Science.gov

Sample records for ad previous studies

  1. An Experimental Study of Men's and Women's Personal Ads.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, Donald S; English, Brittany L

    2015-11-01

    Personal ads have long served as a potentially rich source of information for social scientists regarding what women and men appear to be looking for in a partner and what they believe potential partners are looking for in them. Almost every study of this type has content analyzed existing personal ads in print media or, more recently, on the Internet. Many of the limits of this research approach were addressed in a study by Strassberg and Holty (2003) utilizing an experimental research design. Contrary to theory, prior research, and prediction, the most popular female seeking male (FSM) ad in that study was one in which the woman described herself as "financially independent, successful [and] ambitious," producing over 50 % more responses than the next most popular ad, describing the writer as "very attractive and slim." The present study replicated the Strassberg and Holty methodology, placing the same fictitious MSF and FSM personal ads using far more accessible Internet personal ad sites. Contrary to the previous finding, but consistent with evolutionary theories and social psychological experiments (e.g., Townsend & Wasserman, 1998), ads that presented the woman as attractive and the man as financially successful elicited the most interest. PMID:25388303

  2. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  3. Spin Filtering Studies at COSY and AD

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, Alexander

    2009-08-04

    The high physics potential of experiments with stored high-energy polarized antiprotons led to the proposal of PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) for the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the FAIR at GSI (Darmstadt/Germany). It is proposed to polarize a stored antiproton beam by means of spin filtering with a polarized H (D) gas target. The feasibility of spin filtering has been demonstrated in the FILTEX experiment. The current interpretation foresees a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to the filtering process and only the hadronic contribution is effective. Several experimental studies with protons (at COSY/Juelich) as well as antiprotons (at AD/CERN) will be carried out to test the principle and measure p-barp-vector and p-bard-vector cross sections. A polarized internal gas target (PIT) with surrounding Silicon detectors immersed into a low-beta section has to be set up.

  4. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  5. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  6. Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu

    2016-06-01

    We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.

  7. The Added Value of Study Abroad: Fostering a Global Citizenry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Michael A.; Rubin, Donald L.; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have employed experimental designs adequate for documenting the value added of studying abroad; that is, learning outcomes above and beyond that which may be achieved in domestic or traditional campus-based courses. Using a pre-/posttest, two-by-two factor design of course location (study abroad vs. home campus) by course subject…

  8. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  9. Metadata-driven Ad Hoc Query of Clinical Studies Data

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aniruddha M.; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2001-01-01

    The Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) data representation is widely used in both clinical patient record systems (CPRSs) and clinical study data management systems (CSDMS). Both of these systems are heterogeneous in that many types of data are also represented conventionally, a situation that complicates data display, editing and ad hoc query. Seamless functioning of such systems mandates the presence of developer-defined metadata (data describing the rest of the database) that records, among other things, how individual parameters are represented within the system. We illustrate a web-based ad hoc query tool that relies on the metadata to generate syntactically and semantically correct SQL.

  10. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  11. Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hairong; Bukovac, Janice L.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that (1) animated banner ads (display advertisements hyperlinked to an advertiser's Web site) result in quicker response and better recall (from college students) than non-animated banner ads; (2) larger banner ads lead to better comprehension and more clicks than small banner ads; and (3) user mode (information seeking or Web surfing) did…

  12. NREL Study Finds U.S. Wind Energy Potential Triples Previous Estimates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times greater than previously estimated, according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind turbine hub heights of 80 meters and 100 meters. These hub heights, which reflect current and future models of wind turbines, are higher than those used in previous national estimates and are mainly responsible for the increased wind potential in the study.

  13. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  14. Atmospheric inputs of Ag and Tl to the Arctic: comparison of a high resolution snow pit (AD 1994-2004) with a firn (AD 1860-1996) and an ice core (previous 16,000 yr).

    PubMed

    Krachler, Michael; Zheng, Jiancheng; Fisher, David; Shotyk, William

    2008-07-25

    Applying strict clean room techniques and sector field ICP-MS, a total of 567 ice and snow samples from Devon Ice Cap, Arctic Canada, have been analysed for silver (Ag) and thallium (Tl), providing a continuous record of atmospheric deposition of both elements for the past approximately 16,000 yr. Concentrations of Ag and Tl ranged from 0.02 to 5.84 pg/g and from 0.03 to 3.40 pg/g, respectively. The natural Tl/Sc background ratio established with ice samples dating between 10,590 and 15,010 yr BP, amounted to 0.11+/-0.03 which is in good agreement with the corresponding value of 0.107 reported for the Upper Continental Crust (UCC). The Ag/Sc background ratio in ice (0.09+/-0.06), in turn, is much more variable and approximately 10-times higher than UCC values. The high temporal resolution provided by 45 samples from the 5 m snow pit representing the period AD 1994 to 2004, revealed the greatest elemental concentrations as well as accumulation rates during the winter months when air masses reach the Arctic predominantly from Eurasia. The greatest Sc concentrations, however, are also found during winter months which clearly reflect strong seasonal variations in atmospheric dust inputs. Enrichment factors calculated for both elements (Ag, Tl) using Sc show contrasting behaviours, with the maximum EF for Tl (up to 48) during summer when air masses arriving to the Arctic are predominantly from North America, probably reflecting coal burning, base metal mining and smelting. The greatest enrichments of Ag (up to 17), on the other hand, tend generally to be found in winter, although some enrichment maxima corresponding to summer months are also seen. While modern Ag EF are comparable to those corresponding to ancient (back to ca. 3 k yr) anthropogenic activities, modern Tl EF clearly exceed the impact of Medieval, Roman and Greek/Phoenician civilization. Accumulation rates during the past decade have been variable (mean 36 and 130 ng/m(2)/yr for Ag and Tl, respectively

  15. Sleep Irregularity in the Previous Week Influences the First-Night Effect in Polysomnographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Hye; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Han, Changsu; Bok, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jung Ho; Lee, Eunil; Kim, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The first-night effect is a well-known phenomenon resulting from an individual's maladaptation to the unfamiliar environment of a sleep laboratory. However, there have been no direct reports of the effect of previous sleep patterns on the first-night effect. We aimed to investigate the effect the previous week's sleep pattern on the first-night effect. Methods Twenty-four young, healthy, male participants completed the study procedure. During one week prior to study, the participants kept sleep diaries and wore actigraphs to identify sleep-wake pattern. Two consecutive nights of polysomnography were conducted after that. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare sleep variables of the two nights. Variance (standard deviation) of sleep onset time during the previous week was used as an index of irregularity. A Kendall's ranked correlation analysis and a linear regression test were applied to detect correlation between sleep irregularity and the first-night effect measured by polysomnography. Results There were significant differences in the values of sleep efficiency (p=0.011) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p=0.006) between the two nights. Sleep efficiency was lower and WASO was higher on the first night as compared to the second night. Sleep irregularity in the previous week was negatively correlated with sleep efficiency (p<0.001) of the first night, but was not significantly correlated with any other sleep parameters. Conclusion We replicated the existence of the first-night effect commonly observed in sleep studies. Sleep irregularity in the previous week may influence the first-night effect in polysomnographic studies. PMID:27081381

  16. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. The role of previously untreated patient studies in understanding the development of FVIII inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carcao, M; Re, W; Ewenstein, B

    2016-01-01

    Development of inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII), the major complication of haemophilia A treatment today, is influenced by multiple factors. Genetic (F8 mutation, family history, ethnicity, polymorphisms in immune modulating genes) and non-genetic (intensive exposure to FVIII, presence of pro-inflammatory signals as might occur with large bleeds, infections, surgery, or other immune stimulants [e.g. vaccines]) risk factors as well as their complex inter-relationships contribute to the inhibitor risk profile of haemophilia patients, particularly in the previously untreated patient (PUP) population. Studies in PUPs have been fundamental to furthering the understanding of FVIII inhibitor development, as well as discovering previously unappreciated risk factors. The multi-factorial nature of inhibitor development makes it difficult to ascertain the contribution of FVIII products in inhibitor development through individual PUP studies. Sufficiently powered studies of large cohorts may overcome these limitations but interpretations should be conducted cautiously. Proper design and implementation of PUP safety studies will become even more important with the introduction of new molecules, such as extended half-life or human cell-line derived FVIII that propose reduced immunogenicity. Despite these difficulties, carefully performed clinical studies in PUPs may provide important insights into the natural history of the immune response to FVIII and may suggest targets for intervention to reduce immunogenicity. PMID:26315604

  18. A Survival Association Study of 102 Polymorphisms Previously Associated with Survival Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxiong; Werdyani, Salem; Shestopaloff, Konstantin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort. PMID:26064972

  19. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  20. Spin-Filtering studies at COSY and AD

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, Alexander

    2008-02-06

    An overview on the present understanding of the methods to polarize an antiproton beam is given and the planned measurements on spin filtering at COSY and AD rings with protons and antiprotons are described. The experimental setup which is being prepared for these measurements is described and focus is given on the polarized internal target.

  1. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; McCarthy Persson, U; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. PMID:25913546

  2. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures...

  3. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  4. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  5. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  6. Blood Pressure Targets in CKD: Lessons Learned from SPRINT and Previous Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Gosmanova, Elvira O; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension management is one of the most common clinical tasks in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) disease, and CKD progression in this population. However, it is still debated, to what target(s) BP should be lowered in patients with signs of kidney damage. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) provided new and important information about the effects of lowering systolic BP to a target of <120 mmHg, which is lower than the levels currently recommended by the most guidelines (<140/90 mmHg). The SPRINT results were not only exciting but also surprising for many clinicians because evidence from well-conducted observational studies in CKD patient showed increased mortality in patients with CKD whose office systolic BP levels were <120 mmHg, as compared with systolic BP in 120-139 mmHg range. In the present review, we will discuss whether a systolic BP goal of <120 mmHg that was found to be beneficial for CV and all-cause mortality outcomes in the SPRINT can be generalized to the entire CKD population. PMID:27448402

  7. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  8. Mapping of Streptococcus faecalis plasmids pAD1 and pAD2 and studies relating to transposition of Tn917.

    PubMed Central

    Clewell, D B; Tomich, P K; Gawron-Burke, M C; Franke, A E; Yagi, Y; An, F Y

    1982-01-01

    Plasmids pAD1 (37.8 megadaltons) and pAD2 (17.1 megadaltons) of Streptococcus faecalis strain DS16 have been mapped with restriction enzymes. The location of a hemolysin-bacteriocin determinant on the conjugative pAD1 plasmid was derived from analyses of transposon insertions. Electron microscope and hybridization analyses located Tn917(Em) and the streptomycin (Sm) and kanamycin (Km) resistance determinants on the nonconjugative pAD2 plasmid. It was shown previously that the erythromycin (Em) resistance associated with Tn917 is inducible and that transposition from pAD2 to pAD1 is also stimulated by exposure of cells to low concentrations of Em. Here we show that inducing concentrations of Em also increase the conjugative transfer potential of pAD1; this is possibly related to a mild and short-lived inhibitory stress placed on the cells before full induction of resistance. Selection of Em-resistant transconjugants arising from matings between DS16 and a plasmid-free recipient gave rise to transconjugants which primarily harbor stable pAD1::pAD2 cointegrates. A 30-min exposure of donors to Em (0.5 microgram/ml) before mating resulted in a severalfold increase in the number of such transconjugants. However, a small fraction (e.g., 3 of 40) of these Emr Smr Kmr transconjugants harbored pAD1::Tn917 and pAD2 molecules. Since we believe pAD2 is incapable of being mobilized by pAD1 without being covalently linked, it is likely that transfer in these cases involved cointegrates representing structural intermediates in the transposition of Tn917 from pAD2 to pAD1. It follows that such intermediates probably had two copies of Tn917 and readily resolved after transfer. (These cointegrates are different from the stable cointegrates which were shown to have only a single copy of Tn917; the latter are assumed not to be related to transposition.) Two variants with altered Tn917 transposition properties were derived. One of them transposed at an elevated frequency, whereas the

  9. Recovery of Weak Factor Loadings When Adding the Mean Structure in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ximénez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article extends previous research on the recovery of weak factor loadings in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by exploring the effects of adding the mean structure. This issue has not been examined in previous research. This study is based on the framework of Yung and Bentler (1999) and aims to examine the conditions that affect the recovery of weak factor loadings when the model includes the mean structure, compared to analyzing the covariance structure alone. A simulation study was conducted in which several constraints were defined for one-, two-, and three-factor models. Results show that adding the mean structure improves the recovery of weak factor loadings and reduces the asymptotic variances for the factor loadings, particularly for the models with a smaller number of factors and a small sample size. Therefore, under certain circumstances, modeling the means should be seriously considered for covariance models containing weak factor loadings. PMID:26779071

  10. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  11. A Study on New Pochonka Published in A.D. 1792

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    New Pochonka published in the eighteenth century of the Choson dynasty was composed of star-charts based on the new observations made by Jesuits in China and songs corrected a little bit from previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms in the previous Pochonka are listed in the same order to that in the Song dynasty's literature; while the asterisms in the new Pochonka are listed in accordance with Pu-tien-ko published in China after the Ming dynasty. The Chinese-style twelve-equatorial-section system is adopted in the new Pochonka, while in its song is adopted the zodiac system, which can be seen in the star-charts of previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms belonging to three or four neighboring lunar-mansions are drawn in one chart. Each chart covers asterisms not belonging to a certain range of right ascension, but to a certain lunar mansion. We estimate the forming era of the new Pochonka from the following facts; that the Ling-Tai-I-Hsiang-Chih was used to make charts and footnotes whose archetype can be found in the Chinese literature around A.D. 1700, that these Chinese books were imported into Choson in A.D. 1709, that the naming taboo to the emperor Khang-Hsi was used, that the order of Shen-Hsiu (參宿) was transposed with Tshui-Hsiu (자宿), and that the new Pochonka was substituted for the old version when the rules of Royal Astronomical Bureau was reformed in A.D. 1791. In conclusion, the parent sources of the charts and footnotes of the new Pochonka might be imported from the Ching dynasty around 1709 A.D. to form the new Pochonka between A.D. 1709 and A.D. 1791, and finally to be published in A.D. 1792. We discuss the possible future works to make a firm conclusion.

  12. Inuloxins A-D and derivatives as antileishmanial agents: structure-activity relationship study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inuloxins A-D (1-4) and a-costic acid (5), the phytotoxic compounds previously isolated from Inula viscosa, as well as synthetic derivatives of inuloxin A (compounds 6-10), inuloxin C (compound 11) and inuloxin D (compound 12) were tested in vitro for their activity against Leishmania donovani, the ...

  13. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study. PMID:3169095

  14. Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease: A Unique Resource to Study CSF Biomarker Changes in Preclinical AD

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Suzanne Elizabeth; Fagan, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been greatly influenced by investigation of rare families with autosomal dominant mutations that cause early onset AD. Mutations in the genes coding for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN-1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN-2) cause over-production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) leading to early deposition of Aβ in the brain, which in turn is hypothesized to initiate a cascade of processes, resulting in neuronal death, cognitive decline, and eventual dementia. Studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individuals with the common form of AD, late-onset AD (LOAD), have revealed that low CSF Aβ42 and high CSF tau are associated with AD brain pathology. Herein, we review the literature on CSF biomarkers in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD), which has contributed to a detailed road map of AD pathogenesis, especially during the preclinical period, prior to the appearance of any cognitive symptoms. Current drug trials are also taking advantage of the unique characteristics of ADAD and utilizing CSF biomarkers to accelerate development of effective therapies for AD. PMID:26175713

  15. Does school ethos explain the relationship between value-added education and teenage substance use? A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies found lower substance use in schools achieving better examination and truancy results than expected, given their pupil populations (high value-added schools). This study examines whether these findings are replicated in West Scotland and whether school ethos indicators focussing on pupils' perceptions of schooling (environment, involvement, engagement and teacher-pupil relations) mediate the associations. Teenagers from forty-one schools (S2, aged 13, n = 2268; S4, aged 15, n = 2096) previously surveyed in primary school (aged 11, n = 2482) were surveyed in the late 1990s. School value-added scores were derived from standardised residuals of two regression equations separately predicting from pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (1) proportions of pupils passing five Scottish Standard Grade Examinations, and (2) half-day truancy loss. Outcomes were current smoking, monthly drinking, ever illicit drug use. Random effects logistic regression models adjusted for potential pupil-level confounders were used to assess (1) associations between substance use and school-level value-added scores and (2) whether these associations were mediated by pupils' perceptions of schooling or other school-level factors (school roll, religious denomination and mean aggregated school-level ethos scores). Against expectations, value-added education was positively associated with smoking (Odds Ratios [95% confidence intervals] for one standard deviation increase in value-added scores were 1.28 [1.02-1.61] in S2 and 1.13 [1.00-1.27] in S4) and positively but weakly and non-significantly associated with drinking and drug use. Engagement and positive teacher-pupil relations were strongly and negatively associated with all substance use outcomes at both ages. Other school-level factors appeared weakly and largely non-significantly related to substance use. Value-added scores were unrelated to school ethos measures and no ethos measure mediated associations between value-added

  16. An fMRI Study of Neuronal Activation in Schizophrenia Patients with and without Previous Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Jørgensen, Hugo A.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI). Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention, and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients. PMID:23115554

  17. Exposure to movie smoking, antismoking ads and smoking intensity: an experimental study with a factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Zeena; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vohs, Kathleen; van Baaren, Rick B; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines whether smoking portrayal in movies or antismoking advertisements affect smoking intensity among young adults. Methods We conducted an experimental study in which 84 smokers were randomly assigned using a two (no-smoking versus smoking portrayal in the movie) by three (two prosocial ads, two antismoking ads or one of each) factorial design. Participants viewed a 60-minute movie with two commercial breaks and afterwards completed a questionnaire. Smoking during the session was allowed and observed. Results Exposure to the movie with smoking had no effect on smoking intensity. Those who viewed two antismoking ads had significantly lower smoking intensity compared with those who viewed two prosocial ads. There was no interaction between movie smoking and antismoking ads. Baseline CO (carbon monoxide) level had the largest effect on smoking intensity. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence to support antismoking ads placed with movies because of their possible effect on young adult smoking behaviour. However, caution is warranted, because nicotine dependence appears to be the primary predictor of smoking intensity among young adult smokers in this study. PMID:20008155

  18. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Tillashaykhov, Mirzagolib; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Gudmund Hinderaker, Sven; Parpieva, Nargiza; Ulmasova, Dilrabo; Jalolov, Avazbek; Hamraev, Atadjan; Ali, Engy; van den Boom, Martin; Hammerich, Asmus; Gozalov, Ogtay; Dara, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures) and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Method A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%), adolescents (4%) and elderly patients (19%). Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB) was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure. Conclusion Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and

  19. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety. PMID

  20. Cardiac function associated with previous, current and repeated depression and anxiety symptoms in a healthy population: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Gustad, L T; Bjerkeset, O; Strand, L B; Janszky, I; Dalen, H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Symptoms of anxiety and depression often co-exist with cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about the association with left ventricular (LV) subclinical dysfunction. We aimed to study the cross-sectional associations of previous, current and repeated depression or anxiety symptoms, with sensitive indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, based on tissue Doppler (TD) and speckle tracking (ST) imaging methods. Methods A random selection of 1296 individuals free from known CVD, hypertension and diabetes were examined with echocardiography at baseline of the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, (HUNT3, 2006–2008). The primary outcomes were LV diastolic function (e′) and LV systolic function (longitudinal global strain). The primary exposures were self-report on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between outcomes and baseline exposures were available for 1034 (80%), and with previous and repeated exposures for 700 participants who also participated in HUNT2 (1995–1997). Results Previous and repeated depression symptoms, but not current depression, were linearly associated with a reduction in e′. The average sum of two repeated HADS-D scores 10 years apart had the strongest effect on e′ (−8.3%; 95% CI −13.9% to −2.7%) per 5 units. We observed a sex difference between depression symptoms and longitudinal global strain (p for interaction 0.019), where women had a marginal negative effect. Anxiety symptoms, neither previous, current nor repeated were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Conclusions In a healthy sample, confirmed free of CVD, past and repeated depression symptoms were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Thus, depression symptoms might represent a modifiable risk factor for future CVD. PMID:26925243

  1. A Value-Added Study of Teacher Spillover Effects across Four Core Subjects in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the existence, magnitude, and impact of teacher spillover effects (TSEs) across teachers of four subject areas (i.e., mathematics, English language arts [ELA], science, and social studies) on student achievement in each of the four subjects at the middle school level. The author conducted a series of value-added (VA) analyses,…

  2. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  3. Combination therapy with nifedipine GITS 60 mg: subanalysis of a prospective, 12-week observational study (AdADOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Motaweih, Ahmed K.; Usova, Elena; Hussain, Wajid; Dello, Ziad; Petri, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: AdADOSE was a 12-week, international, observational study conducted in the Middle East and Russia where patients received nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) at a daily dose of 30, 60, or 90 mg as part of an antihypertensive combination therapy. This subgroup analysis of the AdADOSE study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of nifedipine GITS combination therapy when used specifically at the 60-mg strength. Methods: Patients with hypertension who received a daily nifedipine GITS dose of 60 mg, either at constant dose (n = 686) or up-titrated from 30 mg (n = 392), were analyzed. Target blood pressure (BP) was <140/90 mmHg (or <130/80 mmHg for those at high/very high cardiovascular risk). Results: Following nifedipine GITS combination therapy, target BP was achieved by 33.7% patients in the 60 mg group (previously untreated, 42.5%; previously treated, 32.0%) and 32.4% patients in the 30–60 mg group (previously untreated, 45.2%; previously treated, 30.7%). Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP changes were −40.3/−20.7 mmHg and −35.6/−18.5 mmHg, respectively, and were similar regardless of previous antihypertensive treatment or the number of concomitant diseases. Incidences of drug-related adverse events (AEs) were low (3.2%, 60 mg; 2.0%, 30–60 mg group), few patients discontinued because of AEs (0.6% and 1.0%, respectively), and there were no serious AEs. Conclusion: Combination therapy with nifedipine GITS 60 mg in a real-life observational setting was effective and well tolerated in hypertensive patients, with low rates of treatment-related AEs. PMID:26331311

  4. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  5. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  6. Study of amyloid-β peptide functional brain networks in AD, MCI and HC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehui; Duan, Huoqiang; Huang, Zheming; Yu, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    One medical challenge in studying the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide mechanism for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is exploring the law of beta toxic oligomers' diffusion in human brains in vivo. One beneficial means of solving this problem is brain network analysis based on graph theory. In this study, the characteristics of Aβ functional brain networks of Healthy Control (HC), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and AD groups were compared by applying graph theoretical analyses to Carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (11C PiB-PET) data. 120 groups of PiB-PET images from the ADNI database were analyzed. The results showed that the small-world property of MCI and AD were lost as compared to HC. Furthermore, the local clustering of networks was higher in both MCI and AD as compared to HC, whereas the path length was similar among the three groups. The results also showed that there could be four potential Aβ toxic oligomer seeds: Frontal_Sup_Medial_L, Parietal_Inf_L, Frontal_Med_Orb_R, and Parietal_Inf_R. These four seeds are corresponding to Regions of Interests referred by physicians to clinically diagnose AD. PMID:26405999

  7. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses III. Base Composition, Molecular Weight, and Conformation of the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Kakefuda, Tuyoski; Rowe, Wallace P.; Levin, Myron J.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    The nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, differs from the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, in that this hybrid virus can replicate without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from this virus, which can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA, is well suited for biophysical studies on Ad-SV40 hybrid DNA. Such studies have been performed and demonstrate Ad2+ND1 DNA to have a buoyant density (1.715 g/cm3) and thermal denaturation profile (Tm = 75.1 C) almost identical with nonhybrid Ad2 DNA. Furthermore, its molecular weight, as determined by analytical zone sedimentation and electron microscopy, was 22 × 106 to 25 × 106 daltons, which is also very similar to that determined for Ad2. Electron micrographs showed all of the hybrid molecules to be double-stranded and linear. By using this determination of the molecular weight of Ad2+ND1 DNA and assuming that 1% of this molecule consists of covalently linked SV40 DNA (see companion paper), we calculate that the hybrid DNA molecule contains 220 × 103 to 250 × 103 daltons of SV40 DNA, or the equivalent of one-tenth of the SV40 genome. PMID:4323710

  8. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study.

    PubMed

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  9. Value Added: A Case Study in the Mismatch between Education Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on value added research indicates that, by using data from student perceptions, classroom observations, and test score growth, one can obtain credible evidence of the relative effectiveness of a set of teachers who teach similar children under similar conditions. Recent careful research on school effects indicates that committed…

  10. Study of Cd-chalcogenide/ferri-ferrocyanide photoelectrochemical cells: effect of surface morphology and added salt

    SciTech Connect

    Tenne, R.

    1983-11-01

    The authors carried out an investigation of the Cd-chalcogenide/ferri-ferrocyanide photoelectrochemical cells. In particular, the effect of surface morphology and the effect of added salts upon the characteristics of these cells were investigated. Successive etching with Br/sub 2/ (3%)/methanol, aqua regia, and finally photoetching increases the surface roughness of CdSe (CdS, CdTe) which has a marked effect on the cell characteristics in the ferri-ferrocyanide electrolyte (and polysulfide electrolyte as well). In contrast with polysulfide electrolyte, added salts decrease the output stability of the cell and the onset potential for the photocurrent, which can be explained by the removal of the physiosorbed ferrocyanide ions from the electrode surface by the ions of the salt. On increasing the surface roughness of the electrode, while keeping the salt concentration unchanged, the output stability and the onset potential were increased. A kinetic model is used to explain these phenomena. Thus, added salts can be used to probe the strength of the adsorption of the active electrolyte on the surface of the photoelectrode. Finally, we report on the surface morphology of CdSe and CdTe after irradiation in ferri-ferrocyanide solution and compare our findings to surface morphologies which were observed previously with the help of photoelectrochemical etching (photoetching). It is found that small rectangular crystallites, probably of cadmium ferrocyanide, deposit on the crystal surface during the photocorrosion process in addition to elemental Se(Te).

  11. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  12. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000-2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 10(4) person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  13. Preclinical safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and biodistribution studies with Ad35K++ protein: a novel rituximab cotherapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Saydaminova, Kamola; Wang, Hongjie; Gough, Michael; Baldessari, Audrey; Cattaneo, Roberto; Lee, Frank; Wang, Chung-Huei Katherine; Jang, Haishan; Astier, Anne; Gopal, Ajay; Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted toward CD20. It is efficient as first-line therapy of CD20-positive B-cell malignancies. However, a large fraction of treated patients relapse with rituximab-resistant disease. So far, only modest progress has been made in treatment options for rituximab refractory patients. One of the mechanisms for rituximab resistance involves the upregulation of CD46, which is a key cell surface protein that blocks the activation of complement. We have recently developed a technology that depletes CD46 from the cell surface and thereby sensitizes tumor cells to complement-dependent cytotoxicity. This technology is based on a small recombinant protein, Ad35K++ that binds with high affinity to CD46. In preliminary studies using a 6 × histidinyl tagged protein, we had demonstrated that intravenous Ad35K++ injection in combination with rituximab was safe and increased rituximab-mediated killing of CD20-positive target cells in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). The presence of the tag, while allowing for easy purification by Ni-NTA chromatography, has the potential to increase the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein. For clinical application, we therefore developed an Ad35K++ protein without His-tag. In the present study, we performed preclinical studies in two animal species (mice and NHPs) with this protein demonstrating its safety and efficacy. These studies estimated the Ad35K++ dose range and treatment regimen to be used in patients. Furthermore, we showed that intravenous Ad35K++ injection triggers the shedding of the CD46 extracellular domain in xenograft mouse tumor models and in macaques. Shed serum CD46 can be measured in the serum and can potentially be used as a pharmacodynamic marker for monitoring Ad35K++ activity in patient undergoing treatment with this agent. These studies create the basis for an investigational new drug application for the use of Ad35K++ in combination with rituximab in the

  14. Preclinical safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and biodistribution studies with Ad35K++ protein: a novel rituximab cotherapeutic.

    PubMed

    Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Saydaminova, Kamola; Wang, Hongjie; Gough, Michael; Baldessari, Audrey; Cattaneo, Roberto; Lee, Frank; Wang, Chung-Huei Katherine; Jang, Haishan; Astier, Anne; Gopal, Ajay; Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted toward CD20. It is efficient as first-line therapy of CD20-positive B-cell malignancies. However, a large fraction of treated patients relapse with rituximab-resistant disease. So far, only modest progress has been made in treatment options for rituximab refractory patients. One of the mechanisms for rituximab resistance involves the upregulation of CD46, which is a key cell surface protein that blocks the activation of complement. We have recently developed a technology that depletes CD46 from the cell surface and thereby sensitizes tumor cells to complement-dependent cytotoxicity. This technology is based on a small recombinant protein, Ad35K++ that binds with high affinity to CD46. In preliminary studies using a 6 × histidinyl tagged protein, we had demonstrated that intravenous Ad35K++ injection in combination with rituximab was safe and increased rituximab-mediated killing of CD20-positive target cells in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). The presence of the tag, while allowing for easy purification by Ni-NTA chromatography, has the potential to increase the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein. For clinical application, we therefore developed an Ad35K++ protein without His-tag. In the present study, we performed preclinical studies in two animal species (mice and NHPs) with this protein demonstrating its safety and efficacy. These studies estimated the Ad35K++ dose range and treatment regimen to be used in patients. Furthermore, we showed that intravenous Ad35K++ injection triggers the shedding of the CD46 extracellular domain in xenograft mouse tumor models and in macaques. Shed serum CD46 can be measured in the serum and can potentially be used as a pharmacodynamic marker for monitoring Ad35K++ activity in patient undergoing treatment with this agent. These studies create the basis for an investigational new drug application for the use of Ad35K++ in combination with rituximab in the

  15. Brain areas involved in the acupuncture treatment of AD model rats: a PET study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture may effectively treat certain symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several studies have used functional brain imaging to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment on AD, these mechanisms are still poorly understood. We therefore further explored the mechanism by which needling at ST36 may have a therapeutic effect in a rat AD model. Methods A total of 80 healthy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control (n = 15) and pre-model (n = 65) groups. After inducing AD-like disease, a total of 45 AD model rats were randomly divided into three groups: the model group (n = 15), the sham-point group (n = 15), and the ST36 group (n = 15). The above three groups underwent PET scanning. PET images were processed with SPM2. Results The brain areas that were activated in the sham-point group relative to the model group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system, the right frontal lobe, and the striatum, whereas the activated areas in the ST36 group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system (pyriform cortex), the bilateral temporal lobe (olfactory cortex), the right amygdala and the right hippocampus. Compared with the sham-point group, the ST36 group showed greater activation in the bilateral amygdalae and the left temporal lobe. Conclusion We concluded that needling at a sham point or ST36 can increase blood perfusion and glycol metabolism in certain brain areas, and thus may have a positive influence on the cognition of AD patients. PMID:24886495

  16. Observational cohort study focused on treatment continuity of patients administered XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masahito; Ikeda, Fusao; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshioka, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Kyogoku, Takahisa; Kato, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been remarkable progress in systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer due to the widespread use of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. It is important to continue treatment with the optimal combination of these drugs and prolong progression-free survival (PFS) to improve overall survival (OS). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 40 patients treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer to investigate treatment continuity. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria were as follows: 1) histologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer; 2) lesions evaluable by imaging; 3) previously untreated; 4) suitable condition to receive XELOX plus bevacizumab; and 5) written informed consent. Outcomes were treatment continuity, overall response rate, resection rate, liver resection rate, time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS. Forty patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 years. Results Between July 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were enrolled. The median number of treatment cycles was 7.5, and the reasons for discontinuation of treatment were as follows: complete response (five patients), resection (ten patients), progression (15 patients), adverse events (seven patients), and patient refusal (three patients). The overall response rate was 57.5%, resection rate was 25%, and liver resection rate was 15%. After a median follow-up of 31.4 months, the median time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS were 5.3, 13.3, and 38.9 months, respectively. Conclusion Although the median time to treatment failure was 5.3 months, the median PFS and OS were prolonged to 13.3 and 38.9 months, respectively. This may have resulted from the chemotherapy-free interval due to complete response in five patients and resection in ten patients. PMID:27468238

  17. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  18. Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Vincenzo . E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Morganti, Alessio G.; Gambacorta, M. Antonietta; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Doglietto, G. Battista; Coco, Claudio; De Paoli, Antonino; Rossi, Carlo; Di Russo, Annamaria; Valvo, Francesca; Bolzicco, Giampaolo; Dalla Palma, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma has significantly lowered the incidence of local recurrence. However, a new problem is represented by the patient with locally recurrent cancer who has received previous irradiation to the pelvis. In these patients, local recurrence is very often not easily resectable and reirradiation is expected to be associated with a high risk of late toxicity. The aim of this multicenter phase II study is to evaluate the response rate, resectability rate, local control, and treatment-related toxicity of preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically proven pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma, with the absence of extrapelvic disease or bony involvement and previous pelvic irradiation with doses {<=}55 Gy; age {>=}18 years; performance status (PS) (Karnofsky) {>=}60, and who gave institutional review board-approved written informed consent were treated by preoperative chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV2) including the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus a 4-cm margin, with a dose of 30 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily with a minimum 6-h interval). A boost was delivered, with the same fractionation schedule, to a PTV1 including the GTV plus a 2-cm margin (10.8 Gy). During the radiation treatment, concurrent chemotherapy was delivered (5-fluorouracil, protracted intravenous infusion, 225 mg/m{sup 2}/day, 7 days per week). Four to 6 weeks after the end of chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for tumor resectability, and, when feasible, surgical resection of recurrence was performed between 6-8 weeks from the end of chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed to all patients, using Raltitrexed, 3 mg/square meter (sm), every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 cycles. Patients were staged using the computed tomography (CT)-based F

  19. Changes in Gait with Anteriorly Added Mass: A Pregnancy Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Ogamba, Maureen I; Loverro, Kari L; Laudicina, Natalie M; Gill, Simone V; Lewis, Cara L

    2016-08-01

    During pregnancy, the female body experiences structural changes, such as weight gain. As pregnancy advances, most of the additional mass is concentrated anteriorly on the lower trunk. The purpose of this study is to analyze kinematic and kinetic changes when load is added anteriorly to the trunk, simulating a physical change experienced during pregnancy. Twenty healthy females walked on a treadmill while wearing a custom made pseudo-pregnancy sac (1 kg) under 3 load conditions: sac-only condition, 10-lb condition (4.535 kg added anteriorly), and 20-lb condition (9.07 kg added anteriorly), used to simulate pregnancy in the second trimester and at full-term pregnancy, respectively. The increase in anterior mass resulted in kinematic changes at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes. In addition, ankle, knee, and hip joint moments normalized to baseline mass increased with increased load; however, these moments decreased when normalized to total mass. These kinematic and kinetic changes may suggest that women modify gait biomechanics to reduce the effect of added load. Furthermore, the increase in joint moments increases stress on the musculoskeletal system and may contribute to musculoskeletal pain. PMID:26958743

  20. Balance, executive functions and falls in elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD): a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Renata Valle; Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Sebastião; Stella, Florindo

    2012-01-01

    Elderly individuals with AD are more susceptible to falls, which might be associated with decrements in their executive functions and balance, among other things. We aimed to analyze the effects of a program of dual task physical activity on falls, executive functions and balance of elderly individuals with AD. We studied 21 elderly with probable AD, allocated to two groups: the training group (TG), with 10 elderly who participated in a program of dual task physical activity; and the control group (CG), with 11 elderly who were not engaged in regular practice of physical activity. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) were used in the assessment of the executive functions, while the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG)-test evaluated balance. The number of falls was obtained by means of a questionnaire. We observed a better performance of the TG as regards balance and executive functions. Moreover, the lower the number of steps in the TUG scale, the higher the scores in the CDT, and in the FAB. The practice of regular physical activity with dual task seems to have contributed to the maintenance and improvement of the motor and cognitive functions of the elderly with AD. PMID:21774999

  1. Study of micro piezoelectric vibration generator with added mass and capacitance suitable for broadband vibration

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qing Mao, Xinhua Chu, Dongliang

    2015-07-15

    This study proposes an optimized frequency adjustment method that uses a micro-cantilever beam-based piezoelectric vibration generator based on a combination of added mass and capacitance. The most important concept of the proposed method is that the frequency adjustment process is divided into two steps: the first is a rough adjustment step that changes the size of the mass added at the end of cantilever to adjust the frequency in a large-scale and discontinuous manner; the second step is a continuous but short-range frequency adjustment via the adjustable added capacitance. Experimental results show that when the initial natural frequency of a micro piezoelectric vibration generator is 69.8 Hz, then this natural frequency can be adjusted to any value in the range from 54.2 Hz to 42.1 Hz using the combination of the added mass and the capacitance. This method simply and effectively matches a piezoelectric vibration generator’s natural frequency to the vibration source frequency.

  2. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C.; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  3. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  4. Blood pressure and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease: national population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Björck, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the risk associated with systolic blood pressure that meets current recommendations (that is, below 140 mm Hg) with the risk associated with lower levels in patients who have type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease. Design Population based cohort study with nationwide clinical registries, 2006-12. The mean follow-up was 5.0 years. Setting 861 Swedish primary care units and hospital outpatient clinics. Participants 187 106 patients registered in the Swedish national diabetes register who had had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, age 75 or younger, and with no previous cardiovascular or other major disease. Main outcome measures Clinical events were obtained from the hospital discharge and death registers with respect to acute myocardial infarction, stroke, a composite of acute myocardial infarction and stroke (cardiovascular disease), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and total mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated for different levels of baseline systolic blood pressure with clinical characteristics and drug prescription data as covariates. Results The group with the lowest systolic blood pressure (110-119 mm Hg) had a significantly lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.003), total acute myocardial infarction (0.85, 0.72 to 0.99; P=0.04), non-fatal cardiovascular disease (0.82, 0.72 to 0.93; P=0.002), total cardiovascular disease (0.88, 0.79 to 0.99; P=0.04), and non-fatal coronary heart disease (0.88, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.03) compared with the reference group (130-139 mm Hg). There was no indication of a J shaped relation between systolic blood pressure and the endpoints, with the exception of heart failure and total mortality. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure than currently recommended is associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The association between low

  5. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  6. The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Boss, E.; Chai, F.

    2007-05-01

    Many ecosystem models have been developed to study the ocean's biogeochemistry, but most of these models use simple formulations to describe light penetration and spectral quality. Given that processes such as photosynthesis and photo-oxidation are uniquely important for biogeochemical processes in the upper ocean, it is necessary to model light distribution accurately. In addition, the global scale observations of proxies of biogeochemical variables are based on the color of the ocean. The ability to simulate the color of the ocean provides the possibility of comparing model simulation with these observations. Here, an optical model is coupled with a previously published ecosystem model that explicitly represents two phytoplankton (picoplankton and diatoms) and two zooplankton functional groups, as well as multiple nutrients and detritus. Surface ocean color field and subsurface light field are calculated by coupling the ecosystem model with an optical model that relates biogeochemical standing stocks with inherent optical properties (absorption, scattering); this provides input to a commercially available radiative transfer model (Ecolight). We apply this bio-optical model to the equatorial Pacific upwelling region, and find the model to be capable of reproducing many measured optical properties and key biogeochemical processes in this region. Results include large contributions by non-algal particles to the total scattering or attenuation (>50% at 660 nm) and their small contribution to particulate absorption (<20% at 440 nm), and a remarkable contribution by picoplankton to total phytoplankton absorption (>95% at 440 nm). These results are consistent with the field observations. In order to achieve such good agreement between data and model results, however, key model parameters, for which no field data is available, have to be constrained. Sensitivity analysis of the model results to optical parameters reveals the significant role of colored dissolved organic

  7. Results of a randomized study of previously-untreated intermediate and high grade lymphoma using CHOP versus CNOP.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, S; Santarelli, M T; Erazo, A; Diaz Maqueo, J C; Somoza, N; Lluesma Goñalons, M; Cervantes, G; Garcia Vela, E L; Corrado, C; Magnasco, H

    1992-03-01

    A randomized multicenter phase III study was conducted to compare the efficacy and toxicity of CHOP and CNOP in intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CHOP consisted of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 and prednisone 50 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5. The CNOP regimen was identical to CHOP except for replacement of doxorubicin by 10 mg/m2 mitoxantrone. Patient characteristics were evenly distributed in the two arms, except for age and stage, which slightly favoured the CHOP arm. The rate of complete remission was 70% (31/44) in patients treated with CHOP and 51% (23/45) in those receiving CNOP (P = 0.09). At 48 months and with a median follow-up of 41 months, 44% of the complete responders treated with CHOP and 64% of those treated with CNOP were estimated to still be in their first complete remission (P = 0.14), while 31% and 34% remained alive and free of progression. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 48 months is 53% and 50%, respectively. The higher response rate obtained with CHOP probably reflected a less aggressive lymphoma population. The mean WBC nadir was 2.0 x 10(9)/l for CHOP and 1.8 x 10(9)/l for CNOP. One and three patients, respectively, died during induction. Nausea, vomiting and cardiac toxicity were similar. More alopecia and mucositis were observed with CHOP. We conclude that CHOP and CNOP have similar toxicities and are equivalent in previously untreated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in terms of complete response rate, event-free survival and overall survival. PMID:1586618

  8. Slowing progression of early stages of AD with alternative therapies: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Der-Fa; Hart, Laura K; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Oh, Hyunkyoung; Schilling, Margo

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study identified the feasibility and efficacy of the effect of combining healing touch (HT) and body talk cortices (BTC) on the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both HT and BTC elicit the relaxation response and support cognitive function from two different perspectives. A two-group, repeated measures design was used. Subjects (n = 22), 65 or older with early stage (less than four) AD, residing in the community (n = 2) or in care agencies (n = 20), were assigned to either the HT-BTC group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 10) randomized by residence. The treatment group received, 6 months of weekly HT and performed the BTC technique daily. The usual medical regimen for all subjects was continued. The control group had no additional interventions. Both groups were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The groups did not differ significantly at baseline on cognitive reserve, age, gender, and ethnicity, nor on the outcome variables (cognitive function, mood, & depression). Adherence (76%) to the BTC protocol, the major feasibility problem, related to memory deficits. Significant interactions occurred regarding cognitive function and mood. Significant improvements in cognitive function (p = .008), mood (p = .001), and depression (p = .028) were observed in the treatment group which is not the usual course of AD. A decline in cognitive function occurred in the control group typical of AD's usual course. Although the number of subjects in this pilot study was small, and there were feasibility challenges with recruitment and adherence, important trends were noted suggesting areas for future study. PMID:23972540

  9. Feasibility study for the assessment of the exposed dose with TENORM added in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Hyeon; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Wook-Geun; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Seok-Won; Lee, Jiyon; Choi, Won-Chul; Min, Chul Hee

    2015-11-01

    Consumer products including naturally occurring radioactive material have been distributed widely in human life. The potential hazard of the excessively added technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in consumer products should be assessed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the organ equivalent dose and the annual effective dose with the usage of the TENORM added in paints. The activities of gammas emitted from natural radionuclides in the five types of paints were measured with the high-purity germanium detector, and the annual effective dose was assessed with the computational human phantom and the Monte Carlo method. The results show that uranium and thorium series were mainly measured over the five paints. Based on the exposure scenario of the paints in the room, the highest effective dose was evaluated as <1 mSv y(-1) of the public dose limit. PMID:25956783

  10. Genetic Studies of Quantitative MCI and AD Phenotypes in ADNI: Progress, Opportunities, and Plans

    PubMed Central

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Yao, Xiaohui; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Risacher, Shannon L.; Ramanan, Vijay K.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Faber, Kelly M.; Sarwar, Nadeem; Munsie, Leanne M.; Hu, Xiaolan; Soares, Holly D.; Potkin, Steven G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Kauwe, John S.K.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Green, Robert C.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Genetic data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has been crucial in advancing the understanding of AD pathophysiology. Here we provide an update on sample collection, scientific progress and opportunities, conceptual issues, and future plans. METHODS Lymphoblastoid cell lines and DNA and RNA samples from blood have been collected and banked, and data and biosamples have been widely disseminated. To date, APOE genotyping, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES, WGS) data have been obtained and disseminated. RESULTS ADNI genetic data have been downloaded thousands of times and over 300 publications have resulted, including reports of large scale GWAS by consortia to which ADNI contributed. Many of the first applications of quantitative endophenotype association studies employed ADNI data, including some of the earliest GWAS and pathway-based studies of biospecimen and imaging biomarkers, as well as memory and other clinical/cognitive variables. Other contributions include some of the first WES and WGS data sets and reports in healthy controls, MCI, and AD. DISCUSSION Numerous genetic susceptibility and protective markers for AD and disease biomarkers have been identified and replicated using ADNI data, and have heavily implicated immune, mitochondrial, cell cycle/fate, and other biological processes. Early sequencing studies suggest that rare and structural variants are likely to account for significant additional phenotypic variation. Longitudinal analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and epigenomic changes will also further elucidate dynamic processes underlying preclinical and prodromal stages of disease. Integration of this unique collection of multi-omics data within a systems biology framework will help to separate truly informative markers of early disease mechanisms and potential novel therapeutic targets from the vast background of less relevant biological

  11. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  12. Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology study of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, a novel dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Yanxin; Guo, Huanhuan; Hu, Ningning; He, Dongyun; Zhang, Shi; Chu, Yunjie; Huang, Yubin; Li, Xiao; Sun, LiLi; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-10-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that conditionally replicating adenovirus is safe. We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, using a cancer-specific promoter (human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, hTERTp) and a cancer cell-selective apoptosis-inducing gene (Apoptin). Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo in our previous study. In this study, the preclinical safety profiles of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in animal models were investigated. At doses of 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} viral particles (VP)/kg, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin had no adverse effects on mouse behavior, muscle cooperation, sedative effect, digestive system, and nervous systems, or on beagle cardiovascular and respiratory systems at 5.0 × 10{sup 8}, 2.5 × 10{sup 9}, and 1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg doses. In acute toxicity tests in mice, the maximum tolerated dose > 5 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg. There was no inflammation or ulceration at the injection sites within two weeks. In repeat-dose toxicological studies, the no observable adverse effect levels of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in rats (1.25 × 10{sup 10} VP/kg) and beagles (2.5 × 10{sup 9} VP/kg) were 62.5- and 12.5-fold of the proposed clinical dose, respectively. The anti-virus antibody was produced in animal sera. Bone marrow examination revealed no histopathological changes. Guinea pigs sensitized by three repeated intraperitoneal injections of 1.35 × 10{sup 10} VP/mL Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin each and challenged by one intravenous injection of 1.67 × 10{sup 8} VP/kg Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin did not exhibit any sign of systemic anaphylaxis. Our data from different animal models suggest that Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. - Highlights: • We use the rodents and non-rodents animal models to evaluation Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin. • Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. • Demonstrate the safety and feasibility dose of injected Ad

  13. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Daniel; Wesseling, Geertjan; Huibers, Marcus JH; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group), health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1), and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2). Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A significant and relevant

  14. Study of the star catalogue (epoch AD 1396.0) recorded in ancient Korean astronomical almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Junhyeok; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Yong-Sam

    2015-11-01

    The study of old star catalogues provides important astrometric data. Most of the researches based on the old star catalogues were manuscript published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam. However, the old star catalogues published in East Asia did not get attention. Therefore, among the East Asian star catalogues we focus on a particular catalogue recorded in a Korean almanac. Its catalogue contains 277 stars that are positioned in a region within 10° of the ecliptic plane. The stars in the catalogue were identified using the modern Hipparcos catalogue. We identified 274 among 277 stars, which is a rate of 98.9 per cent. The catalogue records the epoch of the stars' positions as AD 1396.0. However, by using all of the identified stars we found that the initial epoch of the catalogue is AD 1363.1 ± 3.2. In conclusion, the star catalogue was compiled and edited from various older star catalogues. We assume a correlation with the Almagest by Ptolemaios. This study presents newly analysed results from the historically important astronomical data discovered in East Asia. Therefore, this star catalogue will become important data for comparison with the star catalogues published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam.

  15. Study on anisotropic silicon etching characteristics in various surfactant-added tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chii-Rong; Yang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Po-Ying

    2005-11-01

    Three ion-typed surfactants, including anionic sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (SDSS), cationic ammonium salt of poly(ethylene glycol) (ASPEG) and non-ionic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), were added to 10 wt% tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide water (TMAHW) solutions to evaluate the silicon anisotropic etching properties of the (1 0 0) silicon plane without agitation and no isopropyl alcohol (IPA) additive. The results indicate that the wetting capacity of the etchants cause the efficacies of the etchants on the roughness reduction to follow the order cationic ASPEG, non-ionic PEG, pure solution and anionic SDSS in TMAHW solutions, especially at high etching temperatures. Moreover, the chemical activities of the etchants cause the efficacies of the etchants on the etching rates to follow the order anionic SDSS, pure solution, cationic ASPEG and non-ionic PEG in TMAHW solutions at a given etching temperature. The cationic ASPEG has a reasonable etching rate of 0.7 µm min-1 and the lowest surface roughness of 4 nm in TMAHW solutions at an etching temperature of 100 °C. ASPEG and PEG in TMAHW solutions markedly affect aluminum passivation. The undercutting of the convex corners in PEG-added TMAHW solutions can be drastically reduced without using corner compensation; the undercutting ratio obtained using a PEG surfactant is about 45% lower than that obtained in pure TMAHW solution. This finding reveals that non-ionic PEG should be added to TMAHW solutions when accurate profiles are required without extremely deep etching. This study also demonstrated that non-ionic PEG is more appropriate than IPA for anisotropic silicon TMAHW etching.

  16. An overview of the LASER-AD study: a longitudinal epidemiological study of people with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hoe, Juanita; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2013-12-01

    Research into the epidemiological, clinical characteristics and economic impact of dementia is critical to increase understanding and better inform care and policy, and empower people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their families to make preparations and timely decisions about accommodation, care and treatment. The LASER-AD longitudinal study of people with AD and their carers has contributed to our understanding of the progression, characteristics and costs of the disease, and to developing tools that help detect dementia earlier, and screen and identify problems experienced by carers. Our work on quality of life shows that even those with severe dementia can report this meaningfully, although family proxy ratings of quality of life do not necessarily mirror the views of the individual. Despite the impact of the disease process, people with AD experience well-being in adversity and still live fulfilling lives. The study highlights the high prevalence and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms, carer anxiety, depression and abusive behaviour. It informs future directions for possible interventions, in particular the central role of carer coping strategies in predicting carer mental illness. Current research is building on our findings, which have also been used to inform national and international plans for managing people with dementia and their carers. PMID:24423220

  17. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  18. Mortality during the 2013 heatwave in England - How did it compare to previous heatwaves? A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Green, Helen K; Andrews, Nick; Armstrong, Ben; Bickler, Graham; Pebody, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity as a result of climate change. The health impacts of these events can be significant, particularly for vulnerable populations when mortality can occur. England experienced a prolonged heatwave in summer 2013. Daily age-group and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer 2013 and previous heatwave periods back to 2003 was determined using the same linear regression model and heatwave definition to estimate impact and place observations from 2013 in context. Predicted excess mortality due to heat during this period was also independently estimated. Despite a sustained heatwave in England in 2013, the impact on mortality was considerably less than expected; a small cumulative excess of 195 deaths (95% confidence interval -87 to 477) in 65+ year olds and 106 deaths (95% CI -22 to 234) in <65 year olds was seen, nearly a fifth of excess deaths predicted based on observed temperatures. This impact was also less than seen in 2006 (2323 deaths) and 2003 (2234 deaths), despite a similarly prolonged period of high temperatures. The reasons for this are unclear and further work needs to be done to understand this and further clarify the predicted impact of increases in temperature. PMID:26938849

  19. Looking for added value in Australian downscaling for climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Downscaling gives the prospect of added value in the regional pattern and temporal nature of rainfall change with a warmer climate. However, such value is not guaranteed and the use of downscaling can raise rather than diminish uncertainties. Validation of downscaling methods tends to focus on the ability to simulate current climate statistics, rather than the robustness of simulated future climate change. Here we compare the future climate change signal in average rainfall from various dynamical and statistical downscaling outputs used for all of Australia and in regional climate change studies over smaller domains. We show that downscaling can generate different regional patterns of projected change compared to the global climate models used as input, indicating the potential for added value in projections. These differences often make physical sense in regions of complex topography such as in southeast Australia, the eastern seaboard and Tasmania. However, results from different methods are not always consistent. In addition, downscaling can produce projected changes that are not clearly related to finer resolution and are difficult to interpret. In some cases, each downscaling method gives a different range of results and different messages about projected rainfall change for a region. This shows that downscaling has the potential to add value to projections, but also brings the potential for uncertain or contradictory messages. We conclude that each method has strengths and weaknesses, and these should be clearly communicated.

  20. Phase I Study of Axitinib in Combination with Cisplatin and Capecitabine in Patients with Previously Untreated Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Do-Youn; Doi, Toshihiko; Shirao, Kuniaki; Lee, Keun-Wook; Park, Sook Ryun; Chen, Ying; Yang, Liqiang; Valota, Olga; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This phase I trial evaluated the question of whether the standard starting dose of axitinib could be administered in combination with therapeutic doses of cisplatin/capecitabine in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer, and assessed overall safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of this combination. Materials and Methods Patients in dose level (DL) 1 received axitinib 5 mg twice a day (days 1 to 21) with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (day 1) and capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 twice a day (days 1 to 14) in 21-day cycles. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was the highest dose at which ≤ 30% of the first 12 patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle 1. Ten additional patients were enrolled and treated at the MTD in order to obtain additional safety and pharmacokinetic data. Results Three DLTs occurred during cycle 1 in three (25%) of the first 12 patients: ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute renal failure, and > 5 consecutive days of missed axitinib due to thrombocytopenia. DL1 was established as the MTD, since higher DL cohorts were not planned. Common grade 3/4 non-hematologic adverse events in 22 patients treated at DL1 included hypertension (36.4%) and decreased appetite and stomatitis (18.2% each). Cisplatin/capecitabine slightly increased axitinib exposure; axitinib decreased capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil exposure. Eight patients (36.4%) each had partial response or stable disease. Median response duration was 9.1 months; median progression-free survival was 3.8 months. Conclusion In patients with advanced gastric cancer, standard doses of axitinib plus therapeutic doses of cisplatin and capecitabine could be administered in combination. Adverse events were manageable. PMID:25687867

  1. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  2. The 365 AD tsunami imprint on the coasts of southwestern Crete - Sougia and Palaiochora case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Vera; Baika, Kalliopi; Tzigounaki, Anastasia; Tsigkou, Aggeliki; Fischer, Peter; Reicherter, Klaus; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Vött, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The southwestern coast of Crete, one of the most seismically active regions in Europe, is supposed to have been uplifted by up to 9 m during the mega-earthquake that struck the eastern Mediterranean world on July 21, 365 AD. An associated tsunami event is known to have caused thousands of fatalities and destroyed many coastal settlements and infrastructure between the Levante in the east and the Adriatic Sea in the northwest. Since this event, the entire southwestern coast of Crete has experienced strong erosion so that near-coast geological archives showing relevant Holocene sedimentary records are rare. So far, distinct palaeotsunami fingerprints from coastal archives in this region were unknown. A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and microfaunal methods was conducted at Sougia, within an ancient harbour basin, and around the promontory of Palaiochora. Detailed multi-electrode geoelectrical studies and several near-coast vibracores helped to detect promising local sedimentary archives. In addition, prominent elevated shorelines, evidenced by notches and algal rims, were measured with DGPS. Sedimentary archives found at Sougia and Palaiochora revealed distinct sedimentological, geochemical and geomorphological traces of high-energy inundation from the marine side. At Sougia, we found a sheet of allochthonous marine sand, partly cemented, intersecting silt-dominated harbour deposits. At Palaiochora, we found high-energy channels eroded in the local bedrock and filled with marine-borne sand and gravel on top of the Palaiochora isthmus, today some 400 m inland. Based on geochemical and microfaunal fingerprints and on sedimentary features, high-energy deposits are interpreted as tsunamites. 14C-AMS- and OSL dating approaches revealed that the tsunami sequences from both Sougia and Palaiochora were deposited during the 365 AD tsunami event. We also present and discuss conceptual tsunami landfall scenarios for both study sites.

  3. STUDIES OF ECHOVIRUS-12 IN VOLUNTEERS: DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE AND THE EFFECT OF PREVIOUS INFECTION ON INFECTIOUS DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-part study of echovirus-12 was done in volunteers. In the first part the human infectious dose of the virus was determined in 149 healthy adults with undetectable serum antibody, each of whom drank 0-330,000 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus in 100 ml of nonchlorinated wa...

  4. A nonhuman primate toxicology and immunogenicity study evaluating aerosol delivery of AERAS-402/Ad35 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hokey, David A; Wachholder, Robert; Darrah, Patricia A; Bolton, Diane L; Barouch, Dan H; Hill, Krystal; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Schwander, Stephan; Godin, C Steven; Douoguih, Macaya; Pau, Maria Grazia; Seder, Robert A; Roederer, Mario; Sadoff, Jerald C; Sizemore, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), provides only limited protection against certain forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. While infection with Mtb can be treated with antibiotics, the therapy is expensive, toxic, and requires several months for treatment. In addition, the emergence of drug resistant strains limits the impact of antibiotics and underlines the importance of developing a more effective vaccine to control this disease. Given that pulmonary TB is the most common form of the disease, a vaccine capable of inducing lung-resident immunity may be advantageous for combating this infection. New advances in pulmonary delivery make this route of vaccination feasible and affordable. Here, we evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an aerosolized Ad35-based vaccine, AERAS-402, delivered to the lungs in nonhuman primates as part of a GLP acute and chronic toxicology and safety study. In this study, animals received three high doses (1 x 1011 vp) of AERAS-402 by inhalation via a nebulizer at 1-week intervals. Aerosol delivery of AERAS-402 resulted in an increase in relative lung weights as well as microscopic findings in the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue, and the naso-oropharynx that were consistent with the induction of an immune response during the acute phase. These findings resolved by the chronic phase and were considered to be non-adverse. Furthermore, we observed transient vaccine-specific immune responses in the peripheral blood as well as sustained high-level polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of vaccinated nonhuman primates. The data suggest that pulmonary delivery of Ad35-based vaccines can be safe and can induce potent lung-resident immunity. PMID:25424923

  5. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. PMID:16094658

  6. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  7. The Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle over the Arctic Basin from Reanalyses. Part I: Comparison with Observations and Previous Studies*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Bromwich, David H.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2000-03-01

    The atmospheric moisture budget is evaluated for the region 70°N to the North Pole using reanalysis datasets of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; ERA: ECMWF Re-Analysis) and the collaborative effort of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). For the forecast fields of the reanalyses, the ERA annually averaged P E (precipitation minus evaporation/sublimation) field reproduces the major features of the basin perimeter as they are known, while the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis forecast fields contain a spurious wave pattern in both P and E. Comparisons between gauge data from Soviet drift camp stations and forecast P values of the reanalyses show reasonable agreement given the difficulties (i.e., gauge accuracy, translating location). When averaged for 70°-90°N, the ERA and NCEP-NCAR forecast P E are similar in the annual cycle. Average reanalysis forecast values of E for the north polar cap are found to be 40% or more too large based on comparisons using surface latent heat flux climatologies.Differences between a synthesized average moisture flux across 70°N from rawinsonde data of the Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive (HARA) and the reanalysis data occur in the presence of rawinsonde network problems. It is concluded that critical deficiencies exist in the rawinsonde depiction of the summertime meridional moisture transport. However, it remains to be seen whether the rawinsonde estimate can be rectified with a different method. For 70°-90°N, annual moisture convergence (P E) values from the ERA and NCEP-NCAR are very similar; for both reanalyses, annual P E values obtained from forecast fields are much lower than those obtained from moisture flux convergence by about 60%, indicating severe nonclosure of the atmospheric moisture budget. The nonclosure primarily results from anomalously large forecast E values. In comparison with other studies, reanalyses moisture

  8. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  9. Old Words, New Meanings: A Study of Trends in Science Librarian Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bychowski, Brenna K. H.; Caffrey, Carolyn M.; Costa, Mia C.; Moore, Angela D.; Sudhakaran, Jessamyn; Zhang, Yuening

    2010-01-01

    Job ads are supposed to provide careful descriptions of the positions being advertised. Based on this premise, an analysis of job ads over time should reveal emerging trends and changes in a profession. The existing literature on science librarianship emphasizes that there are fluctuations in the demand for subject expertise and technology skills…

  10. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  11. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  12. Fundamental study of the austenite formation and decomposition in low-silicon, aluminum added TRIP steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Enrique

    2005-11-01

    TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels are under development for automotive applications that require high strength and excellent formability. Conventional TRIP steels consist of a multiphase microstructure comprised of a ferrite matrix with a dispersion of bainite and metastable retained austenite. The high ductility exhibited by these steels results from the transformation of the metastable retained austenite to martensite during straining. In conventional TRIP steel processing, the multiphase microstructure is obtained by controlled cooling from the alpha + gamma region to an isothermal holding temperature. During this holding, bainite forms and carbon is rejected out into the austenite, which lowers the Ms temperature and stabilizes the austenite to room temperature. In this research project, a fundamental study of a low-Si, Mo-Nb added cold rolled TRIP steel with and without Al additions was conducted. In this study, the recrystallization of cold-rolled ferrite, the formation of austenite during intercritical annealing and the characteristics of the decomposition of the intercritically annealed austenite by controlled cooling rates were systematically assessed. Of special interest were: (i) the effect of the initial hot band microstructure, (ii) the formation of epitaxial ferrite during cooling from the intercritical annealing temperature to the isothermal holding temperature, (iii) the influence of the intercritically annealed austenite on the formation of bainite during the isothermal holding temperature, and (iv) the influence of the processing variables on the type, amount, composition and stability of the retained austenite. During this research study, techniques such as OM, SEM, EBSD, TEM, XRD and Magnetometry were used to fully characterize the microstructures. Furthermore, a Gleeble 3500 unit at US Steel Laboratories was used for dilatometry studies and to simulate different CGL processing routes, from which specimens were obtained to evaluate

  13. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  14. Energetics of H 2O dissociation and CO ads+OH ads reaction on a series of Pt-M mixed metal clusters: a relativistic density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Liao, Meng-Sheng; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2002-07-01

    A relativistic density-functional study of CO adsorption, the energetics of H 2O dehydrogenation, and the CO ads+OH ads reaction has been carried out on a series of Pt-M mixed metal clusters. The metal surface-vacuum interface simulation provides insight into the mechanism of CO ads oxidation on Pt-based bi-functional catalysts. The secondary metals (M) examined are Ru, Sn, Mo, W, Re, Os, Rh, Ir, Cu, Zn, Ge, Pb, and Zr. Cluster models of Pt nM 10- n were used to simulate the catalyst surfaces. The CO ads(Pt) adsorption energies on Pt, Pt-C and C-O bond lengths, force constants, stretching frequencies in mixed Pt-M surfaces are calculated. On the basis of the calculated adsorption energies of H 2O, OH, and H, the reaction energies and activation barriers for H 2O ads(M) dissociation on the M site are estimated. For most of the mixed Pt-M metal surfaces, the presence of M weakens the Pt-C bond and lowers the C-O stretching frequency. The CO ads(Pt) adsorption energy is decreased dramatically by the presence of Mo, W, Os, and Re. These metals also show much higher activity as bi-functional catalysts toward H 2O ads(M) dissociation and formation of OH ads(M) than does pure Pt. However, the oxidative removal of CO ads(Pt) by OH ads(M) is not as favorable on bi-metallic Pt-Mo, Pt-W, Pt-Os, and Pt-Re as on pure Pt, because these alloying metals adsorb OH too strongly. On the basis of the energetics of both H 2O ads(M) dissociation and the CO ads(Pt)+OH ads(M) combination reaction, the best alloying metals for CO oxidation are predicted to be Mo, W, and Os, with Ru following closely.

  15. Impedance study of tea with added taste compounds using conducting polymer and metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Mopsy; Kapur, Pawan; Ganguli, Abhijit; Singla, Madan Lal

    2012-09-01

    In this study the sensing capabilities of a combination of metals and conducting polymer sensing/working electrodes for tea liquor prepared by addition of different compounds using an impedance mode in frequency range 1 Hz-100 KHz at 0.1 V potential has been carried out. Classification of six different tea liquor samples made by dissolving various compounds (black tea liquor + raw milk from milkman), (black tea liquor + sweetened clove syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened ginger syrup), (black tea liquor + sweetened cardamom syrup), (black tea liquor + sweet chocolate syrup) and (black tea liquor + vanilla flavoured milk without sugar) using six different working electrodes in a multi electrode setup has been studied using impedance and further its PCA has been carried out. Working electrodes of Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Glassy Carbon (GC) and conducting polymer electrodes of Polyaniline (PANI) and Polypyrrole (PPY) grown on an ITO surface potentiostatically have been deployed in a three electrode set up. The impedance response of these tea liquor samples using number of working electrodes shows a decrease in the real and imaginary impedance values presented on nyquist plots depending upon the nature of the electrode and amount of dissolved salts present in compounds added to tea liquor/solution. The different sensing surfaces allowed a high cross-selectivity in response to the same analyte. From Principal Component Analysis (PCA) plots it was possible to classify tea liquor in 3-4 classes using conducting polymer electrodes; however tea liquors were well separated from the PCA plots employing the impedance data of both conducting polymer and metal electrodes. PMID:23035436

  16. A peptidomic approach to study the contribution of added casein proteins to the peptide profile in Spanish dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Mora, Leticia; Escudero, Elizabeth; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-11-01

    Peptidomics is a necessary alternative in the analysis of naturally generated peptides in dry-fermented processing. The intense proteolysis occurred during the processing of dry-fermented sausages is due to the action of endopeptidases and exopeptidases from both, endogenous muscle origin and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) added in the starter. Sodium caseinate is frequently used as an additive in this type of products because of its emulsifying properties, and consequently influences the protein profile available during the proteolysis. In this study, a mass spectrometry approach has been used to determine the impact of added sodium caseinate in the final peptide profile as well as to analyse its possible influence in the presence of certain previously described casein-derived bioactive peptides. PMID:26116420

  17. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  19. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  20. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  1. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  2. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  3. The AdS particle [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.

  4. Value-Added and Observational Measures Used in the Teacher Evaluation Process: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerere, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Scores from value-added models (VAMs), as used for educational accountability, represent the educational effect teachers have on their students. The use of these scores in teacher evaluations for high-stakes decision making is new for the State of Florida. Validity evidence that supports or questions the use of these scores is critically needed.…

  5. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Eiji; Ozaka, Masato; Ogura, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR) after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77) years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0) and the response rate (complete response and partial response) was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. Conclusion Reintroducing oxaliplatin can be both safe and effective. This may be a salvage option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who achieved a response or stable disease with prior oxaliplatin-based therapy followed by disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior

  6. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  7. Numerical Study on Anti-Penetration Process of Alumina Ceramic (AD95) to Tungsten Long Rod Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Niansong; Li, Yongchi

    Numerical studies were conducted on the ballistic performance of alumina ceramic (AD95) tiles based on depth of penetration method, when subjected to normal impact of tungsten long rod projectiles at velocities ranging from 1100 to 2000 ms-1. The residual depth on after-effect target was derived in each case, and the ballistic efficiency factor was determined using the corresponding penetration depth on medium carbon steel. Anti-penetration experiment study of the AD95 ceramic tiles to tungsten long rod projectiles has been carried out to verify the accuracy of numerical simulation model. The result shows that numerical simulation results agree well with the corresponding experiment results and AD95 ceramic has excellent ballistic performance than medium carbon steel. The ballistic efficiency factor increases with velocity increasing when impact velocity lower than 1300 ms-1, and when it was higher than 1300 ms-1 the ballistic efficiency factor has almost no difference.

  8. Previous sickness absence and current low perceived social support at work among employees in the general population: a historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Knapstad, Marit; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel; Øverland, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although sickness absence often is a process over time, most studies have treated the phenomenon as a discrete event and focused more on its causes than its consequences. We aimed to examine whether various patterns of previous long-term sickness absence were associated with current low perceived social support at work. Method This is a historical cohort study based on data from a population-based survey among Swedish employees (n=2581). The survey data were linked to official registries yielding data on sickness absence 1–7 years prior to the survey. Results The main finding was that previous sickness absence was associated with current low perceived social support at work. The highest odds for low social support were found among those who had a stable high level of sickness absence. The two indicators of perceived social support employed were somewhat differently associated with previous sickness absence: Recency of absence showed to be of importance for general support at the workplace and the relationship with colleagues and superiors. Experiencing that one's immediate superior rarely or never regards one's view was, on the other hand, mainly related to having had a high level of sickness absence, irrespective of recency. Conclusions Our results indicate that recency and extent of previous sickness absence are related to perceived social support at work. Future research on the relationship between social support and sickness absence should use repeated measurements and acknowledge the possible bidirectional relationship. PMID:25351599

  9. A Pilot Study of Personal Classified Ads Appearing in Capital-City Daily Newspapers: The Kinds, the Guidelines, the Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazier-Smith, Linda

    A pilot study examined trends in the appearance of personal advertisements (individuals seeking dates/mates) in the classified columns of daily newspapers located in state capital cities, as well as newspaper guidelines for the acceptance of personal ads. Daily newspapers in the capital city of each state and some of the larger nationally…

  10. The Impact of Student Composition on Schools' Value-Added Performance: A Comparison of Seven Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Thomas, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, policy makers struggle with the development of value-added indicators of school performance for educational accountability purposes and in particular with the choice whether school context measured in the form of student composition variables should be included. This study investigates differences between 7 empirical studies…

  11. Effectiveness Measures for Cross-Sectional Studies: A Comparison of Value-Added Models and Contextualised Attainment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkeit, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research often appeals to "value-added models (VAM)" to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. "Contextualised attainment models (CAM)" measure the influence…

  12. Preliminary study of sperm chromatin characteristics of the brachyuran crab Maja brachydactyla. Histones and nucleosome-like structures in decapod crustacean sperm nuclei previously described without SNBPs.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, K; Ausió, J; Chiva, M

    2009-10-01

    An interesting characteristic of decapod crustacean sperm nuclei is that they do not contain highly packaged chromatin. In the present study we re-examine the presence of DNA-interacting proteins in sperm nuclei of the brachyuran Maja brachydactyla. Although previous reports have indicated that, unlike the majority of sperm cells, DNA of decapod sperm is not organized by basic proteins, in this work we show that: (1) histones are present in sperm of M. brachydactyla; (2) histones are associated with sperm DNA; (3) histone H3 appears in lower proportions than the other core histones, while histone H2B appears in higher proportions; and (4) histone H3 in sperm nuclei is acetylated. This work complements a previous study of sperm histones of Cancer pagurus and supports the suggestion that decapod crustacean sperm chromatin deserves further attention. PMID:19324386

  13. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  14. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

  15. The ‘added value’ GPs bring to commissioning: a qualitative study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Neil; Coleman, Anna; Wright, Michael; Gadsby, Erica; McDermott, Imelda; Petsoulas, Christina; Checkland, Kath

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2012 Health and Social Care Act in England replaced primary care trusts with clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) as the main purchasing organisations. These new organisations are GP-led, and it was claimed that this increased clinical input would significantly improve commissioning practice. Aim To explore some of the key assumptions underpinning CCGs, and to examine the claim that GPs bring ‘added value’ to commissioning. Design and setting In-depth interviews with clinicians and managers across seven CCGs in England between April and September 2013. Method A total of 40 clinicians and managers were interviewed. Interviews focused on the perceived ‘added value’ that GPs bring to commissioning. Results Claims to GP ‘added value’ centred on their intimate knowledge of their patients. It was argued that this detailed and concrete knowledge improves service design and that a close working relationship between GPs and managers strengthens the ability of managers to negotiate. However, responders also expressed concerns about the large workload that they face and about the difficulty in engaging with the wider body of GPs. Conclusion GPs have been involved in commissioning in many ways since fundholding in the 1990s, and claims such as these are not new. The key question is whether these new organisations better support and enable the effective use of this knowledge. Furthermore, emphasis on experiential knowledge brings with it concerns about representativeness and the extent to which other voices are heard. Finally, the implicit privileging of GPs’ personal knowledge ahead of systematic public health intelligence also requires exploration. PMID:25348997

  16. The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Boss, E.; Chai, F.

    2007-10-01

    Many ecosystem models have been developed to study the ocean's biogeochemical properties, but most of these models use simple formulations to describe light penetration and spectral quality. Here, an optical model is coupled with a previously published ecosystem model that explicitly represents two phytoplankton (picoplankton and diatoms) and two zooplankton functional groups, as well as multiple nutrients and detritus. Surface ocean color fields and subsurface light fields are calculated by coupling the ecosystem model with an optical model that relates biogeochemical standing stocks with inherent optical properties (absorption, scattering); this provides input to a commercially available radiative transfer model (Ecolight). We apply this bio-optical model to the equatorial Pacific upwelling region, and find the model to be capable of reproducing many measured optical properties and key biogeochemical processes in this region. Our model results suggest that non-algal particles largely contribute to the total scattering or attenuation (>50% at 660 nm) but have a much smaller contribution to particulate absorption (<20% at 440 nm), while picoplankton dominate the total phytoplankton absorption (>95% at 440 nm). These results are consistent with the field observations. In order to achieve such good agreement between data and model results, however, key model parameters, for which no field data are available, have to be constrained. Sensitivity analysis of the model results to optical parameters reveals a significant role played by colored dissolved organic matter through its influence on the quantity and quality of the ambient light. Coupling explicit optics to an ecosystem model provides advantages in generating: (1) a more accurate subsurface light-field, which is important for light sensitive biogeochemical processes such as photosynthesis and photo-oxidation, (2) additional constraints on model parameters that help to reduce uncertainties in ecosystem model

  17. Pure and Sr(II)-added copper aluminate nanocomposites: structural, electrical and alcohol sensing studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Thinesh; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John

    2013-08-01

    The effect of ethylenediamine addition in the sol-gel method for the preparation of pure and Sr(II)-added nano copper aluminate (CuAl2O4) composites for the enhancement in their structural, electrical, and alcohol sensing properties were investigated. The effect of addition of Sr(II) to pure CuAl2O4 in both the methods were also discussed. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, temperature dependant conductance measurements and thermoelectric power measurements were used to characterize the composites prepared. Among the composites, 0.8 molar ratio strontium added copper aluminate composite prepared by modified sol-gel method showed the highest sensitivity towards alcohols. The stability, response and recovery of MS-CuSA5 were also discussed. The response and recovery characteristics showed that the order of sensing alcohols by the composites was butanol > isopropanol > ethanol > methanol, which could be explained on the basis of oxidation of alcohols. PMID:23882857

  18. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Colazza, Alessandra; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2013-01-01

    We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot) to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait) and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg). T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here. PMID:24023822

  19. Feasibility Study of a Wearable Exoskeleton for Children: Is the Gait Altered by Adding Masses on Lower Limbs?

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Stefano; Colazza, Alessandra; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2013-01-01

    We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot) to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait) and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg). T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five “with added mass” conditions. We found significant differences among “natural gait” and “with added masses” conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here. PMID:24023822

  20. Direct test of the AdS/CFT correspondence by Monte Carlo studies of super Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Masazumi; Ishiki, Goro; Kim, Sang-Woo; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2013-11-01

    We perform nonperturbative studies of super Yang-Mills theory by Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we calculate the correlation functions of chiral primary operators to test the AdS/CFT correspondence. Our results agree with the predictions obtained from the AdS side that the SUSY non-renormalization property is obeyed by the three-point functions but not by the four-point functions investigated in this paper. Instead of the lattice regularization, we use a novel regularization of the theory based on an equivalence in the large- N limit between the SU( N) theory on R × S 3 and a one-dimensional SU( N) gauge theory known as the plane-wave (BMN) matrix model. The equivalence extends the idea of large- N reduction to a curved space and, at the same time, overcomes the obstacle related to the center symmetry breaking. The adopted regularization for S 3 preserves 16 SUSY, which is crucial in testing the AdS/CFT correspondence with the available computer resources. The only SUSY breaking effects, which come from the momentum cutoff Λ in R direction, are made negligible by using sufficiently large Λ.

  1. Charge Carrier Relaxation Study in Glass-Added Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaolin; Song, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Jia; Baturin, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    The depolarization process of glass-added barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics with two different glass concentrations was investigated using a thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) technique. The TSDC spectra of the glass-added BaTiO3 ceramics show three peaks. The first sharp peak near the Curie temperature is due to pyroelectric current associated with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. The middle temperature peak at about 200°C showed no dependence on the depolarization current peak position in the polarization field, and the activation energies of this peak were between 0.43 eV and 0.55 eV, which are attributed to the behavior of defect dipoles related to oxygen vacancies within the BaTiO3 grains. Moreover, the high temperature peak at around 300°C indicated that the depolarization current peak position depends on the polarization temperature and decreases with increasing polarization field. The activation energy of this high temperature peak was between 0.78 eV and 0.98 eV, which is similar to the activation energy for the motion of oxygen vacancies in perovskite oxides. The high temperature peak could be attributed to the migration of oxygen vacancies across grain boundaries. In this work we developed a model in which oxygen vacancies that originated from the defect within grains migrated from the anode to the cathode and some were trapped at the grain boundaries. It is presented here and successfully interprets the appearance and behavior of these peaks.

  2. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  3. A Quantification of Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Regions in the Central/Western U.S. and a Comparison to Previous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne measurements of methane and ethane taken aboard a NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over five regions of oil and natural gas extraction in March and April, 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. The five regions are the (1) Haynesville, (2) Barnett, and (3) Eagle Ford regions in Texas, (4) the Denver-Julesburg region of Colorado, and (5) the Bakken region of North Dakota. From these measurements, we derive methane emission rates from these regions using the mass balance method. Next, we attribute the methane emissions to oil and natural gas extraction, livestock operations, and other source sectors based on correlations of methane with ethane and ammonia. We then compare these emissions to those reported from previous studies, where applicable. Finally, we compare reported methane emissions from multiple regional-scale studies with inventory estimates of methane emissions from U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  4. Docetaxel in combination with 5-fluorouracil in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy: a phase I, dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, A; Maillard, P; Delva, R; Boisdron-Celle, M; Perard, D; Vernillet, L; Besenval, M; Gamelin, E

    2000-09-01

    This phase I study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose of docetaxel in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. 32 patients received docetaxel at 60, 75, 85 or 100 mg/m(2) by 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion, followed, after a 1-h interval, by 5-FU at 250, 350, 500 or 750 mg/m(2)/day by continuous infusion over 5 days every 3 weeks. Dose-limiting stomatitis defined the maximum tolerated dose at a docetaxel dose of 100 mg/m(2) with 5-FU 750 mg/m(2)/day. None of 5 patients treated at the previous dose level (docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) with 5-FU 750 mg/m(2)/day) had a dose-limiting toxicity in the first cycle, and this was, therefore, considered the recommended dose. The combination was generally well tolerated. Grade 4 neutropenia was common (29 patients; 91%), but no patient experienced febrile neutropenia of duration >3 days requiring i.v. antibiotics. An objective response was achieved by 18 patients overall (56%), and in 4 out of 5 patients treated with the determined recommended dose. No pharmacokinetic interaction between docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil was apparent. The activity of docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) with 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m(2)/day will be explored more extensively in phase II studies of patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:10974625

  5. Phase II Study of the MEK1/MEK2 Inhibitor Trametinib in Patients With Metastatic BRAF-Mutant Cutaneous Melanoma Previously Treated With or Without a BRAF Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kevin B.; Kefford, Richard; Pavlick, Anna C.; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Ribas, Antoni; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Fecher, Leslie A.; Millward, Michael; McArthur, Grant A.; Hwu, Patrick; Gonzalez, Rene; Ott, Patrick A.; Long, Georgina V.; Gardner, Olivia S.; Ouellet, Daniele; Xu, Yanmei; DeMarini, Douglas J.; Le, Ngocdiep T.; Patel, Kiran; Lewis, Karl D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose BRAF mutations promote melanoma cell proliferation and survival primarily through activation of MEK. The purpose of this study was to determine the response rate (RR) for the selective, allosteric MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib (GSK1120212), in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma. Patients and Methods This was an open-label, two-stage, phase II study with two cohorts. Patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor (cohort A) or treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy (BRAF-inhibitor naive; cohort B) were enrolled. Patients received 2 mg of trametinib orally once daily. Results In cohort A (n = 40), there were no confirmed objective responses and 11 patients (28%) with stable disease (SD); the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.8 months. In cohort B (n = 57), there was one (2%) complete response, 13 (23%) partial responses (PRs), and 29 patients (51%) with SD (confirmed RR, 25%); the median PFS was 4.0 months. One patient each with BRAF K601E and BRAF V600R had prolonged PR. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events for all patients were skin-related toxicity, nausea, peripheral edema, diarrhea, pruritis, and fatigue. No cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was observed. Conclusion Trametinib was well tolerated. Significant clinical activity was observed in BRAF-inhibitor–naive patients previously treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Minimal clinical activity was observed as sequential therapy in patients previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Together, these data suggest that BRAF-inhibitor resistance mechanisms likely confer resistance to MEK-inhibitor monotherapy. These data support further evaluation of trametinib in BRAF-inhibitor–naive BRAF-mutant melanoma, including rarer forms of BRAF-mutant melanoma. PMID:23248257

  6. Genome-wide association study of serum lipids confirms previously reported associations as well as new associations of common SNPs within PCSK7 gene with triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Kurano, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Hara, Masumi; Ishikawa, Toshio; Kim, Bong-Jo; Moon, Sanghoon; Jin Kim, Young; Teramoto, Tamio

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports including genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have described associations of serum lipids with genomic variations. In the present study, we examined the association of ∼2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 3041 Japanese healthy volunteers obtained from the Japan Pharmacogenomics Data Science Consortium (JPDSC) database with serum lipids. We confirmed the previously reported associations of 14 SNPs in 5 regions for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 23 SNPs in 12 regions for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 16 SNPs in 6 regions for triglyceride and 5 SNPs in 1 region for phospholipid. Furthermore, we identified 16 possible novel candidate genes associated with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, where SNPs had P-values of <1 × 10(-5). Further replication analyses of these genes with Korean data revealed significant associations of SNPs located within the PCSK7 gene and triglyceride (Pmeta=7.98 × 10(-9) and 1.91 × 10(-8) for rs508487 and rs236911, respectively). These associations remained significant even by the conditional analysis adjusting for three neighboring variations associated with triglyceride. Our present data suggest that PCSK7 as well as PCSK9 may be associated with lipids, especially triglyceride, and may serve as a candidate for a new drug target to treat lipid abnormality syndromes. PMID:26763881

  7. Clinical effects of rifaximin in patientswith hepatic encephalopathy intolerant or nonresponsive to previous lactulose treatment: An open-label, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Claudia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Pianta, Paolo; Lambertini, Laura; Berardi, Sonia; Martini, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a metabolic-neurophysiologicsyndrome that occurs in patients with advanced hepatic disease. One of the main pathogenic mechanisms is represented by circulating toxins produced by the intestinal metabolism of nitrogenous compounds. The therapeutic approach to HE is mainly based on drugs that eliminate ammonia-producing bacteria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin in patients with HE who were intolerant or nonresponsive to treatment with an oral, nonabsorbable disaccharide (lactulose). Methods: This uncontrolled, open-label, pilot study was conducted at the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histologically proven liver cirrhosis and HE were studied. All patients were intolerant or nonresponsive to previous treatment with lactulose. Rifaximin tablets were administered to patients at a dosage of 400 mg TID for 10 days. The portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE) index was evaluated at enrollment and at the end of the treatment period. Tolerability was assessed using hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis and by recording adverse effects (AEs). Results: Twenty-six patients (18 men, 8 women; mean [SD] age, 55.8 [8.0] years) were enrolled (intolerants, n = 17; nonresponders, n = 9). All patients completed the study. Significant improvement was shown in most of the 5 components of the PSE index after rifaximin administration in both intolerants and nonresponders. At the end of the 10-day treatment period, the PSE index was significantly reduced in both intolerants and nonresponders. Rifaximin was well tolerated; no clinically relevant AEs were observed during the treatment period. Conclusions: This pilot study of patients with liver cirrhosis and HE who were intolerant or nonresponsive to previous treatment with an oral, nonabsorbable disaccharide suggests that treatment with rifaximin may be considered as an adjuvant or an

  8. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  9. Evidence for added value of convection-permitting models for studying changes in extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Edmund; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    Climate model resolution can affect both the climate change signal and present-day representation of extreme precipitation. The need to parametrize convective processes raises questions about how well the response to warming of convective precipitation extremes is captured in such models. In particular, coastal precipitation extremes can be sensitive to sea surface temperature (SST) increase. Taking a recent coastal precipitation extreme as a showcase example, we explore the added value of convection-permitting models by comparing the response of the extreme precipitation to a wide range of SST forcings in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations using parametrized and explicit convection. Compared at the same spatial scale, we find that the increased local intensities of vertical motion and precipitation in the convection-permitting simulations play a crucial role in shaping a strongly nonlinear extreme precipitation response to SST increase, which is not evident when convection is parametrized. In the convection-permitting simulations, SST increase causes precipitation intensity to increase only until a threshold is reached, beyond which further SST increase does not enhance the precipitation. This flattened response results from an improved representation of convective downdrafts and near-surface cooling, which damp the further intensification of precipitation by stabilizing the lower troposphere locally and also create cold pools that cause subsequent convection to be triggered at sea, rather than by the coastal orography. These features are not well represented in the parametrized convection simulations, resulting in precipitation intensity having a much more linear response to increasing SSTs.

  10. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  11. Study of the thermo-magnetic fluctuations in carbon nano-tubes added Bi-2223 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudel, A.; Amira, A.; Boudjadja, Y.; Mahamdioua, N.; Amirouche, L.; Varilci, A.; Altintas, S. P.; Terzioglu, C.

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of addition of carbon nano-tubes (CNT) on the properties of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy superconductors. The samples are prepared from commercial powders with addition of 0.1 wt% of CNT. They are characterized by XRD, SEM and magneto-resistivity in the transition region. As it was reported for CNT added Y-123 compounds, the refined cell parameters are practically independent of this kind of addition. Under applied magnetic field, a large broadening of resistive transition is observed. The dissipative behavior of resistivity can be explained using the well known expression, ρ=ρ0(T/Tg-1)S. The modified vortex-glass to liquid transition theory is used to calculate the values of the glass-transition temperature Tg and the temperature and magnetic field dependent activation energy U0(B,T). These parameters are seen to decrease with CNT addition and applied magnetic field. Also, we have found that the undoped sample proves a better transition width, residual resistivity (ρ0) and a higher onset critical transition temperature of about 117.75 K. Also, the appearance of a double resistive transition for both samples is a confirmation of the existence of a secondary phase which plays the role of the weak links at the grain boundaries.

  12. Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498

  13. Complexation study on no-carrier-added astatine with insulin: a candidate radiopharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Susanta; Roy, Kamalika; Sen, Souvik

    2008-12-01

    No-carrier-added astatine radionuclides produced in the (7)Li-irradiated lead matrix were separated from bulk lead nitrate target by complexing At with insulin, followed by dialysis. The method offers simultaneous separation of At from lead as well as its complexation with insulin. The At-insulin complex might be a potential radiopharmaceutical in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability of At-insulin complex was checked by dialysis against deionized water and Ringer lactate (RL) solution. It has been found that the half-life of At-insulin complex is about approximately 12h, when dialyzed against deionized water and is only 6h, when dialyzed against RL solution having the same composition as blood serum. The 6h half-life of this Insulin-At complex is perfect for killing cancer cells from external cell surfaces as the half-life of internalization of insulin molecule inside the cell is 7-12h. PMID:18674921

  14. Study of surfactant-added TMAH for applications in DRIE and wet etching-based micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, B.; Shikida, M.; Sato, K.; Pal, P.; Amakawa, H.; Hida, H.; Fukuzawa, K.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, etching anisotropy is evaluated for a number of different crystallographic orientations of silicon in a 0.1 vol% Triton-X-100 added 25 wt% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution using a silicon hemisphere. The research is primarily aimed at developing advanced applications of wet etching in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The etching process is carried out at different temperatures in the range of 61-81 °C. The etching results of silicon hemisphere and different shapes of three-dimensional structures in {1 0 0}- and {1 1 0}-Si surfaces are analyzed. Significantly important anisotropy, different from a traditional etchant (e.g. pure KOH and TMAH), is investigated to extend the applications of the wet etching process in silicon bulk micromachining. The similar etching behavior of exact and vicinal {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} planes in TMAH + Triton is utilized selectively to remove the scalloping from deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) etched profiles. The direct application of the present research is demonstrated by fabricating a cylindrical lens with highly smooth etched surface finish. The smoothness of a micro-lens at different locations is measured qualitatively by a scanning electron microscope and quantitatively by an atomic force microscope. The present paper provides a simple and effective fabrication method of the silicon micro-lens for optical MEMS applications.

  15. Comparative studies of glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by conventional and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, Prapun

    2013-03-01

    Glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique, slow cooling along with seed rotation and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. The size of the grown crystal in slow cooling method was 35 × 25 × 20 mm3 and in SR method it was 20 mm in diameter and 110 mm in length. The grown crystals were subjected to powder X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, Vickers microhardness, dielectric, laser damage threshold, higher resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and nonlinear optical (NLO) studies. All the grown crystals have good transparency in the entire visible region. In order to determine mechanical strength of crystal, Vickers micro-hardness measurement was carried out. Dielectric study reveals higher dielectric constant and low dielectric loss for SR method grown crystal. High laser damage threshold was observed in SR method grown glycine added KDP crystal compared to SR method grown pure KDP crystal. The second harmonic efficiency of the glycine added KDP is increased compared to pure KDP.

  16. Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel Combination in Patients with Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kafri, Zyad; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Sukari, Ammar; Yoo, George; Jacobs, John; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mulrenan, Heather; Smith, Daryn; Kucuk, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and docetaxel (GEMDOC) in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods. Patients with advanced SCCHN previously pretreated with one or two lines of palliative chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel until disease progression. Results. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, and 29 were response evaluable. 16 (55%) experienced clinical benefit (response or stable disease). Six (21%) patients achieved partial response (PR), none achieved complete response (CR), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 21% (95% CI: 0.10–0.38). Ten (28%) patients had stable disease. The median response duration (RD) for the 6 PR patients was 3.2 months (80% CI: 2.0–6.1 months). Median overall survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 2.4–7.0 months). Among the 33 treated patients: 13 (39%) patients had grade 3-4 anemia, 10 (30%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia. Conclusion. The study drugs were relatively safe, and the clinical benefit (PR + SD) rate was 55%. However, the efficacy objective for this regimen was not met. Given the good safety profile, further investigation of this regimen with the addition of a targeted agent may lead to better efficacy. PMID:22655205

  17. Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel Combination in Patients with Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Zyad; Heilbrun, Lance K; Sukari, Ammar; Yoo, George; Jacobs, John; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mulrenan, Heather; Smith, Daryn; Kucuk, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and docetaxel (GEMDOC) in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods. Patients with advanced SCCHN previously pretreated with one or two lines of palliative chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel until disease progression. Results. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, and 29 were response evaluable. 16 (55%) experienced clinical benefit (response or stable disease). Six (21%) patients achieved partial response (PR), none achieved complete response (CR), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 21% (95% CI: 0.10-0.38). Ten (28%) patients had stable disease. The median response duration (RD) for the 6 PR patients was 3.2 months (80% CI: 2.0-6.1 months). Median overall survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 2.4-7.0 months). Among the 33 treated patients: 13 (39%) patients had grade 3-4 anemia, 10 (30%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia. Conclusion. The study drugs were relatively safe, and the clinical benefit (PR + SD) rate was 55%. However, the efficacy objective for this regimen was not met. Given the good safety profile, further investigation of this regimen with the addition of a targeted agent may lead to better efficacy. PMID:22655205

  18. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45–64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001–2004 (n=42 807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events

  19. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity. PMID:26667529

  1. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  2. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    PubMed

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2016-05-01

    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing. PMID:27265743

  3. Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brox, Jens Ivar; Reikerås, Olav; Nygaard, Øystein; Sørensen, Roger; Indahl, Aage; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Grundnes, Oliver; Lange, Johan Emil; Friis, Astrid

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of lumbar fusion for chronic low back pain after surgery for disc herniation has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of lumbar fusion with posterior transpedicular screws and cognitive intervention and exercises. Sixty patients aged 25-60 years with low back pain lasting longer than 1 year after previous surgery for disc herniation were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups. Experienced back surgeons performed transpedicular fusion. Cognitive intervention consisted of a lecture intended to give the patient an understanding that ordinary physical activity would not harm the disc and a recommendation to use the back and bend it. This was reinforced by three daily physical exercise sessions for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Outcome data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ninety-seven percent of the patients, including seven of eight patients who had either not attended treatment (n=5) or changed groups (n=2), completed 1-year follow-up. ODI was significantly improved from 47 to 38 after fusion and from 45 to 32 after cognitive intervention and exercises. The mean difference between treatments after adjustment for gender was -7.3 (95% CI -17.3 to 2.7, p=0.15). The success rate was 50% in the fusion group and 48% in the cognitive intervention/exercise group. For patients with chronic low back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation, lumbar fusion failed to show any benefit over cognitive intervention and exercises. PMID:16545523

  4. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  5. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1995). III. Differences in susceptibilities from previous years].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Hikichi, Y; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Kosakai, N; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Mochida, C

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during June, 1995 through May, 1996, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. Macrolide resistant E. faecalis isolated from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period appeared to have increased compared to those in previous study periods. More than 50% of the isolated E. faecalis during the latest study period were resistant to macrolide antibiotics, for the first time in our history. 2. No obvious changes were observed through the years for susceptibilities of S. aureus to various antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin (VCM) showed the highest activity against S. aureus, with MICs below 2 micrograms/ml or below. 3. Among E. coli strains, those with low susceptibilities to quinolones appeared to have increased over the years with MIC90 changed from between 0.125 microgram/ml or below and 0.5 microgram/ml in the 1989-1990 period to between 8 micrograms/ml and 128 micrograms/ml in the latest study period. 4. Klebsiella spp. showed higher resistance to most antimicrobial agents during periods of 1993-1994 and 1994-1995, but somewhat lower resistance during period of 1995-1996. No resistant Klebsiella spp. were detected from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period. 5. Among P. aeruginosa isolates from complicated UTIs, resistance isolates to gentamicin appeared to be increasing over the years. Resistant strains to quinolones were isolated at lower frequencies during periods of 1991-1994, but higher frequency was observed in the latest period, and MIC50s were between 0.5 and 4 micrograms/ml during 1991-1994, but were 16-32 micrograms/ml during 1995-1996. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9192248

  6. Adding New Dimensions to Case Study Evaluations: The Case of Evaluating Comprehensive Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Davis, Darnella

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptation of the case study method to assessing increasingly complex, comprehensive reform initiatives that highlight the blurring of the boundaries between phenomenon and context and the concurrence of multiple interventions. Completed studies of two education reform programs illustrate the ongoing challenges of…

  7. Detecting Precontact Anthropogenic Microtopographic Features in a Forested Landscape with Lidar: A Case Study from the Upper Great Lakes Region, AD 1000-1600.

    PubMed

    Howey, Meghan C L; Sullivan, Franklin B; Tallant, Jason; Kopple, Robert Vande; Palace, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown. Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging (lidar), a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies. Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits (cache pits) created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1000-1600) that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Years of intensive field survey identified 69 cache pit groups between two inland lakes in northern Michigan, almost all of which were located within ~500 m of a lakeshore. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified 139 high potential cache pit clusters. These included most of the previously known clusters as well as several unknown clusters located >1500 m from either lakeshore, much further from lakeshores than all previously identified cultural sites. Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD 1000 but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also

  8. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI < 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 < 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 < 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR = 9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI < 50% (OR = 10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. PMID:23311899

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  10. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  11. Adding a Design Perspective to Study Learning Environments in Higher Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitter, Ilya; De Bruijn, Elly; Simons, P. Robert Jan; Cate, Th. J. Ten

    2011-01-01

    How to design learning environments leading to learning-, thinking, collaboration- and regulation skills which can be applied to transferable, knowledge oriented learning outcomes is still controversial. We studied the designs of learning environments in innovative higher professional education more closely. To characterize learning environments…

  12. Unpacking the "Value Added" Impact of Continuing Professional Education: A Multi-Method Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jo; Topping, Annie

    2001-01-01

    A study of 14 nurses who completed a children's neuroscience course found evidence of improved knowledge and increased ability to care for neurology patients. Although the direct impact of continuing education on patient care is difficult to assess, participants' assessment of their learning and its potential to affect patient care is a valid…

  13. HEFCE's People Management Self-Assessment Tool: Ticking Boxes or Adding Value? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article examines one specific organisational development tool in depth and uses a case study to investigate whether using the tool is more than a tick-box exercise and really can add value and help organisations to develop and improve. The People Management Self-Assessment Tool (SAT) is used to examine higher education institutions' (HEIs)…

  14. Viability study of photo-voltaic systems added to terrestrial electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rippel, W.E.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the following computer study is to determine the set of necessary conditions under which the addition of photo-voltaic (PV) cells to electric vehicles provides a net utility or economic benefit. Economic benefits are given the primary focus and are evaluated in terms of a payback period.

  15. Adding Families to the Homework Equation: A Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhis, Frances L.

    2011-01-01

    Families, whether guided or instructed to, often become involved in their children's homework. This study examined the effects of a weekly interactive mathematics program (Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork-TIPS) on family involvement, emotions and attitudes, and student achievement. Students and families (N=153) from four urban elementary…

  16. Teaching Therapeutic Reasoning through the Case-Study Approach: Adding the Probabilistic Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzema, Abraham G.

    1994-01-01

    It is proposed that clinical decision making in pharmacy should integrate principles of pharmacoepidemiology, economics, and medical decision making, and that case studies provide an opportunity to use these principles in probabilistic reasoning, thereby improving self-learning, critical thinking, and therapeutic and monitoring skills. Steps in…

  17. Plantar Pressure in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients with Active Foot Ulceration, Previous Ulceration and No History of Ulceration: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Aims Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Methods Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Results Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290–0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303–1.221, p = 0.001, respectively). Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181– 0.753, p = 0.001). Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. Conclusions Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy

  18. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous vivaglobin® replacement therapy in previously untreated patients with primary immunodeficiency: a prospective, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Borte, Michael; Quinti, Isabella; Soresina, Annarosa; Fernández-Cruz, Eduardo; Ritchie, Bruce; Schmidt, Dirk S; McCusker, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of primary immunodeficiency (PI) is typically initiated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) loading and then continued with IVIG or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG). This prospective, open-label, multicenter, 6-month study evaluated a new regimen of initiating IgG therapy with SCIG in 18 previously untreated patients. In the loading phase, SCIG 100 mg/kg was administered for five consecutive days (total loading dose 500 mg/kg). During the maintenance phase, patients self-infused SCIG 100 mg/kg/week at home. The primary efficacy endpoint of IgG levels ≥5 g/L on day 12 was achieved in 17 patients (94.4%; 95% CI 0.727, 0.999). The rate of infections was 3.95 episodes/patient/year. Improvement was found in many subscales of the health-related quality of life questionnaires. SCIG treatment was well tolerated, with no related serious adverse events (AEs). Nine (50%) patients experienced related AEs, including local reactions (rate 0.105 events/infusion). The results suggest that therapy of newly diagnosed patients with PI can be initiated directly with SCIG. PMID:21932110

  19. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples. PMID:26657970

  20. Suppressor Mutations in the Study of Photosystem I Biogenesis: sll0088 Is a Previously Unidentified Gene Involved in Reaction Center Accumulation in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianping; Shen, Gaozhong; Wang, Tao; Bryant, Donald A.; Golbeck, John H.; McIntosh, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In previous work, some members of our group isolated mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in which point mutations had been inserted into the psaC gene to alter the cysteine residues to the FA and FB iron-sulfur clusters in the PsaC subunit of photosystem I (J. P. Yu, I. R. Vassiliev, Y. S. Jung, J. H. Golbeck, and L. McIntosh, J. Biol. Chem. 272:8032-8039, 1997). These mutant strains did not grow photoautotrophically due to suppressed levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I. In the results described here, we show that suppressor mutations produced strains that are capable of photoautotrophic growth at moderate light intensity (20 μmol m−2 s−1). Two separate suppressor strains of C14SPsaC, termed C14SPsaC-R62 and C14SPsaC-R18, were studied and found to have mutations in a previously uncharacterized open reading frame of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genome named sll0088. C14SPsaC-R62 was found to substitute Pro for Arg at residue 161 as the result of a G482→C change in sll0088, and C14SPsaC-R18 was found to have a three-amino-acid insertion of Gly-Tyr-Phe following Cys231 as the result of a TGGTTATTT duplication at T690 in sll0088. These suppressor strains showed near-wild-type levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I, yet the serine oxygen ligand to FB was retained as shown by the retention of the S ≥ 3/2 spin state of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The inactivation of sll0088 by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge in the primary C14SPsaC mutant produced an engineered suppressor strain capable of photoautotrophic growth. There was no difference in psaC gene expression or in the amount of PsaC protein assembled in thylakoids between the wild type and an sll0088 deletion mutant. The sll0088 gene encodes a protein predicted to be a transcriptional regulator with sequence similarities to transcription factors in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana. The protein contains a typical helix

  1. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Maillard, Antoine; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

    2015-10-01

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS—including both collapsing and noncollapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasiperiodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this paper we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic noncollapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.

  2. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  3. Prevention of cerebral palsy in motor risk infants by treatment ad modum Vojta. A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brandt, S; Lønstrup, H V; Marner, T; Rump, K J; Selmar, P; Schack, L K; d'Avignon, M; Norén, L; Arman, T

    1980-05-01

    The proposal by V. Vojta in 1974 to prevent development of cerebral palsy in "motor risk" infants by special treatment has been investigated in 11 Danish and 10 Swedish babies and compared with 30 control infants with similar risk, who were not given Vojta treatment. We found a tendency for "uncomplicated" cerebral palsy cases to accumulate in the control group, although the difference was non-significant on 1 5% level. Further controlled studies must be completed before it is possible to accept the prophylactive treatment of cerebral palsy recommended by Vojta. PMID:7376854

  4. REVEAL-1, a phase 2 dose regimen optimization study of vosaroxin in older poor-risk patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Robert K; Cripe, Larry D; Maris, Michael B; Cooper, Maureen A; Stone, Richard M; Dakhil, Shaker R; Turturro, Francesco; Stock, Wendy; Mason, James; Shami, Paul J; Strickland, Stephen A; Costa, Luciano J; Borthakur, Gautam; Michelson, Glenn C; Fox, Judith A; Leavitt, Richard D; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study (N = 116) evaluated single-agent vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, in patients ≥60 years of age with previously untreated unfavourable prognosis acute myeloid leukaemia. Dose regimen optimization was explored in sequential cohorts (A: 72 mg/m2 d 1, 8, 15; B: 72 mg/m2 d 1, 8; C: 72 mg/m2 or 90 mg/m2 d 1, 4). The primary endpoint was combined complete remission rate (complete remission [CR] plus CR with incomplete platelet recovery [CRp]). Common (>20%) grade ≥3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, anaemia, neutropenia, sepsis, pneumonia, stomatitis and hypokalaemia. Overall CR and CR/CRp rates were 29% and 32%; median overall survival (OS) was 7·0 months; 1-year OS was 34%. Schedule C (72 mg/m2) had the most favourable safety and efficacy profile, with faster haematological recovery (median 27 d) and lowest incidence of aggregate sepsis (24%) and 30-d (7%) and 60-d (17%) all-cause mortality; at this dose and schedule, CR and CR/CRp rates were 31% and 35%, median OS was 7·7 months and 1-year OS was 38%. Overall, vosaroxin resulted in low early mortality and an encouraging response rate; vosaroxin 72 mg/m2 d 1, 4 is recommended for further study in this population. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: #NCT00607997. PMID:25403830

  5. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2008-06-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  6. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  7. Adding a New Dimension to the Study of Calcareous Plankton Response to Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, R. L.; Urbanski, J. M.; Bralower, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at unprecedented rates. This carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean causing both the pH and the concentration of carbonate ions to decrease. These chemical changes make it less energetically viable for calcareous organisms to form shells. This study focuses on a particularly important group of organisms; calcareous plankton, namely planktonic foraminifera and pteropods. These organisms lie at low trophic levels and therefore their demise could cause the total collapse of the marine food chain as we know it. The Pleistocene is defined by glacial-interglacial cycles with lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations (180 ppm) during glacials and higher concentrations (280 ppm) during interglacials. These fluctuations provide an ancient experiment assessing the response of planktonic foraminifera and pteropods to changing ocean chemistry. Measurements of planktonic foraminiferal tests over glacial-interglacial cycles (e.g. Broecker et al., 2003) show that shell weight increases as atmospheric CO2 decreases. We take this investigation one step further by observing individual plankton shells in a nano-CT (computed tomography) scanner which provides extraordinarily detailed three-dimensional images. These images enable us to determine detailed variations in test wall thickness and test volume, as well as ontogenetic changes in shell morphology as a response to changing atmospheric carbon dioxide. One of the key aspects of our investigation is that pteropods and planktonic foraminifera are studied collectively. This allows us to assess the differential impact of ocean acidification on aragonite and calcite. In our presentation, we illustrate the CT technique and present preliminary results from a downhole investigation of the Pleistocene from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1002 in the Cariaco Basin. In the future the nano-CT scanning method can be used to evaluate the detailed morphological response of

  8. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  9. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  10. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio; Davila, Jesus

    2015-07-23

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  11. A Solar Constant Model for Sun-climate Studies: 1600-2000AD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the solar constant model published recently (Schatten, 1988), but with a modified phasing and amplitude. This model enables the known solar constant variations to be calculated from known active region and quiet region solar parameters. The features which can be modelled are sunspots and faculae, the only two features which mark the photospheric continuum with their unusual contrast behavior. They include both the active region features (sunspots and faculae) and the quiet region features (global faculae). Although the direct influences of sunspots upon the solar constant leads to short term decreases, an opposite, nearly in phase, 11 year variation in the solar constant is modelled, thereby agreeing with the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) and Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) secular trends observed. This opposite behavior results primarily from global faculae (polar, network, and active region). The main contributors to the global behavior are the network faculae. The model attributes the observed variations in the solar constant entirely to magnetic features in the solar atmosphere. The present model serves purely to model the secular (long term) trend in the solar constant. The model suggests a change of approx. 0.5 W/sq m for the differences between the late twentieth century solar constant and the 17th century solar constant. This supports Eddy's view that this difference could give rise to the glacial increase during the little ice age of the 17th century. Important for present day climate studies, is that it shows the recent peak activity (peaking in 1958) is associated with an atypically high value of the solar constant, with respect to the past few hundred years.

  12. Dialectical behaviour therapy and an added cognitive behavioural treatment module for eating disorders in women with borderline personality disorder and anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa who failed to respond to previous treatments. An open trial with a 15-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Christoph; Schweiger, Ulrich; Sipos, Valerija; Kliem, Sören; Arnold, Ruediger; Schunert, Tanja; Reinecker, Hans

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence from case studies suggesting that adapted dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders (ED) might improve disorder related complaints. Twenty-four women with BPD (9 with comorbid anorexia nervosa [AN] and 15 with bulimia nervosa [BN]), who already had failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments were consecutively admitted to an adapted inpatient DBT program. Assessment points were at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 15-month follow-up. At follow-up, the remission rate was 54% for BN, and 33% for AN. Yet 44% of women with AN crossed over to BN and one woman additionally met the criteria of AN. For women with AN, the mean weight was not significantly increased at post-treatment, but had improved at follow-up. For women with BN, the frequency of binge-eating episodes was reduced at post-treatment as well as at follow-up. Self-rated eating-related complaints and general psychopathology, as well as ratings on global psychosocial functioning, were significantly improved at post-treatment and at follow-up. Although these findings support the assumption that the adapted DBT inpatient program is a potentially efficacious treatment for those who failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments, remission rates and maintained eating-related psychopathology also suggest that this treatment needs further improvement. PMID:20444442

  13. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  14. Euclidean Wilson loops and minimal area surfaces in lorentzian AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, Andrew; Kruczenski, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in N=4 SYM theory to minimal area surfaces in AdS 5 × S 5 space. If the Wilson loop is Euclidean and confined to a plane ( t, x) then the dual surface is Euclidean and lives in Lorentzian AdS 3 ⊂ AdS 5. In this paper we study such minimal area surfaces generalizing previous results obtained in the Euclidean case. Since the surfaces we consider have the topology of a disk, the holonomy of the flat current vanishes which is equivalent to the condition that a certain boundary Schrödinger equation has all its solutions anti-periodic. If the potential for that Schrödinger equation is found then reconstructing the surface and finding the area become simpler. In particular we write a formula for the Area in terms of the Schwarzian derivative of the contour. Finally an infinite parameter family of analytical solutions using Riemann Theta functions is described. In this case, both the area and the shape of the surface are given analytically and used to check the previous results.

  15. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  16. Roman literary and epigraphic sources for the study of historical seismicity in Algeria circa 42-420 ad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdi, Sabah; Harbi, Assia

    2014-04-01

    The seismicity of Algeria since the nineteenth century is relatively well documented. However, compared with the numerous damaging earthquakes that are documented since 1850, fewer than a dozen reports of earthquakes are listed for the pre-1850 ad period, suggesting that the historical record is missing a substantial number of earthquakes. This paper examines the use of literary and epigraphic sources relevant to the investigation of seismicity in Algeria during Roman times. We provide examples where the meager written literary record may be supplemented with appropriate archaeological and epigraphic data describing damage to ancient Roman sites. The examples show that collaboration between earth scientists and archeologists is of utility in improving the seismic record and highlights the need for further study of data sources and repositories located both inside and outside of Algeria.

  17. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen, preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of combustor operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) to nitrogen oxides NO sub x was analytically determined. The effect of FBN and of operating conditions on carbon monoxide (CO) formation was also studied. For these computations, the combustor was assumed to be a two stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor. Propane-air was used as the combustible mixture and fuel-bound nitrogen was simulated by adding nitrogen atoms to the mixture. The oxidation of propane and formation of NO sub x and CO were modeled by a fifty-seven reaction chemical mechanism. The results for NO sub x and CO formation are given as functions of primary and secondary stage equivalence ratios and residence times.

  18. Combination analysis of neuropsychological tests and structural MRI measures in differentiating AD, MCI and control groups--the AddNeuroMed study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawu; Paajanen, Teemu; Zhang, Yi; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Tunnard, Catherine; Sobow, Tomasz; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Evans, Alan; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka

    2011-07-01

    To study the ability of neuropsychological tests, manual MRI hippocampal volume measures, regional volume and cortical thickness measures to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Neuropsychological tests, manual hippocampal volume, automated regional volume and regional cortical thickness measures were performed in 120 AD patients, 120 MCI subjects, and 111 controls. The regional cortical thickness and volumes in MCI subjects were significantly decreased in limbic/paralimbic areas and temporal lobe compared to controls. Atrophy was much more extensive in the AD patients compared to MCI subjects and controls. The combination of neuropsychological tests and volumes revealed the highest accuracy (82% AD vs. MCI; 94% AD vs. control; 83% MCI vs. control). Adding regional cortical thicknesses into the discriminate analysis did not improve accuracy. We conclude that regional cortical thickness and volume measures provide a panoramic view of brain atrophy in AD and MCI subjects. A combination of neuropsychological tests and regional volumes are important when discriminating AD from healthy controls and MCI. PMID:19683363

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C. W.; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5–17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  20. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  1. Added value of a household-level study during an outbreak investigation of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections, New Mexico 2008.

    PubMed

    Boore, A L; Jungk, J; Russo, E T; Redd, J T; Angulo, F J; Williams, I T; Cheek, J E; Gould, L H

    2013-10-01

    In 2008, nationwide investigations of a Salmonella serotype Saintpaul outbreak led first to consumer warnings for Roma and red round tomatoes, then later for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In New Mexico, where there were a large number of cases but no restaurant-based clusters, the NM Department of Health and the Indian Health Service participated with CDC in individual-level and household-level case-control studies of infections in New Mexico and the Navajo Nation. No food item was associated in the individual-level study. In the household-level study, households with an ill member were more likely to have had jalapeño peppers present during the exposure period and to have reported ever having serrano peppers in the household. This report illustrates the complexity of this investigation, the limitations of traditional individual-level case-control studies when vehicles of infection are ingredients or commonly eaten with other foods, and the added value of a household-level study. PMID:23228507

  2. Added value of a household-level study during an outbreak investigation of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections, New Mexico 2008

    PubMed Central

    Boore, A. L.; Jungk, J.; Russo, E.T.; Redd, J.T.; Angulo, F. J.; Williams, I. T.; Cheek, J. E.; Gould, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, nationwide investigations of a Salmonella serotype Saintpaul outbreak led first to consumer warnings for Roma and red round tomatoes, then later for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In New Mexico, where there were a large number of cases but no restaurant-based clusters, the NM Department of Health and the Indian Health Service participated with CDC in individual-level and household-level case-control studies of infections in New Mexico and the Navajo Nation. No food item was associated in the individual-level study. In the household-level study, households with an ill member were more likely to have had jalapeño peppers present during the exposure period and to have reported ever having serrano peppers in the household. This report illustrates the complexity of this investigation, the limitations of traditional individual-level case-control studies when vehicles of infection are ingredients or commonly eaten with other foods, and the added value of a household-level study. PMID:23228507

  3. Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

  4. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH3COO)2, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO4 < Ni(CH3COO)2 < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl2 < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg−1 for NiSO4, 1315 mg·kg−1 for NiCl2, and 89 mg·kg−1 for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  5. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl₂, NiSO₄, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH₃COO)₂, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO₄ < Ni(CH₃COO)₂ < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl₂ < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg(-1) for NiSO₄, 1315 mg·kg(-1) for NiCl₂, and 89 mg·kg(-1) for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  6. Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of N=4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can be obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of the Informant AD8 for Cognitive Screening in Primary Healthcare: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, YanHong; Tsou, Keith Yu Kei; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The utility of informant AD8 for case finding of cognitive impairment at primary healthcare settings is unknown and therefore its feasibility and acceptability for targeted screening at a primary healthcare clinic should be investigated. Methods. The informants of older adult patients attending a primary healthcare clinic in Singapore were administered the AD8. Positive screening findings were provided to patients' primary care physicians for referrals to specialist memory clinics. The acceptability of AD8 was evaluated by collecting feedbacks from the informants and primary care physicians. Results. 205 patients and their informants were recruited. However, 6 (2.9%) informants were uncontactable, while the majority of the remaining 199 patients with completed AD8 (96.5%, n = 192) found it acceptable where 59 (29.6%) patients were deemed cognitively impaired (AD8 ≥ 2). Clinicians (100%, n = 5) found the AD8 helpful in facilitating referrals to memory clinics. However, most referral recommendations (81.4%, n = 48) were declined by patients and/or informant due to limited insight of implications of cognitive impairment. Conclusions. The AD8 can be easily administered and is well tolerated. It detected cognitive impairment in one-third of older adult patients and therefore may be useful for case finding of cognitive impairment in the primary healthcare. PMID:25548780

  8. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052. PMID:19643007

  9. Comparison of the electronic structure of a thermoelectric skutterudite before and after adding rattlers: an electron energy loss study.

    PubMed

    Prytz, O; Saeterli, R; Løvvik, O M; Taftø, J

    2008-08-01

    Skutterudites, with rattler atoms introduced in voids in the crystal unit cell, are promising thermoelectric materials. We modify the binary skutterudite with atomic content Co(8)P(24) in the cubic crystal unit cell by adding La as rattlers in all available voids and replacing Co by Fe to maintain charge balance, resulting in La(2)Fe(8)P(24). The intention is to leave the electronic structure unaltered while decreasing the thermal conductivity due to the presence of the rattlers. We compare the electronic structure of these two compounds by studying the L-edges of P and of the transition elements Co and Fe using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Our studies of the transition metal white lines show that the 3d electron count is similar for Co and Fe in these compounds. As elemental Fe has one electron less than Co, this supports the notion that each La atom donates three electrons. The L-edges of P in these two skutterudites are quite similar, signalling only minor differences in electronic structure. This is in reasonable agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and with our multiple scattering FEFF calculations of the near edge structure. However, our experimental plasmon energies and dielectric functions deviate considerably from predictions based on DFT calculations. PMID:18042390

  10. Study of Harris lines at the Prat de la Riba necropolis--third to fifth century AD.

    PubMed

    Berrocal-Zaragoza, Maria Isabel; Eulàlia Subirà, Maria

    2008-06-01

    Harris lines (HL) are considered a nutritional or pathological stress factor in the study of past populations. This study attempts to contribute to the knowledge of the causal agents for HL in terms of assessing the health state of the population of Tarragona in the Roman period. The presence of HL has been analyzed in 614 long bones (214 humeri, 150 femurs and 250 tibias) from 243 skeletons. No HL have been observed in humeri. The frequencies of HL in femurs are higher than 27% and in tibias more than 48%. Although no significant differences in the presence of HL is found among age categories, it seems that the causal agents of these marks acted on individuals from the age of 5, an age from which the long bones of the lower extremities are more prone to producing HL. The hardened living conditions in the Dark Age of the Roman period in Spain between the third to fifth centuries A.D. may be the cause of the high prevalence of HL in this population. PMID:18756908

  11. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. PMID:26555161

  12. Phase I study of the anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody milatuzumab (hLL1) in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Peter; Furman, Richard R.; Rutherford, Sarah; Ruan, Jia; Ely, Scott; Greenberg, June; Coleman, Morton; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Leonard, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Milatuzumab (hLL1), a humanized anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody, has activity in preclinical NHL models. We conducted a phase 1 trial in previously treated B-cell malignancies. Dose escalation included 4 planned dose levels (1.5, 4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) with milatuzumab given twice weekly for 6 weeks. After dose level 1, the schedule was changed to daily (Monday-Friday) for 10 days. Twenty-two patients were treated. The most common possibly-related toxicities were infusion reaction, anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (neutropenia, neutropenia, rash) at dose levels 1, 2, and 4 respectively. Eight patients had stable disease, with no objective responses. The serum half-life of milatuzumab was ~2 hours. In 7 patients, In-111-imaging showed no clear evidence of tumor targeting. The short half-life may reflect CD74 rapid internalization and presence on extratumoral tissues; this antigen sink must be overcome to capitalize on the promising preclinical activity of the drug. PMID:25754579

  13. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

  14. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  15. Sources of ground movement at Vesuvius before the AD 79 eruption: Evidence from contemporary accounts and archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marturano, Aldo

    2008-11-01

    Historical sources have recorded earthquake shocks, their effects and difficulties that local inhabitants experienced before the AD 79 Pompeii eruption. Archaeological studies pointed out the effects of such seismicity, and have also evidenced that several water crises were occurring at Pompeii in that period. Indeed numerous sources show that, at the time of eruption, and probably some time before, the civic aqueduct, having ceased to be supplied by the regional one, was out of order and that a new one was being built. Since Roman aqueducts were usually built with a recommended minimum mean slope of 20 cm/km and Pompeii's aqueduct sloped from the nearby Apennines toward the town, this slope could have been easily cancelled by uplift that occurred in the area even if this was only moderate. For the crustal deformations a volcanic origin is proposed and a point source model is used to explain the observations. Simple analysis of the available data suggests that the ground deformations were caused by a < 2 km 3 volumetric change at a depth of ˜ 8 km that happened over the course of several decades.

  16. Added Alkane Allows Thermal Thinning of Supramolecular Columns by Forming Superlattice-An X-ray and Neutron Study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ming-Huei; Chaiprapa, Jitrin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Liu, Yongsong; Cseh, Liliana; Mehl, Georg H; Ungar, Goran

    2016-05-11

    We report a columnar superlattice formed by blends of dendron-like Li 3,4,5-tris(n-alkoxy)benzoates with n-alkanes. Without the alkane, the wedge-shaped molecules form liquid crystal columns with 3 dendrons in a supramolecular disk. The same structure exists in the blend, but on heating one dendron is expelled from the disks in every third column and is replaced by the alkane. This superlattice of unequal columns is confirmed by complementary X-ray and neutron diffraction studies. Lateral thermal expansion of dendrons normally leads to the expulsion of excess molecules from the column, reducing the column diameter. However, in the already narrow columns of pure Li salt, expulsion of one of only three dendrons in a disk is not viable. The added alkane facilitates the expulsion, as it replaces the missing dendron. Replacing the alkane with a functional compound can potentially lead to active nanoarrays with relatively large periodicity by using only small molecules. PMID:27101731

  17. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  18. Ultrasonic Elastography Research Based on a Multicenter Study: Adding Strain Ratio after 5-Point Scoring Evaluation or Not

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ji-Yi; Li, Lu-Jing; Peng, Yu-lan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li-sha; Xiao, Ying; Liu, Shou-jun; Wu, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yu-xin; Parajuly, Shyam Sundar; Xu, Ping; Hao, Yi; Li, Jing; Luo, Bao-Ming; Zhi, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to confirm whether strain ratio should be added after evaluation of lesions with 5-point elasticity scoring for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on ultrasonographic elastography(UE). Materials and Methods From June 2010 to March 2012, 1080 consecutive female patients with breast lesions were recruited into a multicenter retrospective study, which involved 8 centers across China. Each institutional ethic review board approved the study, and all the patients gave written informed consent. All the patients underwent the UE procedure and the strain ratios were calculated and the final diagnosis was made by histological findings. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were calculated for each of the two evaluation systems and the areas under the ROC curve were compared. Results The strain ratios of benign lesions (mean, 2.6±2.0) and malignant lesions (mean,7.9±5.8) were significantly different (p <0.01). When the cutoff point was 3.01, strain ratio method had 79.8% sensitivity, 82.8% specificity, and 81.3% accuracy, while the 5-point scoring method had 93.1% sensitivity, 73.0% specificity, and 76.8% accuracy. The areas under the ROC curve with the strain ratio method and 5-point scoring method were 0.863 and 0.865, respectively(p>0.05). The strain ratio method shows better a diagnosis performance of the lesions with elasticity score 3 and 4. Conclusions Although the two UE methods have similar diagnostic performance, separate calculation of the strain ratios seems compulsory, especially for the large solid breast lesions and the lesions with elasticity score 3 and 4. PMID:26863208

  19. A randomized, controlled, pilot study of acamprosate added to escitalopram in adults with major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Witte, Janet; Bentley, Kate; Evins, Anne Eden; Clain, Alisabet J; Baer, Lee; Pedrelli, Paola; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2012-12-01

    We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of acamprosate augmentation of escitalopram in patients with concurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorders. Twenty-three adults (43% female; mean ± SD age, 46 ± 14 years) were enrolled and received 12 weeks of treatment with psychosocial support; escitalopram, 10 to 30 mg/d; and either acamprosate, 2000 mg/d (n = 12), or identical placebo (n = 11). Outcomes included change in clinician ratings of depressive symptoms, MDD response and remission rates, changes in frequency and intensity of alcohol use, retention rates, and adverse events. Twelve subjects (acamprosate, n = 7; placebo, n = 5) completed the study. There was significant mean reduction in ratings of depressive symptoms from baseline in both treatment arms (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between the groups. Those in the acamprosate group had a 50% MDD response rate and a 42% remission rate, whereas those in the placebo arm had a 36% response and remission rate (not significant). Those assigned to acamprosate had significant reduction in number of drinks per week and drinks per month during the trial, whereas those assigned to placebo demonstrated no significant change in any alcohol use parameter, but the between-group difference was not significant. There were no significant associations between change in depressive symptoms and change in alcohol use. Attrition rates did not differ significantly between the 2 arms. Acamprosate added to escitalopram in adults with MDD and alcohol use disorders was associated with reduction in the frequency of alcohol use. The present study was not powered to detect superiority versus placebo. Further study in a larger sample is warranted. PMID:23131884

  20. Comparison of Contrast Volume, Radiation Dose, Fluoroscopy Time, and Procedure Time in Previously Published Studies of Rotational Versus Conventional Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Rios, Rodrigo; Buelow, Matthew; Eagam, Mamata; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2015-07-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CA) with static imaging is limited by the ability to properly select the optimal acquisition angle, vessel foreshortening, and significant radiation exposure. Rotational coronary angiography (RA) acquires coronary images in a multitude of viewing angles during a single injection by means of a moving gantry that rapidly completes a predefined arc. This study compares procedural characteristics of CA and RA. Electronic search of databases such as OVID, Medline, and PubMed was conducted to identify studies comparing procedural characteristics of CA and RA. End points for analysis included contrast volume, radiation dose by dose area product, radiation dose by air kerma, fluoroscopy time, and procedure time. Studies were assessed for quality and bias and were included if they compared coronary imaging of both the right and left coronary systems with CA and RA, included one of the end points of interest, and were in English. A total of 11 studies consisting of 940 patients who underwent RA and 976 who underwent CA were included in the final analysis. Contrast volume, radiation dose by dose area product, and radiation dose by air kerma were all found to be significantly lower with RA compared with CA. There was a statistically significant increase in fluoroscopy time, although this was not clinically significant, and there was no difference in procedure time. RA angiography is a feasible alternative to CA and offers reductions in contrast used and radiation exposure. PMID:25983128

  1. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  2. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000–1600 as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Howey, Meghan C. L.; Palace, Michael W.; McMichael, Crystal H.

    2016-01-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000–1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data. PMID:27330115

  3. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000-1600 as a case study.

    PubMed

    Howey, Meghan C L; Palace, Michael W; McMichael, Crystal H

    2016-07-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000-1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data. PMID:27330115

  4. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of carbon fiber surfaces. 22. Comparison between surface treatment of untreated and previously surface-treated fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Q.; Viswanathan, H.; Audi, A.A.; Sherwood, P.M.A.

    2000-04-01

    IM7 PAN-based carbon fibers, with a proprietary surface treatment applied by the manufacturer, were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface treatment applied by the manufacturer was removed by heating in a vacuum. The fibers detreated in this manner were then subjected to electrochemical treatment. The electrochemical behavior of the as-received fibers and detreated fibers were measured and analyzed. When the same electrochemical treatment was applied to the as-received fibers with their commercial surface treatment intact, a different surface chemistry was observed for the detreated fibers. This study shows that the surface chemistry of treated fibers depends closely on the initial surface chemistry of the fibers and its detreatment. This work shows the importance of using untreated or detreated fibers as precursors for applying reproducible surface treatment so that one can understand and control the surface chemistry of fibers and their interfacial interaction in composites.

  6. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  7. A randomised, phase II study of nintedanib or sunitinib in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell cancer: 3-year results

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, T; Loembé, A-B; Shparyk, Y; MacLeod, N; Jones, R J; Mazurkiewicz, M; Temple, G; Dressler, H; Bondarenko, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study evaluated the safety/efficacy of nintedanib or sunitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Ninety-six patients were randomised (2:1) to either nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or sunitinib (50 mg kg−1 once daily (4 weeks on treatment; 2 weeks off)). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 9 months. P-values reported are descriptive only; the study was not powered for such comparisons. Results: Progression-free survival at 9 months was comparable between nintedanib and sunitinib (43.1% vs 45.2%, respectively; P=0.85). Median PFS was 8.4 months in each group (hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70–1.80; P=0.64). Median overall survival was 20.4 and 21.2 months for nintedanib and sunitinib, respectively (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54–1.56; P=0.76). Overall incidence of any grade adverse events (AEs) was comparable (90.6% vs 93.8%); AEs grade ⩾3 were lower with nintedanib than sunitinib (48.4% vs 59.4%). Nintedanib was associated with lower incidences of some AEs typical of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand–foot syndrome, cardiac disorders and haematological abnormalities. Conclusions: In patients with advanced RCC, nintedanib has promising efficacy and similar tolerability to sunitinib, and a manageable safety profile with fewer TKI-associated AEs. PMID:26448178

  8. Ondansetron and simvastatin added to treatment as usual in patients with schizophrenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are two partially-related features of schizophrenia which have a major negative impact on social function and objective quality of life. Standard drug treatments have little impact on either. There is some evidence that anti-inflammatory treatment may have beneficial effects in schizophrenia and major depression. Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents that have been found to be anti-inflammatory agents and are also known to decrease C-reactive protein (CRP). Ondansetron is a serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist widely used to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Small studies have suggested that ondansetron is effective as an adjunct drug in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods/design This is a two center, six-month, double-blind placebo controlled, factorial design study of ondansetron and/or simvastatin added to treatment as usual for patients suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychosis not otherwise specified or schizophreniform disorder. This will be a 2 × 2 design, with 54 patients in each cell, giving a total of 216 patients over three years. There will be a screening, a randomization and seven follow-up visits. Full clinical and neurocognitive assessments will be carried out at baseline (randomization), 14 weeks and at 26 weeks, while the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), pill count and side effects checklist will be carried out at every visit. Simvastatin will be started at 20 mg once daily (OD), this will be increased to 40 mg after four weeks. Ondansetron will be administered in an 8 mg dose. Discussion Anti-inflammatory treatments have been shown to have some beneficial effects in schizophrenia. Both simvastatin and ondansetron provide some evidence of a reduction in symptoms compared to treatment as usual. The aim of this study is to establish the degree of improvement in negative symptoms with the addition of

  9. Phase 1/2 study of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 antibody, in previously treated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Duvic, Madeleine; Pinter-Brown, Lauren C; Foss, Francine M; Sokol, Lubomir; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Challagundla, Pramoda; Dwyer, Karen M; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kurman, Michael R; Ballerini, Rocco; Liu, Li; Kim, Youn H

    2015-03-19

    This phase 1/2 study evaluated the efficacy of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated, humanized, anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, in 41 pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in phase 1 after IV infusion of mogamulizumab (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week observation. In phase 2, patients were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg mogamulizumab according to the same schedule for the first course followed by infusion every 2 weeks during subsequent courses until disease progression. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (31.0%), chills (23.8%), headache (21.4%), and infusion-related reaction (21.4%); the majority of events were grade 1/2. There were no significant hematologic effects. Among 38 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 36.8%: 47.1% in Sézary syndrome (n = 17) and 28.6% in mycosis fungoides (n = 21). Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with ≥B1 blood involvement had a response in blood, including 11 complete responses. Given the safety and efficacy of mogamulizumab, phase 3 investigation of mogamulizumab is warranted in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00888927. PMID:25605368

  10. Phase 1/2 study of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 antibody, in previously treated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pinter-Brown, Lauren C.; Foss, Francine M.; Sokol, Lubomir; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Challagundla, Pramoda; Dwyer, Karen M.; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kurman, Michael R.; Ballerini, Rocco; Liu, Li; Kim, Youn H.

    2015-01-01

    This phase 1/2 study evaluated the efficacy of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated, humanized, anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, in 41 pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in phase 1 after IV infusion of mogamulizumab (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week observation. In phase 2, patients were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg mogamulizumab according to the same schedule for the first course followed by infusion every 2 weeks during subsequent courses until disease progression. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (31.0%), chills (23.8%), headache (21.4%), and infusion-related reaction (21.4%); the majority of events were grade 1/2. There were no significant hematologic effects. Among 38 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 36.8%: 47.1% in Sézary syndrome (n = 17) and 28.6% in mycosis fungoides (n = 21). Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with ≥B1 blood involvement had a response in blood, including 11 complete responses. Given the safety and efficacy of mogamulizumab, phase 3 investigation of mogamulizumab is warranted in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00888927. PMID:25605368

  11. Prognostic nomogram for overall survival in previously untreated patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, Y-J; Zhu, Y; Cao, J-Z; Yuan, Z-Y; Xu, L-M; Wu, J-X; Wang, W; Wu, T; Lu, B; Zhu, S-Y; Qian, L-T; Zhang, F-Q; Hou, X-R; Liu, Q-F; Li, Y-X

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a widely accepted prognostic nomogram for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (NKTCL). The clinical data from 1383 patients with NKTCL treated at 10 participating institutions between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. A nomogram was developed that predicted overall survival (OS) based on the Cox proportional hazards model. To contrast the utility of the nomogram against the widely used Ann Arbor staging system, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI), we used the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration curve to determine its predictive and discriminatory capacity. The 5-year OS rate was 60.3% for the entire group. The nomogram included five important variables based on a multivariate analysis of the primary cohort: stage; age; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; and primary tumor invasion. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was able to predict 5-year OS accurately. The C-index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.72 for both cohorts, which was superior to the predictive power (range, 0.56-0.64) of the Ann Arbor stage, IPI and KPI in the primary and validation cohorts. The proposed nomogram provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with NKTCL. PMID:25697894

  12. MW-class 800 MeV/n H2+ SC-cyclotron for ADS application, design and study goals

    SciTech Connect

    Meot F.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Roser, T.; Weng, B.

    2012-05-20

    This paper addresses an attempt to start investigating the use of the Superconducting Ring Cyclotron (SRC) developed for DAE{delta}ALUS experiment for ADS application [1], focusing on the magnet design and its implication for lattice parameters and dynamic aperture performance.

  13. Integrated Study of AD-Net Mie-Lidar Network and Data Assimilated CTM for Asian Dust Epidemiology in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Maki, Takashi; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Kanatani, Kumiko

    2016-06-01

    Mie-scattering lidar data are going to be incorporated into data assimilation in chemical transport model to represent more reliable / useful horizontal distribution of Asian dust over Japan. The result is utilized in an epidemiology which surveys effect of Asian dust to human health. Wider application of AD-Net is expected in the field of environmental researches.

  14. A Value-Added Study of the Impact of Science Curriculum Reform Using the National Pupil Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jacqueline; Donnelly, Jim; Homer, Matt; Pell, Godfrey

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the examination performance of students following General Certificate of Secondary Education Applied Science and Double Award science on a value-added basis. It uses data from the National Pupil Database, which are analysed by a variety of methods, including multilevel modelling. It argues that the claims made within Office…

  15. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-04-01

    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia. PMID:26843071

  16. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Damien C; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib; Miralbell, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI90) parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk. PMID:19740429

  17. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  18. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  19. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). Design A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. Setting All women in Denmark were eligible to participate if they spoke Danish and were planning to carry to term.The pregnant women were recruited and enrolled during their first antenatal visit (6–10 weeks of gestation). Participants Participants included women with live-born singletons and complete data on dietary intake and GWG, leaving 46 262 women for the analysis. Exposure Macronutrient intake was quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire administered in the 25th week of gestation. The P/C ratio and added sugar intake were examined in quintiles. Primary outcome measures GWG was based on self-reported weight in gestational weeks 12 and 30 and defined as gain in g/week. We used multivariable linear regression, including adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, to calculate relative change in GWG and 95% CI. Results Average GWG was 471(224) g/week. The adjusted weight gain was 16 g/week lower (95% CI 9 to 22, p for trend <0.001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs <12%E from protein was 36 g/week lower (95% CI 20 to 53, p for trend <0.0001; ∼8% average reduction). A high P/C ratio was inversely related to intake of added sugars. Added sugar consumption was strongly associated with GWG (Q5 vs Q1: 34, 95% CI 28 to 40 g/week, p for trend <0.0001). Conclusions A high P/C ratio was associated with reduced GWG. This association appeared to be partly driven by a decrease in intake of added sugar. These results are consistent with randomised trials in non-pregnant participants. A dietary intervention targeting an increased P/C ratio with emphasis on reducing added sugar can

  20. adLIMS: a customized open source software that allows bridging clinical and basic molecular research studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many biological laboratories that deal with genomic samples are facing the problem of sample tracking, both for pure laboratory management and for efficiency. Our laboratory exploits PCR techniques and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods to perform high-throughput integration site monitoring in different clinical trials and scientific projects. Because of the huge amount of samples that we process every year, which result in hundreds of millions of sequencing reads, we need to standardize data management and tracking systems, building up a scalable and flexible structure with web-based interfaces, which are usually called Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). Methods We started collecting end-users' requirements, composed of desired functionalities of the system and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI), and then we evaluated available tools that could address our requirements, spanning from pure LIMS to Content Management Systems (CMS) up to enterprise information systems. Our analysis identified ADempiere ERP, an open source Enterprise Resource Planning written in Java J2EE, as the best software that also natively implements some highly desirable technological advances, such as the high usability and modularity that grants high use-case flexibility and software scalability for custom solutions. Results We extended and customized ADempiere ERP to fulfil LIMS requirements and we developed adLIMS. It has been validated by our end-users verifying functionalities and GUIs through test cases for PCRs samples and pre-sequencing data and it is currently in use in our laboratories. adLIMS implements authorization and authentication policies, allowing multiple users management and roles definition that enables specific permissions, operations and data views to each user. For example, adLIMS allows creating sample sheets from stored data using available exporting operations. This simplicity and process standardization may avoid manual errors and

  1. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  2. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  3. Shift of reaction pathway by added chloride ions in the oxidation of aromatic ketones by dichloroisocyanuric acid—A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Y. Lakshman; Nadh, R. Venkata; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Role of added chloride ions on the shift of reaction pathway of oxidation of aromatic ketones (acetophenone, desoxybenzoin) by dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric acid medium. Participation of enolic and protonated forms of ketones in the rate determining steps is manifested from zero and first orders with respect to the oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions, respectively. Positive and negative effects of acid and dielectric constant on the reaction rate were observed. The observations deduce plausible mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining formation of enol from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rapid formation of molecular chlorine species from HOCl (hydrolytic species of DCICA) in the presence of added chloride ions, which then interacts with SH+ in a rate-determining step prior to the rapid steps of product formation. The order of Arrhenius parameters substantiate the proposed plausible mechanisms based on order of reactants both in presence and absence of added chloride ions.

  4. Calorimetric study of the smectic-Ad-smectic-A2 critical point in a binary mixture of homologs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Garland, C. W.; Shashidhar, R.; Barois, P.

    1992-03-01

    High-resolution calorimetry measurements have been performed in the vicinity of the smectic-Ad-smectic-A2 (SmAd-SmA2) critical point in mixtures of 10OPCBOB and 11OPCBOB, where nOPCBOB is alkyloxyphenyl-cyanobenzyloxy benzoate. The variation of the heat capacity Cp for three near-critical mixtures with 11OPCBOB mole % X=40.7, 42.2, and 43.5 is well described by a simple power law over a temperature range as large as Tc+/-10 K. The critical exponent γ/Δ has the value 0.45+/-0.08, which agrees with neither the mean-field nor the three-dimensional Ising model. This experimental exponent value supports the theoretical prediction that the SmAd-SmA2 critical point belongs to a new universality class different from that of Ising systems. A significant distortion of the Cp(T) peak very close to its maximum was observed for all three samples. This is an intrinsic effect that is not presently well understood; it may represent a crossover behavior for samples with a concentration X slightly different from the critical value Xc.

  5. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa e; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. Subjects/Methods The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18–65 years old, BMI: 18.5–49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. Results For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p < 0.0001. In the ROC analysis, compared with the HOMA1-IR, the HOMA-AD showed higher values of the AUC for the identification of IR based on the clamp test (AUC: 0.844 vs. AUC: 0.804) and on the metabolic syndrome (AUC: 0.703 vs. AUC: 0.689), respectively; p < 0.001 for all. However, the pairwise comparison did not show evidence of superiority for the HOMA-AD in comparison with the HOMA1-IR in the diagnosis of IR and metabolic syndrome (p > 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. Conclusions The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities. PMID:27490249

  6. Houston, We Have a Problem: Studying the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) from Teachers' Perspectives in the Houston Independent School District (HISD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Clarin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the intended and unintended consequences associated with the Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) as perceived and experienced by teachers in the Houston Independent School District (HISD). To evaluate teacher effectiveness, HISD is using EVAAS for high-stakes consequences more than any other district or state in the…

  7. Nominal group technique-elicited barriers and facilitators to following the Dietary Guidelines for solid fats and added sugars in children: The HEALTH Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US population has a high intake of discretionary solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) which currently exceeds federal dietary recommendations. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to following the DGA. Thirty-eight 5th grade children across six Human Nutrition Resear...

  8. [Study of physical-mechanic characteristics of prosthetic construction after their adjustment with the use of laser welding and hot metal adding].

    PubMed

    Gvetadze, R Sh; Rusanov, F S; Mikhas'kov, S V

    2011-01-01

    Study of physical-mechanic characteristics of connecting joints of beam construction after laser welding and hot metal adding was performed. Increase of microhardness of joints as well as small reduction of bending strength of prosthetic constructions was established. PMID:21983619

  9. AdS perturbations, isometries, selection rules and the Higgs oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Nivesvivat, Rongvoram

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of small-amplitude perturbations in the global anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is restricted by selection rules that forbid effective energy transfer between certain sets of normal modes. The selection rules arise algebraically because some integrals of products of AdS mode functions vanish. Here, we reveal the relation of these selection rules to AdS isometries. The formulation we discover through this systematic approach is both simpler and stronger than what has been reported previously. In addition to the selection rule considerations, we develop a number of useful representations for the global AdS mode functions, with connections to algebraic structures of the Higgs oscillator, a superintegrable system describing a particle on a sphere in an inverse cosine-squared potential, where the AdS isometries play the role of a spectrum-generating algebra.

  10. A study of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors in alpha2A/D-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-adrenoceptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, A U; Klebroff, W; Hein, L; Starke, K

    2001-08-01

    The function of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors was studied in the hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex, atria and vas deferens of NMRI mice, mice in which the alpha2A/D-, the alpha2B- or alpha2c-adrenoceptor gene had been disrupted (alpha2A/DKO, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO, respectively), and the wildtype mice from which the knockout animals had been generated. Tissue pieces were preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline and then superfused and stimulated electrically. The alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine reduced the electrically evoked overflow of tritium in all tissues from all mouse strains (stimulation with single pulses or single high-frequency pulse trains, called POPs, i.e. pulse patterns leading to minimal autoinhibition). The effects of medetomidine did not differ in NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO mice but were greatly reduced in alpha2A/DKO brain preparations and to a lesser extent in alpha2A/DKO atria and vasa deferentia. Six drugs were tested as antagonists against medetomidine. Their pKd values indicated that the hippocampal and occipito-parietal alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice were alpha2D (the rodent variant of the alpha2A/D-adrenoceptor) whereas the atrial and vas deferens alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice could not be identified with a single alpha2 subtype. Deletion of the alpha2A/D gene changed the pKd values in all tissues so that they now reflected alpha2C properties, whereas deletion of the alpha2C gene changed the pKd values in atria and vasa deferentia so that they now had alpha2D properties (as they had in NMRI and wildtype brain preparations). Autoinhibition by released noradrenaline was created using trains of up to 64 pulses or up to 4 POPs, and the overflow-enhancing effect of the alpha2 antagonist rauwolscine was determined. Results did not differ, irrespective of whether preparations were obtained from NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO or alpha2CKO mice: the overflow of tritium elicited by p pulses or POPs

  11. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  12. Broad Temperature Pinning Study of 15 mol.% Zr-Added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O MOCVD Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, AX; Khatri, N; Liu, YH; Majkic, G; Galstyan, E; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, YM; Lei, CH; Abraimov, D; Hu, XB; Jaroszynski, J; Larbalestier, D

    2015-06-01

    BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumns have long been shown to be very effective for raising the pinning force F-p of REBa2Cu3Ox (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) films at high temperatures and recently at low temperatures too. We have successfully incorporated a high density of BZO nanorods into metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) REBCO coated conductors via Zr addition. We found that, compared to the 7.5% Zr-added coated conductor, dense BZO nanorod arrays in the 15% Zr-added conductor are effective over the whole temperature range from 77 K down to 4.2 K. We attribute the substantially enhanced J(c) at 30 K to the weak uncorrelated pinning as well as the strong correlated pinning. Meanwhile, by tripling the REBCO layer thickness to similar to 2.8 mu m, the engineering critical current density J(e) at 30 K exceeds J(e) of optimized Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K.

  13. Added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Jiao, Li; Silverman, Debra T.; Subar, Amy F.; Park, Yikyung; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been hypothesized to be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer, results from epidemiologic studies on added sugar intake are inconclusive. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether the consumption of total added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Design We prospectively examined 487922 men and women aged 50–71 years and free of cancer and diabetes in 1995–96. Total added dietary sugar intake in teaspoons per day (based on USDA’s Pyramid Servings Database) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with adjustment for total energy and potential confounding factors. Results During an average 7.2 years of follow-up, 1258 incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained. The median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles of total added sugar intake were 12.6 g/day and 96.2 g/day. No overall increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed in men or women with high intake of total added sugar or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages. For men and women combined, the multivariate RRs of the highest versus lowest intake categories were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.06; P trend= 0.07) for total added sugar, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.82,1.23; P trend= 0.58) for sweets, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82,1.18; P trend= 0.49) for dairy desserts, 1.12 (95% CI: 0.91,1.39; P trend= 0.35) for sugar added to coffee and tea, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.77,1.31; P trend= 0.76) for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of added sugar, or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18689380

  14. Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day: Study Researchers say billboards, signs and TV ads ... kids typically saw two to four ads a day. Hispanic and black kids saw more ads, an ...

  15. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  16. Detection of added beet sugar in concentrated and single strength fruit juices by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR method): collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, G G; Wood, R; Martin, G J

    1996-01-01

    A collaborative study of the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in fruit juices is reported. This method is complementary to the stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) (AOAC Official Methods 981.09 and 982.21), which can detect sugars derived from plants exhibiting C4 metabolism (corn and sugarcane). It is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is higher in fruit sugars than in beet sugar. The fruit juices are fermented, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-yield NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated on the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is lowered when beet sugar is added to a fruit juice or concentrate. The precision of that method for measuring (D/H)I was observed to be similar to that of other isotope ratio methods: Sr values ranged from 0.19 to 0.25 ppm and SR values varied between 0.21 and 0.37 ppm. An excellent correlation was observed between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotope ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which beet sugar was added were found to have a (D/H)I isotope ratio significantly below the normal value for authentic juice or concentrate of that fruit. The SNIF-NMR method for detection of added beet sugar in fruit juices has been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8757451

  17. Tensor-Based Morphometry as a Neuroimaging Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease: An MRI Study of 676 AD, MCI, and Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6 ± 7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8 ± 7.5), and 181 controls (75.9 ± 5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements - the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers - 1/6 of the normal group - showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies. PMID:18691658

  18. Adding Memantine to Rivastigmine Therapy in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a 12-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riepe, Matthias W.; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Objective: At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Method: Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6–12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5–20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Conclusion: Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:17235381

  19. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. PMID:23123310

  20. Alday-Maldacena Duality and AdS Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.

  1. Inhibition of recombinant N-type and native high voltage-gated neuronal Ca{sup 2+} channels by AdGABA: Mechanism of action studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Sandoval, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Zoidis, Grigoris; Felix, Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    High-voltage activated Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub V}) channels play a key role in the regulation of numerous physiological events by causing transient changes in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration. These channels consist of a pore-forming Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 1} protein and three auxiliary subunits (Ca{sub V}{beta}, Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} and Ca{sub V}{gamma}). Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} is an important component of Ca{sub V} channels in many tissues and of great interest as a drug target. It is well known that anticonvulsant agent gabapentin (GBP) binds to Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} and reduces Ca{sup 2+} currents by modulating the expression and/or function of the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 1} subunit. Recently, we showed that an adamantane derivative of GABA, AdGABA, has also inhibitory effects on Ca{sub V} channels. However, the importance of the interaction of AdGABA with the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} subunit has not been conclusively demonstrated and the mechanism of action of the drug has yet to be elucidated. Here, we describe studies on the mechanism of action of AdGABA. Using a combined approach of patch-clamp recordings and molecular biology we show that AdGABA inhibits Ca{sup 2+} currents acting on Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} only when applied chronically, both in a heterologous expression system and in dorsal root-ganglion neurons. AdGABA seems to require uptake and be acting intracellularly given that its effects are prevented by an inhibitor of the L-amino acid transport system. Interestingly, a mutation in the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} that abolishes GBP binding did not affect AdGABA actions, revealing that its mechanism of action is similar but not identical to that of GBP. These results indicate that AdGABA is an important Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 2}{delta} ligand that regulates Ca{sub V} channels.

  2. Association Between Media Dose, Ad Tagging, and Changes in Web Traffic for a National Tobacco Education Campaign: A Market-Level Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. Objective The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. Results In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (P<.001), 769 total visits (P<.001), and 1255 total page views (P<.001) per week. The associations between GRPs for ads tagged with 1-800-QUIT-NOW and each Web traffic measure were also statistically significant (P<.001), but smaller in magnitude. Conclusions Based on these findings, we estimate that the 16-week 2013 Tips television campaign generated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers’ use of campaign-specific websites. PMID:26887959

  3. Media mating I: newspaper "personals" ads of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Laner, M R; Kamel, G W

    1977-01-01

    Based on a design used in previous research with heterosexuals "Personals" advertisements, this study reports a content analysis of 359 ads placed by male homosexuals. Following exchange theory, it was hypothesized that, as with heterosexuals, a favorable presentation of self would characterize the advertisements. Further hypotheses predicted that homosexual ads would be more frank than are heterosexual ads and more specific about goals for desired relationships, and that homosexual ads would reflect the "virilization" of the male homosexual subculture. All predictions were strongly supported. The overtly sexual explicitness of many of the advertisements was explained on the basis of differences between same- and cross-sex relationships, and male/female differences in conceptualizing "love." PMID:612677

  4. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  5. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  6. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  7. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict monitoring and congruency-based accounts of CSEs. To this end, we determined whether CSEs are driven by previous-trial reaction time (RT)—a putative measure of response conflict—or by previous-trial congruency. In two experiments using a face-word Stroop task (n = 49), we found that current-trial congruency effects did not vary with previous-trial RT independent of previous-trial congruency. In contrast, current-trial congruency effects were influenced by previous-trial congruency independent of previous-trial RT. These findings appear more consistent with theories that attribute CSEs to non-conflict processes whose recruitment varies with previous-trial congruency than with theories that link CSEs to previous-trial response conflict. PMID:24027550

  8. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565

  9. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: `forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times t ˜ S BH , the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1 /c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify `information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.

  10. Ad-hoc and context-dependent adjustments of selective attention in conflict control: an ERP study with visual probes.

    PubMed

    Nigbur, R; Schneider, J; Sommer, W; Dimigen, O; Stürmer, B

    2015-02-15

    Cognitive conflict control in flanker tasks has often been described using the zoom-lens metaphor of selective attention. However, whether and how selective attention - in terms of suppression and enhancement - operates in this context has remained unclear. To examine the dynamic interplay of selective attention and cognitive control we used electrophysiological measures and presented task-irrelevant visual probe stimuli at foveal, parafoveal, and peripheral display positions. Target-flanker congruency varied either randomly from trial to trial (mixed-block) or block-wise (fixed-block) in order to induce reactive versus proactive control modes, respectively. Three EEG measures were used to capture ad-hoc adjustments within trials as well as effects of context-based predictions: the N1 component of the visual evoked potential (VEP) to probes, the VEP to targets, and the conflict-related midfrontal N2 component. Results from probe-VEPs indicate that enhanced processing of the foveal target rather than suppression of the peripheral flankers supports interference control. In incongruent mixed-block trials VEPs were larger to probes near the targets. In the fixed-blocks probe-VEPs were not modulated, but contrary to the mixed-block the preceding target-related VEP was affected by congruency. Results of the control-related N2 reveal largest amplitudes in the unpredictable context, which did not differentiate for stimulus and response incongruency. In contrast, in the predictable context, N2 amplitudes were reduced overall and differentiated between stimulus and response incongruency. Taken together these results imply that predictability alters interference control by a reconfiguration of stimulus processing. During unpredictable sequences participants adjust their attentional focus dynamically on a trial-by-trial basis as reflected in congruency-dependent probe-VEP-modulation. This reactive control mode also elicits larger N2 amplitudes. In contrast, when task demands

  11. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  12. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  13. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  14. The AdS3 × S3 × S3 × S1 Hernández-López phases: a semiclassical derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    This note calculates the Hernández-López phases for strings in AdS3 × S3 × S3 × S1 by semiclassical methods using the d(2, 1; α)2 algebraic curve. By working at general α we include modes absent from previous semiclassical calculations of this phase in AdS3 × S3 × T4, and in particular can study the scattering of particles of different mass. By carefully re-deriving the semiclassical formula we clarify some issues of antisymmetrization, cutoffs and surface terms which could safely be ignored in AdS5 × S5, and some issues about the terms c1, s which were absent there. As a result we see agreement with the recently calculated all-loop dressing phase in the AdS3 × S3 × T4 case, and exactly 1/2 this in the general case AdS3 × S3 × S3 × S1, for any α and any (light) polarizations.

  15. A Study to Test the Feasibility of Determining Whether Classified Want Ads in Daily Newspapers Are an Accurate Reflection of Local Labor Markets and of Significant Use to Employers and Job Seekers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympus Research Corp., Salt Lake City, UT.

    The report summarizes findings of a detailed study to test the feasibility of determining whether want ads in daily newspapers are (1) an accurate reflection of local labor markets and (2) of significant use to employers and job seekers. The study found that want ads are a limited source of information about local labor markets. They are of some…

  16. Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Giribet, Gaston; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

    2009-05-01

    We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1/(2l2), spacetimes with Schrödinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Spacetimes that are asymptotically AdS3, both for the Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by meff2 = m2-1/(2l2). For the critical value m2 = -1/(2l2), the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS3 space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.

  17. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Adding Breadth and Depth to College and University Residential Communities: A Phenomenological Study of Faculty-in-Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Amy M.; Pasque, Penny A.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty-in-residence programs in residence halls are unique opportunities for student-faculty involvement, with high levels of commitment from faculty, students, staff, and institutional resources. This hermeneutic phenomenological study explores a faculty-in-residence program at a four-year public university where the FIR program has resulted in…

  19. Developing School Evaluation Methods to Improve the Quality of Schooling in China: A Pilot "Value Added" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Wen Jung; Thomas, Sally M.; Yang, Xijie; Li, Jianzhong

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the background and findings of a research project on school effectiveness and evaluation in one regional education authority in China. The study was the outcome of a China/UK academic link aiming to improve research capacity and the evaluation of educational quality in China, funded by the British Council in Beijing, on…

  20. Adding Learning Resources: A Study of Two Toddlers' Modes and Trajectories of Participation in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultti, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of children's participation in an Australian early childhood context in which their second language is used. The aim is to create knowledge of toddlers' modes and trajectories of participation. Empirical data documenting the participation of two toddlers were gathered through video observations of everyday…

  1. A Study of the Value Added by Transformational Leadership Practices to Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieres, Katherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Bass and Riggio's (2006) Augmentation Model of Transactional and Transformational Leadership, this quantitative study sought to identify the amount of variance in teacher job satisfaction and organizational commitment that can be explained by principals' transformational leadership behaviors, above and beyond the influence of…

  2. A Study of the Value Added by Transformational Leadership Practices to Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieres, Katherine H.; Gutmore, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bass and Riggio's (2006) Augmentation Model of Transactional and Transformational Leadership, this quantitative study sought to identify the amount of variance in teacher job satisfaction and organizational commitment that can be explained by principals' transformational leadership behaviors, above and beyond the influence of…

  3. Finding out What Users Need and Giving It to Them: A Case-Study at Federal Express (Measuring Value Added).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackos, JoAnn T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a major reorganization and revision of policies and procedures manuals for Federal Express ground operations employees, occurring as a result of a field study and subsequent usability testing. Finds that usability increased substantially, users were satisfied with the quality of the new manuals, and Federal Express experienced…

  4. Calorimetric study of the effect of bent-shaped dopant molecules on the critical behavior at the nematic-smectic-Ad phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Ema, K.; Le, K. V.; Takezoe, H.; Dhara, S.; Sadashiva, B. K.

    2011-06-01

    We report results of calorimetric studies for the binary mixture of rodlike host n-alkyloxy-cyanobiphenyl (nOCB, n=8,9) and bent-shaped guest 1,3-phenylene-bis[4-(3-methylbenzoyloxy)]-4'-n-dodecylbiphenyl-4'-carboxylate (BC12). The effect of bent-shaped dopant molecules on the critical behavior associated with the nematic-smectic-Ad phase transition has been studied in detail. The transition temperature for the nematic-smectic-Ad phase sharply decreases as the increase of the mole fraction of the dopant concentration (denoted X for the BC12/9OCB mixture and Y for the BC12/8OCB mixture). The dependence of the critical exponent α on X and Y is well explained in terms of the McMillan ratio. A nearly tricritical exponent has been obtained for the X=0.01 mixture. X=0.02-0.03 mixtures, pure 8OCB, and Y=0.01-0.03 mixtures exhibit nonuniversal behaviors with effective exponents lying between the 3D-XY and tricritical exponents. The heat capacity anomaly for Y=0.05 has been well described with the 3D-XY exponent. The critical amplitude ratio A-/A+ is close to 1 and insensitive to the dopant concentration. No Fisher renormalization of the critical exponent has been observed even for nearly tricritical compositions, which indicates the smallness of the concentration plays a decisive role rather than the steepness of the N-SmAd phase boundary.

  5. What contributes to a good quality of life in early dementia? awareness and the QoL-AD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-report quality of life (QoL) measures for people with dementia are widely used as outcome measures in trials of dementia care interventions. Depressed mood, relationship quality and neuropsychiatric symptoms predict scores on these measures, whereas cognitive impairment and functional abilities typically do not. This study examines whether these self-reports are influenced by personality and by the person’s awareness of his/her impairments. A strong negative association between QoL and awareness of deficits would have implications for the validity of self-report in this context and for therapeutic interventions aiming to increase adjustment and coping. Methods Participants were 101 individuals with early‒stage dementia and their family carers participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study. QoL was assessed using the QoL-AD scale, and awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning. Self-concept, conscientiousness, quality of relationship and mood were assessed and a brief neuropsychological battery administered. Carers rated their own stress and well-being and reported on neuropsychiatric symptoms. A series of regression analyses predicting QoL-AD were carried out, identifying key variables in each domain of assessment to take forward to an overall model. Results Cognitive impairment was not related to QoL. The final model accounted for 57% of the variance in QoL-AD scores, with significant contributions from depressed mood, severity of irritability shown by the person with dementia, self-concept, quality of relationship (rated by the person with dementia) and male gender. The bivariate relationships of QoL-AD with awareness of memory function, awareness of functional abilities and conscientiousness were mediated by both depressed mood and self-concept. Conclusions This study reports the most comprehensive approach to evaluation of awareness to date. Most of the indices

  6. Safety of pramlintide added to mealtime insulin in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: a large observational study.

    PubMed

    Pencek, R; Roddy, T; Peters, Y; De Young, M B; Herrmann, K; Meller, L; Nguyen, H; Chen, S; Lutz, K

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this Phase 4, open-label, multicentre, observational study was to fulfil food and drug administration (FDA) postapproval requirement to evaluate in healthcare practices the risk of insulin-induced severe hypoglycaemia following initiation of pramlintide therapy in N = 1297 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with inadequate glycaemic control. The duration of the study was approximately 6 months. During the adjustment period (0-3 months), the incidence and event rate of patient-ascertained severe hypoglycaemia (PASH) were 4.8% and 0.33 events/patient-year in patients with T1DM and 2.8% and 0.19 events/patient-year in patients with T2DM. During the maintenance period (>3-6 months), the incidence and event rate of PASH declined in patients with T1DM or T2DM. This study confirms that in healthcare practices, the risk of insulin-induced severe hypoglycaemia following the initiation of pramlintide is low in patients with T1DM or T2DM. PMID:20518811

  7. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  8. Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

  9. Studying of negative ions source based on reflective discharge in regimes with cesium added and without cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.

    1998-08-20

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of physical processes in the source of hydrogen negative ions are presented. The source is based on reflective discharge with incandescent cathode and H{sup -} ions extraction across magnetic field. Calculations of gas discharge plasma parameters for given current and energy of electrons emitted from the cathode are performed in theoretical part of the proceeding. Plasma parameters, including H{sup -} ions concentration, are determined on a basis of Boltzman equation solution taking into consideration principal collision reactions in a volume and at a surface of the discharge chamber.

  10. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0-6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0-6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (-1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  11. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0–6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0–6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (−1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  13. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  14. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  15. Adding a radial dimension to the assessment of esophagogastric junction relaxation: validation studies of the 3D-eSleeve

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfino, John E.; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Escobar, Gabriela; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT) allowed for the establishment of an objective quantitative measurement of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation, the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). This study assessed whether or not a novel 3D-HRM assembly could improve on this measurement. Twenty-five normal subjects were studied with both a standard HRM assembly and a novel hybrid assembly (3D-HRM), including a 9.0 cm 3D-HRM segment composed of 96 radially dispersed independent pressure sensors. The standard IRP was computed using each assembly and compared with a novel paradigm, the 3D-IRP, an analysis premised on finding the axial maximum and radial minimum pressure at each sensor ring along the sleeve segment. Fourteen additional subjects underwent barium swallows with 3D-HRM and concurrent videofluoroscopy to compare the electronic sleeve (eSleeve) paradigm (circumferential average) to the 3D eSleeve paradigm (radial minimum) as a predictor of transphincteric flow. The 3D-IRP was significantly less than all other calculations of IRP with the upper limit of normal being 12 mmHg vs. 17 mmHg for the standard IRP. The sensitivity (0.78) and the specificity (0.88) of the 3D-eSleeve were also better than the standard eSleeve (0.55 and 0.85, respectively) for predicting flow permissive time verified fluoroscopically. The 3D-IRP and 3D-eSleeve calculated using the radial pressure minimum lowered the normative range of EGJ relaxation (upper limit of normal 12 mmHg) and yielded intraluminal pressure gradients that better correlated with bolus flow than did analysis paradigms based on circumferentially averaged pressure. PMID:22628033

  16. Adding a radial dimension to the assessment of esophagogastric junction relaxation: validation studies of the 3D-eSleeve.

    PubMed

    Nicodème, Frédéric; Pandolfino, John E; Lin, Zhiyue; Xiao, Yinglian; Escobar, Gabriela; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT) allowed for the establishment of an objective quantitative measurement of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation, the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). This study assessed whether or not a novel 3D-HRM assembly could improve on this measurement. Twenty-five normal subjects were studied with both a standard HRM assembly and a novel hybrid assembly (3D-HRM), including a 9.0 cm 3D-HRM segment composed of 96 radially dispersed independent pressure sensors. The standard IRP was computed using each assembly and compared with a novel paradigm, the 3D-IRP, an analysis premised on finding the axial maximum and radial minimum pressure at each sensor ring along the sleeve segment. Fourteen additional subjects underwent barium swallows with 3D-HRM and concurrent videofluoroscopy to compare the electronic sleeve (eSleeve) paradigm (circumferential average) to the 3D eSleeve paradigm (radial minimum) as a predictor of transphincteric flow. The 3D-IRP was significantly less than all other calculations of IRP with the upper limit of normal being 12 mmHg vs. 17 mmHg for the standard IRP. The sensitivity (0.78) and the specificity (0.88) of the 3D-eSleeve were also better than the standard eSleeve (0.55 and 0.85, respectively) for predicting flow permissive time verified fluoroscopically. The 3D-IRP and 3D-eSleeve calculated using the radial pressure minimum lowered the normative range of EGJ relaxation (upper limit of normal 12 mmHg) and yielded intraluminal pressure gradients that better correlated with bolus flow than did analysis paradigms based on circumferentially averaged pressure. PMID:22628033

  17. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  18. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  19. Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

  20. Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

    1996-05-28

    The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

  1. Human Health Risk of Ingested Nanoparticles That Are Added as Multifunctional Agents to Paints: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Roesslein, Matthias; Diener, Liliane; Wick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms growing on painted surfaces are not only an aesthetic problem, but also actively contribute to the weathering and deterioration of materials. A widely used strategy to combat microbial colonization is the addition of biocides to the paint. However, ecotoxic, non-degradable biocides with a broad protection range are now prohibited in Europe, so the paint industry is considering engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) as an alternative biocide. There is concern that ENPs in paint might be released in run-off water and subsequently consumed by animals and/or humans, potentially coming into contact with cells of the gastrointestinal tract and affecting the immune system. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of three ENPs (nanosilver, nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilicon dioxide) that have a realistic potential for use in paints in the near future. When exposed to nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilicon dioxide in concentrations up to 243 µg/mL for 48 h, neither the gastrointestinal cells (CaCo-2) nor immune system cells (Jurkat) were significantly affected. However, when exposed to nanosilver, several cell parameters were affected, but far less than by silver ions used as a control. No differences in cytotoxicity were observed when cells were exposed to ENP-containing paint particles, compared with the same paint particles without ENPs. Paint particles containing ENPs did not affect cell morphology, the release of reactive oxygen species or cytokines, cell activity or cell death in a different manner to the same paint particles without ENPs. The results suggest that paints doped with ENPs do not pose an additional acute health hazard for humans. PMID:24358264

  2. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  3. A study on crystalline perfection, optical, dielectric, mechanical, laser damage threshold and NLO properties of glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of glycine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique, slow cooling along with seed rotation and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy method. The size of the grown crystal in slow cooling method was 35×25×20 mm3 and in SR method it was 20 mm in diameter and 110 mm in length. The grown crystals were characterized by HRXRD, UV-Visible, dielectric, Vickers microhardness, laser damage threshold and SHG studies. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystals has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The transmittance of the grown crystals is 66%, 70%, and 77% respectively and all the crystals have good transparency in the entire visible region. The crystal grown by SR method glycine added KDP has much higher hardness value than other method grown crystals. Higher laser damage threshold was observed in SR method grown glycine added KDP crystal compared to SR method grown pure KDP crystal. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the glycine doped KDP is increased compared to pure KDP.

  4. The electrooxidation mechanism of formic acid on platinum and on lead ad-atoms modified platinum studied with the kinetic isotope effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełtowska-Brzezinska, M.; Łuczak, T.; Stelmach, J.; Holze, R.

    2014-04-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of formic acid (FA) oxidation on platinum and upd-lead ad-atoms modified platinum electrodes have been studied using unlabelled and deuterated compounds. Poisoning of the electrode surface by CO-like species was prevented by suppression of dissociative chemisorption of FA due to a fast competitive underpotential deposition of lead ad-atoms on the Pt surface from an acidic solution containing Pb2+ cations. Modification of the Pt electrode with upd lead induced a catalytic effect in the direct electrooxidation of physisorbed FA to CO2. With increasing degree of H/D substitution, the rate of this reaction decreased in the order: HCOOH > DCOOH ≥ HCOOD > DCOOD. HCOOH was oxidized 8.5-times faster on a Pt/Pb electrode than DCOOD. This primary kinetic isotope effect proves that the C-H- and O-H-bonds are simultaneously cleaved in the rate determining step. A secondary kinetic isotope effect was found in the dissociative chemisorption of FA in the hydrogen adsorption-desorption range on a bare Pt electrode after H/D exchange in the C-H bond, wherein the influence of deuterium substitution in the O-H group was negligibly small. Thus the C-H bond cleavage is accompanied by the C-OH and not the O-H bond split in the FA decomposition, producing CO-like species on the Pt surface sites.

  5. A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS)

    PubMed Central

    Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush. Aim Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system. Materials and methods We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine. Discussion and conclusion Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX. PMID:26330902

  6. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  7. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  8. Reference and working memory deficits in the 3xTg-AD mouse between 2 and 15-months of age: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Leanne M; Brown, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Impairments in working memory (WM) can predict the shift from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the rate at which AD progresses with age. The 3xTg-AD mouse model develops both Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the neuro-pathological hallmarks of AD, by 6 months of age, but no research has investigated the age-related changes in WM in these mice. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested male and female 3xTg-AD and wildtype control (B6129SF2/J) mice between 2 and 15 months of age for reference and working memory errors in the 8-arm radial maze. The 3xTg-AD mice had deficits in both working and reference memory across the ages tested, rather than showing the predicted age-related memory deficits. Male 3xTg-AD mice showed more working and reference memory errors than females, but there were no sex differences in wildtype control mice. These results indicate that the 3xTg-AD mouse replicates the impairments in WM found in patients with AD. However, these mice show memory deficits as early as two months of age, suggesting that the genes underlying reference and working memory in these mice cause deficits from an early age. The finding that males were affected more than females suggests that more attention should be paid to sex differences in transgenic AD mice. PMID:25446812

  9. Important differences in the durability of glycaemic response among second-line treatment options when added to metformin in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mamza, Jil; Mehta, Rajnikant; Donnelly, Richard; Idris, Iskandar

    2016-06-01

    Importance There is limited information about the durability of glycaemic control when different oral glucose-lowering therapies (GLTs) are used as add-on treatments to metformin (MET) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective To compare time to treatment failure between different classes of oral GLT when used as second line (add-on) treatments to MET monotherapy at HbA1c ≥ 7.5%. Design, setting and participants A retrospective cohort study on 20,070 patients who were newly treated with a sulphonylurea (SU), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor or thiazolidinedione (TZD) following MET therapy failure (2007-2014). Patients' data was sourced from UK General Practices via The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. The risk of dual therapy failure was compared between three treatment groups: MET + SU (reference group, n = 15,508), MET + DPP-4 inhibitor (n = 3,080) and MET + TZD (n = 1,482). Follow-up was until treatment substitution or intensification with a 3rd GLT, or for up to 5 years (totalling 46,430 person-years). Propensity score weighting and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were employed. Main outcomes and measures Risk of dual therapy failure was compared between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline covariates. Results Unadjusted survival analysis showed the incidence of dual therapy failure at 1 year was 15% with SU, 23% with DPP-4 inhibitor and 8% with TZD. Corresponding failure rates at 2 years were 26, 38 and 12%, respectively. Adjusted multivariate models showed that, compared to the SU group, adding a DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 1.58; 95% CI: 1.48-1.68), while adding a TZD was associated with a reduced hazard (aHR, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.41-0.50). Baseline parameters associated with an increased hazard of intensification included HbA1c, diabetes duration, gender, smoking status and the use of statins

  10. The added value of dynamical downscaling in a climate change scenario simulation:A case study for European Alps and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Since anthropogenic climate change is a rather important factor for the future human life all over the planet and its effects are not globally uniform, climate information at regional or local scales become more and more important for an accurate assessment of the potential impact of climate change on societies and ecosystems. High resolution information with suitably fine-scale for resolving complex geographical features could be a critical factor for successful linkage between climate models and impact assessment studies. However, scale mismatch between them still remains major problem. One method for overcoming the resolution limitations of global climate models and for adding regional details to coarse-grid global projections is to use dynamical downscaling by means of a regional climate model. In this study, the ECHAM5/MPI-OM (1.875 degree) A1B scenario simulation has been dynamically downscaled by using two different approaches within the framework of RegCM3 modeling system. First, a mosaic-type parameterization of subgrid-scale topography and land use (Sub-BATS) is applied over the European Alpine region. The Sub-BATS system is composed of 15 km coarse-grid cell and 3 km sub-grid cell. Second, we developed the RegCM3 one-way double-nested system, with the mother domain encompassing the eastern regions of Asia at 60 km grid spacing and the nested domain covering the Korean Peninsula at 20 km grid spacing. By comparing the regional climate model output and the driving global model ECHAM5/MPI-OM output, it is possible to estimate the added value of physically-based dynamical downscaling when for example impact studies at hydrological scale are performed.

  11. On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter κ and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, κ → ∞, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, κ → i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The κ = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

  12. Rheumatic pains of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Rajala, U; Uusimäki, A; Kivelä, S L

    1995-01-01

    To identify the early diabetic musculoskeletal symptoms of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects, a case-control study was carried out. The cases and controls were recruited from a population aged 55 years. Questions concerning the symptoms were asked before the 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The results show that pain in the right hand was the most prominent symptom among the diabetic women. Pains in the left hand and the shoulders in the diabetic women and pains in the right knee and the right hip joint in the diabetic men tended to be more prevalent than the corresponding symptoms in the controls. The highest prevalence of most musculoskeletal pains occurred in the highest tertile of 2-h OGTT values among women. The conclusion is that the hand pain is closely associated with the development of diabetes and may give clues to an early diagnosis of diabetes in a middle-aged population. PMID:7481588

  13. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-09-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMGΛ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS2, which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMGΛ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δFml and its logarithmic partner δFlog⁡4th.

  14. First principle study of magnetic and electronic properties of single X (X = Al, Si) atom added to small carbon clusters (C n X, n = 2-10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, M.; Hoseini, S. S.; Sargolzaei, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the magnetic and electronic properties of single aluminum and silicon atom added to small carbon clusters (C n X; X = Al, Si; n = 2-10) are studied in the framework of generalized-gradient approximation using density functional theory. The calculations were performed for linear, two dimensional and three dimensional clusters based on full-potential local-orbital (FPLO) method. The total energies, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and total magnetic moments of the most stable structures are presented in this work. The calculations show that C n Si clusters have more stability compared to C n Al clusters. In addition, our magnetic calculations were shown that the C n Al isomers are magnetic objects whereas C n Si clusters are nonmagnetic objects.

  15. Innovations Without Added Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereghino, Edward

    1974-01-01

    There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

  16. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  17. Stress-induced comenditic trachyte effusion triggered by trachybasalt intrusion: multidisciplinary study of the AD 1761 eruption at Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, A.; Zanon, V.; de Groot, L. V.; Hipólito, A.; Di Chiara, A.; Self, S.

    2016-03-01

    The AD 1761 eruption on Terceira was the only historical subaerial event on the island and one of the last recorded in the Azores. The eruption occurred along the fissure zone that crosses the island and produced a trachybasalt lava flow and scoria cones. Small comenditic trachyte lava domes (known as Mistérios Negros) were also thought by some to have formed simultaneously on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we combined geological mapping, paleomagnetic, petrographic, mineral and whole-rock geochemical and structural analyses to study this eruption. The paleomagnetic dating method compared geomagnetic vectors (directions and intensities) recorded by both the AD 1761 lava flow and Mistérios Negros domes and revealed that the two events were indeed coeval. Based on new data and interpretation of historical records, we have accordingly reconstructed the AD 1761 eruptive dynamics and distinguished three phases: (1) a precursory phase characterized by decreased degassing in the fumarolic field of Pico Alto Volcano and a gradual increase of seismic activity, which marked the intrusion of trachybasalt magma; (2) a first eruptive phase that started with phreatic explosions on the eastern flank of Santa Bárbara Volcano, followed by the inconspicuous effusion of comenditic trachyte (66 wt% SiO2), forming a WNW-ESE-oriented chain of lava domes; and (3) a second eruptive phase on the central part of the fissure zone, where a Hawaiian to Strombolian-style eruption formed small scoria cones (E-W to ENE-WSW-oriented) and a trachybasalt lava flow (50 wt% SiO2) which buried 27 houses in Biscoitos village. Petrological analyses show that the two batches of magma were emitted independently without evidence of interaction. We envisage that the dome-forming event was triggered by local stress changes induced by intrusion of the trachybasalt dyke along the fissure zone, which created tensile stress conditions that promoted ascent

  18. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  19. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  20. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  1. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in...

  2. Classical worldsheets for string scattering on flat and AdS spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerfield, Charles M.; Thorn, Charles B.

    2008-08-15

    We present a study of the worldsheets that describe the classical limit of various string scattering processes. Our main focus is on string scattering in AdS spacetime because of its relation via the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence to gluon scattering in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. But we also consider analogous processes in flat Minkowski spacetime which we compare to the AdS case. In addition to scattering of string by string we also find and study worldsheets describing the scattering of a string by external sources.

  3. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  4. 75 FR 9753 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (type certificate previously held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Models B300 and B300C airplanes. This AD requires you to inspect the terminal board on the circuit card rack assembly to determine if the correct bus bar is installed and replace if necessary. This AD also requires you to do an operational......

  5. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  6. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  7. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct). PMID:27125011

  8. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Eric E.; Price, Julie C.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Paljug, William R.; Debnath, Manik L.; Cohen, Anne D.; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(−)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(−) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (<100 pmol/g) and Aβ1–42 (<500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1–42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800–1,700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ1–40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1–40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1–42 only in the [C-11]PiB(−) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(−) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11

  9. Vinflunine – an active chemotherapy for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with a platinum-based regimen: results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Bennouna, J; Breton, J-L; Tourani, J-M; Ottensmeier, C; O'Brien, M; Kosmidis, P; Huat, T E; Pinel, M-C; Colin, C; Douillard, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    A multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial designed to determine the efficacy of single-agent vinflunine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with a platinum-based regimen. The objectives were to assess efficacy in terms of tumour response rate (primary end point), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and to evaluate the toxicity associated with this treatment. Patients with advanced NSCLC with progressive disease having failed prior platinum-based first-line treatment for advanced disease. Five responses out of the 63 treated patients were documented by WHO criteria and validated by an independent panel review (IRP), yielding a response rate of 7.9% (95% CI: 2.6–17.6) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 8.3% (95% CI: 2.8–18.4) in the evaluable population. Disease control was achieved in 35 out of 60 evaluable patients (58.3%). The median duration of response (complete response+partial response), according to modified WHO criteria was 7.8 months (95% CI: 4.6–NR). Median PFS was 2.6 months (95% CI: 1.4–3.8), and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.8–9.2). Grades 3–4 neutropenia was reported in 50% of patients; febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (3.2%); grades 3–4 myalgia and grade 3 constipation were experienced by 10 (15.9%) and six (9.5%) of patients, respectively. Constipation was manageable, noncumulative and could be prevented with laxative prophylaxis. The encouraging results from this phase II study with vinflunine warrant further investigations in phase III trials as second- or first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as a single agent or in combination with other active drugs. PMID:16641911

  10. Adherence to and appropriateness of anti-osteoporotic treatments in patients aged 50 and over in the Valencia Region (Spain). The ESOSVAL-AD Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background A study to evaluate the adherence to and appropriateness of anti-osteoporotic treatments in a cohort of men and women aged 50 and over participating in the ESOSVAL-R study. Methods/Design Design: An observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study; Study subjects: Men and women aged 50 and over living in the Valencia Region (Spain) who initiated treatment between June 15, 2009, and June 15, 2011, in primary healthcare centers with electronic medical records; Data sources: The main data source will be electronic medical records. Measurement of results: Degree of compliance with and persistence of anti-osteoporotic treatments, and the proportion of patients with appropriate anti-osteoporotic treatment in accordance with the most relevant and high impact recommendations with clearly defined treatment algorithms in Spain (the Spanish National Health System guide (2010), the General Practitioners' Society (2007) and the General Directorate for Pharmacy and Medical Products of Madrid (2007)), and with the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF, 2010), and the International Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines (IOF, 2008); Analysis: 1.) Descriptive analysis of patients undergoing treatment and the treatments prescribed; 2.) Descriptive analysis of compliance with and persistence of anti-osteoporotic treatments; 3.) Analysis of factors associated with compliance with and persistence of treatments by Cox proportional hazard regression models, 4.) Descriptive analysis of appropriateness of treatment; 5.) Analysis of factors associated with the appropriateness of treatment by multilevel models (4 levels: patient, doctor, Basic Healthcare Zone/Primary Healthcare Center, and Health Area variables). Discussion ESOSVAL-AD will provide information regarding adherence to osteoporosis treatments and the factors associated with a higher or lower adherence (including the appropriateness of the treatment) in the Spanish context. A better understanding of this

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Umeclidinium Added to Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol in Patients with COPD: Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blind Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Thomas M.; Kerwin, Edward; Singletary, Karen; Brooks, Jean; Church, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Combinations of drugs with distinct and complementary mechanisms of action may offer improved efficacy in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In two 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group studies, patients with COPD were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily umeclidinium (UMEC; 62.5 μg and 125 μg) 
or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL; 250/50 μg). In both studies, the primary efficacy measure was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at Day 85. Secondary endpoints were weighted-mean (WM) FEV1 over 0–6 hours post-dose (Day 84) and rescue albuterol use. Health-related quality of life outcomes (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] and COPD assessment test [CAT]) were also examined. Safety was assessed throughout. Both UMEC+FP/SAL doses provided statistically significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85: 0.127–0.148 L) versus PBO+FP/SAL. Similarly, both UMEC+FP/SAL doses provided statistically-significant improvements in 0–6 hours post-dose WM FEV1 versus PBO+FP/SAL (Day 84: 0.144–0.165 L). Rescue use over Weeks 1–12 decreased with UMEC+FP/SAL in both studies versus PBO+FP/SAL (Study 1, 0.3 puffs/day [both doses]; Study 2, 0.5 puffs/day [UMEC 125+FP/SAL]). Decreases from baseline in CAT score were generally larger for both doses of UMEC+FP/SAL versus PBO+FP/SAL (except for Day 84 Study 2). In Study 1, no differences in SGRQ score were observed between UMEC+FP/SAL and PBO+FP/SAL; however, in Study 2, statistically significant improvements were observed with UMEC 62.5+FP/SAL (Day 28) and UMEC 125+FP/SAL (Days 28 and 84) versus PBO+FP/SAL. The incidence of on-treatment adverse events across all treatment groups was 37–41% in Study 1 and 36–38% in Study 2. Overall, these data indicate that the combination of UMEC+FP/SAL can provide additional benefits over FP/SAL alone in patients with COPD. PMID:26417965

  12. Want Ads and the Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam

    1974-01-01

    The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)

  13. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  14. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kevin D.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37°C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [14C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA–G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively. PMID:16540542

  15. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  16. Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...

  17. Effects of added sucrose and pectin on the rheological behavior and freezing kinetics of passion fruit pulp Studied by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Tânya Sulamytha; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-06-01

    The effects of pectin and sucrose addition on the rheological parameters and freezing kinetic of passion fruit pulp were studied. The effect of the air-blast freezing of passion fruit at -20 °C on the rheological parameters before and after freezing was evaluated. The rheological analyses were carried out using a viscometer at 25 °C, and the readings were converted into rheological measurements using the Mitschka method and fitted to the Ostwald-de Waele model. The freezing kinetics was analyzed using a controlled-temperature cold-stage instrument, which was coupled to a microscope integrated with a video capture system. The concentrations of sucrose and pectin were established using a Composite Rotational Design. The pulps combined with the additives exhibited a pseudoplastic behavior, and the values for the index flow (n) and consistency index (k) before and after freezing differed and were dependent on the additive concentrations. The rates of increase for the frozen areas were evaluated in a microfreezer and were significantly influenced by the additive concentrations. These concentrations were those that presented a lower index flow and a higher consistency index. The results are discussed in terms of the solubility and interaction of the pectin added to the fruit pulp with low pH, the presence of sucrose and low temperature. PMID:26028715

  18. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  19. Metastability in bubbling AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massai, Stefano; Pasini, Giulio; Puhm, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    We study the dynamics of probe M5 branes with dissolved M2 charge in bubbling geometries with SO(4) × SO(4) symmetry. These solutions were constructed by Bena-Warner and Lin-Lunin-Maldacena and correspond to the vacua of the maximally supersymmetric mass-deformed M2 brane theory. We find that supersymmetric probe M2 branes polarize into M5 brane shells whose backreaction creates an additional bubble in the geometry. We explicitly check that the supersymmetric polarization potential agrees with the one found within the Polchinski-Strassler approximation. The main result of this paper is that probe M2 branes whose orientation is opposite to the background flux can polarize into metastable M5 brane shells. These decay to a supersymmetric configuration via brane-flux annihilation. Our findings suggest the existence of metastable states in the mass-deformed M2 brane theory.

  20. Area spectrum of extremal black holes with warped AdS near-horizon geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wen-Yu

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we provide an alternative method to study the area spectrum of certain classes of extremal black holes which have near-horizon geometry as warped AdS. We argue that previous methods which are based on the existence of quasinormal modes may not be applicable in the extremal limit. The topology difference of the near-horizon geometry between non-extremal and extremal black holes implies a separate treatment is needed to study the area discreteness in the extremal limit. To be specific, we will study area spectrum of supersymmetric BMPV black holes/black rings and Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes at the extremal limit. Inspired by the recently established Kerr/CFT and RN/CFT correspondence, we propose a new way to quantize the area regardless of the (non-)existence of quasinormal modes or zero Hawking temperature. At last, we propose a dilute gas model and harmonic oscillator model which have same degrees of freedom as the dual CFT.

  1. An xp model on AdS2 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  2. Observational Timing Study on the SAT Reasoning Test™ for Test-Takers with Learning Disabilities and/or AD/HD. Research Report No. 2006-4. ETS RR-06-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalan-Laitusis, Cara; King, Teresa C.; Cline, Frederick; Bridgeman, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide information on actual time used by students with disabilities on the new SAT®. This study observed students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) as they took SAT items under strict time limits and recorded the amount of time taken for each item. The study is…

  3. Does an eye-hand coordination test have added value as part of talent identification in table tennis? A validity and reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7-12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. 'Within session' reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate 'between sessions' reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between -8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between -3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test. PMID:24465638

  4. Missing top of the AdS resonance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ϕN and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.

  5. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  6. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and…

  7. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of massive arbitrary spin fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Poincaré parametrization of AdS space, we study massive totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by using Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the mass parameter, curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS massive fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Three representations for the Lagrangian are discussed. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of the Bessel function. New simple representation for gauge invariant Lagrangian of massive (A)dS field in arbitrary coordinates is obtained. Light-cone gauge Lagrangian of massive AdS field is also presented.

  8. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen; Ovesen, Lars; Lau, Cathrine; Pisinger, Charlotta; Smith, Lisa von Huth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308). Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356) and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003). No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01) and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05). Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10). The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat intake in women. Conclusion

  9. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  10. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

  11. A Phase Ia Study to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of New Malaria Vaccine Candidates ChAd63 CS Administered Alone and with MVA CS

    PubMed Central

    de Barra, Eoghan; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Ewer, Katie J.; Bliss, Carly M.; Hennigan, Kerrie; Collins, Ann; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Development of an effective vaccine would be a key intervention to reduce the considerable social and economic impact of malaria. Methodology We conducted a Phase Ia, non-randomized, clinical trial in 24 healthy, malaria-naïve adults of the chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) replication-deficient viral vectored vaccines encoding the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of P. falciparum. Results ChAd63-MVA CS administered in a heterologous prime-boost regime was shown to be safe and immunogenic, inducing high-level T cell responses to CS. With a priming ChAd63 CS dose of 5×109 vp responses peaked at a mean of 1947 SFC/million PBMC (median 1524) measured by ELIspot 7 days after the MVA boost and showed a mixed CD4+/CD8+ phenotype. With a higher priming dose of ChAd63 CS dose 5×1010 vp T cell responses did not increase (mean 1659 SFC/million PBMC, median 1049). Serum IgG responses to CS were modest and peaked at day 14 post ChAd63 CS (median antibody concentration for all groups at day 14 of 1.3 µg/ml (range 0–11.9), but persisted throughout late follow-up (day 140 median antibody concentration groups 1B & 2B 0.9 µg/ml (range 0–4.7). Conclusions ChAd63-MVA is a safe and highly immunogenic delivery platform for the CS antigen in humans which warrants efficacy testing. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01450280 PMID:25522180

  12. Study of the effect of nano-sized precipitates on the mechanical properties of boron-added low-carbon steels by neutron scattering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Seong, B. S.; Cho, Y. R.; Shin, E. J.; Kim, S. I.; Choi, S.-H.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J.

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron powder diffraction (ND) techniques were used to study quantitatively the effect of nano-sized precipitates and boron addition on the mechanical properties of low-carbon steels. SANS was used to evaluate nano-sized precipitates, smaller than about 600 Å in diameter, and ND was used to determine the weight fraction of the cementite precipitates. Fine core–shell structured spherical precipitates with an average radius of ~50 Å, such as MnS and/or CuS, surrounded by BN layers were observed in the boron-added (BA) low-carbon steels; fine spherical precipitates with an average radius of ~48 Å were mainly observed in the boron-free (BF) low-carbon steels. In the BA steels, the number of boron precipitates, such as BN, Fe3(C,B) and MnS, surrounded by BN layers increased drastically at higher hot-rolling temperatures. The volume fraction of the fine precipitates of the BA steels was higher than that of the BF steels; this difference is related to the rapid growth of the BN layers on the MnS and CuS precipitates. Boron addition to low-carbon steels resulted in a reduction in strength and an improvement in elongation; this behaviour is related to the reduction of the solute carbon and the nitrogen contents in the ferrite matrix caused by the precipitation of BN, as well by the increase in the volume fraction of the cementites. PMID:19461851

  13. Study of the effect of nano-sized precipitates on the mechanical properties of boron-added low-carbon steels by neutron scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Seong, B S; Cho, Y R; Shin, E J; Kim, S I; Choi, S-H; Kim, H R; Kim, Y J

    2008-10-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron powder diffraction (ND) techniques were used to study quantitatively the effect of nano-sized precipitates and boron addition on the mechanical properties of low-carbon steels. SANS was used to evaluate nano-sized precipitates, smaller than about 600 A in diameter, and ND was used to determine the weight fraction of the cementite precipitates. Fine core-shell structured spherical precipitates with an average radius of ~50 A, such as MnS and/or CuS, surrounded by BN layers were observed in the boron-added (BA) low-carbon steels; fine spherical precipitates with an average radius of ~48 A were mainly observed in the boron-free (BF) low-carbon steels. In the BA steels, the number of boron precipitates, such as BN, Fe(3)(C,B) and MnS, surrounded by BN layers increased drastically at higher hot-rolling temperatures. The volume fraction of the fine precipitates of the BA steels was higher than that of the BF steels; this difference is related to the rapid growth of the BN layers on the MnS and CuS precipitates. Boron addition to low-carbon steels resulted in a reduction in strength and an improvement in elongation; this behaviour is related to the reduction of the solute carbon and the nitrogen contents in the ferrite matrix caused by the precipitation of BN, as well by the increase in the volume fraction of the cementites. PMID:19461851

  14. Randomized Phase II Study of Docetaxel plus Personalized Peptide Vaccination versus Docetaxel plus Placebo for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Wild Type EGFR Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Koichi; Sugawara, Shunichi; Saijo, Yasuo; Maemondo, Makoto; Sato, Atsushi; Takamori, Shinzo; Harada, Taishi; Sasada, Tetsuro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Yamada, Akira; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) combined with chemotherapy for patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods. Previously treated PS0-1 patients with IIIB/IV EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) wild genotype NSCLC were randomly assigned to docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on Day 1) plus PPV based on preexisting host immunity or docetaxel plus placebo. Docetaxel administration was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Personalized peptides or placebo was injected subcutaneously weekly in the first 8 weeks and biweekly in subsequent 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results. PPV related toxicity was grade 2 or less skin reaction. The median PFS for placebo arm and PPV arm was 52 days and 59 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between two arms by log-rank test (p = 0.42). Interestingly, PFS and overall survival (OS) in humoral immunological responder were significantly longer than those in nonresponder. Conclusion. PPV did not improve the survival in combination with docetaxel for previously treated advanced NSCLC. However, PPV may be efficacious for the humoral immunological responders and a further clinical investigation is needed. PMID:27274999

  15. Adding a Vocabulary Component to Incremental Rehearsal to Enhance Retention and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of adding a semantic component, in the form of vocabulary, to the incremental rehearsal (IR) procedure. Sixty-one second- and third-grade students in a suburban elementary school were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: IR or IR with vocabulary. Each participant was taught seven previously unknown…

  16. X-ray-induced specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of Neurospora crassa. X. Heterozygous effects of multilocus deletion mutations of genotype ad-3A or ad-3B.

    PubMed

    de Serres, F J; Overton, L K; Sadler, B M

    1992-05-01

    Previous studies on X-ray-induced irreparable adenine-3 mutations (designated [ad-3]IR), induced in heterokaryon 12 of Neurospora crassa, demonstrated that they were not recessive and exhibited heterozygous effects in terms of markedly reduced linear growth rates (de Serres, 1965). Complementation tests with a series of tester strains carrying multilocus deletion mutations in the ad-3 and immediately adjacent genetic regions demonstrated that X-ray-induced irreparable mutations map, in the main part, as a series of overlapping multilocus deletion mutations that extend both proximally and distally into the immediately adjacent genetic regions, as well as into the 'X' region (a region of unknown, but essential function) between ad-3A and ad-3B (de Serres, 1968, 1989). Further studies (de Serres and Miller, 1988) have shown that the heterozygous effects of multilocus deletion mutations in the ad-3 region can be modified genetically and biochemically. In the present paper, the heterozygous effects of X-ray-induced multilocus deletion mutations of genotype ad-3A or ad-3B, induced in heterokaryon 12 (Webber and de Serres, 1965; de Serres, 1988, 1989), have been determined. These data show that 57.7% (15/26) of X-ray-induced multilocus deletion mutations covering the ad-3A locus have heterozygous effects, in terms of reduced linear growth rates, in forced dikaryons with a gene/point mutant at the ad-3B locus and 80.0% (20/25) in forced dikaryons with a multilocus deletion mutation covering the ad-3B locus. In addition, 35.1% (20/57) of X-ray-induced multilocus deletion mutations covering the ad-3B locus have heterozygous effects in forced dikaryons with a gene/point mutant at the ad-3A locus, and 100.0% (35/35) in forced dikaryons with a multilocus deletion mutation covering the ad-3A locus. These results demonstrate that the dominant or recessive characteristics of X-ray-induced specific-locus mutations resulting from multilocus deletion mutations are allele specific

  17. Back pain in a previously healthy teenager.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Howard, Julia; Bailey, Fiona; Soleimanian, Sorrush

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old previously healthy boy who presented to his general practitioner with back pain and fever after rugby training. He was initially treated for suspected discitis but during the course of his admission he rapidly deteriorated and developed severe necrotising pneumonia. He was intubated, ventilated and transferred to a paediatric intensive care unit. Panton-Valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus was suspected and subsequently identified in blood cultures. PMID:23867883

  18. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  19. A User Study of the Design Issues of PROPIE: A Novel Environment for Enhanced Interaction and Value-Adding of Electronic Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li; Foo, Schubert; Chennupati, K. R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a proposed information environment (PROPIE) for enhanced interaction and value-adding of electronic documents that allows users multiple ways to query intuitively and navigate information in an electronic document. Highlights include user interface technologies; visualization and interactive techniques; query and browsing processes; and…

  20. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...

  1. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  2. Does an Eye-Hand Coordination Test Have Added Value as Part of Talent Identification in Table Tennis? A Validity and Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Irene R.; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the added value, i.e. discriminative and concurrent validity and reproducibility, of an eye-hand coordination test relevant to table tennis as part of talent identification. Forty-three table tennis players (7–12 years) from national (n = 13), regional (n = 11) and local training centres (n = 19) participated. During the eye-hand coordination test, children needed to throw a ball against a vertical positioned table tennis table with one hand and to catch the ball correctly with the other hand as frequently as possible in 30 seconds. Four different test versions were assessed varying the distance to the table (1 or 2 meter) and using a tennis or table tennis ball. ‘Within session’ reproducibility was estimated for the two attempts of the initial tests and ten youngsters were retested after 4 weeks to estimate ‘between sessions’ reproducibility. Validity analyses using age as covariate showed that players from the national and regional centres scored significantly higher than players from the local centre in all test versions (p<0.05). The tests at 1 meter demonstrated better discriminative ability than those at 2 meter. While all tests but one had a positive significant association with competition outcome, which were corrected for age influences, the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter showed the highest association (r = 0.54; p = 0.001). Differences between the first and second attempts were comparable for all test versions (between −8 and +7 repetitions) with ICC's ranging from 0.72 to 0.87. The smallest differences were found for the test with a table tennis ball at 1 meter (between −3 and +3 repetitions). Best test version as part of talent identification appears to be the version with a table tennis ball at 1 meter regarding the psychometric characteristics evaluated. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive value of this test. PMID:24465638

  3. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  4. Per aspirin ad astra...

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

  5. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  6. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  7. Previously Unrecognized Large Lunar Impact Basins Revealed by Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of a large population of apparently buried impact craters on Mars, revealed as Quasi- Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [1,2,3] and as Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) [4] in crustal thickness model data [5] leads to the obvious question: are there unrecognized impact features on the Moon and other bodies in the solar system? Early analysis of Clementine topography revealed several large impact basins not previously known [6,7], so the answer certainly is "Yes." How large a population of previously undetected impact basins, their size frequency distribution, and how much these added craters and basins will change ideas about the early cratering history and Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon remains to be determined. Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data [8] will be able to address these issues. As a prelude, we searched the state-of-the-art global topographic grid for the Moon, the Unified Lunar Control Net (ULCN) [9] for evidence of large impact features not previously recognized by photogeologic mapping, as summarized by Wilhelms [lo].

  8. From the generalized uncertainty relations on fuzzy AdS 2 to the Poincaré geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, H.; Hashemi, A.; Lotfizadeh, M.

    2012-03-01

    The positive and discrete unitary irreps of SU(1,1) are used to construct fuzzy (Euclidean) AdS 2. Two different types of uncertainty relation involving the Weyl-Heisenberg and a weaker type are studied. It is shown that there are no generalized coherent states which simultaneously minimize the Weyl-Heisenberg uncertainty relations among three non-commuting embedding coordinates of the fuzzy AdS 2. However, generalized squeezed states that simultaneously satisfy the three weaker uncertainty relations do exist, and reproduce some properties of the classical AdS 2. Up to a common scaling factor in terms of the irrep label, the expectation values of the non-commuting coordinates over such states are described in the same manner as the classical AdS 2, in terms of the Poincaré coordinates. The expectation values on the fuzzy AdS 2 tend to their corresponding values in the commutative limit.

  9. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of arbitrary spin fields in AdS and modified de Donder gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Using Poincaré parametrization of AdS space, we study totally symmetric arbitrary spin massless fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized similarly to the ones of Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of the Bessel function. Interrelations between our approach to the massless AdS fields and the Stueckelberg approach to massive fields in flat space are discussed.

  10. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compère, Geoffrey

    2009-04-01

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS4. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdSd are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0≤|m|<1/2lAdS. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is “renormalized” accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/lAdS to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS4 supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  11. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  12. Novel Adenovirus type 5 vaccine platform induces cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Nef despite the presence of Ad5 immunity.

    PubMed

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Yoshida, Lois H; Balint, Joseph; Amalfitano, Andrea; Jones, Frank R

    2009-10-30

    Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We previously reported the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (CMI) against HIV-1 Gag in Ad5 hyper immune mice. Here, the effectiveness of the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] vaccine platform was evaluated using a triad mixture of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef as antigenic transgenes. Broad CMI was induced following vaccination with the HIV-1 expressing vectors in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immunized mice. A mixture of the three vaccines induced CMI against each transgene product even in the presence of hyper Ad5 immunity. These studies revealed that CMI responses to immunization with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-gag, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-pol or Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-nef vectors were transgene specific and did not induce CMI responses against irrelevant antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) or influenza virus antigens. We are evaluating this recombinant triad viral vector as an HIV-1 vaccine in a non-human primate model and the data indicate that the vaccine is worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:19559110

  13. Ad35 and Ad26 Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent and Cross-Reactive Antibody and T-Cell Responses to Multiple Filovirus Species

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Roland; Gillisen, Gert; Roos, Anna; Koning, Marina; van der Helm, Esmeralda; Spek, Dirk; Weijtens, Mo; Grazia Pau, Maria; Radošević, Katarina; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Custers, Jerome; Vellinga, Jort; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Goudsmit, Jaap; Rodríguez, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Filoviruses cause sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa in the human population. Currently, no drug or vaccine is available for treatment or prevention. A previous study with a vaccine candidate based on the low seroprevalent adenoviruses 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) was shown to provide protection against homologous Ebola Zaire challenge in non human primates (NHP) if applied in a prime-boost regimen. Here we have aimed to expand this principle to construct and evaluate Ad26 and Ad35 vectors for development of a vaccine to provide universal filovirus protection against all highly lethal strains that have caused major outbreaks in the past. We have therefore performed a phylogenetic analysis of filovirus glycoproteins to select the glycoproteins from two Ebola species (Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan/Gulu,), two Marburg strains (Marburg Angola and Marburg Ravn) and added the more distant non-lethal Ebola Ivory Coast species for broadest coverage. Ad26 and Ad35 vectors expressing these five filovirus glycoproteins were evaluated to induce a potent cellular and humoral immune response in mice. All adenoviral vectors induced a humoral immune response after single vaccination in a dose dependent manner that was cross-reactive within the Ebola and Marburg lineages. In addition, both strain-specific as well as cross-reactive T cell responses could be detected. A heterologous Ad26–Ad35 prime-boost regime enhanced mainly the humoral and to a lower extend the cellular immune response against the transgene. Combination of the five selected filovirus glycoproteins in one multivalent vaccine potentially elicits protective immunity in man against all major filovirus strains that have caused lethal outbreaks in the last 20 years. PMID:23236343

  14. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  15. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  16. Music and Moral Judgment: The Effect of Background Music on the Evaluation of Ads Promoting Unethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Hoftman, Moran; Geyer, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described…

  17. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  18. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female. PMID:16075265

  19. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  20. Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus

    2013-07-01

    We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.

  1. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  2. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  3. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  4. Past climate variability inferred from statistical processing of documentary data: a case study on extreme meteorological events in western central France from 1500 to 2000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Audé, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    about past climate changes since 1500 AD. Temperature-related events show a significant negative correlation (R2 = -0.49, p = 0) with δ14C curve (Reimer et al., 2004), whereas precipitation-related events show a significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.66, p = 0) with the same curve. As an example, recurrent flood and rainfall events occurred from 1630 to 1720 and from 1800 to 1830, which corresponds to the Maunder and Dalton periods of minimum solar activity respectively. Spectral analysis carried out on the 4 classes of events revealed several cycles in the data, in particular a 11 year cycle that corresponds to the Schwabe cycle, and a 85 year cycle that might be related to Gleissberg cycle. The last 150 years display unusual conditions with increasing storms, gales and droughts. The documentary data analysed in the present study might provide interesting information about the consequences of human-induced global warming on extreme meteorological events. They would also be useful as a source of information about local climate variations. References: Audé J.L., 2006. Chronique du climat en Poitou-Charentes Vendée. Lonali Editions, France, 152 pp. Leijonhufvud L., Wilson R., Moberg A. 2008. The Holocene 18(2), 333-343 Planton S., Déqué M., Chauvin F., Terray L., 2008. Comptes Rendus Geosciences, 340 (9-10), 564-574. Reimer P.J. et al., 2004. Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Rodrigo F.S., 2008. Climatic Change 87, 471-487. Sánchez E., Gallardo C., Gaertner M.A, Arribas A., Castro M., 2004. Global and Planetary Change 44, 163-180. Wheeler D., 2006. Archives 31, 119-132.

  5. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  6. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  7. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    PubMed

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available. PMID:25799862

  8. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended. PMID:25738720

  9. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  10. Short-term memory binding is impaired in AD but not in non-AD dementias.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Abrahams, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Binding is a cognitive function responsible for integrating features within complex stimuli (e.g., shape-colour conjunctions) or events within complex memories (e.g., face-name associations). This function operates both in short-term memory (STM) and in long-term memory (LTM) and is severely affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, forming conjunctions in STM is the only binding function which is not affected by healthy ageing or chronic depression. Whether this specificity holds true across other non-AD dementias is as yet unknown. The present study investigated STM conjunctive binding in a sample of AD patients and patients with other non-AD dementias using a task which has proved sensitive to the effects of AD. The STM task assesses the free recall of objects, colours, and the bindings of objects and colours. Patients with AD, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, lewy body dementia and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease showed memory, visuo-spatial, executive and attentional deficits on standard neuropsychological assessment. However, only AD patients showed STM binding deficits. This deficit was observed even when memory for single features was at a similar level across patient groups. Regression and discriminant analyses confirmed that the STM binding task accounted for the largest proportion of variance between AD and non-AD groups and held the greatest classification power to identify patients with AD. STM conjunctive binding places little demands on executive functions and appears to be subserved by components of the memory network which are targeted by AD, but not by non-AD dementias. PMID:22289292

  11. [Replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament by a PET prosthesis (Trevira extra-strength) as a salvage procedure in chronically unstable previously operated knee joints. Intermediate to long-term results of a clinical study].

    PubMed

    Letsch, R; Stürmer, K M; Kock, H J; Wissing, H; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1994-12-01

    Thirty-one salvage cases of chronically unstable previously operated knees were stabilized by an anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis of polyethyleneterephthalate (Trevira hochfest) and additional repair of concomitant lesions. The patients were followed up at yearly intervals. For the final follow-up after 4.4 years 27 patients could be evaluated clinically, radiologically and by several scores. The pre-operative Lysholm score was 59.8 (+/- 16.7). It was raised significantly by the operation to 75.4 (+/- 18.9) after 1 year, but then gradually decreased to 71.4 (+/- 19.6) at the final examination. Similar values were reached for the other scores (OAK, IKDC, VAS). The degree of activity (as estimated by the Tegner activity scale) increased from 2.0 (+/- 2.1) to 3.1 (+/- 1.9). Pre-operative anterior translation revealed a side-to-side difference of 7.5 (+/- 3.4) mm. The stability, which was restored by the operation, gave way a little in the first 2 years up to a side-to-side difference of 2.1 (+/- 2.5) mm, but then remained constant and was measured 2.3 (+/- 2.9) mm after 4.4 years. On the whole, the patients gained a significant improvement from the operation in all investigated parameters. Major complications included 5 ruptures of the synthetic ligament (1 by material fatigue), 1 avulsion of a staple, 1 supracondylar fracture due to 3 closely located staples, 4 cases of arthrofibrosis and 1 case of chronic knee irritation. The gradual deterioration of the operated knees within the follow-up period is mainly caused by the pre-existing chronic degenerative changes, which progress in spite of a sufficient stabilization of the central pivot. PMID:7871606

  12. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  13. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  14. 78 FR 68688 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all EADS CASA (Type Certificate previously held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A.) Model CN-235, CN-235-100, CN-235-200, CN-235-300, and C-295 airplanes. This AD requires inspection of the feeder cables of certain fuel booster pumps for damage (including, but not limited to, signs of electrical arcing and fuel leaks), and replacement if......

  15. The Role of Students' Previous Understandings in Reasoning Across Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casperson, Janet Marie

    Learning is typically thought of as a change in a student's understanding within a single context. The term context is used here to describe a domain or subdomain of knowledge. Students' previous understandings of the context are known to play a considerable role in such learning. Another important kind of learning is reasoning across contexts. Through reasoning across contexts, students' understanding of one context influences understanding of another context. This dissertation investigated the role of students' previous understandings in this reasoning process. Psychology research has employed one type of experimental design to investigate reasoning across contexts. This has resulted in focus on a particular way of reasoning across contexts, called analogical transfer, in which participants' previous understandings play a minimal role. In contrast, this dissertation employed a case study design for the purpose of investigating the role of participants' previous understandings in reasoning across contexts. Participants' previous understandings of contexts were discovered to play a considerable role in their reasoning across contexts. Three categories of ways of reasoning across contexts in which students' previous understandings play a role were identified. In the first of these, a participant's new understanding of a context is a combination of ideas used previously to understand the same context and ideas used to understand another context. In the second, an idea from either the participant's previous understanding or from the participant's understanding of another context is modified to contribute to a new understanding. In the third, an idea from the participant's previous understanding is brought into different focus through comparison with a corresponding idea from another context. These three are termed combining, modifying, and refocusing interactions, respectively. Understanding of these different possible roles for students' previous understandings in

  16. Mycobacterium microti: More diverse than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Smith, N H; Crawshaw, T; Parry, J; Birtles, R J

    2009-08-01

    Mycobacterium microti is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. This species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. More recently, specific deletions of chromosomal DNA have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region RD1(mic). We describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Great Britain over a 14-year period. All strains have characteristic loss of some spoligotype spacers and characteristic alleles at the ETR-E and ETR-F variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci, and a sample of these strains was deleted for regions RD7, RD9, and RD1(mic) but intact for regions RD4 and RD12. We therefore identified these strains as M. microti and show that they have much more diverse spoligotype patterns and VNTR types than previously thought. The most common source of these strains was domestic cats, and we show that the molecular types of M. microti are geographically localized in the same way that molecular types of Mycobacterium bovis are geographically localized in cattle in the United Kingdom. We describe the pathology of M. microti infection in cats and suggest that the feline disease is a spillover from a disease maintained in an unknown wild mammal, probably field voles. The location of the cats with M. microti infection suggests that they do not overlap geographically with the strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. PMID:19535520

  17. Mycobacterium microti: More Diverse than Previously Thought▿

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N. H.; Crawshaw, T.; Parry, J.; Birtles, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium microti is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. This species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. More recently, specific deletions of chromosomal DNA have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region RD1mic. We describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Great Britain over a 14-year period. All strains have characteristic loss of some spoligotype spacers and characteristic alleles at the ETR-E and ETR-F variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci, and a sample of these strains was deleted for regions RD7, RD9, and RD1mic but intact for regions RD4 and RD12. We therefore identified these strains as M. microti and show that they have much more diverse spoligotype patterns and VNTR types than previously thought. The most common source of these strains was domestic cats, and we show that the molecular types of M. microti are geographically localized in the same way that molecular types of Mycobacterium bovis are geographically localized in cattle in the United Kingdom. We describe the pathology of M. microti infection in cats and suggest that the feline disease is a spillover from a disease maintained in an unknown wild mammal, probably field voles. The location of the cats with M. microti infection suggests that they do not overlap geographically with the strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. PMID:19535520

  18. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  19. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  20. Reconsolidation may incorporate state-dependency into previously consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rodrigo O; Cassini, Lindsey F; Santana, Fabiana; Crestani, Ana P; Duran, Johanna M; Haubrich, Josué; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas; Quillfeldt, Jorge A

    2013-07-01

    Some memories enter into a labile state after retrieval, requiring reconsolidation in order to persist. One functional role of memory reconsolidation is the updating of existing memories. There are reports suggesting that reconsolidation can be modulated by a particular endogenous process taking place concomitantly to its natural course, such as water or sleep deprivation. Here, we investigated whether an endogenous process activated during a natural/physiological experience, or a pharmacological intervention, can also contribute to memory content updating. Using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rats, we found that the endogenous content of an aversive memory can be updated during its reconsolidation incorporating consequences of natural events such as water deprivation, transforming a previously stored memory into a state-dependent one. This updating seems to be mediated by the activation of angiotensin AT1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and local infusion of human angiotensin II (ANGII) was shown to mimic the water deprivation effects on memory reconsolidation. Systemic morphine injection was also able to turn a previously acquired experience into a state-dependent memory, reproducing the very same effects obtained by water deprivation or local angiotensin II infusion, and suggesting that other state-dependent-inducing protocols would also be able to contribute to memory updating. These findings trigger new insights about the influence of ordinary daily life events upon memory in its continuing reconstruction, adding the realm of reconsolidation to the classical view of endogenous modulation of consolidation. PMID:23782508

  1. Non-susy D3 brane and an interpolating solution between AdS5 black hole, AdS5 soliton and a `soft-wall' gravity solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibaji

    2015-10-01

    It is known from the work in [1] of Lu et al. that the non-supersymmetric charged D3-brane (with anisotropies in time as well as one of the spatial directions of D3-brane) of type IIB string theory is characterized by five independent parameters. By fixing one of the parameters and zooming into a particular region of space-time we construct a four parameter family of solution in AdS5, which interpolates between AdS5 black hole and AdS5 soliton (when one of the spatial directions in the Poincare coordinates is compact) by continuously changing the parameters (there is no need to take a double Wick rotation as is usual to go from one solution to the other) from one set of values to another. We consider two cases. In the first case the dilaton is constant for this transition and there are only three independent parameters, whereas in the second case the dilaton varies and there are four independent parameters. In the latter case, the solution interpolates between AdS5 black hole, AdS5 soliton as well as the so-called `soft-wall' gravity solution of AdS/QCD model. We also compare our solution to the previously obtained Constable-Myers solution which is helpful in generalizing the solution for other D p (for p ≠ 3) branes.

  2. Previous Mental Distress May Slow Concussion Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concussion Recovery If 'psychosomatic symptoms' were present before head injury, it took twice as long for most athletes ... and pains caused by mental distress -- before their head injury, new research suggests. The study included 127 high ...

  3. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  4. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  5. Phase II study of methotrexate, vincristine, pegylated-asparaginase, and dexamethasone (MOpAD) in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kadia, Tapan M.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Thomas, Deborah A.; O’Brien, Susan; Estrov, Zeev; Ravandi, Farhad; Jabbour, Elias; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval; Wang, Xuemei; Jain, Preetesh; Pierce, Sherry; Brandt, Mark; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cortes, Jorge; Borthakur, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Newer approaches are needed for the treatment of relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Asparaginase-based regimens are active in the treatment of pediatric ALL and may be important in salvage therapy for adult patients. We conducted a pilot trial combining methotrexate, vincristine, PEGylated-asparaginase, and dexamethasone (MOpAD) in adults with relapsed or refractory ALL. We added tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) ALL and rituximab in patients with CD20 positive B-cell ALL. Among 37 patients treated (median age 42 years; median 2 prior therapies), the complete remission (CR) rate was 28% and an overall response rate (ORR) was 39%. The median CR duration was 4.3 months. Patients with Ph+ ALL had CR and ORR of 50% and 67%, respectively and the CR and ORR in patients with T-cell leukemia were 45% and 56%, respectively. The median survival in patients with CR/CRp was 10.4 versus 3.4 months in nonresponders (P =0.02). The most common grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicities were elevations in bilirubin and transaminases, nausea, peripheral neuropathy, and hyperglycemia, which were managed with supportive care, dose adjustments, and interruptions. PMID:25368968

  6. Excess conductivity analysis in YBa2Cu3O7‑d added with SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Salem, M. Ben; Azzouz, F. Ben

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles (denoted NP-SiO2) and nanowires (denoted NW-SiO2) additions during the final processing stage on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123 for brevity) in the mean field region has been reported. Series of samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid-state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 0.5 wt.%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity properties have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical measurements. TEM investigations show the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples, however nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. The fluctuation conductivity was analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Using the Lawrence-Doniach equations, the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number (NG) and equations, the coherence length, the effective layer thickness, the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0) and the critical current density Jc(0) were estimated. It was found that the addition of an optimum concentration of SiO2 nanomaterials, that depends on the shape, effectively controlled the microstructure, the grains coupling and hence improved the physical properties of Y-123 compound.

  7. Type I interferon-dependent activation of NK cells by rAd28 or rAd35, but not rAd5, leads to loss of vector-insert expression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew J; Björkström, Niklas K; Petrovas, Constantinos; Liang, Frank; Gall, Jason G D; Loré, Karin; Koup, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    Vaccines constructed from rare-serotype recombinant adenovirus vectors (rAd) such as rAd serotype 28 (rAd28) and rAd35 are currently being explored as alternatives to rAd5-based vaccines because they circumvent the problems with pre-existing immunity that complicate the effectiveness of rAd5 vaccines. However, previous work has demonstrated that the immunogenicity of rAd28 and rAd35 is substantially lower than rAd5. Here we show that rAd28 and rAd35 increase apoptosis of antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as monocytes, relative to rAd5 and mock infected controls. APCs undergoing apoptosis showed an increased loss of vector-insert expression. Loss of vector-insert expression correlated with activation of NK cells, which resulted in apoptosis of co-cultured monocytes. Finally, we show that activation of NK cells is dependent on IFNα which is produced by exposure to rAd28 or rAd35, but not to rAd5. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IFNα-induced activation of NK cells leads to increased monocyte apoptosis and subsequent vector-insert loss. This may be a possible mechanism that results in reduced immunogenicity of rAd28 and rAd35-based vectors. PMID:24325826

  8. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  9. The Antiproton Decelerator: AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, S.; Berlin, D.; Boillot, J.; Bosser, J.; Brouet, M.; Buttkus, J.; Caspers, F.; Chohan, V.; Dekkers, D.; Eriksson, T.; Garoby, R.; Giannini, R.; Grobner, O.; Gruber, J.; Hemery, J. Y.; Koziol, H.; Maccaferri, R.; Maury, S.; Metzger, C.; Metzmacher, K.; Möhl, D.; Mulder, H.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pedersen, F.; Riunaud, J. P.; Serre, C.; Simon, D. J.; Tranquille, G.; Tuyn, J.; Williams, B.

    1997-02-01

    In view of a possible future programme of physics with low-energy antiprotons, a simplified scheme for the provision of antiprotons at 100 MeV/ c has been studied. It uses the present target area and the modified Antiproton Collector (AC) in its present location. In this report the modifications and the operation are discussed.

  10. Warped AdS3 black holes in higher derivative gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Stéphane; Douxchamps, Laure-Anne; Ng, Gim Seng; Zwikel, Céline

    2016-06-01

    We consider warped AdS3 black holes in generic higher derivatives gravity theories in 2+1 dimensions. The asymptotic symmetry group of the phase space containing these black holes is the semi-direct product of a centrally extended Virasoro algebra and an affine u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. Previous works have shown that in some specific theories, the entropy of these black holes agrees with a Cardy-like entropy formula derived for warped conformal field theories. In this paper, we show that this entropy matching continues to hold for the most general higher derivative theories of gravity. We also discuss the existence of phase transitions.

  11. Small black holes in AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis

    2015-07-01

    We consider small black holes in {{AdS}}5× {S}5, smeared on S5. We compute the spectrum of {\\ell } \\in [1, 10] S5-quasinormal modes corresponding to fluctuations leading to localization of these black holes on S5. We recover the zero mode found by Hubeny and Rangamani previously (Hubeny and Rangamani 2002 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2002)027), and explicitly demonstrate that a Gregory-Laflamme type instability is at play in this system. The instability is associated with the expectation value of a dimension-5 operator.

  12. Natural History and Galsulfase Treatment in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome) — 10 Year Follow-up of Patients Who Previously Participated in an MPS VI Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Giugliani, Roberto; Lampe, Christina; Guffon, Nathalie; Ketteridge, David; Teles, Elisa Leão; Wraith, James E.; Jones, Simon A; Piscia-Nichols, Cheri; Lin, Ping; Quartel, Adrian; Harmatz, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a clinically heterogeneous and progressive disorder with multiorgan manifestations caused by deficient N-acetlylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase activity. A cross-sectional Survey Study in individuals (n=121) affected with MPS VI was conducted between 2001–2002 to establish demographics, urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, and clinical progression of disease. We conducted a Resurvey Study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01387854) to obtain 10-year follow-up data, including medical histories and clinical assessments (n=59), and survival status over 12-years (n=117). Patients received a mean (SD) of 6.8 (2.2) years of galsulfase ERT between baseline (Survey Study) and follow-up. ERT patients increased in height by 20.4 cm in the 4–7 year-old baseline age group and by 16.8 cm in the 8–12 year-old baseline age group. ERT patients <13 years old demonstrated improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) by 68% and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by 55%, and those ≥13 years old increased FVC by 12.8% and maintained FEV1. Patients with >200 µg/mg baseline uGAG levels increased FVC by 48% in the <13 year-old and by 15% in the ≥13 year-old baseline age group. ERT patients who completed the 6-minute walk test demonstrated a mean (SD) increase of 65.7 (100.6) m. Cardiac outcomes did not significantly improve or worsen. Observed mortality rate among naïve patients was 50% (7/14) and 16.5% (17/103) in the ERT group (unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.59). Long-term galsulfase ERT was associated with improvements in pulmonary functions and endurance, stabilized cardiac function and increased survival. PMID:24764221

  13. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  14. Hairy black holes in AdS5 × S 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markeviciute, Julija; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We use numerical methods to exhaustively study a novel family of hairy black hole solutions in AdS5. These solutions can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity with AdS5 × S 5 asymptotics and are thus expected to play an important role in our understanding of AdS/CFT. We find an intricate phase diagram, with the aforementioned family of hairy black hole solutions branching from the Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of the superradiance instability. We analyse black holes with spherical and planar horizon topology and explain how they connect in the phase diagram. Finally, we detail their global and local thermodynamic stability across several ensembles.

  15. Holographic Rényi entropy in AdS3/LCFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Song, Feng-yan; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2014-03-01

    The recent study in AdS3/CFT2 correspondence shows that the tree level contribution and 1-loop correction of holographic Rényi entanglement entropy (HRE) exactly match the direct CFT computation in the large central charge limit. This allows the Rényi entanglement entropy to be a new window to study the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this paper we generalize the study of Rényi entanglement entropy in pure AdS3 gravity to the massive gravity theories at the critical points. For the cosmological topological massive gravity (CTMG), the dual conformal field theory (CFT) could be a chiral conformal field theory or a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT), depending on the asymptotic boundary conditions imposed. In both cases, by studying the short interval expansion of the Rényi entanglement entropy of two disjoint intervals with small cross ratio x, we find that the classical and 1-loop HRE are in exact match with the CFT results, up to order x 6. To this order, the difference between the massless graviton and logarithmic mode can be seen clearly. Moreover, for the cosmological new massive gravity (CNMG) at critical point, which could be dual to a logarithmic CFT as well, we find the similar agreement in the CNMG/LCFT correspondence. Furthermore we read the 2-loop correction of graviton and logarithmic mode to HRE from CFT computation. It has distinct feature from the one in pure AdS3 gravity.

  16. String in AdS black hole: A thermo field dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2012-10-01

    Based on Maldacena’s description of an eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole, we reassess the thermo field dynamics (TFD) formalism in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The model studied here involves the maximally extended AdS-Schwarschild solution and two (noninteracting) copies of the conformal field theory (CFT) associated to the global AdS spacetime, along with an extension of the string by imposing natural gluing conditions in the horizon. We show that the gluing conditions in the horizon define a string boundary state which is identified with the TFD thermal vacuum, globally defined in the Kruskal extension of the AdS black hole. We emphasize the connection of this picture with unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, and we show that information about the bulk and the conformal boundary is present in the SU(1,1) parameters. Using the unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, a canonical prescription for calculating the world sheet real time thermal Green’s function is made, and the entropy associated with the entanglement of the two CFT’s is calculated.

  17. Classical string solutions in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Murchikova, E. M.

    2011-02-15

    We discuss some new simple closed bosonic string solutions in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} that may be of interest in the context of AdS/CFT duality. In the first part of this work we consider solutions with two spins (S{sub 1},S{sub 2}) in AdS{sub 5}. Starting from the flat-space solutions and using perturbation theory in the curvature of AdS{sub 5} space, we construct leading terms in the small two-spin solution. We find corrections to the leading Regge term in the classical string energy and uncover a discontinuity in the spectrum for a certain type of solution. We then analyze the connection between small-spin and large-spin limits of string solutions in AdS{sub 5}. We show that the S{sub 1}=S{sub 2} solution in AdS{sub 5} found in earlier papers admits both limits only in the simplest cases of the folded and rigid circular strings. In the second part of the paper, we construct a new class of chiral solutions in R{sub t}xS{sup 5} for which embedding coordinates of S{sup 5} satisfy the linear Laplace equations. They generalize the previously studied rigid string solutions. We study in detail a simple nontrivial example.

  18. Effectiveness and tolerability of treatment intensification to basal–bolus therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes on previous basal insulin-supported oral therapy with insulin glargine or supplementary insulin therapy with insulin glulisine: the PARTNER observational study

    PubMed Central

    Pfohl, Martin; Siegmund, Thorsten; Pscherer, Stefan; Pegelow, Katrin; Seufert, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), antidiabetic treatment needs to be continuously intensified to avoid long-term complications. In T2DM patients on either basal insulin-supported oral therapy (BOT) or supplementary insulin therapy (SIT) presenting with HbA1c values above individual targets for 3–6 months, therapy should be intensified. This study investigated effectiveness and tolerability of an intensification of BOT or SIT to a basal–bolus therapy (BBT) regimen in T2DM patients in daily clinical practice. Methods This noninterventional, 8-month, prospective, multicenter study evaluated parameters of glucose control, occurrence of adverse events (eg, hypoglycemia), and acceptance of devices in daily clinical practice routine after 12 and 24 weeks of intensifying insulin therapy to a BBT regimen starting from either preexisting BOT with insulin glargine (pre-BOT) or preexisting SIT with ≥3 daily injections of insulin glulisine (pre-SIT). Results A total of 1,530 patients were documented in 258 German medical practices. A total of 1,301 patients were included in the full analysis set (55% male, 45% female; age median 64 years; body mass index median 30.8 kg/m2; pre-BOT: n=1,072; pre-SIT: n=229), and 1,515 patients were evaluated for safety. After 12 weeks, HbA1c decreased versus baseline (pre-BOT 8.67%; pre-SIT 8.46%) to 7.73% and 7.66%, respectively (Δ mean −0.94% and −0.80%; P<0.0001). At week 24, HbA1c was further reduced to 7.38% and 7.30%, respectively (Δ mean −1.29% and −1.15%; P<0.0001), with a mean reduction of fasting blood glucose values in both treatment groups by more than 46 mg/dL. An HbA1c goal of ≤6.5% was reached by 17.9% (pre-BOT) and 18.6% (pre-SIT), and an HbA1c ≤7.0% by 46.1% (pre-BOT) and 43.0% (pre-SIT) of patients. During 24 weeks, severe as well as serious hypoglycemic events were rare (pre-BOT: n=5; pre-SIT: n=2; pretreated with both insulins: n=1). Conclusion Intensifying

  19. Relationship between HER2 expression and efficacy with first-line trastuzumab emtansine compared with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in TDM4450g: a randomized phase II study of patients with previously untreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationship between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and efficacy in patients receiving trastuzumab plus docetaxel (HT) or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). Methods Patients with HER2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were randomly assigned to HT (n = 70) or T-DM1 (n = 67). HER2 status was assessed locally using immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization and confirmed retrospectively by central testing. HER2 mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results HER2 mRNA levels were obtained for 116/137 patients (HT = 61; T-DM1 = 55). Median pretreatment HER2 mRNA was 8.9. The risk of disease progression in the overall population was lower with T-DM1 than with HT (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 to 0.97). This effect was more pronounced in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median (HR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.85) versus < median (HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.67). In the T-DM1 arm, median progression-free survival (PFS) was not reached in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median and was 10.6 months in patients with HER2 mRNA < median. In the HT arm, PFS was 8.8 versus 9.8 months in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median versus < median, respectively. The effect of HER2 mRNA expression on objective response rates was less pronounced. Conclusions This exploratory analysis suggests that while overall, patients with HER2-positive MBC show improved PFS with T-DM1 relative to HT, the effect is enhanced in patients with tumor HER2 mRNA ≥ median. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00679341 PMID:24887458

  20. Evidence for abrupt geomagnetic field intensity changes in Europe between 200 and 1400 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Available archaeomagnetic data indicate that during the past 2500 yr there have been periods of rapid geomagnetic field intensity fluctuations interspersed with periods of almost constant field strength. Despite Europe being the most widely covered region in terms of archaeomagnetic data the occurrence and the behaviour of these rapid geomagnetic field intensity changes is under discussion and the challenge now is to precisely describe them. Here we present an improved description of the sharp intensity change that took place in Europe around 800 AD. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, four archaeological French kilns and three collections of bricks used for the construction of different French historical buildings with ages ranging between 335 and 1260 AD have been studied. Classical Thellier experiments performed on 164 specimens, and including anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation and cooling rate corrections, gave 119 reliable results. The 10 new high-quality mean archaeointensities obtained confirm the existence of an intensity maximum of about 85 μT (at the latitude of Paris) centred at ~800 AD and suggest that a previous abrupt intensity change occurred around 600 AD. Western European data also suggest the occurrence of abrupt geomagnetic field intensity changes during the 12th century AD and around the second half of the 13th century AD. Reliable selected eastern European data show a similar variation of geomagnetic field intensity with the occurrence of two intensity bumps (up to 75 μT at the latitude of Sofia) at ages around 650 and 950 AD and two periods of rapid intensity changes during the 12th century AD and 1300 AD. The results suggest that the described features of the geomagnetic field are observed at a continental scale and that very rapid intensity changes (of at least of 20 μT/century) took place in the recent history of the Earth's magnetic field.

  1. Warped AdS3/dipole-CFT duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    String theory contains solutions with {{SL}}( {{2},{R}} ){{R}} × {{U}}{( {1} )_L} -invariant warped AdS3 (WAdS3) factors arising as continuous deformations of ordinary AdS3 factors. We propose that some of these are holographically dual to the IR limits of nonlocal dipole-deformed 2D D-brane gauge theories, referred to as "dipole CFTs". Neither the bulk nor boundary theories are currently well-understood, and consequences of the proposed duality for both sides is investigated. The bulk entropy-area law suggests that dipole CFTs have (at large N) a high-energy density of states which does not depend on the deformation parameter. Putting the boundary theory on a spatial circle leads to closed timelike curves in the bulk, suggesting a relation of the latter to dipole-type nonlocality.

  2. New boundary conditions for AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3ℓ}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

  3. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  4. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

  5. Soft tissue malignant lymphoma at sites of previous surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Radhi, J M; Ibrahiem, K; al-Tweigeri, T

    1998-01-01

    Three diffuse centroblastic lymphomas developed at the site of previous surgery. Two were preceded by atypical lymphoid infiltrates. Clinical data, microscopic features, and immunophenotypic studies were reviewed. All three patients presented with soft tissue masses at the site of previous surgery and metallic implants, with no evidence of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, or bone marrow involvement. There was no history of immunosuppression or risk factors. In two cases the initial diagnosis was of atypical lymphoid infiltrate progressing to lymphoma. Pathological examination showed a diffuse centroblastic lymphoma with an angiocentric pattern in one case. Phenotypic studies confirmed B cell origin. Soft tissue malignant lymphoma, though uncommon, can occur at the site of previous orthopaedic surgery, in particular joint replacement. Atypical lymphoid infiltrate may signal such an event. Images PMID:9828826

  6. Indiscriminate Behaviors in Previously Institutionalized Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. RESULTS: In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs 3.5%; P < .001). Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors. PMID:24488743

  7. D-brane on deformed AdS 3 × S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouchen, Malak; Klusoň, Josef

    2015-08-01

    We study D1-brane in AdS 3 × S 3 κ-deformed background with non-trivial dilaton and Ramond-Ramond fields. We consider purely time-dependent and spatially-dependent ansatz where we study the solutions of the equations of motion for D1-brane in given background. We find that the behavior of these solutions crucially depends on the value of the parameter a that was introduced in [7].

  8. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbäck, Mikael

    2008-02-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are “bound” to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background BNS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten.

  9. Ad-hoc percutaneous coronary intervention and staged percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Z; Paul, G K; Choudhury, A K

    2011-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a catheter based procedure where a catheter system is introduced through a systemic artery under local anesthesia in a stenotic coronary artery by controlled inflation of a distensible balloon. At early period, PCI was done in a separate session following coronary angiogram (Staged PCI) and it was more costly and hospital stay was long. As the expertization and laboratory facilities improved, the health care providers think about cost, hospital stay and patient convenience. So, to reduce the cost and patient preferred more PCI being done immediately following diagnostic catheterization (Ad-hoc PCI). Subsequently this Ad-hoc procedure becomes popular and now most of the PCI are Ad-hoc PCI worldwide. Rate of combined procedure (Ad-hoc) progressively increased from 54% in 1990 to 88% in 2000 with a significant decrease in rate of complications. In the initial study of Ad-hoc PCI suggested that Ad-hoc PCI should be done in selected group of patients as there was some potential risk factors (e.g. Multivessel diseases, unstable angina, aortic valve disease, and recent infarction or thrombolytic therapy) for Ad-hoc procedure and some (e.g. Older age, multivessel PTCA and complex lesion PTCA) for staged procedure. But recent studies showed that no significant difference in respect of safety and efficacy between Ad-hoc and staged PCI. Previous studies, in the era of balloon angioplasty from 1985 to 1995, Haraphonges et al. (1988), Rozenman et al. (1995) and Kimmel et al. (1997) suggested that an ad hoc approach is safe, with potentially more complications in patients with unstable angina pectoris or other high-risk factors. However, these reports have been limited to observational studies representing single institution experiences with small samples and inclusion of patients who underwent emergency PCI procedures. In Bangladesh a prospective observational study was done among 120 patients to compare the outcome of Ad-hoc and

  10. AdS4 solutions of massive IIA from dyonic ISO(7) supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Oscar

    2016-03-01

    Explicit formulae are given for the consistent truncation of massive type IIA supergravity on the six-sphere to the SU(3)-invariant sector of D = 4 {N}=8 supergravity with dyonic ISO(7) gauging. These formulae are then used to construct AdS4 solutions of massive type IIA via uplift on S 6 of the critical points of the D = 4 supergravity with at least SU(3) symmetry. We find a new {N}=1 solution with SU(3) symmetry, a new non-supersymmetric solution with SO(6) symmetry, and recover previously known solutions. We quantise the fluxes, calculate the gravitational free energies of the solutions and discuss the stability of the non-supersymmetric ones. Among these, a (previously known) G2-invariant solution is found to be stable.

  11. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  12. Methodological Aspects of the Phase II Study AFF006 Evaluating Amyloid-beta -Targeting Vaccine AFFITOPE® AD02 in Early Alzheimer’s Disease – Prospective Use of Novel Composite Scales

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, S.; Ellison, N.; Stanworth, S.; Tierney, L.; Mattner, F.; Schmidt, W.; Dubois, B.; Schneeberger, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optimized scales and composite outcomes have been proposed as a way to more accurately measure Alzheimer’s disease related decline. AFFITOPE® AD02, is an amyloid-beta (Aβ)-targeting vaccine to elicit anti-Aβ antibodies. IMM-AD04, commonly known as Alum, originally designated as a control agent, appeared to have disease-modifying activity in a multicenter, parallel group phase II study in early AD patients. OBJECTIVES To develop adapted outcomes for cognition, function and a composite scale with improved sensitivity to decline and treatment effects in early AD (mild plus prodromal AD) based on historical data and to assess these adapted outcomes in this phase II study. DESIGN Data from public datasets was analyzed using a partial least squares model in order to identify an optimally weighted cognitive outcome, Adapted ADAS-cog, and an optimally weighted ADL outcome, Adapted ADCS-ADL which were prospectively defined as co-primary endpoints for the study and were also combined into a composite scale. Data from 162 patients in the placebo groups of ADCS studies and 156 mild patients in the ADNI I study were pooled for this analysis. The Adapted ADAS-cog scale considered 13 ADAS-cog items as well as several Neuropsychological test items and CogState items, the Adapted ADCS-ADL considered all ADCS-ADL items. After the pre-specified analyses were complete, additional adapted and composite scales were investigated in a post-hoc manner. Evaluation of the adapted and composite scales was performed on Phase II trial data for AFFITOPE® AD02 (AFF006, Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01117818) and historic data in early AD. Least square means, standard deviations, and least squares mean to standard deviation ratios were compared among adapted and composite scales and traditional scales for the 5 treatment groups in the phase II study and overall for the historic data. Treatment effect sizes and p-values were also compared for the phase II study. RESULTS Cognitive

  13. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February... Services, and Erickson Air-Crane); Rotorcraft Development Corporation (previously Garlick Helicopters,...

  14. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude ɛ on time-scales of order 1/ ɛ 2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive relations for the coefficients of the time-averaged theory that are likely to be useful for evaluating them more efficiently in numerical simulations.

  15. Stability and thermodynamics of AdS black holes with scalar hair

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Maeda, Kengo

    2005-01-15

    Recently a class of static spherical black hole solutions with scalar hair was found in four and five dimensional gauged supergravity with modified, but anti-de Sitter (AdS) invariant boundary conditions. These black holes are fully specified by a single conserved charge, namely, their mass, which acquires a contribution from the scalar field. Here we report on a more detailed study of some of the properties of these solutions. A thermodynamic analysis shows that in the canonical ensemble the standard Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is stable against decay into a hairy black hole. We also study the stability of the hairy black holes and find there always exists an unstable radial fluctuation, in both four and five dimensions. We argue, however, that Schwarzschild-AdS is probably not the end state of evolution under this instability.

  16. Distractor Repetitions Retrieve Previous Responses and Previous Targets: Experimental Dissociations of Distractor-Response and Distractor-Target Bindings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Carina; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Even an irrelevant distractor stimulus is integrated into event files. Subsequently repeating the distractor triggers retrieval of the event file; however, an unresolved issue concerns the question of "what" is retrieved by the distractor. While recent studies predominantly assume that the distractor retrieves the previous response, it…

  17. A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of adding a structured home visiting intervention to improve outcomes for high-risk families attending the Incredible Years Parent Programme: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antisocial behaviour and adult criminality often have their origins in childhood and are best addressed early in the child’s life using evidence-based treatments such as the ‘Incredible Years Parent Programme’. However, families with additional risk factors who are at highest risk for poor outcomes do not always make sufficient change while attending such programmes. Additional support to address barriers and improve implementation of positive parenting strategies while these families attend the Incredible Years Programme may improve overall outcomes. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of adding a structured home visiting intervention (Home Parent Support) to improve outcomes in families most at risk of poor treatment response from the Incredible Years intervention. This study will inform the design of a larger prospective randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A pilot single-blind, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Randomisation will be undertaken using a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 ratio to the two treatments arranged in permuted blocks with stratification by age, sex, and ethnicity. One hundred and twenty six participants enrolled in the Incredible Years Parent Programme who meet the high-risk criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Incredible Years Parent Programme and Home Parent Support, or the Incredible Years Parent Programme alone. The Home Parent Support is a 10-session structured home visiting intervention provided by a trained therapist, alongside the usual Incredible Years Parent Programme, to enhance the adoption of key parenting skills. The primary outcome is the change in child behaviour from baseline to post-intervention in parent reported Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Scale. Discussion This is the first formal evaluation of adding Home Parent Support alongside Incredible Years Parent Programme for families with risk factors who typically have poorer treatment outcomes

  18. Two Visual-Spectroscopic Binary Orbits - ADS7780 and ADS11060

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, W. D.

    1982-08-01

    The combination of micrometer and radial-velocity observations is applied to two orbits of high eccentricities and inclinations. All results on the G1 V triple star ADS 11060 (including the subsystem studied by Batten et al.) show good consistency and precision. Substantial uncertainty remains in the component masses of ADS 7780 = β LMi (G9 III) which could be also a triple star.

  19. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  20. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  1. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2015-07-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS = δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  2. Fake gaps in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-11-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS3/CFT2.

  3. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  4. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  5. The spectrum of strings on warped AdS3 × S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Hofman, Diego M.; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    String theory on NS-NS AdS3 × S3 admits an exactly marginal deformation which breaks the {{overline{{SL( {2,{R}} )}}}_R} × SL(2, {R} ) L isometry of AdS3 down to {{overline{{SL( {2,{R}} )}}}_R} × U(1) L . The holographic dual is an exotic and only partially understood type of two-dimensional CFT with a reduced unbroken global conformal symmetry group. In this paper we study the deformed theory on the string worldsheet. It is found to be related by a spectral flow which is nonlocal in spacetime to the undeformed worldsheet theory. An exact formula for the spectrum of massive strings is presented.

  6. Stability of warped AdS3 black holes in topologically massive gravity under scalar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Hugo R. C.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate that the warped AdS3 black hole solutions of topologically massive gravity are classically stable against massive scalar field perturbations by analyzing the quasinormal and bound state modes of the scalar field. In particular, it is found that although classical superradiance is present it does not give rise to superradiant instabilities. The stability is shown to persist even when the black hole is enclosed by a stationary mirror with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is a surprising result in view of the similarity between the causal structure of the warped AdS3 black hole and the Kerr spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. This work provides the foundations for the study of quantum field theory in this spacetime.

  7. On holomorphic factorization in asymptotically AdS 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2003-09-01

    This paper studies aspects of 'holography' for Euclidean signature pure gravity on asymptotically AdS 3-manifolds. This theory can be described as SL(2, Bbb C) CS theory. However, not all configurations of CS theory correspond to asymptotically AdS 3-manifolds. We show that configurations that do have the metric interpretation are parametrized by the so-called projective structures on the boundary. The corresponding asymptotic phase space is shown to be the cotangent bundle over the Schottky space of the boundary. This singles out a 'gravitational' sector of the SL(2, Bbb C) CS theory. It is over this sector that the path integral has to be taken to obtain the gravity partition function. We sketch an argument for holomorphic factorization of this partition function.

  8. Nearly Conformal QCD and AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2005-08-08

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is a powerful tool to study the properties of conformal QCD at strong coupling in terms of a higher dimensional dual gravity theory. The power-law falloff of scattering amplitudes in the non-perturbative regime and calculable hadron spectra follow from holographic models dual to QCD with conformal behavior at short distances and confinement at large distances. String modes and fluctuations about the AdS background are identified with QCD degrees of freedom and orbital excitations at the AdS boundary limit. A description of form factors in space and time-like regions and the behavior of light-front wave functions can also be understood in terms of a dual gravity description in the interior of AdS.

  9. In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2015-01-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture. PMID:26407883

  10. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  11. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  12. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  13. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified. PMID:26594331

  14. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information.

    PubMed

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified. PMID:26594331

  15. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed. PMID:17272949

  16. Gaugings of four-dimensional N =3 supergravity and AdS4/CFT3 holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karndumri, Parinya; Upathambhakul, Khem

    2016-06-01

    We study matter-coupled N =3 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with various semisimple gauge groups. When coupled to n vector multiplets, the gauged supergravity contains 3 +n vector fields and 3 n complex scalars parametrized by S U (3 ,n )/S U (3 )×S U (n )×U (1 ) coset manifold. Semisimple gauge groups take the form of G0×H ⊂S O (3 ,n )⊂S U (3 ,n ) with H being a compact subgroup of S O (n +3 -dim (G0)). The G0 groups considered in this paper are of the form S O (3 ), S O (3 ,1 ), S O (2 ,2 ), S L (3 ,R ) and S O (2 ,1 )×S O (2 ,2 ). We find that S O (3 )×S O (3 ), S O (3 ,1 ) and S L (3 ,R ) gauge groups admit a maximally supersymmetric AdS4 critical point. The S O (2 ,1 )×S O (2 ,2 ) gauge group admits a supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum while the remaining gauge groups admit both half-supersymmetric domain wall vacua and AdS4 vacua with completely broken supersymmetry. For the S O (3 )×S O (3 ) gauge group, there exists another supersymmetric N =3 AdS4 critical point with S O (3 )diag symmetry. We explicitly give a detailed study of various holographic RG flows between AdS4 critical points, flows to nonconformal theories, and supersymmetric domain walls in each gauge group. The results provide gravity duals of N =3 Chern-Simons-matter theories in three dimensions.

  17. Adding value to your work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although value can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding value to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373

  18. Should the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Seek NCATE Reaccreditation in 1983? Report of the Ad Hoc NCATE Study Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whooley, John; And Others

    A study by the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire (UWEC) was designed to provide information on whether UWEC should seek NCATE (National Council of Accreditation for Teacher Education) reaccreditation for its graduate and undergraduate teacher education programs in 1983. The essential question in the study was whether…

  19. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Content Analysis. A Study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorielli, Nancy

    A study examined kinds of messages prevalent in the media used by preteen and teenage girls, asking what messages are sent about goals, dating, careers, behavior, and appearance and its relationship to well being. Four media were the subject of the study, which comprised 12 samples from television programs, theatrical films, music videos, and teen…

  20. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Content Analysis. A Study of Television Shows and Commercials, Movies, Music Videos, and Teen Magazine Articles and Ads. An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorielli, Nancy

    This document presents an executive summary of a study that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender roles--primarily…

  1. Y-system for form factors at strong coupling in AdS5 and with multi-operator insertions in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yang, Gang

    2013-06-01

    We study form factors in {N}=4 SYM at strong coupling in general kinematics and with multi-operator insertions by using gauge/string duality and integrability techniques. This generalizes the AdS3 results of Maldacena and Zhiboedov in two non-trivial aspects. The first generalization to AdS5 space was motivated by its potential connection to strong coupling Higgs-to-three-gluons amplitudes in QCD which was observed recently at weak coupling. The second generalization to multi-operator insertions was motivated as a step towards applying on-shell techniques to compute correlation functions at strong coupling. In this picture, each operator is associated to a monodromy condition on the cusp solutions. We construct Y-systems for both cases. The Y -functions are related to the spacetime (cross) ratios. Their WKB approximations based on a rational function P ( z) are also studied. We focus on the short operators, while the prescription is hopefully also applicable for more general operators.

  2. Hexon Hypervariable Region-Modified Adenovirus Type 5 (Ad5) Vectors Display Reduced Hepatotoxicity but Induce T Lymphocyte Phenotypes Similar to Ad5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Obeng, Rebecca; Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.

    2014-01-01

    Hexon modification of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors with the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad48 has been shown to allow Ad5HVR48 vectors to circumvent the majority of the preexisting Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. However, it remains unclear whether modifying hexon HVRs impacts innate or adaptive immune responses elicited by this vector. In this study, we investigated the influence of the HVR substitution of Ad5 on innate and adaptive immune responses following vaccination. Ad5HVR48 displayed an intermediate level of innate immune cytokines and chemokines relative to those of Ad5 and Ad48, consistent with its chimeric nature. Hepatotoxicity was observed after Ad5 immunization but not after Ad5HVR48 or Ad48 immunization. However, the CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by Ad5HVR48 vectors displayed a partially exhausted phenotype, as evidenced by the sustained expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), decreased effector-to-central memory conversion, and reduced memory recall responses, similar to those elicited by Ad5 vectors and in contrast to those induced by Ad48 vectors. Taken together, these results indicate that although Ad5HVR48 largely bypasses preexisting Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and shows reduced hepatotoxicity compared to that of Ad5, it induces adaptive immune phenotypes that are functionally exhausted similar to those elicited by Ad5. PMID:24943382

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  4. Multifunctional Core–Shell Nanoparticles: Discovery of Previously Invisible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many low-abundance biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases are invisible to mass spectrometry because they exist in body fluids in very low concentrations, are masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins, and are very labile. To overcome these barriers, we created porous, buoyant, core–shell hydrogel nanoparticles containing novel high affinity reactive chemical baits for protein and peptide harvesting, concentration, and preservation in body fluids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) nanoparticles were functionalized with amino-containing dyes via zero-length cross-linking amidation reactions. Nanoparticles functionalized in the core with 17 different (12 chemically novel) molecular baits showed preferential high affinities (KD < 10–11 M) for specific low-abundance protein analytes. A poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-vinylsulfonic acid) shell was added to the core particles. This shell chemistry selectively prevented unwanted entry of all size peptides derived from albumin without hindering the penetration of non-albumin small proteins and peptides. Proteins and peptides entered the core to be captured with high affinity by baits immobilized in the core. Nanoparticles effectively protected interleukin-6 from enzymatic degradation in sweat and increased the effective detection sensitivity of human growth hormone in human urine using multiple reaction monitoring analysis. Used in whole blood as a one-step, in-solution preprocessing step, the nanoparticles greatly enriched the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other proteins above 30 kDa; this achieved a 10,000-fold effective amplification of the analyte concentration, enabling mass spectrometry (MS) discovery of candidate biomarkers that were previously undetectable. PMID:21999289

  5. Charged and rotating AdS black holes and their CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Black hole solutions that are asymptotic to AdS5×S5 or AdS4×S7 can rotate in two different ways. If the internal sphere rotates, then one can obtain a Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole. If the asymptotically AdS space rotates, then one can obtain a Kerr-AdS hole. One might expect superradiant scattering to be possible in either of these cases. Superradiant modes reflected off the potential barrier outside the hole would be reamplified at the horizon, and a classical instability would result. We point out that the existence of a Killing vector field timelike everywhere outside the horizon prevents this from occurring for black holes with negative action. Such black holes are also thermodynamically stable in the grand canonical ensemble. The CFT duals of these black holes correspond to a theory in an Einstein universe with a chemical potential and a theory in a rotating Einstein universe. We study these CFTs in the zero coupling limit. In the first case, Bose-Einstein condensation occurs on the boundary at a critical value of the chemical potential. However, the supergravity calculation demonstrates that this is not to be expected at strong coupling. In the second case, we investigate the limit in which the angular velocity of the Einstein universe approaches the speed of light at finite temperature. This is a new limit in which to compare the CFT at strong and weak coupling. We find that the free CFT partition function and supergravity action have the same type of divergence but the usual factor of 4/3 is modified at finite temperature.

  6. Quartic AdS interactions in higher-spin gravity from Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, X.; Erdmenger, J.; Ponomarev, D.; Sleight, C.

    2015-11-01

    Clarifying the locality properties of higher-spin gravity is a pressing task, but notoriously difficult due to the absence of a weakly-coupled flat regime. The simplest non-trivial case where this question can be addressed is the quartic self-interaction of the AdS scalar field present in the higher-spin multiplet. We investigate this issue in the context of the holographic duality between the minimal bosonic higher-spin theory on AdS4 and the free O( N) vector model in three dimensions. In particular, we determine the exact explicit form of the derivative expansion of the bulk scalar quartic vertex. The quartic vertex is obtained from the field theory four-point function of the operator dual to the bulk scalar, by making use of our previous results for the Witten diagrams of higher-spin exchanges. This is facilitated by establishing the conformal block expansions of both the boundary four-point function and the dual bulk Witten diagram amplitudes. We show that the vertex we find satisfies a generalised notion of locality.

  7. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  8. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  9. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  10. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  11. Vortex hair on AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Gustainis, Peter C.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Wills, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

  12. Double relaxation via AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.

    2016-08-01

    We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.

  13. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead. PMID:26205272

  14. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vara, M. Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead. PMID:26205272

  15. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  16. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O( N 0) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large- N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  17. Acute hemodynamic effects of single-dose sildenafil when added to established bosentan therapy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of the COMPASS-1 study.

    PubMed

    Gruenig, Ekkehard; Michelakis, Evangelos; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Meyer, F Joachim; Doelberg, Martin; Bach, Doris; Dingemanse, Jasper; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the acute pharmacodynamic effects of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and concomitant bosentan treatment, in view of a mutual pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs. This prospective, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, phase II study enrolled 45 patients (>or=18 years) with stable PAH (idiopathic, familial, or related to corrected congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts, drugs, or toxins) and on bosentan treatment for at least 3 months. Patients underwent right heart catheterization to evaluate the acute hemodynamic effects of (a) inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and (b) a single oral dose of sildenafil (25 mg). Mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) decreased from baseline following iNO (-15%; 95% confidence limits: -21%, -8%; P = .0001). A statistically significant decrease from baseline in mean PVR was also observed 60 minutes following sildenafil administration (-15%; 95% confidence limits: -21%, -10%; P < .0001). The reduction in PVR following sildenafil was comparable to that resulting from iNO. There were no unexpected safety findings. The pharmacodynamic effect suggests that addition of sildenafil to bosentan treatment can elicit additional hemodynamic benefits. These data represent a rationale for long-term combination studies with the 2 compounds. PMID:19755415

  18. Added value of next generation gene panel analysis for patients with elevated methylmalonic acid and no clinical diagnosis following functional studies of vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pupavac, Mihaela; Tian, Xia; Chu, Jordan; Wang, Guoli; Feng, Yanming; Chen, Stella; Fenter, Remington; Zhang, Victor W; Wang, Jing; Watkins, David; Wong, Lee-Jun; Rosenblatt, David S

    2016-03-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) based gene panel testing is increasingly available as a molecular diagnostic approach for inborn errors of metabolism. Over the past 40 years patients have been referred to the Vitamin B12 Clinical Research Laboratory at McGill University for diagnosis of inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism by functional studies in cultured fibroblasts. DNA samples from patients in which no diagnosis was made by these studies were tested by a NGS gene panel to determine whether any molecular diagnoses could be made. 131 DNA samples from patients with elevated methylmalonic acid and no diagnosis following functional studies of cobalamin metabolism were analyzed using the 24 gene extended cobalamin metabolism NGS based panel developed by Baylor Miraca Genetics Laboratories. Gene panel testing identified two or more variants in a single gene in 16/131 patients. Eight patients had pathogenic findings, one had a finding of uncertain significance, and seven had benign findings. Of the patients with pathogenic findings, five had mutations in ACSF3, two in SUCLG1 and one in TCN2. Thus, the NGS gene panel allowed for the presumptive diagnosis of 8 additional patients for which a diagnosis was not made by the functional assays. PMID:26827111

  19. Effects of message framing and visual-fear appeals on smoker responses to antismoking ads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungsuk; Lin, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of antismoking ads on Korean adult male smokers. An experiment was conducted to explore how message framing and visual-fear appeals embedded in antismoking ads may influence ad-evoked fear, threat appraisals, and intention to quit smoking. Results showed that (a) antismoking ad exposure increased ad-evoked fear and cessation intention; (b) optimistic bias was stronger when the visual-fear appeal was absent in antismoking ads; and PMID:25868549

  20. Added value of cost-utility analysis in simple diagnostic studies of accuracy: 18F-fluoromethylcholine PET/CT in prostate cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Oke; Poulsen, Mads H; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic studies of accuracy targeting sensitivity and specificity are commonly done in a paired design in which all modalities are applied in each patient, whereas cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses are usually assessed either directly alongside to or indirectly by means of stochastic modeling based on larger randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However the conduct of RCTs is hampered in an environment such as ours, in which technology is rapidly evolving. As such, there is a relatively limited number of RCTs. Therefore, we investigated as to which extent paired diagnostic studies of accuracy can be also used to shed light on economic implications when considering a new diagnostic test. We propose a simple decision tree model-based cost-utility analysis of a diagnostic test when compared to the current standard procedure and exemplify this approach with published data from lymph node staging of prostate cancer. Average procedure costs were taken from the Danish Diagnosis Related Groups Tariff in 2013 and life expectancy was estimated for an ideal 60 year old patient based on prostate cancer stage and prostatectomy or radiation and chemotherapy. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were deduced from the literature, and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to compare lymph node dissection with respective histopathological examination (reference standard) and 18F-fluoromethylcholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT). Lower bounds of sensitivity and specificity of FCH-PET/CT were established at which the replacement of the reference standard by FCH-PET/CT comes with a trade-off between worse effectiveness and lower costs. Compared to the reference standard in a diagnostic accuracy study, any imperfections in accuracy of a diagnostic test imply that replacing the reference standard generates a loss in effectiveness and utility. We conclude that diagnostic studies of accuracy can be put to a more extensive use

  1. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Gross, Michael T; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors' mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  2. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage.

  3. Adding Stiffness to the Foot Modulates Soleus Force-Velocity Behaviour during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kota Z.; Gross, Michael T.; van Werkhoven, Herman; Piazza, Stephen J.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human locomotion indicate that foot and ankle structures can interact in complex ways. The structure of the foot defines the input and output lever arms that influences the force-generating capacity of the ankle plantar flexors during push-off. At the same time, deformation of the foot may dissipate some of the mechanical energy generated by the plantar flexors during push-off. We investigated this foot-ankle interplay during walking by adding stiffness to the foot through shoes and insoles, and characterized the resulting changes in in vivo soleus muscle-tendon mechanics using ultrasonography. Added stiffness decreased energy dissipation at the foot (p < 0.001) and increased the gear ratio (i.e., ratio of ground reaction force and plantar flexor muscle lever arms) (p < 0.001). Added foot stiffness also altered soleus muscle behaviour, leading to greater peak force (p < 0.001) and reduced fascicle shortening speed (p < 0.001). Despite this shift in force-velocity behaviour, the whole-body metabolic cost during walking increased with added foot stiffness (p < 0.001). This increased metabolic cost is likely due to the added force demand on the plantar flexors, as walking on a more rigid foot/shoe surface compromises the plantar flexors’ mechanical advantage. PMID:27417976

  4. Studies on structural, thermal and AC conductivity scaling of PEO-LiPF6 polymer electrolyte with added ionic liquid [BMIMPF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, S. K.; Saroj, A. L.; Shalu, Singh, V. K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Verma, Y. L.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-07-01

    Preparation and characterization of polymer electrolyte films of PEO+10wt.% LiPF6 + xwt.% BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) containing dopant salt lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and ionic liquid (BMIMPF6) having common anion PF6 - are reported. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte films has been found to increase with increasing concentration of BMIMPF6 in PEO+10 wt.% LiPF6 due to the plasticization effect of ionic liquid. DSC and XRD results show that the crystallinity of polymer electrolyte decreases with BMIMPF6 concentration which, in turn, is responsible for the increase in ionic conductivity. FTIR spectroscopic study shows the complexation of salt and/or ionic liquid cations with the polymer backbone. Ion dynamics behavior of PEO+LiPF6 as well as PEO+LiPF6 + BMIMPF6 polymer electrolytes was studied by frequency dependent conductivity, σ(f) measurements. The values σ(f) at various temperatures have been analyzed in terms of Jonscher power law (JPL) and scaled with respect to frequency which shows universal power law characteristics at all temperatures.

  5. Added Value of Dual-Time-Point 18F-FDG PET/CT With Delayed Imaging for Detecting Aortic Graft Infection: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yung; Chang, Cheng-Pei; Shih, Chun-Che; Yang, Bang-Hung; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Chang, Chi-Wei; Chu, Lee-Shing; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2015-07-01

    F-FDG PET/CT is a promising tool in detecting aortic graft infection. Present study investigated the value of dual-time-point F-FDG PET/CT imaging (DTPI) with delayed imaging in assessing aortic graft infection.Twenty-nine patients with suspected aortic graft infection were prospectively enrolled in this DTPI study. Two nuclear medicine physicians read all the images and achieved consensus about the measurement of maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and grading of image quality. The percentages of SUVmax change between initial and delayed images were recorded as retention index (RI); sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated based on reference standard.All the 5 infected aortic grafts had positive RIs, which were generally higher than that of noninfected grafts. Those noninfected grafts had variable RIs. Seven patients had improved image quality in delayed imaging. DTPI with delayed image detected all the infected grafts with improved specificity (88%) and accuracy (90%), providing conspicuous delineation of the infected graft extent.In conclusion, noninfected aortic grafts had more variable RIs than infected ones. DTPI might be useful for detecting aortic graft infection, improving image quality, and enhancing delineation of the infected aortic grafts. PMID:26166113

  6. Efficacy of Biofeedback and Cognitive-behavioural Therapy in Psoriatic PatientsA Single-blind, Randomized and Controlled Study with Added Narrow-band Ultraviolet B Therapy.

    PubMed

    Piaserico, Stefano; Marinello, Elena; Dessi, Andrea; Linder, Michael Dennis; Coccarielli, Debora; Peserico, Andrea

    2016-08-23

    Increasing data suggests that there is a connection between stress and the appearance of psoriasis symptoms. We therefore performed a clinical trial enrolling 40 participants who were randomly allocated to either an 8-week cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (treatment group) plus narrow-band UVB phototherapy or to an 8-week course of only narrow-band UVB phototherapy (control group). We evaluated the clinical severity of psoriasis (PASI), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12, Skindex-29 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at baseline and by the end of the study. Sixty-five percent of patients in the treatment group achieved PASI75 compared with 15% of standard UVB patients (p = 0.007). GHQ-12 cases were reduced from 45% to 10% in the treatment group and from 30% to 20% in the control group (p = 0.05). The Skindex-29 emotional domain showed a significant improvement in the CBT/biofeedback group compared with control patients (-2.8 points, p = 0.04). This study shows that an adjunctive 8-week intervention with CBT combined with biofeedback increases the beneficial effect of UVB therapy in the overall management of psoriasis, reduces the clinical severity of psoriasis, improving quality of life and decreases the number of minor psychiatric disorders. PMID:27283367

  7. Model Catalysis of Ammonia Synthesis ad Iron-Water Interfaces - ASum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Solid-GasInterfaces and Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Selected Anionclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Michael James

    2005-12-15

    The ammonia synthesis reaction has been studied using single crystal model catalysis combined with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. The adsorption of gases N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH{sub 2} ({approx}3325 cm{sup -1}) and NH ({approx}3235 cm{sup -1}) under high pressure of ammonia or equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products on Fe(111) surfaces. Special attention was paid to understand how potassium promotion of the iron catalyst affects the intermediates of ammonia synthesis. An Fe(111) surface promoted with 0.2 monolayers of potassium red shifts the vibrational frequencies of the reactive surface intermediates, NH and NH{sub 2}, providing evidence for weakened the nitrogen-hydrogen bonds relative to clean Fe(111). Spectral features of these surface intermediates persisted to higher temperatures for promoted iron surfaces than for clean Fe(111) surfaces implying that nitrogen-iron bonds are stronger for the promoted surface. The ratio of the NH to NH{sub 2} signal changed for promoted surfaces in the presence of equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products. The order of adding oxygen and potassium to promoted surfaces does not alter the spectra indicating that ammonia induces surface reconstruction of the catalyst to produce the same surface morphology. When oxygen is co-adsorbed with nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia or potassium on Fe(111), a relative phase shift of the spectra occurs as compared to the presence of adsorbates on clean iron surfaces. Water adsorption on iron was also probed using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. For both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, the only spectral feature was in the range of the free OH or free OD. From the absence of

  8. Development of an Ad5H3 Chimera Using the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” Strategy for an Alternative Vaccination Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Linlin; Icyuz, Mert; Krendelchtchikova, Valentina; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Johnston, Alison E.; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) achieved success as a conventional transgene vaccine vector in preclinical trials, however; achieved poor efficiency in some of the clinical trials, due to the major hurdle associated with Ad5 pre-existing immunity (PEI) in the majority of the human population. Objective: We sought to generate Ad5-based chimeras to assess their capabilities to bypass this bottleneck and to induce antigen-specific humoral immune response. Methods: A His6 tag was incorporated into the hypervariable region 2 (HVR2) of hexon3 (H3) capsid protein using the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy. This lead to the construction of a viral chimera, Ad5H3-HVR2-His. Ad5H3 was generated previously by substituting the hexon of Ad5 (hexon5) with the hexon from adenovirus type 3 (Ad3). Results: His6 was presented on the viral capsid surface and recognized by a His6 antibody. An in vitro neutralization assay with Ad5 sera indicated the ability of Ad5 chimeras to partially escape Ad5 immunity. Immunization with Ad5H3-HVR2-His generated significant humoral response to the incorporated tagged peptide, when compared to the immunizations with controls. Conclusion: Based on our in vitro studies the data suggested that Ad5H3 as a novel chimeric vaccine platform yields the possibility to escape Ad5 neutralization, and the potential to generate robust humoral immunity against incorporated antigens using the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy. PMID:27335626

  9. Survival and Success Rates of Dental Implants Placed Using Osteotome Sinus Floor Elevation Without Added Bone Grafting: A Retrospective Study with a Follow-up of up to 10 Years.

    PubMed

    French, David; Nadji, Nabil; Shariati, Batoul; Hatzimanolakis, Penny; Larjava, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study with a follow-up period of 4 months to 10 years evaluated survival, success, and complication rates of implants placed using osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) without added bone grafting. A total of 926 implants were placed, including 530 short implants (6 mm to 8.5 mm) and 209 implants in low residual bone height (RBH) (< 5 mm). Bone levels were evaluated at approximately 3 months and at 1, 3, and 5 years, and in some cases up to 10 years after implants were placed. The implant survival rate was 98.3% at the 5-year follow-up. Twelve of the 926 implants failed (6 preprosthetic, 6 postprosthetic). The success rate was 95.4% at a threshold of less than 1 mm of bone loss for combined systems (Straumann; Nobel Biocare). Short implant survival and success rates were statistically comparable to conventional-length implants. Low-RBH implants had a lower but acceptable survival rate of 95.7%. Adverse events were rare, with one case of infection and zero cases of vertigo reported. The findings of this study indicate that implant placement with OSFE without added bone graft is highly successful, even when short implants are used in low RBH. PMID:27031637

  10. Adding point of care ultrasound to assess volume status in heart failure patients in a nurse-led outpatient clinic. A randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Guri Holmen; Norekval, Tone M; Haug, Hilde Haugberg; Skjetne, Kyrre; Kleinau, Jens Olaf; Graven, Torbjorn; Dalen, Havard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical history, physical examination and laboratory testing are not optimal for the assessment of volume status in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to study the clinical influence of focused ultrasound of the pleural cavities and inferior vena cava (IVC) performed by specialised nurses to assess volume status in HF patients at an outpatient clinic. Methods HF outpatients were prospectively included and underwent laboratory testing, history recording and clinical examination by two nurses with and without an ultrasound examination of the pleural cavities and IVC using a pocket-size imaging device, in random order. Each nurse worked in a team with a cardiologist. The influence of the different diagnostic tests on diuretic dosing was assessed descriptively and in linear regression analyses. Results Sixty-two patients were included and 119 examinations were performed. Mean±SD age was 74±12 years, EF was 34±14%, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) value was 3761±3072 ng/L. Dosing of diuretics differed between the teams in 31 out of 119 consultations. Weight change and volume status assessed clinically with and without ultrasound predicted dose adjustment of diuretics at follow-up (p<0.05). Change of oedema, NT-proBNP, creatinine, and symptoms did not (p≥0.10). In adjusted analyses, only volume status based on ultrasound predicted dose adjustments of diuretics at first visit and follow-up (all ultrasound p≤0.01, all other p≥0.2). Conclusions Ultrasound examinations of the pleural cavities and IVC by nurses may improve diagnostics and patient care in HF patients at an outpatient clinic, but more studies are needed to determine whether these examinations have an impact on clinical outcomes. Trial registration number NCT01794715. PMID:26438785

  11. Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD) to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his medical works.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2008-01-01

    This primary-source study of 4 medical works of the 13th century Muslim scholar Ibn Al-Nafis confirmed that his Kitab Al-Mujaz Fi Al-Tibb was authored as an independent book meant to be a handbook for medical students and practitioners not as an epitome of Kitab Al-Qanun of Ibn Sina as thought by recent historians. His huge medical encyclopedia, Al-Shamil, represents a wave of intense scientific activity that spread among the scholars of Cairo and Damascus following the massive destruction of books by Hulako's Army during the devastation of Baghdad in 1258. Like his predecessors in the Islamic Era, Ibn Al-Nafis critically appraised the views of scholars before him in the light of his own experimentation and direct observations. Accordingly, in his books Sharh Tashreeh Al-Qanun, Risalat al-Aadaa and Al-Risalah Al-Kameleyyah, we find the first description of the coronary vessels and the true concept of the blood supply of the heart as well as the correct description of the pulmonary circulation and the beginnings of the proper understanding of the systemic circulation. Those discoveries of Ibn Al-Nafis, translated to Latin by Andreas Alpagus printed in Venice in 1547, appeared, 6 years later, in the Christianismi Restituto of Servetus and, in 1555, in the De Fabrica Humani Corporis of Vesalius 2nd edition then in the works of Valvarde 1554, Columbus 1559, Cesalpino 1571, and finally Harvey in 1628. Furthermore, this study documented several other contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis to the progress of human functional anatomy and to advances in medical and surgical practice. PMID:18176669

  12. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  13. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  14. Effect of irradiation defects on the corrosion behaviors of steels exposed to lead bismuth eutectic in ADS: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; You, Yu-Wei; Li, Dong-Dong; Xu, Yichun; Liu, C S; Pan, B C; Wang, Zhiguang

    2015-05-14

    In accelerator driven systems (ADSs), steels will suffer not only from the irradiation damage produced by protons or neutrons, but also from the dissolution corrosion induced by the liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this work we investigate the interactions between LBE atoms (Pb, Bi) and the irradiation induced defects X (X is helium, vacancy or divacancy) in α-Fe based on first-principles calculations. It is found that LBE atoms repulse each other without irradiation defects, while they aggregate easily with the defects to form X-Pbn and X-Bin complexes. This indicates that the irradiation defects could promote the aggregation of LBE atoms in iron, especially Bi atoms. The total binding energies of the X-Pbn and X-Bin complexes increase with the number of Pb and Bi atoms, respectively. The origin of the total binding energies of the complexes is further discussed via the electronic structures and the distortion of the crystalline lattice. Finally, the concentration evolutions of the Vac-(Bi)n complexes and unbound vacancies with temperature are predicted by the mass action analysis. This work provides important information for the synergistic effect of irradiation and LBE corrosion on the steels in the ADSs, which can be used as basic parameters for further study. PMID:25891773

  15. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  16. Studies on solvent extraction of iron(III) as a step for conversion of a waste effluent to a value added product.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archana; Kumari, S; Sahu, K K

    2011-12-01

    Solvent extraction of iron(III) from actual sulphate waste pickle liquor was investigated using trialkylphosphine oxide diluted with kerosene. The waste pickle liquor was procured from a local company which deals with the manufacturing of pipes and tubes made of iron and steel. Various parameters were studied to optimise a suitable condition for the maximum extraction of iron. The composition of the aqueous feed used in the experiment was 60.88 g/L Fe(III), 53 g/L acid with traces of Cu, Ni and Co. An ambient extraction at 30 °C yielded acceptable kinetics and loading efficiency for 40% trialkylphosphine oxide with a saturated loading capacity of 51.85 g/L in four contacts at O/A ratio of 1/1 in a multiple contact mode. Iron from the loaded organic was stripped using various strippants such as distilled water, H(2)SO(4) and oxalic acid. Since only 32% of loaded Fe could be stripped with 2 M H(2)SO(4) in five contacts, further stripping was done with 5% oxalic acid which showed a very promising result. It was found that almost 100% of Fe(III) could be stripped out with 5% oxalic acid at O/A of 1/1 in five contacts. PMID:21862202

  17. Model Studies on the Antioxidative Effect of Polyphenols in Thermally Treated D-Glucose/L-Alanine Solutions with Added Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Wilker, Daniel; Heinrich, Anna B; Kroh, Lothar W

    2015-12-30

    The influence of different polyphenolic compounds (PPs) on the Maillard reaction in a d-glucose/l-alanine model system with or without metal ions was studied under various reaction conditions. At temperatures up to 100 °C the PPs showed pro-oxidative effects due to their reducing effects on metal ions. This can be explained by a combined redox cycling mechanism of metals and PPs that promotes oxidation in the Maillard reaction. The antioxidative capacities of the PPs were measured with three different assays and correlated directly with their pro-oxidative effects on d-glucosone formation. The degree of the pro-oxidative effect depended not only on the PPs' reducing potential and their antioxidative ability but also on their concentration, the temperature, and the pH value of the model system. At low pH values and temperatures, the PPs were more stable and therefore showed an increased pro-oxidative tendency. In contrast, some of the used PPs were almost completely degraded at temperatures of 130 °C, and the formed polymers were able to complex metal ions. In the absence of these catalyzing ions, the oxidation ratio of d-glucose to d-glucosone was decreased. PMID:26634406

  18. Adding liraglutide to the backbone therapy of biguanide in patients with coronary artery disease and newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes (the AddHope2 study): a randomised controlled study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Anholm, Christian; Kumarathurai, Preman; Klit, Malene S; Kristiansen, Ole P; Nielsen, Olav W; Ladelund, Steen; Madsbad, Sten; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) more than doubles the risk of death compared with otherwise matched glucose tolerant patients. The biguanide metformin is the drug of choice in treatment of T2DM and has shown to ameliorate cardiovascular morbidity in patients with T2DM and myocardial infarction (MI). The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) improves β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and causes weight loss and has been suggested to have beneficial effects on cardiac function. The GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), liraglutide, is currently used for treatment of T2DM but its potential effect on cardiac function has not been investigated in detail. We hypothesised that liraglutide added to metformin backbone therapy in patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will improve β-cell function and left ventricular systolic function during dobutamine stress. Methods and analyses 40 patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will receive the intervention liraglutide+metformin and placebo+metformin in this investigator-initiated, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over 12 plus 12 weeks intervention study with a 2-week washout period. The primary cardiovascular end point is changes in left ventricular ejection fraction during stress echocardiography. The primary endocrine end point is β-cell function evaluated during a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Secondary end points include heart rate variability, diurnal blood pressure, glucagon suppression and inflammatory response (urine, blood and adipose tissue). Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Danish Medicines Agency, the Danish Dataprotection Agency and the Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics of the Capital Region of Denmark. The trial will be carried out under the guidance from the GCP unit at Copenhagen University Hospital of Bispebjerg and in accordance with

  19. Twice weekly fluticasone propionate added to emollient maintenance treatment to reduce risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis: randomised, double blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Berth-Jones, John; Damstra, Robert J; Golsch, Stefan; Livden, John K; Van Hooteghem, Oliver; Allegra, Fulvio; Parker, Christine A

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse of chronic recurrent atopic dermatitis. Design Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 20 weeks' duration. Setting Dermatology outpatient clinics (6 countries, 39 centres). Participants Adult (aged 12-65) patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis who were experiencing a flare. Methods Participants applied fluticasone propionate (0.05% cream or 0.005% ointment; once or twice daily) regularly for four weeks to stabilise their condition. The patients whose disease was brought under control then continued into a 16 week maintenance phase, applying emollient on a daily basis with a bath oil as needed and either the same formulation of fluticasone propionate or its placebo base (emollient alone) twice weekly to the areas that were usually affected. Main outcome measure Time to relapse of atopic dermatitis during maintenance phase. Results 376 patients entered the stabilisation phase, and 295 continued into the maintenance phase. After 16 weeks in the maintenance phase, the disease remained under control in 133 patients (87 using fluticasone propionate twice weekly, 46 using emollient alone), 135 (40 fluticasone propionate, 95 emollient) had experienced a relapse, and 27 had discontinued. Median time to relapse was six weeks for emollient alone compared with more than 16 weeks for additional fluticasone propionate. Patients who applied fluticasone propionate cream twice weekly were 5.8 times less likely (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.8, P < 0.001) and patients using fluticasone propionate ointment 1.9 times less likely (1.2 to 3.2, P=0.010) to have a relapse than patients applying emollient alone. The groups showed no differences in adverse events. Conclusion After atopic dermatitis had been stabilised the addition of fluticasone propionate twice weekly

  20. Studies of cation binding in ZnCl2-regenerated bacteriorhodopsin by x-ray absorption fine structures: effects of removing water molecules and adding Cl- ions.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, K; Song, L; Dong, J; El-Sayed, M A

    1997-01-01

    The binding of Zn2+ in Zn2+-regenerated bacteriorhodopsin (bR) was studied under various conditions by x-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS). The 0.9:1 and 2:1 Zn2+:bR samples gave similar XAFS spectra, suggesting that Zn2+ might have only one strong binding site in bR. It was found that in aqueous bR solution, Zn2+ has an average of six oxygen or nitrogen ligands. Upon drying, two ligands are lost, suggesting the existence of two weakly bound water ligands near the cation-binding site in bacteriorhodopsin. When excess Cl- ions were present before drying in the Zn2+-regenerated bR samples, it was found that two of the ligands were replaced by Cl- ions in the dried film, whereas two remain unchanged. The above observations suggest that Zn2+ has three types of ligands in regenerated bR (referred to as types I, II, and III). Type I ligands are strongly bound. These ligands cannot be removed by drying or by exchanging with Cl- ions. Type II ligands cannot be removed by drying, but can be replaced by Cl- ligands. Type III ligands are weakly bound to the metal cation and are most likely water molecules that can be removed by evaporation under vacuum or by drying with anhydrous CaSO4. The results are discussed in terms of the possible structure of the strongly binding site of Zn2+ in bR. PMID:9336205

  1. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mišković, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  2. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-15

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  3. Explanations of AD in ethnic minority participants undergoing cognitive screening.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Gibson, Sandra E; Williams, Christine L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare explanations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of African American, Afro-Caribbean, and European American older adults undergoing cognitive screening. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding what they knew about AD and if they were experiencing memory problems. Responses were coded and quantized for analysis. Forty percent reported experiencing memory problems. Afro-Caribbeans made significantly more incorrect statements about AD and were less likely to identify memory loss as a symptom. Half the participants said they would seek their physician's advice if the screening was positive; none mentioned a memory disorder center. Misconceptions about AD included the effect of aluminum, brain collapse, relaxed brain, shaking, tremors, and physical illness. More Afro-Caribbeans, all of whom were first generation, had misconceptions about AD. Campaigns to educate the public about AD need to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate information to ethnic minority populations. PMID:21697141

  4. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke. PMID:17905505

  6. Matrix model maps and reconstruction of AdS supergravity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cremonini, Sera; Mello Koch, Robert de; Jevicki, Antal

    2008-05-15

    We consider the question of reconstructing (cubic) SUGRA interactions in AdS/CFT. The method we introduce is based on the matrix model maps (MMP) which were previously successfully employed at the linearized level. The strategy is to start with the map for 1/2 BPS configurations, which is exactly known (to all orders) in the Hamiltonian framework. We then use the extension of the matrix model map with the corresponding Ward identities to completely specify the interaction. A central point in this construction is the nonvanishing of off-shell interactions (even for highest-weight states)

  7. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  8. Massless Lüscher terms and the limitations of the AdS3 asymptotic Bethe ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2016-05-01

    In AdS5/CFT4 integrability the Bethe ansatz gives the spectrum of long strings, accurate up to exponentially small corrections. This is no longer true in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS3 ) space, as we demonstrate here by studying Lüscher F-terms with a massless particle running in the loop. We apply this to the classic test of Hernández and López, in which the s u (2 ) sector Bethe equations (including the one-loop dressing phase) should match the semiclassical string theory result for a circular spinning string. These calculations do not agree in AdS3×S3×T4 , and we show that the sum of all massless Lüscher F-terms can reproduce the difference.

  9. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  10. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  11. Giant magnon on deformed AdS3×S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouchen, Malak; KlusoÅ, Josef

    2014-09-01

    We study giant magnon solutions for strings moving on a deformed AdS3×S3 background. We impose a conformal gauge on the Polyakov action and proceed with solving the Virasoro constraints. The expressions of the conserved charge J and the energy of a single magnon excitation are then computed. Then we determine the dispersion relation of a giant magnon in the infinite J limit configuration and we find that for κ =0 it reduces to the celebrated Hofman-Maldacena dispersion relation.

  12. - criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  13. Drag cancellation by added-mass pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgio-Serchi, F.; Weymouth, G. D.

    2016-07-01

    A submerged body subject to a sudden shape-change experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. While this phenomenon has been studied for single actuation events, application to sustained propulsion requires studying \\textit{periodic} shape-change. We do so in this work by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. We develop an analytical model to investigate the relationship between added-mass variation and viscous damping and demonstrate its range of application with fully coupled fluid-solid Navier-Stokes simulations at large Stokes number. Our results demonstrate that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the viscous damping of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius $r_0$. A quasi-linear relationship is found to link the terminal amplitude of the oscillations $X$, to the extent of size change $a$, with $X/a$ peaking at values from 4 to 4.75 depending on the details of the shape-change kinematics. In addition, it is found that pumping in the frequency range of $1-\\frac{a}{2r_0}<\\omega^2/\\omega_n^2<1+\\frac{a}{2r_0}$ is required for sustained oscillations. The results of this analysis shed light on the role of added-mass recovery in the context of shape-changing bodies and biologically-inspired underwater vehicles.

  14. Beyond the Job Ad: Employers and Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    Many content analyses of job ads have revealed the skills and experience needed in academic library jobs and show that library instruction is an important job duty. This study moves beyond the content of the job ads and surveys the employers themselves (in the person of the supervisor). The survey revealed that supervisors highly value library…

  15. Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.

    Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads or soft liquor ads…

  16. Value-Added Results for Public Virtual Schools in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Richard; Rice, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present value-added calculation methods that were applied to determine whether online schools performed at the same or different levels relative to standardized testing. This study includes information on how we approached our value added model development and the results for 32 online public high schools in…

  17. Value Added Based on Educational Positions in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Bosker, Roel J.; de Wolf, Inge F.; Doolaard, Simone; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating added value as an indicator of school effectiveness in the context of educational accountability often occurs using test or examination scores of students. This study investigates the possibilities for using scores of educational positions as an alternative indicator. A number of advantages of a value added indicator based on…

  18. Using School Lotteries to Evaluate the Value-Added Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Jonah

    2013-01-01

    There has been an active debate in the literature over the validity of value-added models. In this study, the author tests the central assumption of value-added models that school assignment is random relative to expected test scores conditional on prior test scores, demographic variables, and other controls. He uses a Chicago charter school's…

  19. [Thyroid nodule disease in a previously endemic goiter area].

    PubMed

    Gómez de la Torre, R; Enguix Armada, A; García, L; Otero, J

    1993-10-01

    We conducted a 6-year study of 110 patients with thyroid nodular disease in a previously goitrogenic area. The aim of the present work was to establish its incidence, to determine if multinodular goiter and autonomous thyroid nodule have the same analytical and clinical behaviour and to verify if the iodation campaign had resulted in the development of thyrotoxicosis induced by iodine. The results demonstrated an incidence of 0.4 per 1,000 population and per year. The two modalities of thyroid nodular disease did not present any clinical and analytical differences. 58.2% of the patients had hyperthyroidism, 53.1% of which were T-4 thyrotoxicosis, 12.5% T-3 thyrotoxicosis and 34.4%, subclinical hyperthyroidism. 8.2% of the patients under study had hyperthyroidism induced by iodine (Jod Basedow), with iodide excretion values higher that 3 standard deviations with respect to the population average (> 220 micrograms/g creatinine). PMID:8136426

  20. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].