads to the birth of a subject, and of language. In milder cases, such as ADHD, the moments of separation and confrontation with the therapist suffice. I will discuss a case of my own with Asperger's syndrome in which union and separation in the play therapy occurred simultaneously. This indicates that union and separation are not a consecutive process, but are simultaneous and lead to dialectical movement. However, in neurotic cases with an established subjectivity the symbolic meaning of image plays a central role. This corresponds to Jung's understanding of image in alchemy. PMID:19840158

  13. Is it possible to assess the impact of abuse on children with pervasive developmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Howlin, P; Clements, J

    1995-08-01

    Although it is now recognized that children may exhibit widespread symptoms of stress following exposure to abuse or neglect, the impact of traumatic experiences on children with pervasive developmental disorders has received little attention. The present paper describes a strategy devised to assess the long-term effects of abuse on a group of children who had attended a specialist autistic school where physical and emotional mistreatment of pupils was well documented. Because most of the children had very limited communication skills, the evidence relied heavily on retrospective parental reports. Despite the problems inherent in using such data it was possible to derive reliable measures that could be used to test hypotheses about predicted patterns of behavioral change, based on work with other children who have been abused. In most cases, too, parental reports could be corroborated by information from other sources. Consistent patterns in both the nature and timing of behavioral disturbances were found, which seemed to relate specifically to the period of abuse at the school. PMID:7592248

  14. Personality adjustment and social support of parents who care for children with pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S J

    1991-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the degree of personality adjustment and perceived social support of parents who care for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data were collected with the California Q-Set (a personality measure) and the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Personality adjustment of the parents was found to be significantly less than optimal, with a high degree of anxiety, minimal ego resilience, and use of defensive coping processes. Siblings of the child with the disorder and mothers of the parents were those most frequently identified as providing support to the caregiver, although friends, special education teachers, and daycare staff were the individuals whose support was most significantly related to greater amounts of perceived affection and affirmation, tangible aid, and concrete caregiving assistance. In fact, the more the caregivers depended upon their families for support, the less well adjusted were the caregivers on the personality measure. The implications of the findings for caregivers and their families are discussed. PMID:2039277

  15. Using virtual reality environment to improve joint attention associated with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or dangerous consequences to deal with. Joint attention is a critical skill in the disorder characteristics of children with PDD. The absence of joint attention is a deficit frequently affects their social relationship in daily life. Therefore, this study designed the Joint Attention Skills Learning (JASL) systems with data glove tool to help children with PDD to practice joint attention behavior skills. The JASL specifically focus the skills of pointing, showing, sharing things and behavior interaction with other children with PDD. The system is designed in playroom-scene and presented in the first-person perspectives for users. The functions contain pointing and showing, moving virtual objects, 3D animation, text, speaking sounds, and feedback. The method was employed single subject multiple-probe design across subjects' designs, and analysis of visual inspection in this study. It took 3 months to finish the experimental section. Surprisingly, the experiment results reveal that the participants have further extension in improving the joint attention skills in their daily life after using the JASL system. The significant potential in this particular treatment of joint attention for each participant will be discussed in details in this paper. PMID:22776822

  16. Long-term risperidone for pervasive developmental disorder: efficacy, tolerability, and discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Zuddas, A; Di Martino, A; Muglia, P; Cianchetti, C

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the safety (e.g., weight gain, liver function, extrapyramidal side effects, and seizures) and efficacy of the long-term use of risperidone in children and adolescents and to ascertain the effects of drug withdrawal in a semi-naturalistic prospective, subjects with autism or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) were treated with risperidone for 6 months after which parents were given the option of continuing for a further 6 months (final assessment at 12 months). Behavioral rating included Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Child Psychiatric Rating Scale (CPRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and Child-Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Risperidone significantly ameliorated behavioral symptoms of PDD in 10 out of 11 subjects, with the effects on core symptoms being of smaller amplitude and of slower onset. No loss of effectiveness was observed in patients who continued risperidone for 12 months, while a relapse of associated behavioral symptoms occurred in the others. Weight gain was common, although the rate of increase lessened over a period of time; after drug withdrawal, considerable weight loss was observed in the patient who had previously shown the most significant increase. After 6 months of therapy, two patients developed facial dystonia: this disappeared after reducing dosage in one case, after drug discontinuation in the other. Amenorrhea was also observed, but no changes in liver function, blood tests or EEG were reported. The data indicate that risperidone is an effective and relatively safe drug for long term treatment of behavioral disruption in autistic children and adolescents. PMID:10933118

  17. Pharmacotherapy for Hyperactivity in Children with Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Langworthy, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    A review of 41 studies on pharmacological treatments for children with autism and pervasive personality disorder not otherwise specified, found empirical evidence for significant reductions in hyperactive symptoms was strongest for the antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and naltrexone. A theoretical model is proposed for using attentional…

  18. Chain reaction or time bomb: a neuropsychiatric-developmental/neurodevelopmental formulation of tourettisms, pervasive developmental disorder, and schizophreniform symptomatology associated with PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry; Tait, Alison

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a boy who over time sequentially exhibited symptoms consistent with a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophreniform symptomatology, multiple motor and vocal tics, and myoclonus. During this period he experienced multiple episodes of group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal (strep) infection confirmed by culture and serological studies. We speculate that paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep (PANDAS) may have served as an element in a complex chain of causation influencing the expression of his symptoms. Our main emphasis is to utilize our case study as an example of the application in case formulation of the neuropsychiatric developmental model and of the neurodevelopmental model on symptom ontogenesis and clinical outcome. PMID:17654411

  19. The Neuropathology of Developmental Dysphasia: Behavioral, Morphological, and Physiological Evidence for a Pervasive Temporal Processing Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews research toward defining the neuropathological mechanisms responsible for developmental dysphasia. Hypothesizes that higher level auditory processing dysfunction may result from more basic temporal processing deficits which interfere with resolution of brief duration stimuli. Suggests two alternative hypotheses regarding the…

  20. Behavior change in a student with a dual diagnosis of deafness and pervasive developmental disorder: a case study.

    PubMed

    Easterbrooks, Susan R; Handley, C Michele

    The broad term pervasive developmental disorder (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must work with individuals with dual diagnoses, are at a loss for guidance from the literature. The authors review the literature on ASDs (also referred to as PDD) within the DHH population, provide results of a single-subject study to reduce PDD-type behaviors in a child with hearing loss, and argue that teachers of students who are DHH must learn about practices associated with applied behavior analysis as an tool for intervening therapeutically with children with dual diagnoses of hearing loss plus an ASD. PMID:16610472

  1. Design and subject characteristics in the federally-funded citalopram trial in children with pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-03-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (±3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were diagnosed with autistic disorder (4.7% with Asperger's Disorder; 6.7% with PDD-not otherwise specified). Less than half of the subjects were intellectually disabled; 117 (78.5%) were rated Moderate or Marked on the Clinical Global Impression for Severity. Study measures were similar to previous Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology trials. Subjects in this trial were slightly older and more likely to have complaints of repetitive behavior than participants in RUPP trials. PMID:21667200

  2. 'All that glitters is not gold': misdiagnosis of psychosis in pervasive developmental disorders--a case series.

    PubMed

    Dossetor, David R

    2007-10-01

    The early literature established the validity of the distinction between early onset schizophrenia and autism. In the modern context of increasing recognition of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and a growing interest in very early onset schizophrenia and other childhood onset psychoses, this clinical distinction is often difficult to make. This article looks at problems arising from overdiagnosing psychosis in those with PDD. Four case examples of misattributed diagnosis of psychosis are described. The features that were mistaken for psychotic phenomena are described and explained and successfully treated in the context of a diagnosis of PDD. The article describes problems of reliability of ascertaining subjective mental phenomena and the range of mental phenomena that need to be recognized in PDD. The overlap of abnormal perceptions and cognitions in both these conditions is described with reference to the literature. It is evident that more needs to be done to improve diagnostic reliability of psychosis in PDD, by improving clinical awareness and research tools. PMID:18095536

  3. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  4. Parent-Rated Anxiety Symptoms in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Frequency and Association with Core Autism Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Scahill, Lawrence; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; White, Susan Williams; Lecavalier, Luc; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2008-01-01

    Background: In addition to the core symptoms, children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) often exhibit other problem behaviors such as aggression, hyperactivity, and anxiety, which can contribute to overall impairment and, therefore, become the focus of clinical attention. Limited data are available on the prevalence of anxiety in these…

  5. The Pervasive Developmental Disorders of Childhood: Who Are These Children and What Role Does the Educational Professional Play in Evaluation and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, James N.; And Others

    A child psychiatric consultant describes the category of pervasive developmental disorders of children, characterized by grossly deviant patterns of growth and maturation in cognitive, psychological, biological, and social development (not including disorders resulting from demonstrable brain damage). Theories of causation are reviewed and…

  6. Determining Differences in Social Cognition between High-Functioning Autistic Disorder and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using New Advanced "Mind-Reading" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Miho; Wakabayashi, Akio; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in understanding the mental state of others ("mind-reading") have been well documented in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, it is unclear whether this deficit in social cognition differs between the subgroups of PDD defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text…

  7. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found…

  8. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of…

  10. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  11. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders. PMID:27015370

  12. The Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A 7 Year Follow Up of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheij, C.; Louwerse, A.; van der Ende, J.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van Gool, A. R.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined…

  13. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in the Japanese society. As lack

  14. The Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A 7 Year Follow Up of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified.

    PubMed

    Verheij, C; Louwerse, A; van der Ende, J; Eussen, M L J M; Van Gool, A R; Verheij, F; Verhulst, F C; Greaves-Lord, K

    2015-12-01

    The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined childhood factors that predicted the stability of comorbid psychiatric disorders. The rate of comorbid psychiatric disorders dropped significantly from childhood (81 %) to adolescence (61 %). Higher levels of parent reported stereotyped behaviors and reduced social interest in childhood significantly predicted the stability of psychiatric comorbidity. Re-evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity should be considered in clinical practice, since several individuals shifted in comorbid diagnoses. PMID:26456972

  15. Brief report: an unusual manifestation of diagnostic overshadowing of pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified: a five year longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Meera, S S; Kaipa, Ramesh; Thomas, Jaslin; Shivashankar, N

    2013-06-01

    Children with communication disorders present with a range of comorbid conditions. Occasionally one of the comorbid conditions manifests so strongly that the primary condition goes unnoticed by the clinician. This tendency to overlook comorbid health problems in the presence of a disability is referred to as diagnostic overshadowing. This is a five-year follow up case study of a 9-year-old female child. The child was initially diagnosed to have Separation anxiety disorder (SAD), but during the course of follow up she began to exhibit features of pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). This case report throws light on the severity of SAD which overshadowed PDD-NOS. Importance of follow-up and the need for a multidisciplinary team to be sensitive to the phenomenon of diagnostic overshadowing is discussed. PMID:23108987

  16. Effects of Behavior-Specific and General Praise, on Acquisition of Tacts in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Colleen; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Although behavior-specific praise is commonly recommended for use in clinical and educational settings for individuals with autism, only one study was found that compared the effects of behavior-specific praise and general praise with individuals with developmental disabilities. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of…

  17. Investigating the Impact of Adding an Environmental Focus to a Developmental Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth; McNeill, Kristopher; Wammer, Kristine; Lawrenz, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how adding environmental perspectives to a developmental chemistry course affected student learning of both general chemistry and environmental chemistry concepts. In addition to measuring learning changes, changes in students' environmental attitudes and behaviors were also measured. A pretest-posttest design measured…

  18. A failure to confirm the effectiveness of a brief group psychoeducational program for mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masako; Yamada, Atsurou; Watanabe, Norio; Akechi, Tatsuo; Katsuki, Fujika; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Imaeda, Masayuki; Miyachi, Taishi; Otaki, Kazuo; Mitsuda, Yumiko; Ota, Akino; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group psychoeducation to relieve the psychological distress of mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) and to improve the behaviors of the children. Methods Seventy-two mothers of preschool outpatients with HFPDD were randomly assigned to a four-session brief group psychoeducational program (GP). The sessions were held every second week in addition to the usual treatment (GP + treatment as usual [TAU] group), or to a TAU-alone group. The primary outcome was self-reported symptoms of maternal mental health as assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) at 21 weeks post-randomization (week 21). The GHQ-28 at the end of the intervention (week 7), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) for the behavior of the children, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were carried out at weeks 7 and 21. We tested the group effects with the interaction between the intervention and the evaluation points. Results The GHQ-28 score at week 21 was significantly higher in the GP + TAU group as compared to that in the TAU-alone group, indicating a greater improvement in the TAU-alone group. There was no evidence that GP + TAU led to a greater improvement of maternal mental health than TAU-alone at week 7. Similarly, no evidence was obtained to indicate that GP + TAU led to a reduction in the ABC or ZBI scores by week 7 or 21. The adjusted scores for the RF (role emotional) and MH (mental health) subscales of the SF-36 at week 21 were also significantly lower in the GP + TAU group, indicating a similar tendency to that of the change of the GHQ-28 score at week 21. Conclusion The psychoeducational program did not alleviate maternal distress, aberrant behaviors of the children, or caregiver burden. PMID:25061301

  19. Concerns Expressed by Parents of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders for Different Time Periods of the Day: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Usami, Masahide; Sasayama, Daimei; Okada, Takashi; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Kodaira, Masaki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sawa, Tetsuji; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The Questionnaire: Children with Difficulties (QCD) is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate child’s difficulties in functioning during specific periods of the day. This study aimed to evaluate difficulties in daily functioning of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) using the QCD. Results were compared with those for a community sample. Methods A case–control design was used. The cases comprised elementary school students (182 males, 51 females) and junior high school students (100 males, 39 females) with PDD, whereas a community sample of elementary school students (568 males, 579 females) and junior high school students (180 males, 183 females) was enrolled as controls. Their behavior was assessed using the QCD, the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI) for elementary and junior high school students, respectively. Effects of gender and diagnosis on the QCD scores were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between QCD and TABS, ADHD-RS, and ODBI scores were analyzed. Results The QCD scores for the children with PDD were significantly lower compared with those from the community sample (P < 0.001). Significantly strong correlations were observed in more areas of the ADHD-RS and ODBI scores compared with the TABS scores. Conclusions Children with PDD experienced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities; moreover, their QCD scores revealed stronger associations with their ADHD-RS and ODBI scores in comparison with their TABS scores. The difficulties of PDD, ADHD and OBDI symptoms combined in children makes it necessary to assess all diagnoses before any therapy for PDD is initiated in order to be able to evaluate its results properly. PMID:25898260

  20. A case-control study evaluating the relationship between thimerosal-containing haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine administration and the risk for a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; King, Paul G; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55 % Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative. A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated automated medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing vaccines administered at specific times within the first 15 months of life among subjects diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (n = 534) in comparison to controls. The generally accepted biologically non-plausible linkage between Thimerosal exposure and subsequent diagnosis of febrile seizure (n = 5886) was examined as a control outcome. Cases diagnosed with PDD received significantly more organic Hg within the first 6 months of life (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, p < 0.001) and first 15 months of life (OR = 3.94, p < 0.0001) than controls, whereas cases diagnosed with febrile seizure were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic Hg. On a per microgram of organic Hg basis, cases diagnosed with a PDD in comparison to controls were at significantly greater odds (OR = 1.0197, p < 0.0001) of receiving increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life, whereas cases diagnosed febrile seizure were no more likely than controls (OR = 0.999, p > 0.20) to have received increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life. Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females. PMID:25382662

  1. Pervasive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  2. Longitudinal Developmental Courses in Japanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osada, Hirokazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Koyama, Tomonori; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We followed up 67 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 31 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) for more than 10 years by reviewing medical records at a clinic for children with developmental disabilities. The participants' data were collected between their first visit to the clinic and the visit at…

  3. The Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale: a reliability and validity study on a newly developed standardized psychodynamic assessment for youth with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Haag, Geneviève; Botbol, Michel; Graignic, Rozenn; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Bronsard, Guillaume; Kermarrec, Solenn; Clement, Marie-Christine; Cukierman, Annick; Druon, Catherine; Duprat, Andrée; Jardin, Françoise; du Chatellier, Anik Maufras; Tricaud, Jacqueline; Urwand, Simone; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Cohen, David; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2010-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the reliability and validity of the Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale, developed to assess the evolution in individuals with autism under treatment. The APEC scale focuses on the key role of impairment in body image construction, which requires cross-modal sensory integration through emotional communication with motor representations. Thus, the body image construction is associated simultaneously with spatial and temporal organization and allows the emergence of self- and others-representations. The use of the APEC scale, with its seven domains (expression of emotion in relationships, eye contact, body image, graphic productions, exploration of space and objects, time perception, and verbal language), underlines the importance in autistic disorder of anxieties related to body and spatial representations, and of impairment in the body ego construction which is closely linked to the emergence of individuation/separation processes. This study was conducted on 73 children and adolescents with autistic disorder. They were recruited in day care facilities where two caregivers independently gave their ratings based on their clinical observation on a daily basis during the same month. Analyses included assessing construct validity through correspondence analyses and inter-rater reliability using kappa coefficients. The APEC scale offers a reliable and validated psychodynamic assessment of interest for professionals (such as child psychiatrists, caregivers, therapists or teachers) and researchers working with children, adolescents and adults with autistic disorder, especially in the follow-up of their evolution. The APEC scale provides an approach at the interface of psychoanalysis and neuroscience, and is also of interest for clinical and developmental psychology. Using the APEC scale in a range of different practical and research settings will foster links between psychoanalytic perspectives and educational

  4. Analysis of Copper and Zinc Plasma Concentration and the Efficacy of Zinc Therapy in Individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, A.J.; deVito, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autistic disorder, and to analyze the efficacy of zinc therapy on the normalization of zinc and copper levels and symptom severity in these disorders. Subjects and methods Plasma from 79 autistic individuals, 52 individuals with PDD-NOS, 21 individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome (all meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria), and 18 age and gender similar neurotypical controls, were tested for plasma zinc and copper using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Autistic and PDD-NOS individuals had significantly elevated plasma levels of copper. None of the groups (autism, Asperger’s or PDD-NOS) had significantly lower plasma zinc concentrations. Post zinc and B-6 therapy, individuals with autism and PDD-NOS had significantly lower levels of copper, but individuals with Asperger’s did not have significantly lower copper. Individuals with autism, PDD-NOS and Asperger’s all had significantly higher zinc levels. Severity of symptoms decreased in autistic individuals following zinc and B-6 therapy with respect to awareness, receptive language, focus and attention, hyperactivity, tip toeing, eye contact, sound sensitivity, tactile sensitivity and seizures. None of the measured symptoms worsened after therapy. None of the symptoms in the Asperger’s patients improved after therapy. Discussion These results suggest an association between copper and zinc plasma levels and individuals with autism, PDD-NOS and Asperger’s Syndrome. The data also indicates that copper levels normalize (decrease to levels of controls) in individuals with autism and PDD-NOS, but not in individuals with Asperger’s. These same Asperger’s patients do not improve with respect to symptoms after therapy, whereas many symptoms improved in the autism group. This may indicate an association between copper levels and

  5. Children with pervasive refusal.

    PubMed Central

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed. PMID:1863102

  6. Pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Beverley, David

    2012-04-01

    We report here on a case of severe pervasive refusal syndrome. This is of interest for three reasons. Firstly, most reported cases are adolescent girls; our case is regarding an adolescent boy. Secondly, he was successfully treated at home and thirdly, the serology showed an apparent infective pre-cursor to the illness with evidence of possible autoimmune serology. A 14-year old boy deteriorated from a picture where diagnosed CFS/ME developed into Pervasive Refusal Syndrome. This included the inability to move or speak, with closed eyes, multiple tics, facial grimacing, heightened sensitivity to noise (hyperacusis) and touch (hyperaesthesia), and inability or unwillingness to eat anything except small amounts of sloppy food. Successful rehabilitation is reported. Finally the issue of nomenclature is discussed, raising the question whether Pervasive Refusal Syndrome would be better renamed in a way that does not imply that the condition is always volitional and oppositional, as this can distract focus away from an alliance between family and clinicians. PMID:21733931

  7. Pervasive Computing Middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiele, Gregor; Handte, Marcus; Becker, Christian

    Pervasive computing envisions applications that provide intuitive, seamless and distraction-free task support for their users. To do this, the applications combine and leverage the distinct functionality of a number of devices. Many of these devices are invisibly integrated into the environment. The devices are equipped with various sensors that enable them to perceive the state of the physical world. By means of wireless communication, the devices can share their perceptions and they can combine them to accurate and expressive models of their surroundings. The resulting models enable applications to reason about past, present and future states of their context and empower them to behave according to the expectations of the user.

  8. Pervasive media violence.

    PubMed

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes. PMID:8724228

  9. Plasmas: Diversity, pervasiveness and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1998-01-01

    When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, pervasiveness and potential: diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy, time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.

  10. Modelling granite migration by mesoscale pervasive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, A. M.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2002-06-01

    Mesoscale pervasive magma migration leads to granite injection complexes, common in hot crustal terranes. Pervasive migration is limited by magma freezing when intruding cold country rock. Here, we explore numerically the feedback mechanism between magma intrusion and heating of the country rock, which allows younger intrusive batches to reach increasingly shallower/cooler levels. This process relies on the higher solidus temperature of a rock compared to that of its melt, once melt is segregated. We define the 'free-ride layer' as the region above the melt source, where magma may freely migrate because rock temperature is above melt solidus. The top of the free-ride layer, which corresponds to the melt solidus ( TS) isotherm, is at the 'limiting depth', zS. After magma passes through the free-ride layer, the magma 'front' is always at the limiting depth. We modeled the thickening and heating of the crust above the source as melt at its liquidus ( TL) intrudes it pervasively from below. We found that: (a) magma quickly warms crust below zS to about TL, forming a step in temperature at zS; (b) the front ( zS) moves up through the crust as more magma is intruded; (c) as magma is emplaced at the front, a mingled layer of about half magma half crust forms below it, so that the total rise of the front corresponds approximately to half of the thickness of magma added to the free-ride layer; (d) the rate of rise of the front depends on the temperature difference between crust and TL, and slows down as the magma front rises; (e) for most reasonable intrusion rates and volumes, the crust above zS feels little influence of the intrusion, because the diffusion time scale is much smaller than the rise rate of the front. In summary, pervasive migration is an efficient way of heating the lower to middle crust, and can result in an injection complex several kilometers thick, consisting of about half magma and half original crust.

  11. Distributed Pervasive Worlds: The Case of Exergames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Sedano, Carolina Islas

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive worlds are computing environments where a virtual world converges with the physical world through context-aware technologies such as sensors. In pervasive worlds, technology is distributed among entities that may be distributed geographically. We explore the concept, possibilities, and challenges of distributed pervasive worlds in a case…

  12. Studying the Elusive Experience in Pervasive Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenros, Jaakko; Waern, Annika; Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Studying pervasive games is inherently difficult and different from studying computer or board games. This article builds upon the experiences of staging and studying several playful pervasive technology prototypes. It discusses the challenges and pitfalls of evaluating pervasive game prototypes and charts methods that have proven useful in…

  13. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  14. On Designing a Pervasive Mobile Learning Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Vinni, Mikko; Sedano, Carolina Islas; Joy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the features, design and architecture of the Myst pervasive game platform that has been applied in creating pervasive mobile learning games in various contexts such as science festivals and museums in Finland. Based on our experiences with the development, we draw a set of design principles for creating successfully a…

  15. Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviours in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcani-Rathwell, Iris; Rabe-Hasketh, Sophia; Santosh, Paramala J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours are a heterogeneous group of behaviours present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite their core significance in PDD, it is not clear whether there are distinct groups of these behaviours with different specificity to autism. Methods: A two-factor model of the repetitive behaviours, namely…

  16. [Practising social skills in cases of pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Boiseau, Morgane

    2014-01-01

    Social skills enable us to adapt to situational contexts in accordance with specific social and cultural norms. Problems with social skills are frequently observed in people with autism. Adapted speech therapy can be offered in order to help each patient become better integrated into society and to interact with others. PMID:24617088

  17. Genetic Counseling in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily

    1998-01-01

    Provides a protocol for counseling families with an autistic member concerning the risk of having an autistic child. Reports data regarding empirical recurrence risks and identifies the key elements that influence recurrence risks for individual couples. Counseling expertise in both diagnosis and treatment of autism and in the genetics of complex…

  18. Emergence of Intraverbal Antonyms in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Garcia-Asenjo, Lorena; Williams, Gladys; Carnerero, Jose Julio

    2007-01-01

    In the type of intraverbal that consists of saying the opposite of a word, two intraverbals are related to one another because the response form of each intraverbal functions as part of a discriminative stimulus for the other (e.g., "cold" in response to "name the opposite of hot," and vice versa). Moreover, the contextual cue "Name the opposite…

  19. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  20. Pervasive Collaboratorive Computing Environment Jabber Toolkit

    2004-05-15

    PCCE Project background: Our experience in building distributed collaboratories has shown us that there is a growing need for simple, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to stay in touch and work together. Towards this goal we are developing a Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) within which participants can rendezvous and interact with each other. The PCCE aims to support continuous or ad hoc collaboration, target daily tasks and base connectivity, be easy to use and installmore » across multiple platforms, leverage off of existing components when possible, use standards-based components, and leverage off of Grid services (e.g., security and directory services). A key concept for this work is "incremental trust", which allows the system's "trust" of a given user to change dynamically. PCCE Jabber client software: This leverages Jabber. an open Instant Messaging (IM) protocol and the related Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards "XMPP" and "XMPP-IM" to allow collaborating parties to chat either one-on-one or in "chat rooms". Standard Jabber clients will work within this framework, but the software will also include extensions to a (multi-platform) GUI client (Gaim) for X.509-based security, search, and incremental trust. This software also includes Web interfaces for managing user registration to a Jabber server. PCCE Jabber server software: Extensions to the code, database, and configuration files for the dominant open-source Jabber server, "jabberd". Extensions for search, X.509 security, and incremental trust. Note that the jabberd software is not included as part of this software.« less

  1. Pervasive Collaboratorive Computing Environment Jabber Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason

    2004-05-15

    PCCE Project background: Our experience in building distributed collaboratories has shown us that there is a growing need for simple, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to stay in touch and work together. Towards this goal we are developing a Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) within which participants can rendezvous and interact with each other. The PCCE aims to support continuous or ad hoc collaboration, target daily tasks and base connectivity, be easy to use and install across multiple platforms, leverage off of existing components when possible, use standards-based components, and leverage off of Grid services (e.g., security and directory services). A key concept for this work is "incremental trust", which allows the system's "trust" of a given user to change dynamically. PCCE Jabber client software: This leverages Jabber. an open Instant Messaging (IM) protocol and the related Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards "XMPP" and "XMPP-IM" to allow collaborating parties to chat either one-on-one or in "chat rooms". Standard Jabber clients will work within this framework, but the software will also include extensions to a (multi-platform) GUI client (Gaim) for X.509-based security, search, and incremental trust. This software also includes Web interfaces for managing user registration to a Jabber server. PCCE Jabber server software: Extensions to the code, database, and configuration files for the dominant open-source Jabber server, "jabberd". Extensions for search, X.509 security, and incremental trust. Note that the jabberd software is not included as part of this software.

  2. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  3. Tailored Security and Safety for Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blass, Erik-Oliver; Zitterbart, Martina

    Pervasive computing makes high demands on security: devices are seriously resource-restricted, communication takes place spontaneously, and adversaries might control some of the devices. We claim that 1.) today’s research, studying traditional security properties for pervasive computing, leads to inefficient, expensive, and unnecessary strong and unwanted security solutions. Instead, security solutions tailored to the demands of a user, the scenario, or the expected adversary are more promising. 2.) Today’s research for security in pervasive computing makes naive, inefficient, and unrealistic assumptions regarding safety properties, in particular the quality of basic communication. Therefore, future security research has to consider safety characteristics and has to jointly investigate security and safety for efficient, tailored solutions.

  4. Behavior Change in a Student with a Dual Diagnosis of Deafness and Pervasive Development Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, S. R.; Handley, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    The broad term "pervasive developmental disorder" (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as "autism spectrum disorders" (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must…

  5. The game mechanics of pervasive applications: visiting the uncanny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentès, Annie; Jutant, Camille

    2012-03-01

    "When I use a word", Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean - neither more nor less." "The question is", said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many different things". "The question is", said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master - that's all". [Carroll 2007 (1865)] In pervasive games, a virtual layer with its own logic is added to the everyday, common meaning of objects, places, and people. The departure of the signifier ("things") from the signified (what they mean on the virtual level) is the semiotic process that allows for a double reading of the environment. Such a divorce has been explored in other cultural products (books, movies). It has been qualified as the "uncanny mode". This article analyzes how pervasive games use their own brand of uncanny. In particular, it shows how mobility becomes the way to uncover the hidden layers of the environment and serves as a tool to experience and eventually reduce or augment the uncanny. Finally, we can point to a typology of four main types of storytelling related to different types of mobility: games that use mimetic narrative strategies veering towards "realism"; games based on the "absurd"; "aloof" games that remain independent from places; games that present a specific play on this double reading of the world and develop the "Uncanny" as a genre.

  6. Perceiving Pervasive Discrimination over Time: Implications for Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Mindi D.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence that the effects of perceived pervasive discrimination may be dynamic over time. It was expected that participants who perceived discrimination to be highly pervasive would initially be more likely to engage in inactive coping strategies than those who perceived low pervasiveness; however, those who continued to…

  7. Dynamic Pervasive Storytelling in Long Lasting Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pløhn, Trygve; Louchart, Sandy; Aalberg, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive gaming is a reality-based gaming genre originating from alternative theatrical forms in which the performance becomes a part of the players' everyday life. In recent years much research has been done on pervasive gaming and its potential applications towards specific domains. Pervasive games have been effective with regards to…

  8. Pervasive refusal syndrome - A clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Seshadri, Shekhar; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2015-10-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome is described as a condition comprising varying degrees of refusal across several domains; social withdrawal; resistance to treatment and is potentially life threatening with no detectable organic cause. Female predominance, refusal to eat with low weight, body image distortion, depressive features, premorbid personality issues similar to eating disorders have been noted, with 67% cases having complete recovery. In this paper, we describe what is probably the first case reported from India, of a child, who presented with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and treated with electroconvulsive therapy along with medications, but, sadly had a fatal outcome. PMID:26275914

  9. Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder Delineated from PDD-NOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Esther I.; de Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify behavioral differences between children with multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD) and those with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Twenty-five children (6-12 years) with MCDD and 86 children with PDD-NOS were compared with respect to psychiatric co-morbidity,…

  10. Dynamic Privacy Management in Pervasive Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Nan-Wei; Laibowitz, Mathew; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a dynamic privacy management system aimed at enabling tangible privacy control and feedback in a pervasive sensor network. Our work began with the development of a potentially invasive sensor network (with high resolution video, audio, and motion tracking capabilities) featuring different interactive applications that created incentive for accepting this network as an extension of people's daily social space. A user study was then conducted to evaluate several privacy management approaches - an active badge system for both online and on-site control, on/off power switches for physically disabling the hardware, and touch screen input control. Results from a user study indicated that an active badge for on-site privacy control is the most preferable method among all provided options. We present a set of results that yield insight into the privacy/benefit tradeoff from various sensing capabilities in pervasive sensor networks and how privacy settings and user behavior relate in these environments.

  11. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  12. A Conceptual Framework and Principles for Trusted Pervasive Health

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Bernd Gerhard; Seppälä, Antto Veikko; Sorvari, Hannu Olavi; Nykänen, Pirkko Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous computing technology, sensor networks, wireless communication and the latest developments of the Internet have enabled the rise of a new concept—pervasive health—which takes place in an open, unsecure, and highly dynamic environment (ie, in the information space). To be successful, pervasive health requires implementable principles for privacy and trustworthiness. Objective This research has two interconnected objectives. The first is to define pervasive health as a system and to understand its trust and privacy challenges. The second goal is to build a conceptual model for pervasive health and use it to develop principles and polices which can make pervasive health trustworthy. Methods In this study, a five-step system analysis method is used. Pervasive health is defined using a metaphor of digital bubbles. A conceptual framework model focused on trustworthiness and privacy is then developed for pervasive health. On that model, principles and rules for trusted information management in pervasive health are defined. Results In the first phase of this study, a new definition of pervasive health was created. Using this model, differences between pervasive health and health care are stated. Reviewed publications demonstrate that the widely used principles of predefined and static trust cannot guarantee trustworthiness and privacy in pervasive health. Instead, such an environment requires personal dynamic and context-aware policies, awareness, and transparency. A conceptual framework model focused on information processing in pervasive health is developed. Using features of pervasive health and relations from the framework model, new principles for trusted pervasive health have been developed. The principles propose that personal health data should be under control of the data subject. The person shall have the right to verify the level of trust of any system which collects or processes his or her health information. Principles require that

  13. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  14. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  15. The Rural Growth Revival In Nonmetropolitan America: Evidence of Pervasiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; And Others

    The 1970's ushered in widespread population deconcentration, seen in the pervasive shift of the United States population down the size-of-place scale. To document population changes in various sized places in the country from 1950 to 1980 and to show the pervasiveness of urban-rural deconcentration in nonmetropolitan areas, researchers examined…

  16. Genome-wide activities of Polycomb complexes control pervasive transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hun-Goo; Kahn, Tatyana G; Simcox, Amanda; Schwartz, Yuri B; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes PRC1 and PRC2 are well known for silencing specific developmental genes. PRC2 is a methyltransferase targeting histone H3K27 and producing H3K27me3, essential for stable silencing. Less well known but quantitatively much more important is the genome-wide role of PRC2 that dimethylates ∼70% of total H3K27. We show that H3K27me2 occurs in inverse proportion to transcriptional activity in most non-PcG target genes and intergenic regions and is governed by opposing roaming activities of PRC2 and complexes containing the H3K27 demethylase UTX. Surprisingly, loss of H3K27me2 results in global transcriptional derepression proportionally greatest in silent or weakly transcribed intergenic and genic regions and accompanied by an increase of H3K27ac and H3K4me1. H3K27me2 therefore sets a threshold that prevents random, unscheduled transcription all over the genome and even limits the activity of highly transcribed genes. PRC1-type complexes also have global roles. Unexpectedly, we find a pervasive distribution of histone H2A ubiquitylated at lysine 118 (H2AK118ub) outside of canonical PcG target regions, dependent on the RING/Sce subunit of PRC1-type complexes. We show, however, that H2AK118ub does not mediate the global PRC2 activity or the global repression and is predominantly produced by a new complex involving L(3)73Ah, a homolog of mammalian PCGF3. PMID:25986499

  17. Pervasive domestication of defective prophages by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2014-08-19

    Integrated phages (prophages) are major contributors to the diversity of bacterial gene repertoires. Domestication of their components is thought to have endowed bacteria with molecular systems involved in secretion, defense, warfare, and gene transfer. However, the rates and mechanisms of domestication remain unknown. We used comparative genomics to study the evolution of prophages within the bacterial genome. We identified over 300 vertically inherited prophages within enterobacterial genomes. Some of these elements are very old and might predate the split between Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The size distribution of prophage elements is bimodal, suggestive of rapid prophage inactivation followed by much slower genetic degradation. Accordingly, we observed a pervasive pattern of systematic counterselection of nonsynonymous mutations in prophage genes. Importantly, such patterns of purifying selection are observed not only on accessory regions but also in core phage genes, such as those encoding structural and lysis components. This suggests that bacterial hosts select for phage-associated functions. Several of these conserved prophages have gene repertoires compatible with described functions of adaptive prophage-derived elements such as bacteriocins, killer particles, gene transfer agents, or satellite prophages. We suggest that bacteria frequently domesticate their prophages. Most such domesticated elements end up deleted from the bacterial genome because they are replaced by analogous functions carried by new prophages. This puts the bacterial genome in a state of continuous flux of acquisition and loss of phage-derived adaptive genes. PMID:25092302

  18. Heterokairy: a significant form of developmental plasticity?

    PubMed

    Rundle, S D; Spicer, J I

    2016-09-01

    There is a current surge of research interest in the potential role of developmental plasticity in adaptation and evolution. Here we make a case that some of this research effort should explore the adaptive significance of heterokairy, a specific type of plasticity that describes environmentally driven, altered timing of development within a species. This emphasis seems warranted given the pervasive occurrence of heterochrony, altered developmental timing between species, in evolution. We briefly review studies investigating heterochrony within an adaptive context across animal taxa, including examples that explore links between heterokairy and heterochrony. We then outline how sequence heterokairy could be included within the research agenda for developmental plasticity. We suggest that the study of heterokairy may be particularly pertinent in (i) determining the importance of non-adaptive plasticity, and (ii) embedding concepts from comparative embryology such as developmental modularity and disassociation within a developmental plasticity framework. PMID:27624796

  19. The Implications of Pervasive Computing on Network Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, R.

    Mark Weiser's late-1980s vision of an age of calm technology with pervasive computing disappearing into the fabric of the world [1] has been tempered by an industry-driven vision with more of a feel of conspicuous consumption. In the modified version, everyone carries around consumer electronics to provide natural, seamless interactions both with other people and with the information world, particularly for eCommerce, but still through a pervasive computing fabric.

  20. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  1. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  2. Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, ... everyday living. There are many causes of developmental disabilities, including Genetic or chromosome abnormalities. These cause conditions ...

  3. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

  4. Distinguishing Developmental from Chronic Career Indecision: Self-Efficacy, Autonomy, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Senecal, Caroline; Larose, Simon; Deschnes, Andree

    2006-01-01

    Career indecision can be divided into two categories: developmental and chronic indecision. The former is generally viewed as a developmentally normal problem resulting from a lack of information on the self and on the world of work, whereas the latter is defined as a pervasive inability to make a decision about one's career. The goals of the…

  5. Developmental Discourses as a Regime of Truth in Research with Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2016-01-01

    While developmental discourses have been heavily critiqued in relation to education systems, less attention has been paid to how these impact the data collection process in classroom research. This article utilises Foucault's concept of regime of truth to highlight the pervasiveness of developmental discourses when conducting research in primary…

  6. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  7. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  8. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  9. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  10. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  11. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  12. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  13. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  14. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  15. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  16. Attachment in Toddlers with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n = 20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n = 14), Mental Retardation (n = 12), Language Development Disorder (n = 16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n = 18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often…

  17. "What Are You Viewing?" Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Raimund; Baillie, Lynne; Fröhlich, Peter; Egger, Sebastian; Grechenig, Thomas

    The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user's media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.

  18. Novel pervasive scenarios for home management: the Butlers architecture.

    PubMed

    Denti, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts today aim to energy saving, promoting the user's awareness and virtuous behavior in a sustainability perspective. Our houses, appliances, energy meters and devices are becoming smarter and connected, domotics is increasing possibilities in house automation and control, and ambient intelligence and assisted living are bringing attention onto people's needs from different viewpoints. Our assumption is that considering these aspects together allows for novel intriguing possibilities. To this end, in this paper we combine home energy management with domotics, coordination technologies, intelligent agents, ambient intelligence, ubiquitous technologies and gamification to devise novel scenarios, where energy monitoring and management is just the basic brick of a much wider and comprehensive home management system. The aim is to control home appliances well beyond energy consumption, combining home comfort, appliance scheduling, safety constraints, etc. with dynamically-changeable users' preferences, goals and priorities. At the same time, usability and attractiveness are seen as key success factors: so, the intriguing technologies available in most houses and smart devices are exploited to make the system configuration and use simpler, entertaining and attractive for users. These aspects are also integrated with ubiquitous and pervasive technologies, geo-localization, social networks and communities to provide enhanced functionalities and support smarter application scenarios, hereby further strengthening technology acceptation and diffusion. Accordingly, we first analyse the system requirements and define a reference multi-layer architectural model - the Butlers architecture - that specifies seven layers of functionalities, correlating the requirements, the corresponding technologies and the consequent value-added for users in each layer. Then, we outline a set of notable scenarios of increasing functionalities and complexity, discuss the structure of the

  19. Response to 'pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome'.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shine; Holman, Christopher; Mossoff, Adam; Sichelman, Ted; Risch, Michael; Conteras, Jorge L; Heled, Yaniv; Dolin, Greg; Petherbridge, Lee

    2014-01-01

    A response to Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome by J Rosenfeld and C Mason. Genome Med 2013, 5:27. See related Correspondence by Rosenfeld and Mason, http://genomemedicine.com/content/5/3/27 and related letter by Rosenfeld and Mason, http://genomemedicine.com/content/6/2/15. PMID:25031614

  20. Pervasive Learning Games: Explorations of Hybrid Educational Gamescapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Siobhan

    2006-01-01

    Pervasive gaming has tremendous potential as a learning tool and represents an interesting development in the field of video games and education. The literature surrounding video games and education is vast: For more than 20 years, educationalists have been discussing the potential that exists for the application of video games to learning.…

  1. Students Develop Real-World Web and Pervasive Computing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappert, Charles C.

    In the academic year 2001-2002, Pace University (New York) Computer Science and Information Systems (CSIS) students developed real-world Web and pervasive computing systems for actual customers. This paper describes the general use of team projects in CSIS at Pace University, the real-world projects from this academic year, the benefits of…

  2. Building Efficient Wireless Infrastructures for Pervasive Computing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive computing is an emerging concept that thoroughly brings computing devices and the consequent technology into people's daily life and activities. Most of these computing devices are very small, sometimes even "invisible", and often embedded into the objects surrounding people. In addition, these devices usually are not isolated, but…

  3. Pervasive Computing and Communication Technologies for U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young C.

    2014-01-01

    The development of digital information transfer, storage and communication methods influences a significant effect on education. The assimilation of pervasive computing and communication technologies marks another great step forward, with Ubiquitous Learning (U-learning) emerging for next generation learners. In the evolutionary view the 5G (or…

  4. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  5. Trial Design Challenges when Combining Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Swiezy, Naomi; Mulick, James; Stigler, Kimberly; Bearss, Karen; Ritz, Louise; Wagner, Ann; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a 24-week, randomized trial designed to test whether risperidone plus structured parent training would be superior to risperidone only on measures of noncompliance, irritability and adaptive functioning. In this model, medication reduces tantrums, aggression and self-injury; parent training promotes…

  6. Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Obstetric Complications in Children and Adolescents with Tuberous Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rebecca J.; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the role of obstetric complications in determining phenotypic manifestations in tuberous sclerosis (TS), a disorder associated with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison of 43 children with TS and 40 unaffected siblings found children with TS experienced more obstetric complications, but these were related to mild rather…

  7. A Social Adjustment Enhancement Intervention for High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marjorie; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 20-week social adjustment enhancement curriculum for boys aged 8-12. The curriculum was designed to address three areas hypothesized to be deficient in persons with HFA, AS, and PDDNOS: emotion recognition and understanding; theory of mind; and executive functions/real life type problem solving. Parents…

  8. Repetitive Thoughts and Behavior in Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Treatment with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Christopher J.; Kresch, Laura E.; Posey, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from two studies indicate the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) clomipramine is more efficacious than the relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine and placebo in children with autism. A study of the selective SRI fluvoxamine found it to be significantly better than placebo for reducing repetitive…

  9. A Girl with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Complex Chromosome Rearrangement Involving 8p and 10p

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaigenbaum, L; Sonnenberg, L. K.; Heshka, T.; Eastwood, S.; Xu, J.

    2005-01-01

    We report a 4-year-old girl with a "de novo", apparently balanced complex chromosome rearrangement. She initially presented for assessment of velopharyngeal insufficiency due to hypernasal speech. She has distinctive facial features (long face, broad nasal bridge, and protuberant ears with simplified helices), bifid uvula, strabismus, and joint…

  10. Errorless Learning: Review and Practical Application for Teaching Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael M.; Palkovic, Christine M.; Maynard, Cynthia S.

    2007-01-01

    Errorless learning refers to a variety of discrimination learning techniques that eliminate or minimize responding to incorrect choices. This article describes experimental roots of errorless learning and applied errorless strategies. Specifically, previous research on stimulus fading, stimulus shaping, response prevention, delayed prompting,…

  11. Autism Screening Tools: An Evaluation of the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study is the first to evaluate the "Social Communication Questionnaire" (SCQ) and the "Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm" (DBC-ASA) in the same sample of school-aged children with intellectual disability (ID) with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs). Method: Parents of 49 children (36…

  12. Comparison of motor and process skills among children with different developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the motor and process skills of children with different developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Thirty-nine children with developmental disabilities participated in this study which was conducted at N hospital in South Korea. [Methods] The motor and process skills of the participants were compared among three different disabilities: pervasive developmental disorder, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disorder. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Significant differences in motor skills were found among the diagnoses. The cerebral palsy group showed poorer motor skills than the pervasive developmental disability and intellectual disability groups. [Conclusion] The findings have clinical implications for strategies of rehabilitation for children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26644670

  13. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  14. Pervasively Altered Hematite-Rich Deposits Southeast of Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rice, J. W.; Yen, A. S.; deSouza, P. A., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of Home Plate and its surroundings in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater has added substantially to the water story on Mars. Textural, morphological, and geochemical evidence from Home Plate point towards an explosive origin, probably a hydrovolcanic explosion [1]. High silica deposits in the immediate vicinity of Home Plate suggest hydrothermal alteration [e.g. 2,3]. Pervasively altered deposits rich in hematite were investigated to the southeast of Home Plate. Of these, the target Halley, the target KingGeorgeIsland on the GrahamLand outcrop, and the targets Montalva and Riquelme on the Troll outcrop were investigated in situ with the Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), the Microscopic Imager (MI), and the Moessbauer (MB) spectrometer (Fig. 1).

  15. The pervasive role of biological cohesion in bedform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie A.; Aspden, Rebecca J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Peakall, Jeff; Paterson, David M.; Schindler, Robert J.; Ye, Leiping; Lichtman, Ian D.; Bass, Sarah J.; Davies, Alan G.; Manning, Andrew J.; Thorne, Peter D.

    2015-02-01

    Sediment fluxes in aquatic environments are crucially dependent on bedform dynamics. However, sediment-flux predictions rely almost completely on clean-sand studies, despite most environments being composed of mixtures of non-cohesive sands, physically cohesive muds and biologically cohesive extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) generated by microorganisms. EPS associated with surficial biofilms are known to stabilize sediment and increase erosion thresholds. Here we present experimental data showing that the pervasive distribution of low levels of EPS throughout the sediment, rather than the high surficial levels of EPS in biofilms, is the key control on bedform dynamics. The development time for bedforms increases by up to two orders of magnitude for extremely small quantities of pervasively distributed EPS. This effect is far stronger than for physical cohesion, because EPS inhibit sand grains from moving independently. The results highlight that present bedform predictors are overly simplistic, and the associated sediment transport processes require re-assessment for the influence of EPS.

  16. Supporting People with Dementia Using Pervasive Healthcare Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Nugent, Chris D.; Moelaert, Ferial; Craig, David; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Bengtsson, Johan E.

    In this chapter, an introduction is provided into pervasive healthcare technology, specifically as the use of information and communications technology in support of European policies, primarily inclusion. The focus of the chapter, and indeed the book, is on how such technologies can support people suffering from debilitating diseases including Alzheimer's. The work describes a research project called COGKNOW, comprising a multidisciplinary research consortium of scientists from across Europe, and relates some of the early achievements of the group from some very different perspectives, including technical, clinical, ethical, and of course how the needs of people with dementia and their carers can be harnessed in the development process to produce pervasive healthcare technology and services that are valued by all the stakeholders in the process.

  17. The pervasive role of biological cohesion in bedform development

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie A.; Aspden, Rebecca J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Peakall, Jeff; Paterson, David M.; Schindler, Robert J.; Ye, Leiping; Lichtman, Ian D.; Bass, Sarah J.; Davies, Alan G.; Manning, Andrew J.; Thorne, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment fluxes in aquatic environments are crucially dependent on bedform dynamics. However, sediment-flux predictions rely almost completely on clean-sand studies, despite most environments being composed of mixtures of non-cohesive sands, physically cohesive muds and biologically cohesive extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) generated by microorganisms. EPS associated with surficial biofilms are known to stabilize sediment and increase erosion thresholds. Here we present experimental data showing that the pervasive distribution of low levels of EPS throughout the sediment, rather than the high surficial levels of EPS in biofilms, is the key control on bedform dynamics. The development time for bedforms increases by up to two orders of magnitude for extremely small quantities of pervasively distributed EPS. This effect is far stronger than for physical cohesion, because EPS inhibit sand grains from moving independently. The results highlight that present bedform predictors are overly simplistic, and the associated sediment transport processes require re-assessment for the influence of EPS. PMID:25656496

  18. An Adaptive Sensor Mining Framework for Pervasive Computing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J.

    Analyzing sensor data in pervasive computing applications brings unique challenges to the KDD community. The challenge is heightened when the underlying data source is dynamic and the patterns change. We introduce a new adaptive mining framework that detects patterns in sensor data, and more importantly, adapts to the changes in the underlying model. In our framework, the frequent and periodic patterns of data are first discovered by the Frequent and Periodic Pattern Miner (FPPM) algorithm; and then any changes in the discovered patterns over the lifetime of the system are discovered by the Pattern Adaptation Miner (PAM) algorithm, in order to adapt to the changing environment. This framework also captures vital context information present in pervasive computing applications, such as the startup triggers and temporal information. In this paper, we present a description of our mining framework and validate the approach using data collected in the CASAS smart home testbed.

  19. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  20. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  1. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  2. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  3. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  4. Towards pervasive computing in health care – A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Orwat, Carsten; Graefe, Andreas; Faulwasser, Timm

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolving concepts of pervasive computing, ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence are increasingly influencing health care and medicine. Summarizing published research, this literature review provides an overview of recent developments and implementations of pervasive computing systems in health care. It also highlights some of the experiences reported in deployment processes. Methods There is no clear definition of pervasive computing in the current literature. Thus specific inclusion criteria for selecting articles about relevant systems were developed. Searches were conducted in four scientific databases alongside manual journal searches for the period of 2002 to 2006. Articles included present prototypes, case studies and pilot studies, clinical trials and systems that are already in routine use. Results The searches identified 69 articles describing 67 different systems. In a quantitative analysis, these systems were categorized into project status, health care settings, user groups, improvement aims, and systems features (i.e., component types, data gathering, data transmission, systems functions). The focus is on the types of systems implemented, their frequency of occurrence and their characteristics. Qualitative analyses were performed of deployment issues, such as organizational and personnel issues, privacy and security issues, and financial issues. This paper provides a comprehensive access to the literature of the emerging field by addressing specific topics of application settings, systems features, and deployment experiences. Conclusion Both an overview and an analysis of the literature on a broad and heterogeneous range of systems are provided. Most systems are described in their prototype stages. Deployment issues, such as implications on organization or personnel, privacy concerns, or financial issues are mentioned rarely, though their solution is regarded as decisive in transferring promising systems to a stage of regular

  5. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  6. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  7. Developmental delay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  8. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

  9. [Developmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains contributions by parents, practitioners, researchers, administrators, and providers of technical assistance, which explore aspects of the complex process of developmental assessment of infants and young children. They describe what is helpful and what can be harmful in current assessment practice. They offer…

  10. Mesoscale pervasive felsic magma migration: alternatives to dyking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Roberto F.

    1999-03-01

    This paper reviews the literature on dyking as a mechanism of felsic magma extraction from a source and transport to shallower crustal levels, and review the recent literature suggesting a range of alternative mechanisms of magma migration in hot crustal zones which produce mesoscale pervasive granite sheet intrusions. Recent papers have strongly favoured dyking as the main mechanism controlling magma migration. However, the initiation of dykes from a felsic magma source is fraught with difficulties, even when magma is immediately available for transportation, as in magma chambers. Within a partially molten source, magma may reside in a range of structures with a wide range of shapes, sizes and degrees of connectivity. Whereas the growth of individual dykes within a partially molten zone, and the self-propagation of large dykes into subsolidus crust, have both been studied in some detail, little attention has been given to the crucial intermediate step of the growth of a dyke network capable of producing wide crustal scale dykes. The rarity of granite dyke swarms suggests that, if dyking is the preferred mechanism of magma transport, felsic magma sources produce only few major transporting dykes during their lifetime. Alternatively, dyking is not an important mechanism. The parameters controlling the volume of the catchment drained by one such dyke, as well as other basic geometrical parameters controlling the structure of the dyke network within the source, are unknown. The ability of dyking to drain a partially molten source depends crucially on these variables and particularly on the horizontal permeability of the source. The slow velocity of viscous felsic magmas traveling in rock pores implies that magma drained during dyking is mostly that previously extracted from the pores, and resident in irregular magma bodies or dyke networks. The observation that large volumes of buoyant magma are commonly present in migmatite zones, and that dyking in these zones plays

  11. Architectures and economics for pervasive broadband satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The size of a satellite network necessary to provide pervasive high-data-rate business communications is estimated, and one possible configuration is described which could interconnect most organizations in the United States. Within an order of magnitude, such a network might reasonably have a capacity equivalent to 10,000 simultaneous 3-Mbps channels, and rely primarily upon a cluster of approximately 3-5 satellites in a single orbital slot. Nominal prices for 3-6 Mbps video conference services might then be approximately $2000 monthly lease charge plus perhaps 70 cents per minute one way.

  12. Volcano Monitoring: A Case Study in Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Nina; Anusuya-Rangappa, Lohith; Shirazi, Behrooz A.; Song, Wenzhan; Huang, Renjie; Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Lahusen, Rick

    Recent advances in wireless sensor network technology have provided robust and reliable solutions for sophisticated pervasive computing applications such as inhospitable terrain environmental monitoring. We present a case study for developing a real-time pervasive computing system, called OASIS for optimized autonomous space in situ sensor-web, which combines ground assets (a sensor network) and space assets (NASA’s earth observing (EO-1) satellite) to monitor volcanic activities at Mount St. Helens. OASIS’s primary goals are: to integrate complementary space and in situ ground sensors into an interactive and autonomous sensorweb, to optimize power and communication resource management of the sensorweb and to provide mechanisms for seamless and scalable fusion of future space and in situ components. The OASIS in situ ground sensor network development addresses issues related to power management, bandwidth management, quality of service management, topology and routing management, and test-bed design. The space segment development consists of EO-1 architectural enhancements, feedback of EO-1 data into the in situ component, command and control integration, data ingestion and dissemination and field demonstrations.

  13. Power-Hop: A Pervasive Observation for Real Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Papalexakis, Evangelos; Hooi, Bryan; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been shown to exhibit universal properties, with one of the most consistent patterns being the scale-free degree distribution, but are there regularities obeyed by the r-hop neighborhood in real networks? We answer this question by identifying another power-law pattern that describes the relationship between the fractions of node pairs C(r) within r hops and the hop count r. This scale-free distribution is pervasive and describes a large variety of networks, ranging from social and urban to technological and biological networks. In particular, inspired by the definition of the fractal correlation dimension D2 on a point-set, we consider the hop-count r to be the underlying distance metric between two vertices of the network, and we examine the scaling of C(r) with r. We find that this relationship follows a power-law in real networks within the range 2 ≤ r ≤ d, where d is the effective diameter of the network, that is, the 90-th percentile distance. We term this relationship as power-hop and the corresponding power-law exponent as power-hop exponent h. We provide theoretical justification for this pattern under successful existing network models, while we analyze a large set of real and synthetic network datasets and we show the pervasiveness of the power-hop. PMID:26974560

  14. Neuropsychological Functioning of Siblings of Children with Autism, Siblings of Children with Developmental Language Delay, and Siblings of Children with Mental Retardation of Unknown Genetic Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning of 30 siblings of children with autism (AU-S), 28 siblings of children with mental retardation of (MR-S), and 30 siblings of children with developmental language delay (DLD-S) was compared. Two siblings, both AU-S, received diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). More siblings with cognitive disabilities…

  15. Developmental decisions

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David V.; Saito, Richard Mako

    2012-01-01

    The small nematode C. elegans is characterized by developing through a highly coordinated, reproducible cell lineage that serves as the basis of many studies focusing on the development of multi-lineage organisms. Indeed, the reproducible cell lineage enables discovery of developmental defects that occur in even a single cell. Only recently has attention been focused on how these animals modify their genetically programmed cell lineages to adapt to altered environments. Here, we summarize the current understanding of how C. elegans responds to food deprivation by adapting their developmental program in order to conserve energy. In particular, we highlight the AMPK-mediated and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways that are the principal regulators of induced cell cycle quiescence. PMID:22510569

  16. Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Descriptors of Friendship between Secondary Students with and without Autism or Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from an interpretevist, qualitative study exploring the connections and dynamics of friendship among three groups of secondary school-aged young adults. Each group included an individual with autism or intellectual and developmental disabilities who had extensive or pervasive support needs, and at least one high…

  18. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  19. Epileptic Encephalopathies and Their Relationship to Developmental Disorders: Do Spikes Cause Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Barry R.

    2004-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies are progressive clinical and electroencephalographic syndromes where deterioration is thought to be caused by frequent seizures and abundant EEG epileptiform activity. Seizures occur in approximately 10-15% of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and 8-10% have epileptiform EEG abnormalities without…

  20. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities among People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A.; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we…

  1. Lying in the Name of the Collective Good: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Wang, Lingfeng; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental origin of "blue lies", a pervasive form of lying in the adult world that is told purportedly to benefit a collective. Seven, 9-, and 11-year-old Chinese children were surreptitiously placed in a real-life situation where they decided whether to lie to conceal their group's cheating behavior. Children…

  2. Collaborative editing within the pervasive collaborative computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-09-11

    Scientific collaborations are established for a wide variety of tasks for which several communication modes are necessary, including messaging, file-sharing, and collaborative editing. In this position paper, we describe our work on the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) which aims to facilitate scientific collaboration within widely distributed environments. The PCCE provides a persistent space in which collaborators can locate each other, exchange messages synchronously and asynchronously and archive conversations. Our current interest is in exploring research and development of shared editing systems with the goal of integrating this technology into the PCCE. We hope to inspire discussion of technology solutions for an integrated approach to synchronous and asynchronous communication and collaborative editing.

  3. Pervasive flexibility in living technologies through degeneracy-based design.

    PubMed

    Whitacre, James; Bender, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to adapt can greatly influence the success of systems that need to compensate for damaged parts, learn how to achieve robust performance in new environments, or exploit novel opportunities that originate from new technological interfaces or emerging markets. Many of the conditions in which technology is required to adapt cannot be anticipated during its design stage, thus creating a challenge for the designer. Inspired by the study of a range of biological systems, we propose that degeneracy-the realization of multiple, functionally versatile components with contextually overlapping functional redundancy-will support adaptation in technologies, because it effects pervasive flexibility, evolutionary innovation, and homeostatic robustness. We provide examples of degeneracy in a number of rudimentary living technologies, from military sociotechnical systems to swarm robotics, and we present design principles-including shared protocols, loose regulatory coupling, and functional versatility-that allow degeneracy to arise in both biological and man-made systems. PMID:23834594

  4. 7SK-BAF axis controls pervasive transcription at enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan A.; Do, Brian T.; Rubin, Adam J.; Calo, Eliezer; Lee, Byron; Kuchelmeister, Hannes; Rale, Michael; Chu, Ci; Kool, Eric T.; Wysocka, Joanna; Khavari, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA functions at enhancers remain mysterious. Here we show that the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA) inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating nucleosome position. 7SK occupies enhancers and super enhancers genome-wide in mouse and human cells, and 7SK is required to limit eRNA initiation and synthesis in a manner distinct from promoter pausing. Clustered elements at super enhancers uniquely require 7SK to prevent convergent transcription and DNA damage signaling. 7SK physically interacts with the BAF chromatin remodeling complex, recruit BAF to enhancers, and inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating chromatin structure. In turn, 7SK occupancy at enhancers coincides with Brd4 and is exquisitely sensitive to the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. Thus, 7SK employs distinct mechanisms to counteract diverse consequences of pervasive transcription that distinguish super enhancers, enhancers, and promoters. PMID:26878240

  5. The Socio-Economic Impact of Pervasive Computing - Intelligent Spaces and the Organisation of Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, M. H.; Ellis, R.; Potter, J. M. M.; Holm, D. A. M.; Venousiou, R.

    This chapter is based on work carriedout for the Eurescom project PI302 - PROFIT (Potential Profit Opportunities in the Future Ambient Intelligence World). The vision driving iSpaces is described in many different ways, e.g. ubiquitous computing [1], pervasive computing [2], ambient intelligence [3]. Based largely on expected developments in information and communications technology, it has three main aspects: pervasive communications;

  6. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  7. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  8. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Démonet, Jean-François; Taylor, Margot J; Chaix, Yves

    2004-05-01

    Developmental dyslexia, or specific reading disability, is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits for reading. Substantial evidence has established its biological origin and the preponderance of phonological disorders even though important phenotypic variability and comorbidity have been recorded. Diverse theories have been proposed to account for the cognitive and neurological aspects of dyslexia. Findings of genetic studies show that different loci affect specific reading disability although a direct relation has not been established between symptoms and a given genomic locus. In both children and adults with dyslexia, results of neuroimaging studies suggest defective activity and abnormal connectivity between regions crucial for language functions--eg, the left fusiform gyrus for reading--and changes in brain activity associated with performance improvement after various remedial interventions. PMID:15121410

  9. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Duguleana, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. PMID:26167533

  10. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Duguleana, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. PMID:26167533

  11. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  12. Learning from failure in health care: frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, A C

    2004-12-01

    The notion that hospitals and medical practices should learn from failures, both their own and others', has obvious appeal. Yet, healthcare organisations that systematically and effectively learn from the failures that occur in the care delivery process, especially from small mistakes and problems rather than from consequential adverse events, are rare. This article explores pervasive barriers embedded in healthcare's organisational systems that make shared or organisational learning from failure difficult and then recommends strategies for overcoming these barriers to learning from failure, emphasising the critical role of leadership. Firstly, leaders must create a compelling vision that motivates and communicates urgency for change; secondly, leaders must work to create an environment of psychological safety that fosters open reporting, active questioning, and frequent sharing of insights and concerns; and thirdly, case study research on one hospital's organisational learning initiative suggests that leaders can empower and support team learning throughout their organisations as a way of identifying, analysing, and removing hazards that threaten patient safety. PMID:15576689

  13. Smart Classroom: Bringing Pervasive Computing into Distance Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuanchun; Qin, Weijun; Suo, Yue; Xiao, Xin

    In recent years, distance learning has increasingly become one of themost important applications on the internet and is being discussed and studied by various universities, institutes and companies. The Web/Internet provides relatively easy ways to publish hyper-linked multimedia content for more audiences. Yet, we find that most of the courseware are simply shifted from textbook to HTML files. However, in ost cases the teacher's live instruction is very important for catching the attention and interest of the students. That's why Real-Time Interactive Virtual Classroom (RTIVC) always plays an indispensable role in distance learning, where teachers nd students located in different places can take part in the class synchronously through certain multimedia communication systems and obtain real-time and mediarich interactions using Pervasive Computing technologies [1]. The Classroom 2000 project [2] at GIT has been devoted to the automated capturing of the classroom experience. Likewise, the Smart Classroom project [3] at our institute is focused on Tele-education. Most currently deployed real-time Tele-education systems are desktop-based, in which the teacher's experience is totally different from teaching in a real classroom.

  14. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  15. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J.; Waldie, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  16. Fuzzy reasoning of accident provenance in pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Hu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    In pervasive healthcare monitoring environments, data provenance, as one metadata, can help people analyze the reasons for medical accidents that are generated by complex events. This reasoning processing often encounters inaccurate time and irreversible reasoning problems. How to solve the uncertain process and fuzzy transformation time presents many challenges to the study of data provenance. In this paper, we propose a backward derivation model with the provenance semantic, backward fuzzy time reasoning net (BFTRN), to solve these two problems. We design a backward reasoning algorithm motivated by time automation theory based on this model. With regard to given life-critical alarms and some constraints, it cannot only derive all evolution paths and the possibility distribution of paths from historical information, but also efficiently compute the value of fuzzy time function for each transition of lift-critical complex alarms in the healthcare monitoring system. We also analyze the properties of BFTRN model in this paper. Experiments on real dataset show that the proposed model is efficient. PMID:24240719

  17. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  18. Sensorized Garment Augmented 3D Pervasive Virtual Reality System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulrez, Tauseef; Tognetti, Alessandro; de Rossi, Danilo

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has matured to a point where humans can navigate in virtual scenes; however, providing them with a comfortable fully immersive role in VR remains a challenge. Currently available sensing solutions do not provide ease of deployment, particularly in the seated position due to sensor placement restrictions over the body, and optic-sensing requires a restricted indoor environment to track body movements. Here we present a 52-sensor laden garment interfaced with VR, which offers both portability and unencumbered user movement in a VR environment. This chapter addresses the systems engineering aspects of our pervasive computing solution of the interactive sensorized 3D VR and presents the initial results and future research directions. Participants navigated in a virtual art gallery using natural body movements that were detected by their wearable sensor shirt and then mapped the signals to electrical control signals responsible for VR scene navigation. The initial results are positive, and offer many opportunities for use in computationally intelligentman-machine multimedia control.

  19. Unique transposon landscapes are pervasive across Drosophila melanogaster genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Reazur; Chirn, Gung-wei; Kanodia, Abhay; Sytnikova, Yuliya A.; Brembs, Björn; Bergman, Casey M.; Lau, Nelson C.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how transposon landscapes (TLs) vary across animal genomes, we describe a new method called the Transposon Insertion and Depletion AnaLyzer (TIDAL) and a database of >300 TLs in Drosophila melanogaster (TIDAL-Fly). Our analysis reveals pervasive TL diversity across cell lines and fly strains, even for identically named sub-strains from different laboratories such as the ISO1 strain used for the reference genome sequence. On average, >500 novel insertions exist in every lab strain, inbred strains of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), and fly isolates in the Drosophila Genome Nexus (DGN). A minority (<25%) of transposon families comprise the majority (>70%) of TL diversity across fly strains. A sharp contrast between insertion and depletion patterns indicates that many transposons are unique to the ISO1 reference genome sequence. Although TL diversity from fly strains reaches asymptotic limits with increasing sequencing depth, rampant TL diversity causes unsaturated detection of TLs in pools of flies. Finally, we show novel transposon insertions negatively correlate with Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) levels for most transposon families, except for the highly-abundant roo retrotransposon. Our study provides a useful resource for Drosophila geneticists to understand how transposons create extensive genomic diversity in fly cell lines and strains. PMID:26578579

  20. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  1. Attachment in toddlers with autism and other developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Naber, Fabiënne B A; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-07-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n=20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n=14), Mental Retardation (n=12), Language Development Disorder (n=16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n=18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often securely attached. Severity of autism was associated with more attachment insecurity, and lower developmental level increased the chance for disorganized attachment. Attachment disorganization was related to increased heart rate during the SSP. Controlling for basal cortisol and developmental level, more autistic symptoms predicted lower cortisol responses to the SSP. The findings support the importance of disorganized attachment for children with autism. PMID:17160461

  2. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  3. Pervasive Learning--Using Games to Tear down the Classroom Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pløhn, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive gaming is a new and emerging gaming genre where the physical and social aspects of the real world are integrated into the game and blends into the player's everyday life. Given the nature of pervasive games, it may be possible to use that type of game as a tool to support learning in a university course by providing a gameplay where…

  4. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  5. Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Cox, Jennifer H.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Starr, Amanda E.; Lange, Philipp F.; Pavlidis, Paul; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting a large portion of the proteome. Protease-cleaved mediators frequently exhibit altered activity, and biological pathways are often regulated by proteolytic processing. Many of these mechanisms have not been appreciated as being protease-dependent, and the potential in unraveling a complex new dimension of biological control is increasingly recognized. Proteases are currently believed to act individually or in isolated cascades. However, conclusive but scattered biochemical evidence indicates broader regulation of proteases by protease and inhibitor interactions. Therefore, to systematically study such interactions, we assembled curated protease cleavage and inhibition data into a global, computational representation, termed the protease web. This revealed that proteases pervasively influence the activity of other proteases directly or by cleaving intermediate proteases or protease inhibitors. The protease web spans four classes of proteases and inhibitors and so links both recently and classically described protease groups and cascades, which can no longer be viewed as operating in isolation in vivo. We demonstrated that this observation, termed reachability, is robust to alterations in the data and will only increase in the future as additional data are added. We further show how subnetworks of the web are operational in 23 different tissues reflecting different phenotypes. We applied our network to develop novel insights into biologically relevant protease interactions using cell-specific proteases of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte as a system. Predictions from the protease web on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) and neutrophil elastase being linked by an inactivating cleavage of serpinA1 by MMP8 were validated and explain perplexing Mmp8 −/− versus wild-type polymorphonuclear chemokine cleavages in vivo. Our findings supply systematically derived and

  6. Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

  7. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs): Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are a primary focus of the NICHD’s ...

  8. Developmental Science and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geidner, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental counseling is a promising model integrating theory and practice. A. E. Ivey's (2000; A. E. Ivey & O. F. Goncalves, 1988) work is discussed as a template for proposing a more comprehensive developmental perspective. Where A. E. Ivey's model renders a case for cognition, the current article encompasses other developmental systems…

  9. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  10. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves.

    PubMed

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A; Stahler, Daniel R; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cole, Steven W; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species' high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. PMID:27189566

  11. Comorbid Psychopathology in Infants and Toddlers with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate symptoms of comorbid disorders in infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Research is scant on symptoms of co-occurring mental health conditions in this very young population. Method: Three hundred and twenty four participants were included in this study. Participants were classified…

  12. Stability and Change among High-Functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of 68 children diagnosed with autism or Asperger syndrome at age 6-8 years in terms of symptoms from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Significant differences were seen in the domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive activities, with the Asperger group demonstrating fewer and/or less…

  13. The Effectiveness of a Group Teaching Interaction Procedure for Teaching Social Skills to Young Children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppeneheim, Misty L.; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are characteristic of children with autism. Clinicians often include teaching these skills as part of comprehensive curriculum. One method of developing social skills for children with autism is the teaching interaction procedure. This procedure involves describing the behavior, providing a rational and cues when to use…

  14. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  15. Secretin Is an Ineffective Treatment for Pervasive Developmental Disabilities: A Review of 15 Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, Horvath et al. [Horvath, K., Stefanatos, G., Sokolski, K. N., Wachtel, R., Nabors, L., & Tildon, J. T. (1998). Improved social and language skills after secretin administration in patients with autism spectrum disorders. "Journal of the Association of the Academy of Minority Physicians," 9, 9-15] reported an uncontrolled trial of secretin…

  16. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  17. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  18. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  19. Effects of a Weighted Vest on Problem Behaviors during Functional Analyses in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Shawn P.; Peterson, Lloyd; Frieder, Jessica E.; Peterson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Weighted vests are a specific form of Sensory Integration Therapy (SIT) (Honaker, 2005a) that are intended to help individuals resolve sensory related issues thereby decreasing the symptoms (e.g., hyperness, lack of attention, etc.) of the sensory issue and are also often recommended as an intervention for problem behaviors exhibited by children…

  20. Challenges in Securing the Interface Between the Cloud and Pervasive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing presents an opportunity for pervasive systems to leverage computational and storage resources to accomplish tasks that would not normally be possible on such resource-constrained devices. Cloud computing can enable hardware designers to build lighter systems that last longer and are more mobile. Despite the advantages cloud computing offers to the designers of pervasive systems, there are some limitations of leveraging cloud computing that must be addressed. We take the position that cloud-based pervasive system must be secured holistically and discuss ways this might be accomplished. In this paper, we discuss a pervasive system utilizing cloud computing resources and issues that must be addressed in such a system. In this system, the user's mobile device cannot always have network access to leverage resources from the cloud, so it must make intelligent decisions about what data should be stored locally and what processes should be run locally. As a result of these decisions, the user becomes vulnerable to attacks while interfacing with the pervasive system.

  1. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    PubMed

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented. PMID:8838385

  2. Pervasive microstructural abnormalities in autism: a DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Wouter B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Zwiers, Marcel P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported abnormal functional connectivity patterns in the brains of people with autism that may be accompanied by decreases in white matter integrity. Since autism is a developmental disorder, we aim to investigate the nature and location of decreases in white and grey matter integrity in an adolescent sample while accounting for age. Methods We used structural (T1) imaging to study brain volumetrics and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white and grey matter integrity in people with autism. We obtained magnetic resonance images for adolescents aged 12–18 years with high-functioning autism and from matched controls. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, as well as grey and white matter volumetrics were analyzed. Results There were 17 participants with autism and 25 matched controls included in this study. Participants with autism had lower fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, but this effect was not significant after adjusting for age and intelligence quotient (IQ). The kurtosis of the white matter fractional anisotropy probability distribution was higher in this participant group, with and without adjustment for age and IQ. Most notably, however, the mean diffusivity levels were markedly increased in the autism group throughout the brain, and the mean diffusivity probability distributions of both grey and white matter were shifted toward a higher value, particularly with age and IQ adjustment. No volumetric differences in grey and white matter were found. Limitations We corrected for age and IQ using a linear model. The study was also limited by its sample size, investigated age range and cross-sectional design. Conclusion The findings suggest that autism is characterized by a generalized reduction of white matter integrity that is associated with an increase of interstitial space. The generalized manifestation of the white matter abnormalities provides an

  3. The AdS particle [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.

  4. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  5. Pervasive generation of oppositely oriented spacers during CRISPR adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shmakov, Sergey; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Semenova, Ekaterina; Logacheva, Maria D.; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    During the process of prokaryotic CRISPR adaptation, a copy of a segment of foreign deoxyribonucleic acid referred to as protospacer is added to the CRISPR cassette and becomes a spacer. When a protospacer contains a neighboring target interference motif, the specific small CRISPR ribonucleic acid (crRNA) transcribed from expanded CRISPR cassette can protect a prokaryotic cell from virus infection or plasmid transformation and conjugation. We show that in Escherichia coli, a vast majority of plasmid protospacers generate spacers integrated in CRISPR cassette in two opposing orientations, leading to frequent appearance of complementary spacer pairs in a population of cells that underwent CRISPR adaptation. When a protospacer contains a spacer acquisition motif AAG, spacer orientation that generates functional protective crRNA is strongly preferred. All other protospacers give rise to spacers oriented in both ways at comparable frequencies. This phenomenon increases the repertoire of available spacers and should make it more likely that a protective crRNA is formed as a result of CRISPR adaptation. PMID:24728991

  6. Behaviour and Emotional Problems in Toddlers with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Developmental Delay: Associations with Parental Mental Health and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, S.; Gray, K.; Taffe, J.; Tonge, B.; Sweeney, D.; Einfeld, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural and emotional problems occur at a high rate in children and adolescents with intellectual disability, often from a young age. Some studies have indicated that children and adolescents with autism present with even higher rates. Less is known about the presentation, development and family impact of these difficulties in…

  7. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  8. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  9. PERVASIVE LINEAR POLARIZATION SIGNALS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Orozco Suarez, D.

    2012-09-20

    This paper investigates the distribution of linear polarization signals in the quiet-Sun internetwork using ultra-deep spectropolarimetric data. We reduce the noise of the observations as much as is feasible by adding single-slit measurements of the Zeeman-sensitive Fe I 630 nm lines taken by the Hinode spectropolarimeter. The integrated Stokes spectra are employed to determine the fraction of the field of view covered by linear polarization signals. We find that up to 69% of the quiet solar surface at disk center shows Stokes Q or U profiles with amplitudes larger than 0.032% (4.5 times the noise level of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} reached by the longer integrations). The mere presence of linear polarization in most of the quiet Sun implies that the weak internetwork fields must be highly inclined, but we quantify this by inverting those pixels with Stokes Q or U signals well above the noise. This allows for a precise determination of the field inclination, field strength, and field azimuth because the information carried by all four Stokes spectra is used simultaneously. The inversion is performed for 53% of the observed field of view at a noise level of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} I{sub c}. The derived magnetic distributions are thus representative of more than half of the quiet-Sun internetwork. Our results confirm the conclusions drawn from previous analyses using mainly Stokes I and V: internetwork fields are very inclined, but except in azimuth they do not seem to be isotropically distributed.

  10. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  11. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  12. Mobile Autonomous Sensing Unit (MASU): A Framework That Supports Distributed Pervasive Data Sensing.

    PubMed

    Medina, Esunly; Lopez, David; Meseguer, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio F; Royo, Dolors; Santos, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive data sensing is a major issue that transverses various research areas and application domains. It allows identifying people's behaviour and patterns without overwhelming the monitored persons. Although there are many pervasive data sensing applications, they are typically focused on addressing specific problems in a single application domain, making them difficult to generalize or reuse. On the other hand, the platforms for supporting pervasive data sensing impose restrictions to the devices and operational environments that make them unsuitable for monitoring loosely-coupled or fully distributed work. In order to help address this challenge this paper present a framework that supports distributed pervasive data sensing in a generic way. Developers can use this framework to facilitate the implementations of their applications, thus reducing complexity and effort in such an activity. The framework was evaluated using simulations and also through an empirical test, and the obtained results indicate that it is useful to support such a sensing activity in loosely-coupled or fully distributed work scenarios. PMID:27409617

  13. Affective e-Learning: Using "Emotional" Data to Improve Learning in Pervasive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Liping; Wang, Minjuan; Shen, Ruimin

    2009-01-01

    Using emotion detection technologies from biophysical signals, this study explored how emotion evolves during learning process and how emotion feedback could be used to improve learning experiences. This article also described a cutting-edge pervasive e-Learning platform used in a Shanghai online college and proposed an affective e-Learning model,…

  14. Pervasive Knowledge, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing: E-Learning 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2015-01-01

    Embedding Web 2.0 in learning processes has extended learning from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred institution that emphasises learning anywhere and anytime. While deploying Semantic Web into e-learning offers a broader spectrum of pervasive knowledge acquisition to enrich users' experience in learning.…

  15. Instructional Technology in Appalachian Kentucky 1929-2011: Countering the Pervasive Narrative of Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleton, Kimberely Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    The prevalent public narrative based on Roger's (2003) model of innovation diffusion categorizes teachers as laggards; rigidly entrenched in outdated practices and unwilling to change. As new instructional technologies failed to be adopted into classrooms, this public narrative served as a pervasive explanation, widely accepted as characteristic…

  16. Curiosity, Interest and Engagement in Technology-Pervasive Learning Environments: A New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.; Chauncey, Sarah A.; McKenna, H. Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for developing new ways to study curiosity in the context of today's pervasive technologies and unprecedented information access. Curiosity is defined in this paper in a way which incorporates the concomitant constructs of interest and engagement. A theoretical model for curiosity, interest and engagement in new…

  17. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  18. The fission yeast CENP-B protein Abp1 prevents pervasive transcription of repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Daulny, Anne; Mejía-Ramírez, Eva; Reina, Oscar; Rosado-Lugo, Jesus; Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Auer, Herbert; Zaratiegui, Mikel; Azorin, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed producing cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). However, the mechanisms regulating pervasive transcription are not well understood. Here, we report that the fission yeast CENP-B homolog Abp1 plays an important role in preventing pervasive transcription. We show that loss of abp1 results in the accumulation of CUTs, which are targeted for degradation by the exosome pathway. These CUTs originate from different types of genomic features, but the highest increase corresponds to Tf2 retrotransposons and rDNA repeats, where they map along the entire elements. In the absence of abp1, increased RNAPII-Ser5P occupancy is observed throughout the Tf2 coding region and, unexpectedly, RNAPII-Ser5P is enriched at rDNA repeats. Loss of abp1 also results in Tf2 derepression and increased nucleolus size. Altogether these results suggest that Abp1 prevents pervasive RNAPII transcription of repetitive DNA elements (i.e., Tf2 and rDNA repeats) from internal cryptic sites. PMID:27345571

  19. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  20. The Pervasiveness of 1/f Scaling in Speech Reflects the Metastable Basis of Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Christopher T.; Anderson, Gregory G.; Holden, John G.; Van Orden, Guy C.

    2008-01-01

    Human neural and behavioral activities have been reported to exhibit fractal dynamics known as "1/f noise," which is more aptly named "1/f scaling." Some argue that 1/f scaling is a general and pervasive property of the dynamical substrate from which cognitive functions are formed. Others argue that it is an idiosyncratic property of…

  1. Mobile Autonomous Sensing Unit (MASU): A Framework That Supports Distributed Pervasive Data Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Esunly; Lopez, David; Meseguer, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Royo, Dolors; Santos, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive data sensing is a major issue that transverses various research areas and application domains. It allows identifying people’s behaviour and patterns without overwhelming the monitored persons. Although there are many pervasive data sensing applications, they are typically focused on addressing specific problems in a single application domain, making them difficult to generalize or reuse. On the other hand, the platforms for supporting pervasive data sensing impose restrictions to the devices and operational environments that make them unsuitable for monitoring loosely-coupled or fully distributed work. In order to help address this challenge this paper present a framework that supports distributed pervasive data sensing in a generic way. Developers can use this framework to facilitate the implementations of their applications, thus reducing complexity and effort in such an activity. The framework was evaluated using simulations and also through an empirical test, and the obtained results indicate that it is useful to support such a sensing activity in loosely-coupled or fully distributed work scenarios. PMID:27409617

  2. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  3. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  4. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  5. Developmental Programs: Survival Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, F. Eugene; Kinsey, Richard H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes major program elements of the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP)--a developmental education program at St. Edward's University, Texas, serving a population of migrant and seasonal farmworker families. Outlines steps necessary to receive funding and legislative support for developmental education programs. (DR)

  6. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  7. Developmental Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Public Schools, VA. Office of Program Evaluation.

    The Developmental Program of the Chesapeake Public School Division (Virginia) is designed to provide a year between kindergarten and first grade for the academically able student who is not ready for the structure of the regular first grade because of physical, emotional, or social (developmental) immaturity. It is an all-day, full-year program…

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  9. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  10. Developmental Profiles of Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders Identified Prospectively in a Community-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal, study charted the developmental profiles of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) identified through routine developmental surveillance. 109 children with Autistic Disorder (AD), "broader" ASD, and developmental and/or language delays (DD/LD) were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning…

  11. The Growth of Complexity and Accuracy in L2 French: Past Observations and Recent Applications of Developmental Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agren, Malin; Granfeldt, Jonas; Schlyter, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question of the growth of accuracy and complexity in L2 French from the perspective of developmental sequences of morphosyntax, developmental stages and linguistic profiling. The six developmental stages for L2 French proposed by Bartning and Schlyter (2004) are presented and exemplified and new results are added to the…

  12. Evidence against pervasively deformed bed material beneath rapidly moving lobes of the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, L.; Mickelson, D.M.; Attig, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    During the Wisconsin Glaciation, the ice lobes of the southern part of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moved rapidly as the result of elevated subglacial water pressure. The rapid movement was probably not accompanied by wide-spread pervasive deformation of unfrozen material under the ice. The till stratigraphy of much of this area is well known, and it is clear that the stratigraphic sequence is generally intact. Therefore, such deformation, if it occurred, would have been restricted to the till sheet that was currently being deposited. However, this seems unlikely as well, because the till of the region commonly contains lenses and clasts of unlithified bedded sand that should have been destroyed by pervasive shearing. If unfrozen deformed-till layers were widely present, they must have been confined to the thin upper parts of till sheets. ?? 1989.

  13. Towards a flexible middleware for context-aware pervasive and wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Muro, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Conte, Gianni

    2012-11-01

    Ambient intelligence and wearable computing call for innovative hardware and software technologies, including a highly capable, flexible and efficient middleware, allowing for the reuse of existing pervasive applications when developing new ones. In the considered application domain, middleware should also support self-management, interoperability among different platforms, efficient communications, and context awareness. In the on-going "everything is networked" scenario scalability appears as a very important issue, for which the peer-to-peer (P2P) paradigm emerges as an appealing solution for connecting software components in an overlay network, allowing for efficient and balanced data distribution mechanisms. In this paper, we illustrate how all these concepts can be placed into a theoretical tool, called networked autonomic machine (NAM), implemented into a NAM-based middleware, and evaluated against practical problems of pervasive computing. PMID:22527692

  14. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  15. [Rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiu-jin; Wang, Zhen-xin; Dai, Xiao-min; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2006-06-01

    Application of controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers can improve the efficiency of fertilizers and reduce the environmental pollution. Controlled-release urea (coated urea) is one of the controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers developed quickly in the recent years. The rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane is the most important index of the capacity of controlled release. There is a maximum absorption at lambda=426 nm with complex in acidic solution, using p-dimethylaminozenzaldehyde as color reagent, and the absorbance exhibits a linear reponses to the urea concentration over the range of 7.5-210 microg x mL(-1). The method for determining the rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane was realized through determining the content of urea in the liquor, the recovery efficiency of the method is 96.1%-103.9%. PMID:16961255

  16. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Physical causes and other types of learning disabilities must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be confirmed. ... Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems ... wanting to participate in physical activities (such as sports)

  17. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  18. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children with kernicterus are more likely to have cerebral palsy, hearing and vision problems, and problems with their ... developmental disabilities, such as: ADHD , autism spectrum disorder , cerebral palsy , hearing loss , intellectual disability , learning disability, vision impairment , ...

  19. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  20. Response to ‘pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome’ - authors’ reply

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An author reply to the Letter to the Editor from Tu et al. regarding Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome by J Rosenfeld and C Mason. Genome Med 2013, 5:27. See related Correspondence by Rosenfeld and Mason, http://genomemedicine.com/content/5/3/27, and related letter by Tu et al., http://genomemedicine.com/content/6/2/14 PMID:24764495

  1. Developmental variations in the impact of intimate partner violence exposure during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Kathryn H.; Barnes, Sarah E.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive problem impacting individuals around the globe. The consequences of IPV extend beyond the adults in the relationship, as children witness a significant proportion of such violence. Exposure to IPV during childhood has devastating effects across multiple domains of functioning. Methods: This article reviews empirical studies of the effects of exposure to IPV by developmental stage. Results: The psychological, social, physical, and cognitive consequences of witnessing IPV are examined across development; from the impact of prenatal exposure to effects in infancy and toddlerhood, the preschool years, school-aged children, and adolescence. Conclusions: The review concludes by providing suggestions for future research based on the identified developmental variations, recommendations for developmentally-sensitive interventions for children who have witnessed IPV, and directions for policy to address the issue of violence exposure early in the lives of children. PMID:26804945

  2. Innovations Without Added Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereghino, Edward

    1974-01-01

    There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

  3. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  4. Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, A; Fombonne, E

    1998-09-01

    In order to identify factors associated with the early detection and referral of children with pervasive developmental disorders, a sample of 82 consecutive referrals to an outpatient diagnostic service was studied. All children were thoroughly assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), standardized psychological tests and direct observations. Data from the ADI on the first symptoms to arouse parental concern and on the first professional advice sought were analyzed. The mean age of children was 19.1 months (SD = 9.4) when the parents first became concerned, and the first professional advice was sought when children were 24.1 months old (SD = 11.7). The most common parental concerns were for speech and language development, followed by abnormal socio-emotional response, and medical problem or delay in milestone. In both bivariate and multiple regression analyses, the mean age of children at first parental concern and professional advice was significantly lower in the presence of mental retardation in the child, of an older sibling in the family, and of first parental concerns for medical problem/delay in milestone. More specific autistic behaviours, child's gender, social class and place of residence did not influence the age of recognition of the disorder in this sample. Health visitors and general practitioners were the first professionals contacted by parents. The implications of these findings for early detection and diagnosis of autism are discussed. PMID:9826299

  5. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  6. Applied Developmental Science, Social Justice, and Socio-Political Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Busch-Rossnagel, Nancy A.; Jopp, Daniela S.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a vision of applied developmental science (ADS) as a means of promoting social justice and socio-political well-being. This vision draws upon the field's significant accomplishments in identifying and strengthening developmental assets in marginalized youth communities, understanding the effects of poverty and racial…

  7. Assessment of Distress in Young Children: A Comparison of Autistic Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…

  8. Added Dimensions to Parent and Preschool Education (Early Childhood Education): Manual for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Lakewood, CO.

    This program guide describes the Added Dimensions to Parent and Preschool Education program, a Developer/Demonstrator project of the National Diffusion Network. The Added Dimensions model provides a classroom program for 3- and 4-year-old children as well as parent involvement, home visitation and developmental screening components. The guide is…

  9. Pitfalls in developmental diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, R S

    1987-01-01

    I have never seen a paper or chapter of a book devoted to pitfalls and mistakes in developmental diagnosis. This paper is designed to try to fill the gap. It concerns the avoidance of mistakes in developmental diagnosis and is based entirely on mistakes that I have made myself and now learned to try to avoid and on mistakes that I have seen, most of them repeatedly. I have made no mention of mistakes that could theoretically be made but that I have not personally seen. I believe that most assessment errors are due to overconfidence and to the view that developmental diagnosis is easy. Many other mistakes are due to reliance on purely objective tests with consequent omission of a detailed history and physical examination, so that factors that profoundly affect development but are not directly related to the child's mental endowment are not weighed up before an opinion is reached. PMID:2444167

  10. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  11. A developmental investigation of inattentiveness and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, E A; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1995-02-01

    The development of inattentiveness and hyperactivity in middle childhood was investigated using a prospective longitudinal approach. Endogenous and exogenous predictors measured in infancy and in early and middle childhood were examined independently and in combination. In early childhood, quality of caregiving more powerfully predicted distractibility, an early precursor of hyperactivity, than did early biological or temperament factors. Caregiving and contextual factors together with early distractibility significantly predicted hyperactivity in middle childhood. While environmental variables also predicted hyperactivity in later elementary years, these factors did not improve the prediction beyond the influence of hyperactivity in early elementary years. The findings support a developmental view of the origins and course of hyperactivity in childhood, that is, that the emergence and persistence of AD/HD symptoms depend on developmental history along with current circumstances. PMID:7497828

  12. 29 CFR 1952.221 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Tennessee § 1952.221 Developmental schedule. The Tennessee state plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule...

  13. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work provides a brief review of basic concepts in developmental neurotoxicology, as well as current representative testing guidelines for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of xenobiotics. Historically, DNT was initially recognized as a “functional” teratoge...

  14. A PERVASIVE BROAD COMPONENT IN H I EMISSION LINE PROFILES: TEMPERATURE, TURBULENCE, OR A HELIUM SIGNATURE?

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, G. L.; Schmelz, J. T. E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.ed

    2010-06-15

    Gaussian analysis of interstellar neutral hydrogen emission profiles has revealed a pervasive broad component with a width on the order of 34 km s{sup -1}. When present, this component can most readily be identified in high galactic latitude directions where the H I profiles are either intrinsically weak or simple. Examination of published data reveals that this characteristic line width has been found in a variety of other H I features including compact high-velocity clouds, very-high-velocity clouds, and the Magellanic Stream. When its presence is accounted for in the analysis of H I profiles, other families of line widths at 14 and 6 km s{sup -1} are clearly revealed. Possible mechanisms for producing this broad background component are discussed, including temperature, turbulence, and the critical ionization velocity effect. A line width on the order of 34 km s{sup -1} would imply a kinetic temperature of 24,000 K, too high to keep the gas neutral; hence it should not be observed in H I emission spectra. Turbulent motions could explain a pervasive broad component, but not why it always has the same numerical value in various classes of H I emission line features. The critical ionization velocity effect hypothesis is intriguing because 34 km s{sup -1} is the value for helium. Clearly, this could be a coincidence but the other prominent distribution peaks correspond to two families of critical ionization velocities of abundant interstellar elements including C, N, and O (about 14 km s{sup -1}) and metals (about 6 km s{sup -1}). Unfortunately, the mechanism by which this effect operates, even in laboratory situations, is not clearly understood. It is suggested that further investigation of the distribution of H I component line widths by allowing for the existence of a pervasive broad underlying component may cast a clearer light on this intriguing phenomenon.

  15. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals. PMID:22294880

  16. Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Bilke, Sven; Davis, Sean; Walker, Robert L; Killian, M Scott; Jaeger, Erich B; Chen, Yidong; Hipp, Jason; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Cornelison, Robert; Smith, William I; Bibikova, Marina; Fan, Jian-Bing; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Meltzer, Paul S

    2009-02-01

    Emerging technologies allow broad profiling of the cancer genome for differential DNA methylation relative to benign cells. Herein, bisulfite-modified DNA from lymph nodes with either reactive hyperplasia or follicular lymphoma (FL) were analyzed using a commercial C/UpG genotyping assay. Two hundred fifty-nine differentially methylated targets (DMT) distributed among 183 unique genes were identified in FL. Comparison of matched formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and frozen surgical pathology replicates showed the complete preservation of the cancer methylome among differently archived tissue specimens. Analysis of the DMT profile is consistent with a pervasive epigenomic remodeling process in FL that affects predominantly nonlymphoid genes. PMID:19155300

  17. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  18. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    PubMed

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  19. Proposal: Developmental Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Phoebe

    Three program objectives are articulated for establishing a developmental education program to increase retention and graduation rates among academically disadvantaged students at Triton College: (1) instituting horizontal (teaching basic skills) and vertical (assisting in the transfer of basic skills to students' total educational programs)…

  20. Developmental Assessment: New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergan, John R.; Feld, Jason K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the Management and Planning System (MAPS), a developmental assessment system initiated in Head Start. The system consists of instruments which assess preschoolers' and kindergartners' development of math, science, literacy, and social skills and children's motor development. Describes the use and benefits of MAPS observational…

  1. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  2. Developmental Guidance Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann; Strub, Richard

    This packet of materials was developed for workshops provided to teams of school counselors and administrators for the purpose of developing knowledge and competencies in the delivery of a comprehensive, sequential, developmental guidance program. Section I contains a rationale, definition, and description of program components. In section II…

  3. Developmental Algorithms Have Meaning!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John

    1997-01-01

    Adapts Stanic and McKillip's ideas for the use of developmental algorithms to propose that the present emphasis on symbolic manipulation should be tempered with an emphasis on the conceptual understanding of the mathematics underlying the algorithm. Uses examples from the areas of numeric computation, algebraic manipulation, and equation solving…

  4. Developmental Courses Are Creditable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Michael E.; Rosica, Anthony D.

    1978-01-01

    Expresses position that the development of academic and interpersonal skills through developmental programs is a legitimate function of any comprehensive community/junior college and that the granting of college credit for time spent acquiring skills legitimizes learning. Also deals with objections to granting college credit for remedial courses.…

  5. Handbook of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L., Ed.; Horner, Robert H., Ed.; Snell, Martha E., Ed.; Blacher, Jan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This authoritative handbook reviews the breadth of current knowledge about developmental disabilities: neuroscientific and genetic foundations; the impact on health, learning, and behavior; and effective educational and clinical practices. Leading authorities analyze what works in intervening with diverse children and families, from infancy…

  6. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  7. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  8. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  9. Developmental Purposes of Commercial Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed are 45 table, target, manipulative, active, and creative games with such developmental purposes as associative learning, tactile discrimination, and visual motor integration. Information includes the name of the item, distributor, price, description, and developmental purpose. (JYC)

  10. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  11. An xp model on AdS2 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  12. Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Judy; Banko, Katherine M.; Pierce, W. David

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in psychology and education is that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation to perform activities. Over the past 30 years, more than 100 experimental studies have been conducted on this topic. In 1994, Cameron and Pierce conducted a meta-analysis of this literature and concluded that negative effects of reward were limited and could be easily prevented in applied settings. A more recent meta-analysis of the literature by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) shows pervasive negative effects of reward. The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations. Our results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task. Rewards given for low-interest tasks enhance free-choice intrinsic motivation. On high-interest tasks, verbal rewards produce positive effects on free-choice motivation and self-reported task interest. Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance. When rewards are linked to level of performance, measures of intrinsic motivation increase or do not differ from a nonrewarded control group. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are addressed. PMID:22478353

  13. The pervasive nature of unconscious social information processing in executive control

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans not only have impressive executive abilities, but we are also fundamentally social creatures. In the cognitive neuroscience literature, it has long been assumed that executive control mechanisms, which play a critical role in guiding goal-directed behavior, operate on consciously processed information. Although more recent evidence suggests that unconsciously processed information can also influence executive control, most of this literature has focused on visual masked priming paradigms. However, the social psychological literature has demonstrated that unconscious influences are pervasive, and social information can unintentionally influence a wide variety of behaviors, including some that are likely to require executive abilities. For example, social information can unconsciously influence attention processes, such that simply instructing participants to describe a previous situation in which they had power over someone or someone else had power over them has been shown to unconsciously influence their attentional focus abilities, a key aspect of executive control. In the current review, we consider behavioral and neural findings from a variety of paradigms, including priming of goals and social hierarchical roles, as well as interpersonal interactions, in order to highlight the pervasive nature of social influences on executive control. These findings suggest that social information can play a critical role in executive control, and that this influence often occurs in an unconscious fashion. We conclude by suggesting further avenues of research for investigation of the interplay between social factors and executive control. PMID:22557956

  14. Suppression of pervasive noncoding transcription in embryonic stem cells by esBAF

    PubMed Central

    Hainer, Sarah J.; Gu, Weifeng; Carone, Benjamin R.; Landry, Benjamin D.; Rando, Oliver J.; Mello, Craig C.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the human genome is transcribed, the majority of which does not encode protein. However, many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are rapidly degraded after transcription, and relatively few have established functions, questioning the significance of this observation. Here we show that esBAF, a SWI/SNF family nucleosome remodeling factor, suppresses transcription of ncRNAs from ∼57,000 nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) throughout the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We show that esBAF functions to both keep NDRs nucleosome-free and promote elevated nucleosome occupancy adjacent to NDRs. Reduction of adjacent nucleosome occupancy upon esBAF depletion is strongly correlated with ncRNA expression, suggesting that flanking nucleosomes form a barrier to pervasive transcription. Upon forcing nucleosome occupancy near two NDRs using a nucleosome-positioning sequence, we found that esBAF is no longer required to silence transcription. Therefore, esBAF’s function to enforce nucleosome occupancy adjacent to NDRs, and not its function to maintain NDRs in a nucleosome-free state, is necessary for silencing transcription over ncDNA. Finally, we show that the ability of a strongly positioned nucleosome to repress ncRNA depends on its translational positioning. These data reveal a novel role for esBAF in suppressing pervasive transcription from open chromatin regions in ESCs. PMID:25691467

  15. Developmental manganese exposure in combination with developmental stress and iron deficiency: Effects on behavior and monoamines.

    PubMed

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Davenport, Laurie L; Gutierrez, Arnold; Hufgard, Jillian R; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but neurotoxic at higher exposures, however, Mn exposure seldom occurs in isolation. It often co-occurs in populations with inadequate dietary iron (Fe) and limited resources that result in stress. Subclinical FeD affects up to 15% of U.S. children and exacerbates Mn toxicity by increasing Mn bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated Mn overexposure (MnOE) in rats in combination with Fe deficiency (FeD) and developmental stress, for which we used barren cage rearing. For barren cage rearing (BAR), rats were housed in cages with a wire grid floor or standard bedding material (STD) from embryonic day (E)7 through postnatal day (P)28. For FeD, dams were fed a 90% Fe-deficient NIH-07 diet from E15 through P28. Within each litter, different offspring were treated with 100mg/kg Mn (MnOE) or vehicle (VEH) by gavage every other day from P4-28. Behavior was assessed at two ages and consisted of: open-field, anxiety tests, acoustic startle response (ASR) with prepulse inhibition (PPI), sociability, sucrose preference, tapered beam crossing, and the Porsolt's forced swim test. MnOE had main effects of decreasing activity, ASR, social preference, and social novelty. BAR and FeD transiently modified MnOE effects. BAR groups weighed less and showed decreased anxiety in the elevated zero maze, had increased ASR and decreased PPI, and exhibited reduced sucrose preference compared with the STD groups. FeD animals also weighed less and had increased slips on the tapered beam. Most of the monoamine effects were dopaminergic and occurred in the MnOE groups. The results showed that Mn is a pervasive developmental neurotoxin, the effects of which are modulated by FeD and/or BAR cage rearing. PMID:27302314

  16. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  17. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

  18. Simulating the pervasive fracture and fragmentation of materials and structures using randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations.

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Joseph E.

    2008-09-01

    Under extreme loading conditions most often the extent of material and structural fracture is pervasive in the sense that a multitude of cracks are nucleating, propagating in arbitrary directions, coalescing, and branching. Pervasive fracture is a highly nonlinear process involving complex material constitutive behavior, material softening, localization, surface generation, and ubiquitous contact. Two primary applications in which pervasive fracture is encountered are (1) weapons effects on structures and (2) geomechanics of highly jointed and faulted reservoirs. A pure Lagrangian computational method based on randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations is proposed as a rational approach for simulating the pervasive fracture of materials and structures. Each Voronoi cell is formulated as a finite element using the reproducing kernel method. Fracture surfaces are allowed to nucleate only at the intercell faces. The randomly seeded Voronoi cells provide an unbiased network for representing cracks. In this initial study two approaches for allowing the new surfaces to initiate are studied: (1) dynamic mesh connectivity and the instantaneous insertion of a cohesive traction when localization is detected, and (2) a discontinuous Galerkin approach in which the interelement tractions are an integral part of the variational formulation, but only become active once localization is detected. Pervasive fracture problems are extremely sensitive to initial conditions and system parameters. Dynamic problems exhibit a form of transient chaos. The primary numerical challenge for this class of problems is the demonstration of model objectivity and, in particular, the identification and demonstration of a measure of convergence for engineering quantities of interest.

  19. Developmental effects of dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, L S

    1995-01-01

    The potent developmental toxicity of dioxin in multiple species has been known for a number of years. However, recent studies have indicated that dioxin also induces functional developmental defects, many of which are delayed. Subtle structural deficits, not detectable at birth, have also been described in multiple species and in both sexes. Certain defects have been reported not only in animals but also in children prenatally exposed to complex mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. None of the effects can be attributed to modulation of any one endocrine system. For example, dioxin does not bind to the estrogen receptor, but it can cause effects that are both estrogenic and antiestrogenic. However, viewing dioxin and related compounds as endocrine disruptors that may alter multiple pathways sheds some light on the complexities of this potent class of growth dysregulators. PMID:8593882

  20. Rethinking Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this issue are all based on the invited addresses given by the authors at the 2013 biennial meeting of the Society for the Study of Human Development. All of the authors address the unfolding paradigm shift in developmental sciences, from reductionism to relational developmental system theories. This theoretical stance involves the recognition of Individual ↔ context transactions, with multiple co-acting partners existing in dynamic relationships across the lifespan and life course. The articles address not only theoretical issues, but also methodological advances and their applications. While acknowledging the importance of new data collection and analytical techniques that permit the testing of more complex theoretical models, the articles demonstrate that well-designed questions from this theoretical perspective can also yield novel findings which are highly relevant to current real-world problems and social policy issues. PMID:25598750

  1. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    PubMed

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  2. The domain of developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Sroufe, L A; Rutter, M

    1984-02-01

    It is the "developmental" component of developmental psychopathology that distinguishes this discipline from abnormal psychology, psychiatry, and even clinical child psychology. At the same time, the focus on individual patterns of adaptation and maladaptation distinguishes this field from the larger discipline of developmental psychology. In this essay a developmental perspective is presented, and the implications of this perspective for research in developmental psychopathology are discussed. A primary consideration is the complexity of the adaptational process, with developmental transformation being the rule. Thus, links between earlier adaptation and later pathology generally will not be simple or direct. It will be necessary to understand both individual patterns of adaptation with respect to salient issues of a given developmental period and the transaction between prior adaptation, maturational change, and subsequent environmental challenges. Some examples are discussed, with special attention to the case of depression. PMID:6705619

  3. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  4. Per aspirin ad astra...

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

  5. Where Am I? A new case of developmental topographical disorientation.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Filippo; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Incoccia, Chiara; Nemmi, Federico; Sabatini, Umberto; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Recently, developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) was described (Bianchini et al., 2010, J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 20, 807-27; Iaria & Barton, 2010, Exp Brain Res, 206, 189-96; Iaria, Bogod, Fox, & Barton, 2009, Neuropsychologia, 47, 30-40) as a navigational deficit in the absence of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Here, we reported the case of a healthy subject who presented this disorder. Dr. WAI was a 29-year-old right-handed man with normal development and no clinical history of neurological or psychiatric diseases who was affected by a very pervasive topographical orientation and navigational disorder. A neuroradiological exam confirmed the absence of structural and anatomical alterations of the brain. Dr. WAI was submitted to an extensive neuropsychological examination and to a battery of tests specifically developed to assess developmental topographical disorder. Using this battery, we analysed Dr. WAI's acquisition of navigational information and re-orientation processes. He showed severe DTD accompanied by deficits of different cognitive processes directly or indirectly involved in navigational skills. Dr. WAI showed a deficit in developing cognitive maps, already found in previous cases, plus difficulties in evaluating distances and computing metric environmental features. He represents a further confirmation of the existence of DTD suggesting dissociations within the disorder related to the level of development of the ability to build cognitive maps and the association of different imagery deficits. Dr. WAI can help in shedding some light on the mechanisms underlying lack of development of navigational skills. PMID:23336564

  6. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  7. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes. PMID:26228147

  8. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing

    2013-11-15

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  9. Pervasive selection for and against antibiotic resistance in inhomogeneous multistress environments

    PubMed Central

    Chait, Remy; Palmer, Adam C.; Yelin, Idan; Kishony, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria coexist in natural environments with low, if detectable, antibiotic concentrations. Except possibly around localized antibiotic sources, where resistance can provide a strong advantage, bacterial fitness is dominated by stresses unaffected by resistance to the antibiotic. How do such mixed and heterogeneous conditions influence the selective advantage or disadvantage of antibiotic resistance? Here we find that sub-inhibitory levels of tetracyclines potentiate selection for or against tetracycline resistance around localized sources of almost any toxin or stress. Furthermore, certain stresses generate alternating rings of selection for and against resistance around a localized source of the antibiotic. In these conditions, localized antibiotic sources, even at high strengths, can actually produce a net selection against resistance to the antibiotic. Our results show that interactions between the effects of an antibiotic and other stresses in inhomogeneous environments can generate pervasive, complex patterns of selection both for and against antibiotic resistance. PMID:26787239

  10. Four-decade record of pervasive grounding line retreat along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Frazer D. W.; Bingham, Robert G.; Gourmelen, Noel; Tett, Simon F. B.; Muto, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Changes to the grounding line, where grounded ice starts to float, can be used as a remotely sensed measure of ice-sheet susceptibility to ocean-forced dynamic thinning. Constraining this susceptibility is vital for predicting Antarctica's contribution to rising sea levels. We use Landsat imagery to monitor grounding line movement over four decades along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica, an area little monitored despite potential for future ice losses. We show that ~65% of the grounding line retreated from 1990 to 2015, with pervasive and accelerating retreat in regions of fast ice flow and/or thinning ice shelves. Venable Ice Shelf confounds expectations in that, despite extensive thinning, its grounding line has undergone negligible retreat. We present evidence that the ice shelf is currently pinned to a sub-ice topographic high which, if breached, could facilitate ice retreat into a significant inland basin, analogous to nearby Pine Island Glacier.

  11. Security Framework for Pervasive Healthcare Architectures Utilizing MPEG-21 IPMP Components

    PubMed Central

    Fragopoulos, Anastasios; Gialelis, John; Serpanos, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays in modern and ubiquitous computing environments, it is imperative more than ever the necessity for deployment of pervasive healthcare architectures into which the patient is the central point surrounded by different types of embedded and small computing devices, which measure sensitive physical indications, interacting with hospitals databases, allowing thus urgent medical response in occurrences of critical situations. Such environments must be developed satisfying the basic security requirements for real-time secure data communication, and protection of sensitive medical data and measurements, data integrity and confidentiality, and protection of the monitored patient's privacy. In this work, we argue that the MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) components can be used in order to achieve protection of transmitted medical information and enhance patient's privacy, since there is selective and controlled access to medical data that sent toward the hospital's servers. PMID:19132095

  12. Pervasive community care platform: Ambient Intelligence leveraging sensor networks and mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Several powerful trends are contributing to an aging of much of the world's population, especially in economically developed countries. To mitigate the negative effects of rapidly ageing populations, societies must act early to plan for the welfare, medical care and residential arrangements of their senior citizens, and for the manpower and associated training needed to execute these plans. This paper describes the development of an Ambient Intelligent Community Care Platform (AICCP), which creates an environment of Ambient Intelligence through the use of sensor network and mobile agent (MA) technologies. The AICCP allows caregivers to quickly and accurately locate their charges; access, update and share critical treatment and wellness data; and automatically archive all records. The AICCP presented in this paper is expected to enable caregivers and communities to offer pervasive, accurate and context-aware care services.

  13. Pervasive large-scale magnetic fields in the Venus nightside ionosphere and their implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    When the solar wind dynamic pressure at Venus was extraordinarily high during the primary mission of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), 'disappearing ionospheres' occurred on the nightside, with accompanying pervasive near-periapsis magnetic fields of tens of nanoteslas. These nightside counterparts of the generally horizontal large-scale magnetic fields in the dayside ionosphere are found to exhibit some dependence of field magnitude on the solar wind pressure but not on solar zenith angle. Their statistical behavior suggests a global configuration in which the low-altitude field wraps around the planet, while the field at higher altitudes is draped like the induced magnetotail field. The toroidal low-altitude field geometry implies the possible existence of magnetic x points in the low-altitude wake.

  14. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  15. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compère, Geoffrey

    2009-04-01

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS4. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdSd are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0≤|m|<1/2lAdS. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is “renormalized” accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/lAdS to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS4 supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  16. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  17. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  18. Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus

    2013-07-01

    We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.

  19. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  20. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  1. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  2. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  3. The Pervasiveness of Racial Prejudice in Higher Education in the U.S.: Raising Awareness and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Justina O.

    2007-01-01

    Racial diversity is one of the greatest strengths of America?s higher education system. But racial prejudice is entrenched and pervasive in many campuses of institutions of higher learning. A close observation reveals that racial prejudice is not restricted to any race. As much as one would like to believe that simply passing legislations and…

  4. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  5. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  6. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. PMID:26014280

  7. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  8. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  9. Developmental programming and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nuyt, Anne Monique; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review There is a growing body of evidence linking adverse events or exposures during early life and adult-onset diseases. After important epidemiological studies from many parts of the world, research now focuses on mechanisms of organ dysfunction and on refining the understanding of the interaction between common elements of adverse perinatal conditions, such as nutrition, oxidants, and toxins exposures. This review will focus on advances in our comprehension of developmental programming of hypertension. Recent findings Recent studies have unraveled important mechanisms of oligonephronia and impaired renal function, altered vascular function and structure as well as sympathetic regulation of the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, interactions between prenatal insults and postnatal conditions are the subject of intensive research. Prematurity vs. intrauterine growth restriction modulate differently programming of high blood pressure. Along with antenatal exposure to glucocorticoids and imbalanced nutrition, a critical role for perinatal oxidative stress is emerging. Summary While the complexity of the interactions between antenatal and postnatal influences on adult blood pressure is increasingly recognized, the importance of postnatal life in (positively) modulating developmental programming offers the hope of a critical window of opportunity to reverse programming and prevent or reduce related adult-onset diseases. PMID:19434052

  10. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  11. Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation with developmental screening by parent report, parents completed a developmental screen (the Child Development Review), a pediatrician performed a direct developmental evaluation (Capute Scales), and a psychologist administered the...

  12. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  13. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  14. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  15. "Hypothesis for the Modern RNA World": A pervasive Non-coding RNA-Based Genetic Regulation is a Prerequisite for the Emergence of Multicellular Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Stadler, Peter F.; Prohaska, Sonja J.

    2011-12-01

    The transitions to multicellularity mark the most pivotal and distinctive events in life's history on Earth. Although several transitions to "simple" multicellularity (SM) have been recorded in both bacterial and eukaryotic clades, transitions to complex multicellularity (CM) have only happened a few times in eukaryotes. A large number of cell types (associated with large body size), increased energy consumption per gene expressed, and an increment of non-protein-coding DNA positively correlate with CM. These three factors can indeed be understood as the causes and consequences of the regulation of gene expression. Here, we discuss how a vast expansion of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNAs) regulators rather than large numbers of novel protein regulators can easily contribute to the emergence of CM. We also propose that the evolutionary advantage of RNA-based gene regulation derives from the robustness of the RNA structure that makes it easy to combine genetic drift with functional exploration. We describe a model which aims to explain how the evolutionary dynamic of ncRNAs becomes dominated by the accessibility of advantageous mutations to innovate regulation in complex multicellular organisms. The information and models discussed here outline the hypothesis that pervasive ncRNA-based regulatory systems, only capable of being expanded and explored in higher eukaryotes, are prerequisite to complex multicellularity. Thereby, regulatory RNA molecules in Eukarya have allowed intensification of morphological complexity by stabilizing critical phenotypes and controlling developmental precision. Although the origin of RNA on early Earth is still controversial, it is becoming clear that once RNA emerged into a protocellular system, its relevance within the evolution of biological systems has been greater than we previously thought.

  16. "Developmental Review's" Most Influential Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    "Developmental Review" is a journal of literature reviews and theoretical analyses for developmental scientists. During its first quarter-century of publication, the quality of those articles resulted in a journal whose level of impact on the scientific literature is extremely high, currently in the top 10% of all journals indexed by "Social…

  17. The Future of Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David

    This paper discusses current issues and trends in developmental education. The biggest trend is expected to be the concurrent development of learning strategies while students are enrolled in graduation-credit content courses. Separate developmental education courses will be mainstreamed into the traditional college course work in a variety of…

  18. The Developmental Pathway to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Bruce R.

    A cognitive-developmental approach to reading instruction for preschool children is presented in this document. Common misunderstandings about reading instruction are discussed, and examples of young children's reading readiness are used to illustrate how developmental readiness, self-motivation, and the influence of an appropriate learning…

  19. Merit Pay and Developmental Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, William

    Five areas are considered with respect to the relationship of merit pay and developmental composition: (1) the kinds of merit pay; (2) the sources of merit pay funds; (3) the combinations of developmental writing programs, types of merit pay, and the sources of funding; (4) the evaluation of teachers for the purposes of merit pay; and (5) the…

  20. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of failure in a…

  1. DAPcentrism: Challenging Developmentally Appropriate Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn, Ed.

    This book examines the implications of existing learning theories for early childhood education, with a special emphasis on Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP). Chapter 1, "Challenging Developmentally Appropriate Practice: An Introduction (Marilyn Fleer), presents the debate and summarizes the remaining chapters. Chapter 2, "Does Cognition…

  2. Developmental Audits with Challenging Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; du Toit, Lesley; Bath, Howard; Van Bockern, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Developmental Audit[R] is a new strength-based assessment model for youth who are in conflict in home, school, or community. Developmental Audits involve collaboration with young persons who are seen as experts on themselves. Discussing challenging life events provides a window to the young person's private logic and goals. The audit scans…

  3. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  4. Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses: 1994-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Daniels, Amy M.; Law, J. Kiely; Law, Paul A.; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed predictors of parent-reported initial diagnosis (autistic disorder [AD], pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS], pervasive developmental disorder ["PDD"] and autism spectrum disorder ["ASD"], and Asperger syndrome [AS]), among 6,176 individuals with autism spectrum disorders diagnosed from 1994 through 2007.…

  5. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  6. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  7. Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A.; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible etiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups. PMID:23140142

  8. Deconstructing Pancreas Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Cecil M.; Goodyer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The relentless nature and increasing prevalence of human pancreatic diseases, in particular, diabetes mellitus and adenocarcinoma, has motivated further understanding of pancreas organogenesis. The pancreas is a multifunctional organ whose epithelial cells govern a diversity of physiologically vital endocrine and exocrine functions. The mechanisms governing the birth, differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, maturation, and maintenance of the endocrine and exocrine components in the pancreas have been discovered recently with increasing tempo. This includes recent studies unveiling mechanisms permitting unexpected flexibility in the developmental potential of immature and mature pancreatic cell subsets, including the ability to interconvert fates. In this article, we describe how classical cell biology, genetic analysis, lineage tracing, and embryological investigations are being complemented by powerful modern methods including epigenetic analysis, time-lapse imaging, and flow cytometry-based cell purification to dissect fundamental processes of pancreas development. PMID:22587935

  9. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  10. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  11. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  12. 29 CFR 1952.371 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Virginia § 1952.371 Developmental schedule. The Virginia plan is developmental. Following is a schedule of major developmental steps:...

  13. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm(-3)) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm(-3)). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation. PMID:24681646

  14. Ribosome profiling reveals pervasive and regulated stop codon readthrough in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Joshua G; Foo, Catherine K; Belletier, Nicolette G; Gavis, Elizabeth R; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes can read through stop codons in a regulated manner, elongating rather than terminating the nascent peptide. Stop codon readthrough is essential to diverse viruses, and phylogenetically predicted to occur in a few hundred genes in Drosophila melanogaster, but the importance of regulated readthrough in eukaryotes remains largely unexplored. Here, we present a ribosome profiling assay (deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments) for Drosophila melanogaster, and provide the first genome-wide experimental analysis of readthrough. Readthrough is far more pervasive than expected: the vast majority of readthrough events evolved within D. melanogaster and were not predicted phylogenetically. The resulting C-terminal protein extensions show evidence of selection, contain functional subcellular localization signals, and their readthrough is regulated, arguing for their importance. We further demonstrate that readthrough occurs in yeast and humans. Readthrough thus provides general mechanisms both to regulate gene expression and function, and to add plasticity to the proteome during evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01179.001 PMID:24302569

  15. An Ontology for Telemedicine Systems Resiliency to Technological Context Variations in Pervasive Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Bults, Richard G. A.; Van Sinderen, Marten J.; Widya, Ing; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data are crucial for any medical case to study and understand a patient’s condition and to give the patient the best possible treatment. Pervasive healthcare systems apply information and communication technology to enable the usage of ubiquitous clinical data by authorized medical persons. However, quality of clinical data in these applications is, to a large extent, determined by the technological context of the patient. A technological context is characterized by potential technological disruptions that affect optimal functioning of technological resources. The clinical data based on input from these technological resources can therefore have quality degradations. If these degradations are not noticed, the use of this clinical data can lead to wrong treatment decisions, which potentially puts the patient’s safety at risk. This paper presents an ontology that specifies the relation among technological context, quality of clinical data, and patient treatment. The presented ontology provides a formal way to represent the knowledge to specify the effect of technological context variations in the clinical data quality and the impact of the clinical data quality on a patient’s treatment. Accordingly, this ontology is the foundation for a quality of data framework that enables the development of telemedicine systems that are capable of adapting the treatment when the quality of the clinical data degrades, and thus guaranteeing patients’ safety even when technological context varies. PMID:27170903

  16. Maintaining Privacy in Pervasive Computing - Enabling Acceptance of Sensor-based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppera, A.; Burbridge, T.

    During the 1980s, Mark Weiser [1] predicted a world in which computing was so pervasive that devices embedded in the environment could sense their relationship to us and to each other. These tiny ubiquitous devices would continually feed information from the physical world into the information world. Twenty years ago, this vision was the exclusive territory of academic computer scientists and science fiction writers. Today this subject has become of interest to business, government, and society. Governmental authorities exercise their power through the networked environment. Credit card databases maintain our credit history and decide whether we are allowed to rent a house or obtain a loan. Mobile telephones can locate us in real time so that we do not miss calls. Within another 10 years, all sorts of devices will be connected through the network. Our fridge, our food, together with our health information, may all be networked for the purpose of maintaining diet and well-being. The Internet will move from being an infrastructure to connect computers, to being an infrastructure to connect everything [2, 3].

  17. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.

  18. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm-3) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm-3). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.

  19. Evidence for a pervasive ‘idling-mode’ activity template in flying and pedestrian insects

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Andrew M.; Jones, Hayley B. C.; Hill, Jane K.; Pearson, Aislinn J.; Wilson, Kenneth; Wolf, Stephan; Lim, Ka S.; Reynolds, Don R.; Chapman, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex movement patterns of animals in natural environments is a key objective of ‘movement ecology’. Complexity results from behavioural responses to external stimuli but can also arise spontaneously in their absence. Drawing on theoretical arguments about decision-making circuitry, we predict that the spontaneous patterns will be scale-free and universal, being independent of taxon and mode of locomotion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity patterns of the European honeybee, and multiple species of noctuid moth, tethered to flight mills and exposed to minimal external cues. We also reanalysed pre-existing data for Drosophila flies walking in featureless environments. Across these species, we found evidence of common scale-invariant properties in their movement patterns; pause and movement durations were typically power law distributed over a range of scales and characterized by exponents close to 3/2. Our analyses are suggestive of the presence of a pervasive scale-invariant template for locomotion which, when acted on by environmental cues, produces the movements with characteristic scales observed in nature. Our results indicate that scale-finite complexity as embodied, for instance, in correlated random walk models, may be the result of environmental cues overriding innate behaviour, and that scale-free movements may be intrinsic and not limited to ‘blind’ foragers as previously thought. PMID:26064664

  20. Pervasive RNA editing among hornwort rbcL transcripts except Leiosporoceros.

    PubMed

    Duff, R Joel; Moore, Francisco B-G

    2005-11-01

    RNA editing affecting chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes has been identified in all major clades of land plants. The frequency of edited sites varies greatly between lineages but hornworts represent an extreme in propensity for editing in both their chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. cDNA sequences from seven taxonomically diverse hornwort rbcL sequences combined with a survey of 13 additional DNA sequences for potential edited sites demonstrate the presence of 62 edited sites and predict a minimum of 10 additional sites. These 72 total edited sites represent 43 C-to-U and 28 U-to-C nucleotide conversions, with 1 site exhibiting editing in both directions. With one exception, all taxa are heavily edited, with each having from 20 to 34 edited sites. However, a single sample, Leiosporoceros, is shown to lack edited sites. Phylogenetic reconstruction of hornworts results in ambiguous resolution of Leiosporoceros depending on whether edited sites are maintained or eliminated from the analyses. Depending on the inferred relationship of Leiosporoceros to the hornworts, at least two explanations for the origin and maintenance of pervasive editing in hornworts are possible. The absence of edited sites in Leiosporoceros could represent either the absence or a low level of editing ability in the common ancestor of hornworts, as represented by Leiosporoceros, or the loss of editing sites in this lineage after the primary diversification events in the group. PMID:16177870

  1. Utilizing Embedded Semantics for User-Driven Design of Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, Ahmet; Mödritscher, Felix; de Causmaecker, Patrick

    The Web does not only offer an almost infinitive number of services and resources but can be also seen as a technology to combine different technological devices, like mobile phones, digital media solutions, intelligent household appliances, tablet PCs, and any other kind of computers, in order to create environments satisfying the need of users. However, due to the large amount of web resources and services as well as the variety and range of user needs, it is impossible to realize software solutions for all possible scenarios. In this paper, we present a user-driven approach towards designing and assembling pervasive environments, taking into consideration resources and services available on the Web and provided through computing devices. Based on semantics embedded in the web content, we explain the concept as well as important components of this user-driven environment design methodology and show a first prototype. Finally, the overall approach is critically discussed from the perspectives of programmers and web users on the basis of related work.

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: A Pervasive Pathogen Highlights the Need for New Antimicrobial Development

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Emily A.; Balkin, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has entered the spotlight as a globally pervasive drug-resistant pathogen. While historically associated exclusively with hospital-acquired infections in immunocompromised hosts, the methicillin-resistant form of S. aureus has been spreading throughout communities since the 1990s. Indeed, it has now become a common household term: MRSA. S. aureus has developed numerous mechanisms of virulence and strategies to evade the human immune system, including a host of surface proteins, secreted enzymes, and toxins. In hospital intensive care units, the proportion of MRSA-related S. aureus infections has increased strikingly from just 2 percent in 1974 to 64 percent in 2004. Its presence in the community has been rising similarly, posing a significant public health burden. The growing incidence of MRSA unfortunately has been met with dwindling efforts to develop new, more effective antibiotics. The continued emergence of resistant strains of bacteria such as MRSA demands an urgent revival of the search for new antibiotics. PMID:21165342

  3. A pervasive health system integrating patient monitoring, status logging and social sharing.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidis, A K; Koutkias, V G; Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and development of a pervasive health system enabling self-management of chronic patients during their everyday activities. The proposed system integrates patient health monitoring, status logging for capturing various problems or symptoms met, and social sharing of the recorded information within the patients community, aiming to facilitate disease management. A prototype is implemented on a mobile device illustrating the feasibility and applicability of the presented work by adopting unobtrusive vital signs monitoring through a wearable multi-sensing device, a service oriented architecture for handling communication issues, and popular micro-blogging services. Furthermore, a study has been conducted with 16 hypertensive patients, in order to investigate the user acceptance, the usefulness, and the virtue of the proposed system. The results show that the system is welcome by the chronic patients who are especially willing to share healthcare information, and easy to learn and use, while its features have been overall regarded by the patients as helpful for their disease management and treatment. PMID:23193318

  4. Using ESB and BPEL for Evolving Healthcare Systems Towards Pervasive, Grid-Enabled SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koufi, V.; Malamateniou, F.; Papakonstantinou, D.; Vassilacopoulos, G.

    Healthcare organizations often face the challenge of integrating diverse and geographically disparate information technology systems to respond to changing requirements and to exploit the capabilities of modern technologies. Hence, systems evolution, through modification and extension of the existing information technology infrastructure, becomes a necessity. Moreover, the availability of these systems at the point of care when needed is a vital issue for the quality of healthcare provided to patients. This chapter takes a process perspective of healthcare delivery within and across organizational boundaries and presents a disciplined approach for evolving healthcare systems towards a pervasive, grid-enabled service-oriented architecture using the enterprise system bus middleware technology for resolving integration issues, the business process execution language for supporting collaboration requirements and grid middleware technology for both addressing common SOA scalability requirements and complementing existing system functionality. In such an environment, appropriate security mechanisms must ensure authorized access to integrated healthcare services and data. To this end, a security framework addressing security aspects such as authorization and access control is also presented.

  5. Warped AdS3/dipole-CFT duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    String theory contains solutions with {{SL}}( {{2},{R}} ){{R}} × {{U}}{( {1} )_L} -invariant warped AdS3 (WAdS3) factors arising as continuous deformations of ordinary AdS3 factors. We propose that some of these are holographically dual to the IR limits of nonlocal dipole-deformed 2D D-brane gauge theories, referred to as "dipole CFTs". Neither the bulk nor boundary theories are currently well-understood, and consequences of the proposed duality for both sides is investigated. The bulk entropy-area law suggests that dipole CFTs have (at large N) a high-energy density of states which does not depend on the deformation parameter. Putting the boundary theory on a spatial circle leads to closed timelike curves in the bulk, suggesting a relation of the latter to dipole-type nonlocality.

  6. New boundary conditions for AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3ℓ}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

  7. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  8. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  9. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  10. Alday-Maldacena Duality and AdS Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.

  11. Barriers to Inclusive Education in Ireland: The Case for Pupils with a Diagnosis of Intellectual and/or Pervasive Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sheelah Flatman

    2009-01-01

    Equality of access to mainstream education environments for all, and more specifically for children with disabilities, is the documented policy of the United Nations, European Union and the Irish Nation State. Transition from historical segregation practices requires States' commitment to the provision of relevant resources. This paper argues that…

  12. Lack of expansion of triplet repeats in the FMR1, FRAXE, and FRAXF loci in male multiplex families with autism and pervasive developmental disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Julien-Inalsingh, C.; Wing, M.

    1996-08-09

    Sib, twin, and family studies have shown that a genetic cause exists in many cases of autism, with a portion of cases associated with a fragile X chromosome. Three folate-sensitive fragile sites in the Xq27{r_arrow}Xq28 region have been cloned and found to have polymorphic trinucleotide repeats at the respective sites; these repeats are amplified and methylated in individuals who are positive for the different fragile sites. We have tested affected boys and their mothers from 19 families with two autistic/PDD boys for amplification and/or instability of the triplet repeats at these loci and concordance of inheritance of alleles by affected brothers. In all cases, the triplet repeat numbers were within the normal range, with no individuals having expanded or premutation-size alleles. For each locus, there was no evidence for an increased frequency of concordance, indicating that mutations within these genes are unlikely to be responsible for the autistic/PDD phenotypes in the affected boys. Thus, we think it is important to retest those autistic individuals who were cytogenetically positive for a fragile X chromosome, particularly cases where there is no family history of the fragile X syndrome, using the more accurate DNA-based testing procedures. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Brief Report: An Unusual Manifestation of Diagnostic Overshadowing of Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified--A Five Year Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meera, S. S.; Kaipa, Ramesh; Thomas, Jaslin; Shivashankar, N.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders present with a range of comorbid conditions. Occasionally one of the comorbid conditions manifests so strongly that the primary condition goes unnoticed by the clinician. This tendency to overlook comorbid health problems in the presence of a disability is referred to as diagnostic overshadowing. This is a…

  14. Effects of No-No Prompting on Teaching Expressive Labeling of Facial Expressions to Children with and without a Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Johnson, Valerie A.; Courtemanche, Andrea B.; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching is a systematic form of instruction found to be effective for children diagnosed with autism. Three areas of discrete trial teaching warranting more research are the effectiveness and efficiency of various prompting procedures, the effectiveness of implementing teaching in a group instructional format, and the ability of…

  15. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: `forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times t ˜ S BH , the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1 /c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify `information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.

  16. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbäck, Mikael

    2008-02-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are “bound” to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background BNS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten.

  17. The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life history, trait variation and individual differences.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-07-01

    1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in

  18. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739

  19. Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Giribet, Gaston; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

    2009-05-01

    We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1/(2l2), spacetimes with Schrödinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Spacetimes that are asymptotically AdS3, both for the Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by meff2 = m2-1/(2l2). For the critical value m2 = -1/(2l2), the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS3 space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.

  20. From black box to toolbox: Outlining device functionality, engagement activities, and the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.; Brendryen, Håvar; Seeley, John R.; Tyler, Milagra S.; Woolley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    mHealth interventions that deliver content via mobile phones represent a burgeoning area of health behavior change. The current paper examines two themes that can inform the underlying design of mHealth interventions: (1) mobile device functionality, which represents the technological toolbox available to intervention developers; and (2) the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions, which determines how intervention content can be delivered concurrently using mobile phones, personal computers, and other devices. We posit that developers of mHealth interventions will be better able to achieve the promise of this burgeoning arena by leveraging the toolbox and functionality of mobile devices in order to engage participants and encourage meaningful behavior change within the context of a carefully designed pervasive information architecture. PMID:25750862

  1. Micro-trace fossils reveal pervasive reworking of Pliocene sapropels by low-oxygen-adapted benthic meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Animal burrowers leave an indelible signature on the sedimentary record in most marine environments, with the seeming exception of low-oxygen environments. In modern sedimentary settings, however, sub-millimetre-sized benthic animals (meiofauna) are adapted to low oxygen and even sulfidic conditions. Almost nothing is known about their impact on ancient marine sediments because they leave few recognizable traces. Here we show, in classic Pliocene-aged anoxic facies from the Mediterranean, the first reported trace fossil evidence of meiofaunal activity and its relation to changing oxygenation. A novel approach utilizing electron imaging of ion-polished samples shows that meiofauna pervasively reworked sediment under oxygen-depleted conditions that excluded macrofauna, fragmenting organic laminae and emplacing 15- to 70-μm-diameter faecal pellets without macroscopically influencing the fabric. The extent of reworking raises the question: how pervasively altered are other sediments presently assumed to lack animal influence and how far into the geological record does this influence extend?

  2. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  3. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Feiss, Léonard; Michel, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye’s visual input. PMID:23690677

  4. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude ɛ on time-scales of order 1/ ɛ 2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive relations for the coefficients of the time-averaged theory that are likely to be useful for evaluating them more efficiently in numerical simulations.

  5. Pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders revealed by integrative analysis of multiple GWAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Can; Gelernter, Joel; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-11-01

    Although some existing epidemiological observations and molecular experiments suggested that brain disorders in the realm of psychiatry may be influenced by immune dysregulation, the degree of genetic overlap between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders has not been well established. We investigated this issue by integrative analysis of genome-wide association studies of 18 complex human traits/diseases (five psychiatric disorders, seven immune disorders, and others) and multiple genome-wide annotation resources (central nervous system genes, immune-related expression-quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and DNase I hypertensive sites from 98 cell lines). We detected pleiotropy in 24 of the 35 psychiatric-immune disorder pairs. The strongest pleiotropy was observed for schizophrenia-rheumatoid arthritis with MHC region included in the analysis (p = 3.9 x 10(-285), and schizophrenia-Crohn's disease with MHC region excluded (p = 1.1 x 10(-36). Significant enrichment (> 1.4 fold) of immune-related eQTL was observed in four psychiatric disorders. Genomic regions responsible for pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders were detected. The MHC region on chromosome 6 appears to be the most important with other regions, such as cytoband 1p13.2, also playing significant roles in pleiotropy. We also found that most alleles shared between schizophrenia and Crohn's disease have the same effect direction, with similar trend found for other disorder pairs, such as bipolar-Crohn's disease. Our results offer a novel bird's-eye view of the genetic relationship and demonstrate strong evidence for pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders. Our findings might open new routes for prevention and treatment strategies for these disorders based on a new appreciation of the importance of immunological mechanisms in mediating risk of many psychiatric diseases. PMID:26340901

  6. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer’s Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Bayard E.; Austin, Daniel; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals’ health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients’ and caregivers’ ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) at the Oregon Health and Science University have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system, ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence, and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies. PMID:26113819

  7. Nutrition has a pervasive impact on cardiac microRNA expression in isogenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wing-Lun, Edwina; Eaton, Sally A; Hur, Suzy S J; Aiken, Alastair; Young, Paul E; Buckland, Michael E; Li, Cheryl C Y; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M

    2016-07-01

    The complex interaction between obesity, Western-style diets, and cardiovascular disease is of increasing interest, with a growing number of children being born to obese parents with poor lifestyle choices. These offspring have themselves an increased susceptibility to obesity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in adult life, which may be 'programmed' by their intrauterine environment. Cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs) are affected by multiple disease states, and have also been shown to be capable of exerting a hormone-like control on whole body metabolism. Here we sought to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity and/or postnatal exposure to a Western diet on miRNA expression in the heart. Unbiased small RNA sequencing was carried out on cardiac tissue from young adult mice born to lean or obese mothers; offspring were weaned onto either a low-fat control diet or a high-fat Western-style diet. We found 8 cardiac miRNAs that were significantly altered in response to maternal obesity, but only when the offspring were challenged postnatally with the Western diet. In contrast, postnatal exposure to the diet alone induced significant changes to the expression of a much larger number of miRNAs (33 in offspring of lean and 46 in offspring of obese). Many of the affected miRNAs have previously been implicated in various cardiac pathologies. The pervasive cardiac miRNA changes induced by a Western diet suggest that an individual's lifestyle choices outweigh the impact of any programming effects by maternal obesity on miRNA-related cardiac health. PMID:27216962

  8. Pervasiveness of the IQ Rise: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Generational IQ gains in the general population (termed the Flynn effect) show an erratic pattern across different nations as well as across different domains of intelligence (fluid vs crystallized). Gains of fluid intelligence in different countries have been subject to extensive research, but less attention was directed towards gains of crystallized intelligence, probably due to evidence from the Anglo-American sphere suggesting only slight gains on this measure. In the present study, development of crystallized intelligence in the German speaking general population is assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether IQ gains for crystallized intelligence are in progress in German-speaking countries, two independent meta-analyses were performed. By means of a cited reference search in ISI Web of Science, all studies citing test manuals and review articles of two widely-used salient measures of crystallized intelligence were obtained. Additionally, the electronic database for German academic theses was searched to identify unpublished studies employing these tests. All studies reporting participants mean IQ or raw scores of at least one of the two measures were included in the present analyses, yielding over 500 studies (>1,000 samples; >45,000 individuals). We found a significant positive association between years of test performance and intelligence (1971–2007) amounting to about 3.5 IQ points per decade. Conclusions/Significance This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe. Since mean IQ was assessed in a large number of small, non-representative samples, our evidence suggests a remarkable robustness of these gains. Moreover, in both meta-analyses strength of gains was virtually identical. On the whole, results of the present study demonstrate a pervasive and generalizing Flynn effect in

  9. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer's Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Bayard E; Austin, Daniel; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals' health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients' and caregivers' ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) at the Oregon Health and Science University have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system, ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence, and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies. PMID:26113819

  10. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants—manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse. PMID:24556010

  11. Predictive Modeling of Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of alternative methods in conjunction with traditional in vivo developmental toxicity testing has the potential to (1) reduce cost and increase throughput of testing the chemical universe, (2) prioritize chemicals for further targeted toxicity testing and risk assessment,...

  12. Systems Modeling in Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual starts off as a single cell, the progeny of which form complex structures that are themselves integrated into progressively larger systems. Developmental biology is concerned with how this cellular complexity and patterning arises through orchestration of cell divi...

  13. INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A book chapter in ?Molecular Toxicology: Transcriptional Targets? reviewed the role of intracellular signaling in the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals. This chapter covered a number of aspects including the development of the nervous system, role of intrace...

  14. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... Developmental hip dysplasia; DDH; Congenital dysplasia of the hip; Congenital dislocation of the hip; CDH; Pavlik harness ... dislocation Shorter leg on the side with the hip dislocation Uneven skin folds of thigh or buttocks After ...

  15. Developmental Problems and Dental Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, William C., Jr.; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety-five subjects (mean age 55 months) with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction and 47 control subjects (mean age 46 months) were compared to determine the relationship between developmental problems and dental morphology. (Author)

  16. Developmental Disabilities Preschool Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Mary T.; Ritenour, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    Suggested are procedures for providing a developmental program for preschool children with communication disorders complicated by other disorders such as mental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and other neurological dysfunctions. (IM)

  17. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... developmental milestones of early literacy. Younger Than 6 Months: Never Too Young Unlike solid foods , it is ... counts, so have fun with it! 6–12 Months: Developing a Taste for Books Whatever babies are ...

  18. The contemporary psychodynamic developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Malberg, Norka T; Mayes, Linda C

    2013-01-01

    Authors address the transformations taking place in the last 25 years in the theory and practice of developmental psychoanalysis. They emphasize the role of attachment theory in this process and its clinical applications to the work with children and families and the social systems supporting them. The article also describes and explores a move toward an integrative and systemic developmental psychodynamic approach and its relevance to today's practitioner. PMID:23164126

  19. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  20. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  1. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  2. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2015-07-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS = δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  3. Fake gaps in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-11-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS3/CFT2.

  4. Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

  5. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  6. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  7. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure: Developmental Outcomes in the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period, the first month of life, carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills, and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs that limit characterizing potential impacts of prenatal tobacco exposure on the development of key self-regulatory processes and cannot disentangle short-term withdrawal effects from residual exposure-related impacts. In this study, pregnant participants (N = 304) were recruited prospectively during pregnancy and smoking was measured at multiple time points, using both self report and biochemical measures. Neonatal attention, irritable reactivity, and stress dysregulation were examined longitudinally at three time points during the first month of life, and physical growth indices were measured at birth. Tobacco-exposed infants showed significantly poorer attention skills after birth, and the magnitude of the difference between exposed and non-exposed groups attenuated across the neonatal period. In contrast, exposure-related differences in irritable reactivity were not evident and stable across the first month of life, but differed only marginally at 4-weeks of age. Third trimester smoking was associated with pervasive, deleterious, dose-response impacts on physical growth measured at birth, whereas nearly all smoking indicators throughout pregnancy predicted level and growth rates of early attention. The observed neonatal pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of tobacco on the developing nervous system and fits with developmental vulnerabilities observed later in life. PMID:21038943

  8. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-09-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMGΛ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS2, which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMGΛ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δFml and its logarithmic partner δFlog⁡4th.

  9. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  10. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  11. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  12. Adding value to your work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although value can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding value to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373

  13. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all

  14. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  15. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  16. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  17. Vortex hair on AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Gustainis, Peter C.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Wills, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

  18. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  19. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  20. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  1. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O( N 0) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large- N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  2. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Maillard, Antoine; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

    2015-10-01

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS—including both collapsing and noncollapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasiperiodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this paper we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic noncollapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities Among People With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-06-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we examined racial and ethnic disparities in health status among adults with IDD, and investigated differences in health status between adults with IDD and nondisabled adults within each racial and ethnic group. We found that Latino and Black adults with IDD had worse health outcomes compared to White adults with IDD, and Latino and Black adults with IDD had worse health outcomes than nondisabled adults from the same racial and ethnic group. PMID:27268472

  4. Inhalation tolerance is induced selectively in thoracic lymph nodes but executed pervasively at distant mucosal and nonmucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Swirski, Filip K; Yang, Teng-Chih; Fattouh, Ramzi; Croitoru, Ken; Bramson, Jonathan L; Stämpfli, Martin R; Jordana, Manel

    2006-02-15

    Under immunogenic conditions, both the site of initial Ag exposure and consequent T cell priming in specific draining lymph nodes (LNs) imprint the ensuing immune response with lasting tissue-selective tropism. With respect to immune tolerance, whether the site of tolerance induction leads to compartmentalized or, alternatively, pervasive tolerance has not been formally investigated. Using a murine model of inhalation tolerance, we investigated whether the induction of respiratory mucosal tolerance precludes the development of de novo Th2 sensitization upon subsequent exposure to the same Ag at distant mucosal (gut) and nonmucosal (cutaneous) sites. By tracking the proliferation of CFSE-labeled OVA-TCR transgenic CD4(+) T cells upon OVA inhalation in vivo, we defined the site of tolerance induction to be restricted to the thoracic LNs. Expectedly, inhalation tolerance prevented de novo Th2 sensitization upon subsequent exposure to the same Ag at the same site. Importantly, although gut- and skin-draining LNs were not used during tolerance induction, de novo Ag-specific proliferation and Th2 differentiation in these LNs, as well as memory/effector Th2 responses in the gut (allergic diarrhea) and skin (late-phase cutaneous responses) were inhibited upon immunogenic challenge to the same Ag. Interestingly, this pervasive tolerogenic phenotype was not associated with the presence of suppressive activity throughout the lymphatics; indeed, potent suppressive activity was detected solely in the spleen. These data indicate that while inhalation tolerance is selectively induced in local thoracic LNs, its tolerogenic activity resides systemically and leads to pervasive immune tolerance in distant mucosal and nonmucosal sites. PMID:16456019

  5. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD. PMID:27241962

  6. The Renaissance of Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance. PMID:25946596

  7. INTERSPECIES COMPARISONS OF A/D RATIOS: A/D RATIOS ARE NOT CONSTANT ACROSS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that the ratio of the adult (A) and developmental (D) toxicity of a chemical is constant across animal species has been proposed as the basis for identifying developmental hazards, both from traditional developmental toxicity screens using laboratory mammals and fr...

  8. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  9. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  10. Pervasive solar influence on Greenland temperature over the past 4000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Azuma, K. G.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    (Hegerl et al., 2011) possibly because of less accurate forcing reconstruction. The weak but pervasive solar influence on Greenland temperature over the past 4000 years provides important implications on current and future Greenland temperatures. Hegerl, G., Luterbacher, J., González-Rouco, F., Tett, S. F., Crowley, T., and Xoplaki, E.: Influence of human and natural forcing on European seasonal temperatures, Nat. Geosci., 4, 99-103, 2011. Kobashi, T., Kawamura, K., Severinghaus, J. P., Barnola, J.-M., Nakaegawa, T., Vinther, B. M., Johnsen, S. J., and Box, J. E.: High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air in an ice core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, 10.1029/2011GL049444, 2011. Kobashi, T., Shindell, D. T., Kodera, K., Box, J. E., Nakaegawa, T., and Kawamura, K.: On the origin of Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 years, Clim. Past, 9, 583-596, 2013.

  11. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    50 degrees NW, sub parallel to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault (trending 40 degrees NW in the area), which it intersects at an acute angle. The elongated structures in the relatively lithologically indistinct Coastal belt closely resemble structures defined by terrane fault boundaries and magnetic anomalies (produced mainly by tabular ophiolitic sources) in the adjacent lithologically heterogeneous Central belt. The distributions of mean vector direction and dispersion of magnetically-defined edges of the two datasets are very similar, and the global mean direction and dispersion agree to within 2 degrees. Many edges defined by the magnetic data are coincident with or continue the trend of mapped faults that form the structural boundaries between the Coastal belt and the Central belt terranes. The similarity of the pervasive structure in the Coastal belt evident from the aeromagnetic data with structure in the adjacent Central belt suggests that the structures within the two terranes are similar. This not only implies that structure in the Central belt can be used to inform further structural interpretations in the Coastal belt, but also suggests that the structural pattern seen in both terranes is the result of a younger tectonic overprinting that postdates the amalgamation of the two terranes.

  12. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  13. A Review of Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Aggression in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Julie; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Aggression can present as a significant problem behavior in individuals with a diagnosis of developmental disability. Much research has focused on the prevalence of aggression in individuals with varying degrees of severity of intellectual disability (AD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and co-morbidity of ID and ASD. Research has also focused on…

  14. Investigating the impact of adding an environmental focus to a developmental chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robelia, Beth A.

    Making chemistry more relevant to students has been a goal of many curriculum projects. None of these projects have investigated how specific applications of chemistry impact student learning or environmental mindset. The goal of this study was to examine how focusing attention on environmental issues as applications of chemistry concepts would affect students' understanding of general chemistry or environmental chemistry as well environmental attitudes, behaviors and knowledge. Special attention was paid to how women responded to the addition of an environmental focus because prior research indicated women hold more pro-environmental attitudes but are less knowledgeable about environmental topics. The quasi-experimental design used two treatment groups and a comparison group. Both treatment groups received instruction with a Science-Technology-Society orientation, one group focused on environmental applications of chemistry while the other drew applications of chemistry from a number of different fields students might be familiar with such as health care, food science and forensics. The comparison groups used mainly traditional examples from chemistry laboratories. In order to avoid testing the effect of the instructor, two people co-taught both treatment sections. Students in all three groups took a general chemistry assessment at the beginning and end of the course. The treatment groups took a pre and post environmental chemistry assessment and a survey of their environmental attitudes, behaviors and knowledge. Results indicate that students in the environmentally focused section may have made slight gains in general chemistry knowledge. Gains in environmental chemistry knowledge were not significantly different. Students also made modest gains in environmental attitude. Results for women mirrored results for the classes as a whole.

  15. Missing top of the AdS resonance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ϕN and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.

  16. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  17. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  18. The Developmental Psychopathology of Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz, Sarah J.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Although childhood generalized anxiety disorder is generally understudied, worry, the cardinal feature of GAD, appears to be relatively common in youth. Despite its prevalence, there are few conceptual models of the development of clinical worry in children. The current review provides a framework for integrating the developmental psychopathology…

  19. Early Writing: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document consists of four papers on the acquisition of writing skills by young children. The first paper provides a historical and developmental perspective on early writing. Children's development of manual dexterity is briefly overviewed and aspects of the educational approaches of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Chomsky, Rogers and Ashton-Warner…

  20. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends. PMID:23521432

  1. Developmental Outcome of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…

  2. Developmental Disabilities Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    This rule implements the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000. The previous regulations were completed in 1997 before the current law was passed. The rule will align the regulations and current statute and will provide guidance to AIDD grantees. PMID:26214859

  3. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

  4. Reference Guide to Developmental Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Special Education District, Gurnee, IL.

    As an aid in devising individualized programs for handicapped students, the document presents a breakdown of developmental skills. Behavioral statements are arranged hierarchically for eleven skill areas (subskills in parentheses); gross motor (walking, eye/arm coordination, singing), fine motor control (grasp, block manipulation, and finger…

  5. Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Vygotsky is widely considered one of the most significant and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, true appreciation of his theories has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the background to his thought. "Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology" aims to demonstrate how we can come to a new and…

  6. Cultural Immersion and Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Fay

    The developmental program at the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP) has a stable core of teachers who value independence rather than conformity and who seek to transform deeply anxious students into students who love learning. The instructors' goals of improving basic skills, fostering independent thinking, and promoting greater knowledge and…

  7. Social Competence: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakob, Susan G.; Dickerscheid, Jean D.

    This paper presents a developmental study of social competence in preschool children which examines the relationship of motor competence, egocentrism and demographic characteristics to the development of social competence. Tests of motor skills and role taking ability were administered individually to 54 preschool children ranging in age from 3…

  8. The Concept of Developmental Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William

    Cognitive developmental learning is a concept expressing the hypothesis that learning has a continuing, cumulative, and transformational function in the development of intelligence. Two important questions are, "How much do we know about methods?" and "What classes of knowledge and abilities should we develop?" An analysis of past investigations,…

  9. Homogenizing Developmental Studies and ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Margaret E.

    A discussion of pragmatic issues in both developmental studies (DS) and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction at the college level argues that because the two fields have common problems, challenges, and objectives, they have become homogenized as one in many institutions. Because full-time college faculty avoid teaching developmental…

  10. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    PubMed Central

    Durston, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them. PMID:22489210

  11. The diversification of developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. PMID:26056745

  12. Vignettes in College Developmental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeri-Gold, Maria T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses providing developmental learners with the opportunity to hear and respond to vignettes (short, descriptive literary sketches such as those in "The House on Mango Street"). Notes that the activity allowed students to experiment with another writing style and to use figurative language in a creative way. (RS)

  13. Developmental Dyscalculia and Medical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, Ruth S.; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    1993-01-01

    Medical evaluation of seven third-grade children with developmental dyscalculia in a mainstream setting identified neurological conditions (including petit mal seizures, Gerstmann syndrome, and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity) in all the children. Findings suggest that children who are not improving academically should undergo…

  14. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  15. Person Constancy within Developmental Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    Using findings on the unstability of previously stable physical activity levels of young children as a kind of case study to aid thought about the trait-dimensional approach to developmental continuity and discontinuity, this discussion explores the applicability of a dual theory of concept formation to the problem of personal stability and…

  16. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  17. Phenomenalistic Reality: The Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2000-01-01

    Extends William James' classification of phenomenalistic reality (PR) and analyzes PR using empirical data available in developmental psychology; focuses on the relation of PR to a human subject; to rational constructions; and to the idea of truth. Concludes that the development of phenomenalistic reality is qualitatively different from the…

  18. Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia. PMID:23783231

  19. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  20. Theoretical Perspectives for Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This monograph from the University of Minnesota General College (GC) discusses theoretical perspectives on developmental education from both new and established standpoints. GC voluntarily eliminated its degree programs in order to focus on preparing under-prepared students for transfer to the university system. GC's curricular model includes a…