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Sample records for ad subjects compared

  1. Differential hippocampal shapes in posterior cortical atrophy patients: A comparison with control and typical AD subjects

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Kate E.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Young, Jonathan; Pepple, Tracey; Lehmann, Manja; Zuluaga, Maria A.; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Schott, Jonathan M.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Crutch, Sebastian; Fox, Nick C.; Barnes, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by predominant visual deficits and parieto‐occipital atrophy, and is typically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In AD, assessment of hippocampal atrophy is widely used in diagnosis, research, and clinical trials; its utility in PCA remains unclear. Given the posterior emphasis of PCA, we hypothesized that hippocampal shape measures may give additional group differentiation information compared with whole‐hippocampal volume assessments. We investigated hippocampal volume and shape in subjects with PCA (n = 47), typical AD (n = 29), and controls (n = 48). Hippocampi were outlined on MRI scans and their 3D meshes were generated. We compared hippocampal volume and shape between disease groups. Mean adjusted hippocampal volumes were ∼8% smaller in PCA subjects (P < 0.001) and ∼22% smaller in tAD subject (P < 0.001) compared with controls. Significant inward deformations in the superior hippocampal tail were observed in PCA compared with controls even after adjustment for hippocampal volume. Inward deformations in large areas of the hippocampus were seen in tAD subjects compared with controls and PCA subjects, but only localized shape differences remained after adjusting for hippocampal volume. The shape differences observed, even allowing for volume differences, suggest that PCA and tAD are each associated with different patterns of hippocampal tissue loss that may contribute to the differential range and extent of episodic memory dysfunction in the two groups. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5123–5136, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26461053

  2. Superconducting A/D converter using latching comparators

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.A.; Kautz, R.L.; Loyld, F.L.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a six-bit A/D converter using fast edge latching comparators. Simulations predicting conversion times of 100 ps and 100 MHz signal bandwidth are verified experimentally. The addition of a superconducting track/hold circuit in front of the A/D converter is expected to substantially improve the signal bandwidth.

  3. Subjective health literacy and older adults' assessment of direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads.

    PubMed

    An, Soontae; Muturi, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly the intended target of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads, but limited evidence exists as to how they assess the educational value of DTC ads and, more importantly, whether their assessment depends on their level of health literacy. In-person interviews of 170 older adults revealed that those with low subjective health literacy evaluated the educational value of DTC ads significantly lower than did those with high subjective health literacy. The results prompt us to pay more scholarly attention to determining how effectively DTC ads convey useful medical information, particularly to those with limited health literacy.

  4. Using Subject Test Scores Efficiently to Predict Teacher Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefgren, Lars; Sims, David

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a simple model of teacher value-added to show how efficient use of information across subjects can improve the predictive ability of value-added models. Using matched student-teacher data from North Carolina, we show that the optimal use of math and reading scores improves the fit of prediction models of overall future…

  5. Comparing subjective video quality testing methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Margaret H.; Wolf, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    International recommendations for subjective video quality assessment (e.g., ITU-R BT.500-11) include specifications for how to perform many different types of subjective tests. Some of these test methods are double stimulus where viewers rate the quality or change in quality between two video streams (reference and impaired). Others are single stimulus where viewers rate the quality of just one video stream (the impaired). Two examples of the former are the double stimulus continuous quality scale (DSCQS) and double stimulus comparison scale (DSCS). An example of the latter is single stimulus continuous quality evaluation (SSCQE). Each subjective test methodology has claimed advantages. For instance, the DSCQS method is claimed to be less sensitive to context (i.e., subjective ratings are less influenced by the severity and ordering of the impairments within the test session). The SSCQE method is claimed to yield more representative quality estimates for quality monitoring applications. This paper considers data from six different subjective video quality experiments, originally performed with SSCQE, DSCQS and DSCS methodologies. A subset of video clips from each of these six experiments were combined and rated in a secondary SSCQE subjective video quality test. We give a method for post-processing the secondary SSCQE data to produce quality scores that are highly correlated to the original DSCQS and DSCS data. We also provide evidence that human memory effects for time-varying quality estimation seem to be limited to about 15 seconds.

  6. A Value-Added Study of Teacher Spillover Effects across Four Core Subjects in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the existence, magnitude, and impact of teacher spillover effects (TSEs) across teachers of four subject areas (i.e., mathematics, English language arts [ELA], science, and social studies) on student achievement in each of the four subjects at the middle school level. The author conducted a series of value-added (VA) analyses,…

  7. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, S; Miller, J J; Edwards, R A

    1989-09-01

    This study compared the effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the usual diet of individuals with well-controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A double-blind, cross-over design was used with each 6-wk study period. During the sucrose period, 45 g sucrose (9% of total daily energy) was added, 10 g with each main meal and 5 g with each between-meal beverage. An equivalent sweetening quantity of aspartame (162 mg) was ingested during the aspartame period. The addition of sucrose did not have a deleterious effect on glycemic control, lipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin action. No differences were observed between sucrose and aspartame. Sucrose added as an integral part of the diabetic diet does not adversely affect metabolic control in well-controlled NIDDM subjects. Aspartame is an acceptable sugar substitute for diabetic individuals but no specific advantage over sucrose was demonstrated.

  8. Donepezil delays progression to AD in MCI subjects with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lu, P H.; Edland, S D.; Teng, E; Tingus, K; Petersen, R C.; Cummings, J L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of depression predicts higher rate of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and whether donepezil treatment beneficially affect this relationship. Methods: The study sample was composed of 756 participants with aMCI from the 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study drug trial of donepezil and vitamin E. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptoms at baseline and participants were followed either to the end of study or to the primary endpoint of progression to probable or possible AD. Results: Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age at baseline, gender, apolipoprotein genotype, and NYU paragraph delayed recall score, showed that higher BDI scores were associated with progression to AD (p = 0.03). The sample was stratified into depressed (BDI score ≥10; n = 208) and nondepressed (BDI <10; n = 548) groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that among the depressed subjects, the proportion progressing to AD was lower for the donepezil group than the combined vitamin E and placebo groups at 1.7 years (p = 0.023), at 2.2 years (p = 0.025), and remained marginally lower at 2.7 years (p = 0.070). The survival curves among the three treatment groups did not differ within the nondepressed participants. Conclusions: Results suggest that depression is predictive of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD) and treatment with donepezil delayed progression to AD among depressed subjects with aMCI. Donepezil appears to modulate the increased risk of AD conferred by the presence of depressive symptoms. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; ADCS = Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study; aMCI = amnestic mild cognitive impairment; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; ChEI = cholinesterase inhibitors; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

  9. Humor and Comparatives in Ads for High- and Low-Involvement Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bob T. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of humor in advertising, comparative advertising, and consumer involvement with the product. Finds that humorous ads are more eye catching but less impressive and less sufficient in information than nonhumorous ads. Finds the performance of comparative ads is generally negative and especially so in the high…

  10. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  11. Alteration of mTOR signaling occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD): analysis of brain from subjects with pre-clinical AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and late-stage AD.

    PubMed

    Tramutola, Antonella; Triplett, Judy C; Di Domenico, Fabio; Niedowicz, Dana M; Murphy, Michael P; Coccia, Raffaella; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) include a gradual memory loss and subsequent dementia, and neuropathological deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. At the molecular level, AD subjects present overt amyloid β (Aβ) production and tau hyperphosphorylation. Aβ species have been proposed to overactivate the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis, which plays a central role in proteostasis. The current study investigated the status of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in post-mortem tissue from the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) at three different stages of AD: late AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-clinical AD (PCAD). Our findings suggest that the alteration of mTOR signaling and autophagy occurs at early stages of AD. We found a significant increase in Aβ (1-42) levels, associated with reduction in autophagy (Beclin-1 and LC-3) observed in PCAD, MCI, and AD subjects. Related to the autophagy impairment, we found a hyperactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in IPL of MCI and AD subjects, but not in PCAD, along with a significant decrease in phosphatase and tensin homolog. An increase in two mTOR downstream targets, p70S6K and 4EBP1, occurred in AD and MCI subjects. Both AD and MCI subjects showed increased, insulin receptor substrate 1, a candidate biomarker of brain insulin resistance, and GSK-3β, a kinase targeting tau phosphorylation. Nevertheless, tau phosphorylation was increased in the clinical groups. The results hint at a link between Aβ and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and provide further insights into the relationship between AD pathology and insulin resistance. In addition, we speculate that the alteration of mTOR signaling in the IPL of AD and MCI subjects, but not in PCAD, is due to the lack of substantial increase in oxidative stress. The figure represents the three different stages of Alzheimer Disease: Preclinical Alzheimer Disease (PCAD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI

  12. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  13. Vocabulary Mapping in the NASA ADS: Prospects for Practical Subject Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Dubin, David

    The popular NASA Astrophysics Data System includes bibliographic records indexed with terms from a variety of semi-compatible descriptor languages. These include coordinate index terms taken from the NASA Thesaurus and Astrophysical Journal subject headings, among others. We have worked to develop a system that takes as input the NASA terms assigned by professional indexers, and translates them into ApJ headings. Our system maps sets of descriptors, rather than individual descriptors, since two or more coordinate index terms may translate to a single pre-coordinated subject heading. We began our study with lexical resemblance as the main source of evidence and later developed a connected system that exploits patterns of consistent co-assignment in a subset of the ADS collection that is indexed using both ApJ headings and NASA terms. Our most recent efforts have been aimed at improving the network's performance via supervised learning. In this paper we present the results of our most recent formal evaluation studies and an examination of some specific documents drawn from a set we've mapped using the network.

  14. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.

  15. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  16. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  17. Comparing perceptual judgment and subjective measures of spatial awareness.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2009-07-01

    Spatial awareness is important in domains where safety hinges on human operators keeping track of the relative locations of objects in the environment. While a variety of subjective and judgment-based measures have been used to evaluate spatial awareness, none have probed all three of its levels: (1) identification of environmental objects, (2) their current locations relative to the operator, and (3) their relative positions over time. This work compares new judgment-based measures of spatial awareness that probe all three levels of spatial awareness to conventional subjective measures. In the evaluation of 14 configurations of Synthetic Vision Systems head down displays (seven terrain textures and two Geometric Fields of View (GFOVs)), 18 pilots made four types of judgments (relative angle, distance, height, and abeam time) regarding the location of terrain points displayed in 112 5-s, non-interactive simulations. They also provided subjective demand, awareness, clutter, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures. Correlation analyses revealed that displays that received higher awareness and SA-SWORD subjective ratings were associated with smaller errors in abeam time judgments and, for SA-SWORD, smaller errors in relative distance judgments. Thus SA-SWORD provides insight into level 2 spatial awareness and both SA-SWORD and awareness provide insight into level 3 spatial awareness. ANOVA and chi(2) analyses revealed comparable results between display configurations that produced the minimum error in judgments and those recommended by the awareness, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures. PMID:18639862

  18. Arousal responses to added inspiratory resistance during REM and non-REM sleep in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gugger, M; Bögershausen, S; Schäffler, L

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arousal in response to increased airflow resistance during sleep, especially rapid eye movement sleep (REM), could be an important protective mechanism against asphyxia. METHODS: The arousal response to the application of an external inspiratory resistance of 25 cm H2O/l/s was determined during REM and non-REM sleep in ten healthy men. RESULTS: The number of arousals occurring within two minutes of the load application was significantly higher during REM sleep than during either of the non-REM sleep stages 2 and 3/4, and was similar to that during stage 1. The proportion of arousals to non-arousals decreased significantly from stage 1 to stage 4. The mean time to arousal in REM was significantly shorter than in non-REM stages 1, 2 or 3/4 and increased significantly from stage 1 to stage 3/4. The duration of sleep (comparing the results of the first with the second half of the sleep period time) did not modify the arousal response in stages 2 and 3/4. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a significantly increased arousal response to an added inspiratory resistive load in REM sleep compared with non-REM sleep stages 2, 3 or 4 in normal men. In the context of previous studies these data could add support to the hypothesis that the decreased arousal response during REM sleep in patients with sleep apnoea might be due to an impairment of the normal "central processing" of this stimulus. PMID:8493624

  19. Subjective perceptual methods for comparing backpacks in the field.

    PubMed

    Legg, S J; Barr A, A; Hedderley, D I

    2003-07-15

    Subjective perceptual methods have provided useful information in the laboratory about small differences in backpack design when physiological and biomechanical comparisons are ineffective, but have never been used in the field. This study therefore evaluated, in a controlled field trial with 10 male participants, the suitability of quantitative and qualitative subjective perceptual approaches to distinguish between subtle design differences in two backpacks, each loaded to 15 kg. In addition, initial quantitative subjective impressions about the two backpacks during a 15 min simulated 'in-shop' trial were compared with post-field trial backpack preference. In the simulated 'in-shop' trial the participants 'tried out' the backpack in a manner that was very similar to the way that they would normally try out a backpack as if they were considering buying one in an 'outdoor' shop. It included donning and doffing the pack several times and walking around the room wearing the backpack. In the controlled field trial, participants carried the two backpacks for approximately 15 min around a 1313 m hilly outdoor track at a self-selected walking pace which elicited a moderate exercise intensity. Seven participants preferred backpack A. Three preferred backpack B. The qualitative approach, which required participants to provide free-format written responses to semi-structured open-ended questions immediately after the field trial, successfully identified specific reasons underlying participants' preferences. The main reasons for preferring backpack A were better balance, weight distribution, stability up and down hill and over obstacles, fewer pressure points on their back and easier strap location and adjustment. The quantitative approach, which involved participants responding to written post-field trial questions on visual analogue or category ratio rating scales, was generally unsuccessful in distinguishing between backpacks. Thus, qualitative subjective perceptual

  20. The Rhetorical Construction of the AD/HD Subject: Managing the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Edward

    2015-01-01

    As the diagnosis of AD/HD becomes more frequent in our schools, and as many individuals across ages embrace an AD/HD identity, scholars need to account for the lived experience of the disorder to understand the meanings individuals give to it. This paper analyses the relationship between ethical practices of self-formation, power, and knowledge…

  1. The research subject advocate at minority Clinical Research Centers: an added resource for protection of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Easa, David; Norris, Keith; Hammatt, Zoë; Kim, Kari; Hernandez, Esther; Kato, Kambrie; Balaraman, Venkataraman; Ho, Tammy; Shomaker, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    In early 2001, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) created the research subject advocate (RSA) position as an additional resource for human subjects protection at NIH-funded Clinical Research Centers (CRCs) to enhance the protection of human participants in clinical research studies. We describe the RSA position in the context of clinical research, with a particular emphasis on the role of the RSA in two of the five CRCs funded by the NIH Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) program. Through participation in protocol development, informed consent procedures, study implementation and follow-up with adverse events, the RSA works closely with research investigators and their staff to protect study participants. The RSA also conducts workshops, training and education sessions, and consultation with investigators to foster enhanced communication and adherence to ethical standards and safety regulations. Although we cannot yet provide substantive evidence of positive outcomes, this article illuminates the value of the RSA position in ensuring that safety of research participants is accorded the highest priority at CRCs. On the basis of initial results, we conclude that the RSA is an effective mechanism for achieving the NIH goal of maintaining the utmost scrutiny of protocols involving human subjects.

  2. Comparative nasal absorption of allergens in atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kontou-Karakitsos, K; Salvaggio, J E; Mathews, K P

    1975-04-01

    Based on sensitization following intranasal antigen administration, previous investigations have suggested greater absorption of allergens through the nasal mucous membranes of atopic than of nonatopic subjects. In this study mucosal absorption was assessed more directly by determining the capacity of allergens applied intranasally to elicit cutaneous Prausnitz-Küstner (P-K) reactions in nonatopic persons as compared with asymptomatic atopic subjects sensitive to other allergens. Two series of reaginic human serum dilutions were injected intracutaneously in recipients backs, and 48 hours later one series was challenged intracutaneously with test allergen. After the responses had been recorded, concentrated allergenic extract was sprayed into the nose and the second series of P-K sites observed for reactivity. Sometimes these P-K sites were rechallenged intracutaneously the following day to determine passive transfer neutralization. Two allergens were studied: bovine ribonuclease (RNase) and peanut extract. Two sera containing peanut reagins and one with RNase antibodies were each used in 10 to 11 atopic and 9 to 11 nonatopic recipients. The atopic group failed to show greater or more rapid absorption of either allergen through the nose based on the highest serum dilution reacting after nasal challenge. the speed of the reaction, the ratio of the titer by nasal challenge to the intracutaneous titer, or passive transfer neutralization. Controls showed that the results were not influenced by systemic absorption of allergen employed for intracutaneous tests. Drinking the amount of peanut extract applied intranasally did not elicit P-K reactions.

  3. Comparative toxicity of five metals on various biological subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Fargasova, A. )

    1994-08-01

    Environmental contaminants, including metals, can have toxic effects on many different organisms and affect biological processes at cellular, population, community and ecosystem levels of organization. Metals are of particular interest because they may have a positive effect as micronutrients at low concentrations as well as a toxic effect at higher levels. Numerous efforts have been made to correlate and predict metal-ion toxicities on various aquatic and terrestrial species, according to the physical and chemical properties of the metals. The acute and chronic toxicities of metals have been studied on many freshwater organisms and also on plants. The water flea, Daphnia magna, an important freshwater zooplankter, is a useful test species to study sensitivity to environmental toxicants and has been recognized as a general representative for other freshwater animals. As Khangarot described, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment and are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. Most recent hazard evaluation programs recommend algal toxicity tests for initial evaluations of chemicals that are expected to reach surface waters and that have suspected or unknown phytotoxic properties. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew in sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues form phosphate fertilizers. No reports were available indicating the effects of these metals on seed germination and root growth. This study was conducted to determine the acute toxicological effects of some metals (As, Pb, Cr, Hg, Cd) on four biological subjects (tubificid worms, Daphnia magna sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, seeds of Sinapis alba) and to compare their sensitivity to individual test metals. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and memory present distinct associations along the continuum from healthy subjects to AD patients.

    PubMed

    Rami, Lorena; Fortea, Juan; Bosch, Beatriz; Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Lladó, Albert; Iranzo, Alex; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Molinuevo, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)(1-42), t-tau, and p-tau and cognitive performance along the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum from healthy subjects to AD patients and, specifically, among patients in the pre-dementia stage of the disease. A total of 101 subjects were studied: 19 healthy controls (CTR), 17 subjects with subjective memory complaints (SMC), 47 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 18 AD patients. Only memory performance significantly correlated with CSF levels of Aβ(1-42), t-tau, and p-tau along the AD continuum. Subgroup analyses revealed that in SMC patients Aβ(1-42) levels positively correlated with the total recall score of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCRST) (r = 0.666; p < 0.005), Digit Span (r = 0.752; p < 0.005), and CERAD world list learning (r = 0.697; p < 0.005). In MCI patients, a significant inverse correlation was found between the word list recall score from the CERAD and t-tau (r = -0.483; p < 0.005) and p-tau levels (r = -0.495; p < 0.005), as well as between the total recall subtest score from the FCRST and both t-tau (r = -0.420; p < 0.005) and p-tau levels (r = -0.422; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between other aspects of cognition and CSF levels in CTR or AD patients. These results indicate that memory performance is related to Aβ(1-42) levels in SMC, while it is associated with tau in the prodromal stage of the disease. This suggests that in the continuum from healthy aging to AD, memory performance is first related with Aβ(1-42) levels and then with t-tau or p-tau, before becoming independent of biomarker levels in the dementia stage. PMID:21098971

  6. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  7. Virologic and immunologic effects of adding maraviroc to suppressive ART in subjects with suboptimal CD4+ T-cell recovery

    PubMed Central

    Cillo, Anthony R.; Hilldorfer, Benedict B.; Lalama, Christina M.; McKinnon, John E.; Coombs, Robert W.; Tenorio, Allan R.; Fox, Lawrence; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Ribaudo, Heather; Currier, Judith S.; Gulick, Roy M.; Wilkin, Timothy J.; Mellors, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, but does not restore CD4+ T-cell counts in all subjects. To investigate the effects of maraviroc on HIV-1 persistence and the relations between virologic and immunologic parameters in subjects with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, we performed a prospective, open-label pilot trial in which maraviroc was added to a suppressive ART regimen for 24 weeks. Design A5256 was a single-arm trial in which subjects on suppressive ART with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery added maraviroc for 24 weeks. Methods We quantified low-level, residual viremia in plasma and total HIV-1 DNA and 2-LTR circles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after maraviroc intensification. We also evaluated markers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune activation (%CD38+HLA-DR+) and apoptosis (%caspase3+/Bcl-2−). Results No effect of maraviroc was found on the probability of detectable plasma viremia (≥1 copy/mL; n=31, exact McNemar p=1.0) or detectable 2-LTR circles (n=28, p=0.25) or on total HIV-1 DNA (n=28, 90% confidence interval: −0.1, +0.3 log10 copies/106 CD4+ T-cells). Pre-maraviroc HIV-1 DNA levels were inversely related to pre-maraviroc %CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ T-cells (Spearman=−0.52, p=0.004), and lower pre-maraviroc HIV-1 DNA levels were associated with larger decreases in %CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ T-cells during maraviroc intensification (Spearman=0.44, p=0.018). Conclusions In subjects on suppressive ART with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, maraviroc intensification did not affect measures of HIV-1 persistence but did decrease persistent CD4+ T-cell immune activation especially in subjects with low pre-intensification levels of HIV-1 DNA. PMID:26544577

  8. Comparability of GCSE Examinations in Different Subjects: An Application of the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The comparability of examinations in different subjects has been a controversial topic for many years and a number of criticisms have been made of statistical approaches to estimating the "difficulties" of achieving particular grades in different subjects. This paper argues that if comparability is understood in terms of a linking construct then…

  9. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  10. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  11. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli.

  12. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-08-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24412285

  13. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  14. Measuring Value Added Effects across Schools: Should Schools Be Compared in Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeves, John P.; Hungi, Njora; Afrassa, Tilahun

    2005-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of a quest for solving the problems involved in the analysis of multilevel data and the estimation of the value added effects of schools in influencing educational outcomes. The authors report the findings of two studies that followed several cohorts of students that were tested at two grade levels (Grade 3 and…

  15. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; Philippot, Pierre; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol and opiate dependence antecedents (DAO); and normal controls (NC). Repeated measures analysis of variance using a multivariate approach was conducted on EFE decoding accuracy scores with group as the between-subjects factor. Accuracy scores were significantly lower in RA and DAO than in OM and OA, which had significantly lower scores than NC. Low accuracy scores in RA and DAO confirm previous results indicating that alcoholism is associated with impaired EFE recognition. Results in OM and OA indicate that opiate dependence is also associated with an impaired EFE decoding but less than in alcoholism. Alcohol and opiate chronic consumption could both exercise a deleterious effect on EFE-decoding brain function, alcohol having the most severe impact. Alternatively, EFE-decoding problems could be present before the development of alcohol and opiate dependence, with an additional effect of chronic alcohol consumption on EFE decoding. In this context, EFE-decoding impairment could reflect a more general emotional intelligence deficit in addicted populations.

  16. AdVEGF-All6A+ Preconditioning of Murine Ischemic Skin Flaps Is Comparable to Surgical Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Phillips, Brett T.; Nasser, Ahmed; McClain, Steve A.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical flap delay is commonly used in preconditioning reconstructive flaps to prevent necrosis. However, staged procedures are not ideal. Pharmacologic up-regulation of angiogenic and arteriogenic factors before flap elevation poses a nonsurgical approach to improve flap survival. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 16), surgical delay (Delay), AdNull, AdEgr-1, and AdVEGF (n ≥ 9/group) groups. Delay rats had a 9 cm × 3 cm cranial based pedicle skin flap incised 10 days prior to elevation. Adenoviral groups received 28 intradermal injections (109 pu/animal total) throughout the distal two thirds of the flap 1 week prior to elevation. At postoperative day (POD) 0 flaps were elevated and silicone sheeting was placed between flap and wound bed. Perfusion analysis in arbitrary perfusion units of the ischemic middle third of the flap using laser Doppler imaging was conducted preoperatively and on POD 0, 3, and 7. Clinical and histopathologic assessments of the skin flaps were performed on POD 7. Results: AdVEGF (50.8 ± 10.9 APU) and AdEgr-1 (39.3 ± 10.6 APU) perfusion levels were significantly higher than controls (16.5 ± 4.2 APU) on POD 7. Delay models were equivalent to controls (25.9 ± 6.8 APU). AdVEGF and Delay animals showed significantly more viable surface area on POD 7 (14.4 ± 1.3 cm2, P < 0.01 and 12.4 ± 1.2 cm2, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with Controls (8.7 ± 0.7 cm2). Conclusions: AdVEGF preconditioning resulted in flap survival comparable to surgical delay. Adenoviral preconditioning maintained perfusion levels postoperatively while surgical delay did not. PMID:26495207

  17. Subjective Symptoms in Euthymic Bipolar Disorder and Remitted Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621

  18. The Comparative Labor Market Role of Newspaper Help Wanted Ads and Public Employment Service Job Listings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Miriam; Sugarman, Marged

    A 1-year study of 12 U.S. labor market areas compared job listings in the help wanted ads of local newspapers to job orders in the local public employment services to help determine what the role of the public employment service should be. The study gathered two types of data. One type was used to compare the "stock," or inventory, of jobs still…

  19. Teaching through Research--Research through Teaching: Comparing Scientific and Subjective Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Teaching through research has a great potential for Master's studies. The paper presents how this has been done in a particular case, comparing scientific and subjective theories, and how this course was simultaneously used to do research about this topic. The course proved to be a win-win-situation for the students and for the teacher/researcher.…

  20. Comparing subjective contours for Kanizsa squares and linear edge alignments ('New York Titanic' figures).

    PubMed

    Gillam, Barbara; Marlow, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    One current view is that subjective contours may involve high-level detection of a salient shape with back propagation to early visual areas where small receptive fields allow for scrutiny of relevant details. This idea applies to Kanizsa-type figures. However, Gillam and Chan (2002 Psychological Science, 13, 279-282) using figures based on Gillam's graphic 'New York Titanic' (Gillam, 1997 Thresholds: Limits of perception. New York: Arts Magazine) showed that strong subjective contours can be seen along the linearly aligned edges of a set of shapes if occlusion cues of 'extrinsic edge' and 'entropy contrast' are strong. Here we compared ratings of the strength of subjective contours along linear alignments with those seen in Kanizsa figures. The strongest subjective contour for a single set of linearly aligned shapes was similar in strength to the edges of a Kanizsa square (controlling for support ratio) despite the lack of a salient region. The addition of a second set of linearly aligned inducers consistent with a common surface increased subjective-contour strength, as did having four rather than two 'pacmen' in the Kanizsa figure, indicating a role for surface support. We argue that linear subjective contours allow for the investigation of certain occlusion cues and the interactions between them that are not easily explored with Kanizsa figures.

  1. The concentration of serum zinc in celiac patients compared to healthy subjects in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Fariba; Ektefa, Fatemeh; Tafazzoli, Mohsen; Rostami, Kamran; Fathi, Mohsen; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Oskouie, Afsaneh Arefi; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated serum levels of zinc in patient with CD compare to healthy subjects. Background Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by small intestinal malabsorption of nutrients as a consequence of ingestion of wheat gluten. Zinc is an essential trace element that it has vital biological functions. Patients and methods Sera of 30 celiac cases and 30 healthy normal cohorts as control group were obtained. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for estimating serum zinc level. Results Zinc concentrations in patients diagnosed with CD were significantly lower than healthy subjects (75.97±12 compared with 92.83±18, P-value < 0.0001). Conclusion The result of this study shows that serum zinc concentration is decreased in celiac patients compare to healthy controls. Serum zinc may thus be a marker of CD in adults presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24834251

  2. Comparative Analysis of GCF Resistin Levels in Obese Subjects with and without Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Singh, Gurdeep; Pradeep, AR; Sundaravikram; Sekar, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Resistin is an adipocyte derived hormone that has been shown to play a substantial role in the development of insulin resistance. Resistin acts as a pro-inflammatory molecule and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have reported the association of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) resistin levels with periodontal condition. Aim The aim of this study was to assess and compare the GCF resistin levels in obese subjects with periodontal health and disease and to correlate the disease severity with GCF resistin levels. Materials and Methods Ninety subjects of both the sexes with age between 20–45 years were selected for the study and were categorized into four groups: 25 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-I), 25 obese or overweight subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-II), 25 non-obese subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-III) and 15 non obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-IV). The demographic variables like age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) were recorded and the clinical periodontal parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were also assessed in all the groups. GCF was collected and assessed for resistin levels. Results The mean GCF resistin levels in Groups I, II, III & IV were 15.14, 9.06, 12.74 and 5.41 ng/dl respectively and the difference in mean GCF resistin level was statistically significant with the p-value<0.001. The mean GCF resistin levels in Group-I was higher compared to Group II and III and the differences in mean GCF resistin levels were statistically significant. GCF resistin levels were positively correlated with BMI, WC and CAL in Group I and CAL correlated with GCF resistin in Group III and this correlation was statistically significant. Conclusion From our study we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more GCF resistin levels

  3. Neuroadrenergic dysfunction along the diabetes continuum: a comparative study in obese metabolic syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Straznicky, Nora E; Grima, Mariee T; Sari, Carolina I; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Nestel, Paul J; Esler, Murray D; Dixon, John B; Chopra, Reena; Tilbrook, Alan J; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W

    2012-10-01

    Neuroadrenergic function in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients without neuropathy is poorly characterized. We therefore compared sympathetic nervous system activity at rest and during an oral glucose tolerance test in obese metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects classified as glucose intolerant (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]; n = 17) or treatment-naive T2D (n = 17). Untreated subjects, matched for age (mean 59 ± 1 year), sex, BMI (32.4 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)), and family history of diabetes were studied. We measured resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) by microneurography, whole-body norepinephrine kinetics by isotope dilution, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (steady-state glucose utilization adjusted for fat-free mass and steady-state insulin concentration [M/I]), and MetS components. T2D subjects had higher resting MSNA burst incidence (67 ± 4 versus 55 ± 3 bursts per 100 heartbeats; P = 0.05) and arterial norepinephrine levels (264 ± 33 versus 167 ± 16 pg/mL; P = 0.02), lower plasma norepinephrine clearance (by 17%; P = 0.03), and reduced neuronal reuptake compared with IGT subjects (by 46%; P = 0.04). Moreover, norepinephrine spillover responses to glucose ingestion were blunted in T2D subjects. The M/I value independently predicted whole-body norepinephrine spillover (r = -0.47; P = 0.008), whereas fasting insulin level related to neuronal norepinephrine reuptake (r = -0.35, P = 0.047). These findings demonstrate that progression to T2D is associated with increased central sympathetic drive, blunted sympathetic responsiveness, and altered norepinephrine disposition.

  4. Parental bonding in subjects with pathological gambling disorder compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Laia; Arévalo, Rubén; Valdepérez, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; de los Cobos, J Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) includes pathological gambling disorder (PGD) in the subgroup of "Addiction and Related Disorders" due to the similarities between PGD and substance-based addictions in neurobiological, psychological, and social risk factors. Family factors as parental rearing attitudes play a crucial role in the development of substance use disorders and PGD. The aim of the present study was to assess the parental bonding during childhood perceived for adults with PGD compared with healthy controls. Twenty males with PGD and 20 control subjects answered the parental bonding instrument, which measures subjects' recollections of parenting on dimensions of care and protection. Subjects with PGD showed significantly lower maternal and paternal care (p = 0.016 and p = 0.031, respectively) than controls, and higher paternal protection (p = 0.003). The most common parental pattern for PGD subjects was the affectionless control (50% for the father and 60% for the mother). Preliminary results suggest that, as previously reported for substance use disorders, an affectionless control parenting style is associated with PGD. PMID:25447192

  5. Creating Customizable Subject Guides at Your Library to Support Online, Distance and Traditional Education: Comparing Three Self-Developed and One Commercial Online Subject Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Julie; Kim, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article compares three self-developed subject guides and one commercial online subject guide (LibGuides) to provide information to other institutions which have a plan or are in the process of developing a plan to implement similar services to support online, distance and traditional education. This is a comparison of the current subject…

  6. Comparative study of multimodal intra-subject image registration methods on a publicly available database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Ghayoor, Ali; Johnson, Hans J.; Sonka, Milan

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on a comparative study between five manual and automated methods for intra-subject pair-wise registration of images from different modalities. The study includes a variety of inter-modal image registrations (MR-CT, PET-CT, PET-MR) utilizing different methods including two manual point-based techniques using rigid and similarity transformations, one automated point-based approach based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, and two automated intensity-based methods using mutual information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI). These techniques were employed for inter-modal registration of brain images of 9 subjects from a publicly available dataset, and the results were evaluated qualitatively via checkerboard images and quantitatively using root mean square error and MI criteria. In addition, for each inter-modal registration, a paired t-test was performed on the quantitative results in order to find any significant difference between the results of the studied registration techniques.

  7. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone added to alogliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Katou, M; Igeta, M; Ohira, T; Sano, H

    2015-12-01

    A phase IV, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had inadequate glycaemic control, despite treatment with alogliptin in addition to diet and/or exercise therapy. Subjects with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations of 6.9-10.5% were randomized to receive 16 weeks' double-blind treatment with pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg once daily or placebo added to alogliptin 25 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline at the end of treatment period (week 16). Both pioglitazone 15 and 30 mg combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than alogliptin monotherapy [-0.80 and -0.90% vs 0.00% (the least squares mean using analysis of covariance model); p < 0.0001, respectively]. The overall incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar among the treatment groups. Pioglitazone/alogliptin combination therapy was effective and generally well tolerated in Japanese subjects with T2DM and is considered to be useful in clinical settings.

  8. Uric acid levels in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Mazza, Mario Gennaro; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has hypothesised increased uric acid levels, possibly because of an amplified purinergic metabolism and a reduced adenosine activity, in subjects with bipolar disorder. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating if individuals with bipolar disorder had uric acid levels higher than both healthy controls and subjects with major depression (trait marker hypothesis). It also tested if uric acid levels could differ in different phases of bipolar disorder (state marker hypothesis). Meta-analyses were carried out generating pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs), using random-effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the I(2) index. Relevant sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were conducted. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying twelve studies that met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed increased uric acid levels in individuals with bipolar disorder as compared with both healthy controls (SMD = 0.65, p < 0.001, I(2) = 82.9%) and those with major depression (SMD = 0.46, p < 0.001; I(2) = 68.7%). However, meta-regression analyses confirmed this association only as compared with healthy controls. Finally, though uric acid levels were higher in manic/mixed phases as compared with depressive ones (SMD = 0.34; p = 0.04, I(2) = 58.8%), a sensitivity analysis did not confirm the association. In sum, our meta-analysis shows that subjects with bipolar disorder have uric acid levels higher than healthy controls. The potential role of factors that might clarify the nature of this association deserves additional research.

  9. [The comparative test of nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Monge, J M; Soda Merhy, A

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the changes produced in the nasal respiratory epithelium in individuals with an important smoking habit. The purpose of this study is to compare the nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers. The nasal mucociliary transport of aspartame particles was measured in 50 healthy non-smokers and in 50 healthy smokers under similar conditions. The average time taken for the displacement of the test substance from the middle third of the inferior turbinate to the oropharynx was found to be in the smokers 13.62 min., and in the non-smokers, 10.34 min. The results were compared using student's "t" test and a significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between both groups. This result is taken as a simple clinical test that evaluates the smoking effects on the nasal mucociliary function.

  10. Comparative objective and subjective analysis of temporalis tendon and microneurovascular transfer for facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Erni, D; Lieger, O; Banic, A

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objectively and subjectively the results after temporalis tendon and microneurovascular transfer for reanimation of the paralysed face. For the objective analysis, measurements of the distances between static and dynamic points in three-dimensional space were performed at rest and during smiling. The patients were assessed subjectively by non-professionals scoring videotapes. The range of motion of the oral commissure on smiling was 1.7 mm (0.8, mean and SE) after tendon and 5.5 mm (1.6) after microneurovascular transfer (P < 0.05) without showing teeth, and 0.6 mm (1.3) vs 3.6 mm (2.4, ns) with showing teeth. Compared with the healthy side, the excursions reached 6% (16) after tendon and 71% (26, P < 0.05) after microneurovascular transfer for smiling without, and -4% (14) vs 19% (14, ns) for smiling with showing teeth, respectively. Virtually no difference was found in the measurements at rest as well as in the subjective evaluation. Swelling of the cheek (28%) and tethering of the skin (24%) were shown to be the most disturbing symptoms after microneurovascular transfer. Better excursion and symmetry of the oral commissure were achieved by microneurovascular reconstruction for voluntary smile. However, the aesthetic outcome after microneurovascular transfer is markedly impaired by chronic complications including swelling of the cheek and tethering of the skin, which were not detected by the three-dimensional measurement technique used. We conclude that the aesthetic appearance should be considered equally important as the range of motion in the reanimated face.

  11. Comparative effects of lactulose and magnesium sulfate on urea metabolism and nitrogen excretion in cirrhotic subjects.

    PubMed

    Weber, F L; Fresard, K M

    1981-05-01

    In previous studies with cirrhotic subjects administration of oral lactulose caused a reduction in the urea production rate associated with an increase in fecal nitrogen excretion. The change in urea production rate in response to lactulose therapy was an indirect measure of a reduction in total gut ammonia production. In this study, the effect of magnesium sulfate administration was compared with lactulose therapy in 5 cirrhotic subjects to determine whether the effects of lactulose on nitrogen metabolism might be attributed to a nonspecific, cathartic effect. Both magnesium sulfate (5-15 g/day) and lactulose (40-80 g/day) caused significant and comparable increases in stool weight, solids, and total nitrogen. Only lactulose caused a reduction in fecal pH. Magnesium sulfate had no significant effect on the urea production rate or urinary nitrogen excretion, whereas lactulose caused a 25% reduction in the urea production rate and an 18% reduction in urinary nitrogen excretion. The latter was accounted for by a fall in urinary urea. Nitrogen balance was more negative during magnesium sulfate than during control or lactulose periods since magnesium sulfate increased fecal nitrogen without altering urinary nitrogen excretion. These data demonstrated that the effects of lactulose on nitrogen excretion and urea metabolism were not duplicated by equivalent cathartic doses of magnesium sulfate. PMID:7202981

  12. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    PubMed

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes. PMID:20108210

  13. Comparative responses to nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitic subjects with or without asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) is useful to study the pathophysiology of rhinitis, and multiple challenges may more adequately approximate natural exposure. Objective To determine the effect of 4 consecutive daily NAC, on clinical and inflammatory parameters in rhinitics with or without asthma. Methods Rhinitic subjects were recruited: 19 with mild asthma and 13 without asthma. Subjects underwent a control challenge (normal saline) followed by 4 consecutive daily NAC. Allergen challenge consisted of spraying the chosen allergen extract into each nostril until a positive nasal response occurred. Symptoms were recorded on a Likert scale, and oral peak expiratory and nasal peak inspiratory flows allowed assessment of a nasal blockage index (NBI), for a period of 7 hours. Induced sputum and nasal lavage were performed on control day and after 1 and 4 days of NAC. Results Compared with the control day, there was a significant increase in symptom scores and NBI 10 minutes after each last daily NAC in both groups (p < 0.05). Symptom scores and NBI were similar for the 2 groups, except for nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, which were more marked in subjects with asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Nasal lavage eosinophils were increased after 4 days of challenges in both groups, but there was no change in sputum eosinophils. No cumulative effect or any late response were observed in any of the groups over the challenge period. Conclusion Multiple NAC may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis or its relationships with asthma. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01286129 PMID:21507261

  14. Subjective and objective knowledge and decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Riechel, Christina; Alegiani, Anna Christina; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Rosenkranz, Michael; Thomalla, Götz; Heesen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262) and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274). The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data interpretation competence was moderate in both groups. Age and basic mathematical and statistical understanding (numeracy) were the only independent predictors of objective stroke knowledge, whereas previous stroke had no impact on stroke knowledge. However, patients were thought to be better informed than controls. Approximately 60% of both patients and controls claimed to prefer a shared decision-making approach in treatment decisions. Conclusion The level of stroke risk knowledge in patients with cerebrovascular diseases was as low as in randomly selected pedestrians, although patients felt better informed. Both groups preferred involvement in treatment decision-making. We conclude that educational concepts

  15. Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Malagi, Sachin; Pattanshetti, Kirti; Bharmappa, Radhika; Reddy, Annaji Sreedhara; Pai, Jagadish; Joseph, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS) during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray)- split mouth study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI – Ennever J 1961) who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO®– (DENTSPLY) with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY) were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147a. Conclusions: The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception. PMID:25210262

  16. Comparing subjective image quality measurement methods for the creation of public databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Judith; Liu, Hantao; Alers, Hani; Zunino, Rodolfo; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    The Single Stimulus (SS) method is often chosen to collect subjective data testing no-reference objective metrics, as it is straightforward to implement and well standardized. At the same time, it exhibits some drawbacks; spread between different assessors is relatively large, and the measured ratings depend on the quality range spanned by the test samples, hence the results from different experiments cannot easily be merged . The Quality Ruler (QR) method has been proposed to overcome these inconveniences. This paper compares the performance of the SS and QR method for pictures impaired by Gaussian blur. The research goal is, on one hand, to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for quality assessment and, on the other, to make quality data of blur impaired images publicly available. The obtained results show that the confidence intervals of the QR scores are narrower than those of the SS scores. This indicates that the QR method enhances consistency across assessors. Moreover, QR scores exhibit a higher linear correlation with the distortion applied. In summary, for the purpose of building datasets of subjective quality, the QR approach seems promising from the viewpoint of both consistency and repeatability.

  17. Intraocular lens-edge design and material factors contributing to posterior-capsulotomy rates: comparing Hoya FY60aD, PY60aD, and AcrySof SN60WF

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Warren, Peter J; Smith, JM Alaric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser posterior capsulotomy (LPC) rates between the Hoya FY60AD, Hoya PY60AD, and Alcon AcrySof SN60WF intraocular lenses (IOLs) after routine cataract surgery. Methods In this retrospective comparative study, patients undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery over a 3-year period were included, and those subsequently undergoing LPC were identified from laser clinic records. LPC rates at 2 years postoperatively were compared between the round-edged Hoya FY60AD, the newer sharp-edged Hoya PY60AD three-piece IOLs, and the one-piece AcrySof SN60WF IOL. Results A total of 1,265 cataract operations were included, and 49 eyes (3.9%) underwent LPC within 2 years of surgery. Twenty-eight of 315 eyes (8.9%) implanted with the FY60AD underwent LPC by 2 years, compared to eleven of 254 (4.3%) with the newer sharp square-edged PY60AD and ten of 696 (1.4%) with the one-piece SN60WF (P < 0.05, Chi-squared analyses). Conclusions The newer, sharper-edged Hoya PY60AD IOL has a lower LPC rate than the Hoya FY60AD IOL at 2 years post-cataract surgery. The one-piece AcrySof SN60WF has a lower LPC rate than both the three-piece Hoya IOLs in the same time period postoperatively. Variations in IOL-edge design and material effect may have contributed to the different rates observed. PMID:24003302

  18. Validation of the A&D TM-2430 device for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and evaluation of performance according to subjects' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Palatini; Frigo; Bertolo; Roman; Da Cortà R; Winnicki

    1998-08-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the TM-2430 blood pressure monitor, recently developed by the A&D company. DESIGN: Evaluation was performed using the 1990 and 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocols. Monitor's performance was assessed in relation to subjects' age, sex, level of blood pressure, and degree of adiposity. METHODS: Three TM-2430 recorders were assessed according to the various phases of the protocols. Simultaneous, same-arm readings were taken for the main validation test. Outcome was classified according to the criteria from the 1990 BHS recommendations, which are based on the cumulative percentage of readings differing from the mercury sphygmomanometer standard by 5, 10, and 15 mmHg or less, and using the criteria of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation protocol, which considers a device accurate when the mean device-observer difference is within 5 mmHg and the related SD < 8 mmHg. RESULTS: During in-use assessment 2.3% of total measurements (N = 3744) were rejected automatically by the machine and another 5.5% werre discarded after visual inspection. The main validation test was performed with 98 subjects for a total of 595 blood pressure measurements. On the basis of the percentages of measurements differing from the mercury sphygmomanometer standard by subjects' age, sex, and body mass, and was slightly better for subjects with high blood pressures and lean arms. CONCLUSION: These data show that the A&D TM-2430 monitor satisfies the recommended BHS and Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation accuracy levels for both systolic and diastolic

  19. Pulmonary function test in formalin exposed and nonexposed subjects: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Uthiravelu, P.; Saravanan, A.; Kumar, C. Kishor; Vaithiyanandane, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main function of the lung is gas exchange, which can be assessed in several ways. A spirometer measures the flow and the volumes of the inspired and expired air. The thoracic and abdominal muscle strength plays an important role in pulmonary function and diffusing lung capacity. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of formalin exposure on the pulmonary function to compare with healthy individuals. To assess the chronic effects of formalin exposure on Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in the faculties, lab technicians and attender of the Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 50 healthy formalin exposed subjects (at least 5 years exposure) from Department of Anatomy and Pathology of SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur and 50 healthy controls of same age group of this study were included after obtaining ethical clearance and consent ‘Easy One Pro Spirometer (Ndd Medical Technologies, Cheshire SK 101LT, United Kingdom) was used to find out the PFT. Results: Student's t-test was applied to compare the PFT parameters between formalin exposed and formalin nonexposed group. There was a significant difference in mean and standard deviation of pulmonary parameters with the P < 0.005 in formalin exposed, which shows that they have lesser ventilatory drive. Conclusion: The formalin exposed subjects in our study presented with a mixed disorder of both obstructive and restrictive type. We also found that there was a negative correlation of pulmonary function with that of the degree and duration of exposure to formalin. PMID:26015743

  20. Two doses of candidate TB vaccine MVA85A in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve subjects gives comparable immunogenicity to one dose in ART+ subjects.

    PubMed

    Dieye, Tandakha N; Ndiaye, Birahim P; Dieng, Alle B; Fall, Marema; Brittain, Nathaniel; Britain, Nathaniel; Vermaak, Samantha; Camara, Makhtar; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Ngom-Gueye, Ndeye Fatou; Diaw, Papa A; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Sow, Papa S; Mboup, Souleymane; McShane, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem exacerbated by the HIV epidemic. Here we evaluate a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in a Phase I study in HIV-infected adults in Senegal. 24 patients were enrolled: Group 1∶12, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve, adults, with CD4 counts >300 and HIV RNA load <100,000 copies/ml. Group 2∶12 adults, stable on ART, with CD4 counts >300, and an undetectable HIV RNA load. Safety was evaluated by occurrence of local and systemic adverse events (AEs) and by monitoring of CD4 count, HIV RNA load, haematology and biochemistry. Immunogenicity was evaluated by ex-vivo interferon-gamma ELISpot assay. 87.7% of AEs were mild; 11.6% were moderate; and 0.7% were severe. 29.2% of AEs were systemic; 70.8% were expected local AEs. There were no vaccine-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) or clinically significant effects on HIV RNA load or CD4 count. In ART naive subjects, the first MVA85A immunisation induced a significant immune response at 1 and 4 weeks post-immunisation, which contracted to baseline by 12 weeks. Durability of immunogenicity in subjects on ART persisted out to 24 weeks post-vaccination. A second dose of MVA85A at 12 months enhanced immunogenicity in ART naïve subjects. Subjects on ART had higher responses after the first vaccination compared with ART naïve subjects; responses were comparable after 2 immunisations. In conclusion, MVA85A is well-tolerated and immunogenic in HIV-infected subjects in Senegal. A two dose regimen in ART naïve subjects is comparable in immunogenicity to a single dose in subjects on ART. Clinicaltrials.gov trial identifier NCT00731471.

  1. Comparing Beginning Teachers' Instructional Quality Growth on Subject-Specific and Global Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neergaard, Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Observation measures of instructional quality tend to fall into two broad categories--those for use across subject areas and those intended for use in specific subject areas. The move toward content-specific measures is a result of research suggesting that effective teaching looks different across subject areas and that both content knowledge and…

  2. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals. PMID:26338460

  3. Subjective health legacy of the Chornobyl accident: a comparative study of 19-year olds in Kyiv

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the Chornobyl accident in 1986, the physical health of exposed children in Ukraine has been monitored, but their perceived health has not been studied. This study examines health perceptions of Ukrainian adolescents exposed to radioactive fallout in utero or as infants, and the epidemiologic and Chornobyl-related influences on self-reported health. Method We assessed three groups of 19-year olds in Kyiv: 262 evacuees from contaminated areas near the plant; 261 classmate controls; and 325 population-based controls. The evacuees and classmates were previously assessed at age 11. Structured interviews were conducted with the adolescents and their mothers (N = 766), followed by general physical examinations (N = 722) and blood tests (N = 707). Proportional odds logistic regression and multi-group path analysis were the major statistical tests. Results The examination and blood test results were similar across groups except for a significantly elevated rate of thyroid enlargement found by palpation in evacuees (17.8%) compared former classmates (8.7%) and population-based controls (8.0%). In addition, four evacuees and one population control had had a thyroidectomy. Compared to controls, the evacuees rated their health the least positively and reported more medically diagnosed illnesses during the 5 years preceding the interview, particularly thyroid disease, migraine headache, and vascular dystony. The consistent risk factors (p < 0.001) for these subjective health reports were evacuee status, female gender, multiple hospitalizations, and health risk perception regarding Chornobyl. All three groups of mothers rated their children's health more negatively than the adolescents themselves, and maternal ratings were uniquely associated with the adolescents' health reports in the adjusted models. In the longitudinal evacuee and classmate subsamples, path analysis showed that mothers' health ratings when the children were age 11 predicted their later

  4. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-11-30

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl₂, NiSO₄, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH₃COO)₂, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO₄ < Ni(CH₃COO)₂ < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl₂ < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg(-1) for NiSO₄, 1315 mg·kg(-1) for NiCl₂, and 89 mg·kg(-1) for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered.

  5. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl₂, NiSO₄, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH₃COO)₂, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO₄ < Ni(CH₃COO)₂ < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl₂ < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg(-1) for NiSO₄, 1315 mg·kg(-1) for NiCl₂, and 89 mg·kg(-1) for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  6. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH3COO)2, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO4 < Ni(CH3COO)2 < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl2 < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg−1 for NiSO4, 1315 mg·kg−1 for NiCl2, and 89 mg·kg−1 for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  7. Milk production of Friesian cows subjected to high daytime temperatures when allowed food either ad lib or at night-time only.

    PubMed

    Richards, J I

    1985-08-01

    Four lactating Friesian cows housed in climate chambers were exposed to the following sequential treatments: I, a four-week period when they were allowed constant access to an ad lib supply of a complete diet and water in a thermoneutral environment (ambient temperature (Ta) 14 to 20 degrees C and relative humidity (r.h.) 50 to 75%); II, a five-week period during which they were exposed to Ta 38.5 degrees C/r.h. 85% for 61/2 h during daytime and Ta 14 to 20 degrees C/r.h. 50 to 75% for the remainder of each day with constant access to ad lib complete diet and water; III, a four-week period under the same environment as treatment II but with access to food restricted to between 19.00 and 07.00; IV; a four-week period under the environment and feeding regime described for treatment II. The voluntary food intake (VFI) of cows subjected to II was not depressed as a result of high daytime temperature despite the fact that they exhibited daytime clinical features indicative of heat stress; this was because of a 27.8% compensatory increase in night-time feeding. Nevertheless there was an accompanying significant increase in the rate of lactation decline of 8.7% per month greater than that normally expected under the thermoneutral conditions (I). Subsequent restriction of food access to night-time (III) resulted in a significant reduction in mean VFI of 7.5%; however, the rate of lactation decline was drastically reduced to a value not dissimilar to the natural decline of 3.97% per month observed under thermoneutral conditions (I).

  8. Metabolic effects of high dose amiloride and spironolactone: a comparative study in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J A; Fraser, R; Mason, P; Leckie, B; Cumming, A M; Robertson, J I

    1984-01-01

    Amiloride (75 mg daily) and spironolactone (300 mg daily) were given to five normal subjects for 7 days in order to compare metabolic effects at maximal doses. Blood pressure, body weight, Na+ and K+ balance, and plasma concentrations of Na+, K+, active and total renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone (18-OH DOC), corticosterone (B), 18-hydroxycorticosterone (18-OH B) and cortisol were measured before and on each day of treatment. Natriuresis and K+ retention were significantly greater with amiloride. Plasma K+ increased from 4.1 +/- 0.2 to 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l (mean +/- s.d.) on amiloride and from 4.0 +/- 0.2 to 4.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/l with spironolactone. Stimulation of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone and 18-OH B occurred with both drugs but was greater with amiloride in each case. A transient decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed after 2 days of spironolactone treatment but not with amiloride. The slope of the regression of aldosterone on angiotensin II during spironolactone treatment was less than that with amiloride, consistent with partial blockade of aldosterone synthesis by spironolactone. These data suggest that the maximum metabolic effects of amiloride exceed those of spironolactone. PMID:6386025

  9. [Pulmonary function results in healthy subjects breathing through external stenoses compared to patients with airway obstruction].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thorsten; Schätt, Dieter; Schläfke, Marianne E; Ulmer, Wolfgang T

    2004-01-01

    We compared body plethysmographic data, flow-volume curves during spontaneous breathing, P0.1 and PETCO2 in healthy subjects breathing through external stenoses (ES) of varying magnitude to the results in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) remained unchanged by experimental airway stenoses. IVC is mainly determined by the end-expiratory closure of the airways, which only weakly correlates with airway resistance in patients. External stenoses had no effect on the physiological end-expiratory closure of the airways. For the other spirometric parameters the available force of the respiratory muscles and the degree of the experimental stenosis played the major role. The mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) showed considerably lower variation during ES as well as in COPD patients than total resistance (Rt). There was no increase in intrathoracic gas volume (IGV) causing increased tension of the lungs and the thorax during ES. The well-known correlation between Rt and IGV is attributed to the end-expiratory closure of the airways during increased flow resistance and to "trapped air". It remains open, if and how the expiratory muscles act to overcome the increased resistance. With consideration of the underlying factors of the different lung function measures, the combination and the analysis of the correlation between different values may lead to far-reaching results in lung function testing. PMID:15518089

  10. A Comparative Study of Autistic Subjects' Performance at Two Levels of Visual and Cognitive Perspective Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Taffy; Peterson, Candida

    1990-01-01

    This study found that 13 autistic subjects performed less well on cognitive than on visual perspective-taking tasks at two levels of difficulty. Autistic subjects performed as well as 13 intellectually handicapped controls and 13 normal controls on visual perspective-taking tasks but more poorly than controls on cognitive perspective-taking tasks.…

  11. Comparative single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of bevantolol in young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Selen, A; Kinkel, A W; Darke, A C; Greene, D S; Welling, P G

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of bevantolol were examined following single and repeated oral doses to young and elderly volunteers. Following administration of a single 200-mg bevantolol tablet mean maximum plasma bevantolol concentrations in young and elderly subjects were 1690 ng/ml and 1810 ng/ml, respectively. Maximum bevantolol concentrations occurred approximately 1.1 h postdose in both young and elderly subjects. There were no significant differences in mean steady state bevantolol concentrations on Day 14 between young and elderly subjects. However, disproportionate increases in Cmax, and in AUC, but not in tmax values were observed between Days 1 and 14. On Days 1 and 14, most young and elderly subjects exhibited monoexponential decline in bevantolol plasma concentrations after absorption phase. In those subjects Day 14 elimination half-lives in young and elderly were 1.9 and 2.2 h, respectively. In subjects who exhibited biexponential decline in bevantolol, an age effect in elimination became apparent, on Day 14 elimination half-lives were 5.7 and 11.2 h in young and elderly subjects, respectively. Bevantolol Metabolite III concentrations were observed in plasma of some subjects during the first 6 h after dosing. At steady-state AUC (0-ldc) values for the metabolite were less than 2% those of bevantolol. Bevantolol plasma levels accumulate to a small extent with repeated 200 mg daily doses. This is probably due to the contribution of a late and more persistent terminal elimination phase that was discernable in only certain individuals.

  12. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liangsuo; Steinberg, Joel L.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Lane, Scott D.; Bjork, James M.; Neelakantan, Harshini; Price, Amanda E.; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Bechara, Antoine; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response) in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD) subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to study the effective (directional) neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard). The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced) during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L) anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition. PMID:26082893

  13. Comparative study of ecotoxicological effect of triorganotin compounds on various biological subjects.

    PubMed

    Fargasová, A

    1997-02-01

    The toxic and inhibitory effect of 10 triorganotin compounds (triphenlyl-, tribenzyl-, and tributyltins) were determined under standardized conditions on four biological subjects: Tubifex tubifex, Chironomus plumosus, Sinapis alba seeds, and the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Observed were the mortality of T. tubifex and Ch. plumosus after 96 hr, the root growth inhibition of S. alba seeds after 72 hr, and the inhibition of growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll a content of S. quadricauda after 12 days of cultivation. The effect of triorganotins was expressed as LC50 values for mortality and EC50 values for inhibition. For each subject and observed parameter the rank order of toxicity/or inhibition was arranged.

  14. "Chips with Everything": A Laboratory Exercise for Comparing Subjective and Objective Measurements of Potato Chips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    The following laboratory exercise was designed to aid student understanding of the differences between subjective and objective measurements. Students assess the color and texture of different varieties of potato chip (crisps) by means of an intensity rating scale and a rank test and objectively with a colorimeter and texture analyzer. For data…

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  16. Comparing principal components analyses of evoked potentials recorded from heterogeneous groups of subjects.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R A; Josiassen, R C; Shagass, C

    1990-01-01

    Principal components analysis of evoked potentials differing between groups presents an interpretive problem, particularly in psychiatric research. Two sets of principal components and associated factor scores may appear to differ. The issue is to determine the extent to which visually differing principal components and resultant factor scores span the same factor space. Sets of evoked potentials from controls and from schizophrenics were each subjected to principal components analysis, from which factor score coefficients were computed for all subjects. This allowed determination of the extent to which (1) the two sets of basis waves were similar and (2) the factor scores resulting from the set of basis waves derived from principal components analysis of the control subjects' evoked potential data adequately represented those of the schizophrenics and vice-versa. Canonical correlation analyses indicated substantial similarities between the principal component structures (sets of basis waves). Multiple correlational analyses confirmed that the basis waves from either group spanned the other group's factor space. Factor scores from either set of basis waves were highly correlated. These results suggest that principal component structures derived from evoked potentials of a control group may be used in computing evoked potential factor scores of psychiatrically diverse populations even though the average evoked potentials of the groups may differ in several ways.

  17. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  18. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection). PMID:24554231

  19. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  20. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA.

  1. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study)

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabeza, Ignacio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Sacristán, Jose A; Edgell, Eric; González de Chavez, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy) with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS. PMID:11835695

  2. Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

  3. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  4. The gait pattern is not impaired in subjects with external snapping hip: a comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptomatic external snapping hip is a painful condition, where pain in the trochantor region and limitations of daily activity dominate clinical findings. The aetiology of symptomatic external snapping hip is elusive, but previous studies have suggested that weakness of the hip abductors and an altered walking pattern may play a role in the development of symptomatic external snapping hip. The aim of this study was to compare the walking pattern and muscular activity of the hip muscles between subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip and healthy subjects. Methods Thirteen subjects with diagnosed symptomatic external snapping hip (age: 25.5 years) were matched with 13 healthy subjects (age: 25.6 years). Joint kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity were quantified by the peak hip adduction angle; the average knee rotation range of motion (ROM) and the peak valgus knee angle after data recording using a Vicon 612 motion capture system. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally using surface electromyography (sEMG) on five muscles: gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. A paired t-test was used to evaluate differences between the two groups. Results No significant differences were found between the groups concerning the peak hip adduction angle, the average knee rotation ROM, and the static valgus knee angle. No significant between-group differences were found concerning all other kinematics, kinetics or muscle activity. In subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip activity of the gluteus medius muscle during the acceptance phase of walking was 0.58 ± 0.19 whereas the activity was 0.68±0.07 in the asymptomatic group (p=0.115). Conclusions No significant differences in the walking pattern were found between subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip and healthy subjects. This suggest that subjects with symptomatic external snapping hip does not have an impaired gait pattern. PMID

  5. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    PubMed

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.

  6. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Jung, W.

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  7. Muscle strength, endurance, and aerobic capacity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, C; Broman, G

    1992-01-01

    Isometric/isokinetic muscle strength and isokinetic endurance of the lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity were evaluated in 67 patients (43 female, 24 male; mean age 53 years, range 23-65) with classical/definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of functional class II. Results obtained were compared with those of a healthy reference group matched for age and sex. Disease characteristics of the group with RA were registered and lifestyle characteristics, such as work load, exercise, diet, smoking, and alcohol habits, were reported by both groups. Generally, results showed that the group with RA had decreased functional capacity. Isometric hip and knee muscle strength of the rheumatoid group was reduced to about 75% of normal function, isokinetic knee muscle strength at the velocities of 60 and 180 degrees/s to about 65% and 75% of normal function respectively, isokinetic endurance of the knee muscle groups to about 45%, and aerobic capacity to about 80% of the results obtained for the healthy reference group. Analyses of variance showed that the rheumatoid group, compared with the healthy group, had significantly reduced function on all isometric and isokinetic tests of the extensors and flexors of the knee. Results for isometric hip muscle strength were similar--all tests but one yielding highly significant differences. To avoid unnecessary functional deficits it seems important to include muscular training in rehabilitation programmes for patients with RA.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics and comparative analysis of hybrid piezoelectric-inductive energy harvesters subjected to galloping vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, U.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and comparative analysis of galloping-based hybrid piezoelectric-inductive energy harvesting systems are investigated. Both piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers are attached to the transverse degree of freedom of the prismatic structure in order to harvest energy from two possible sources. A fully-coupled electroaeroelastic model is developed which takes into account the coupling between the generated voltage from the piezoelectric transducer, the induced current from the electromagnetic transducer, and the transverse displacement of the bluff body. A nonlinear quasi-steady approximation is employed to model the galloping force. To determine the influences of the external load resistances that are connected to the piezoelectric and electromagnetic circuits on the onset speed of galloping, a deep linear analysis is performed. It is found that the external load resistances in these two circuits have significant effects on the onset speed of galloping of the harvester with the presence of optimum values. To investigate the effects of these transduction mechanisms on the performance of the galloping energy harvester, a nonlinear analysis is performed. Using the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation, it is demonstrated that the hybrid energy harvester has a supercritical instability for different values of the external load resistances. For well-defined wind speed and external load resistance in the electromagnetic circuit, the results showed that there is a range of external load resistances in the piezoelectric circuit at which the output power generated by the electromagnetic induction is very small. On the other hand, there are two optimal load resistances at which the output power by the piezoelectric transducer is maximum. Based on a comparative study, it is demonstrated the hybrid piezoelectric-inductive energy harvester is very beneficial in terms of having two sources of energy. However, compared to the classical piezoelectric and

  9. Added Value of Long-Term Cytokine Release Assays to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Subjects in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dirix, Violette; Schepers, Kinda; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Worodria, William; Colebunders, Robert; Singh, Mahavir; Locht, Camille; Kestens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether mycobacterial antigen–induced cytokine secretions are helpful in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in a cohort of HIV-infected patients living in a country with a high burden of Mtb and HIV infections, and to determine their predictive value for the development of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Design: A total of 352 HIV-infected patients (186 with active TB) were prospectively enrolled when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sequential blood samples were collected during the first 6 months of ART. Eighty-three HIV-uninfected subjects (39 with active TB) were enrolled as controls. Methods: The concentrations of 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants from blood mononuclear cells in vitro stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) or early secreted antigen-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10), and results were compared with those of tuberculin skin tests (TST). Results: The best detection of Mtb infection was achieved by ESAT-6/CFP-10–induced interferon-γ concentrations, but results were often negative for patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <50 per cubic millimeters. Patients with active TB were identified by high ESAT-6/CFP-10–induced interleukin-6. Conversions of interferon-γ-release assays (IGRA) and TST occurred under ART, and combined TB and antiretroviral treatments of coinfected patients resulted in a decrease of ESAT-6/CFP-10–induced and an increase of HBHA-induced interferon-γ responses. No Mtb antigen–induced cytokines allowed us to predict TB–immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or ART-associated TB. Conclusions: In Uganda, ESAT-6/CFP-10–IGRA is better in detecting Mtb infection than TST and, when combined with an HBHA–IGRA, could help to evaluate anti-TB treatment success. PMID:27306506

  10. How well do subjective Hospital Compare metrics reflect objective outcomes in spine surgery?

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The accuracy of public reporting in health care is an issue of debate. The authors investigated the association of patient satisfaction measures from a public reporting platform with objective outcomes for patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS The authors performed a cohort study involving patients undergoing elective spine surgery from 2009 to 2013 who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. This cohort was merged with publicly available data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website. A mixed-effects regression analysis, controlling for clustering at the hospital level, was used to investigate the association of patient satisfaction metrics with outcomes. RESULTS During the study period, 160,235 patients underwent spine surgery. Using a mixed-effects multivariable regression analysis, the authors demonstrated that undergoing elective spine surgery in hospitals with a higher percentage of patient-assigned high satisfaction scores was not associated with a decreased rate of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57-1.06), mortality (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.01), or hospitalization charges (β 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.23). However, it was associated with decreased length of stay (LOS; β -0.19, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.05). Similar associations were identified for hospitals with a higher percentage of patients who claimed they would recommend these institutions to others. CONCLUSIONS Merging a comprehensive all-payer cohort of spine surgery patients in New York state with data from the CMS Hospital Compare website, the authors were not able to demonstrate an association of improved performance in patient satisfaction measures with decreased mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and hospitalization charges. Increased patient satisfaction was associated with decreased LOS. PMID:26989975

  11. Evaluation of [18F]MNI-777 PET as a Marker of Tau Pathology in Subjects With Tauopathies Compared to Healthy Subjects

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-07

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD); Parkinson's Disease (PD); Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE); Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP); Frontal Temporal Dementia (FTD); Pick's Disease; Tauopathies

  12. A comparative study of attentional strategies of schizophrenic and highly creative normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Dykes, M; McGhie, A

    1976-01-01

    Frequent references have been made to the similarities between highly creative and psychotic thinking. This study attempts to test the hypothesis that one explanation for such a correspondence lies in the fact that individuals in both these populations habitually employ common attentional strategies which cause them to sample an unusually wide range of available environmental stimuli. A group of highly creative adults and a group of equally intelligent but low creative adults were compared with a group of acute non-paranoid schizophrenic adults on three tests designed to assess attentional and other cognitive styles. The results offer support to the view that both highly creative and schizophrenic individuals habitually sample a wider range of available environmental input than do less creative individuals. In the case of the schizophrenic this involuntary widening of attention tends to have a deleterious effect on performance, while, in contrast, the highly creative individual is more able to successfully process the greater input without this incurring a performance deficit.

  13. Patients’ subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation: the study protocol of a qualitative comparative study between Norway and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Flick, Uwe; Bærheim, Anders; Lichte, Thomas; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, utilisation of ambulatory healthcare services is high compared with other countries: While a study based on the process data of German statutory health insurances showed an average of 17.1 physician-patient-contacts per year, the comparable figure for Norway is about five. The usual models of healthcare utilisation, such as Rosenstock's Health Belief Model and Andersen's Behavioural Model, cannot explain these differences adequately. Organisational factors of the healthcare system, such as gatekeeping, do not explain the magnitude of the differences. Our hypothesis is that patients’ subjective concepts about primary healthcare utilisation play a major role in explaining different healthcare utilisation behaviour in different countries. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore these subjective concepts comparatively, between Germany and Norway. Methods/design With that aim in mind, we chose a comparative qualitative study design. In Norway and Germany, we are going to interview 20 patients each with qualitative episodic interviews. In addition, we are going to conduct participant observation in four German and four Norwegian primary care practices. The data will be analysed by thematic coding. Using selected categories, we are going to conduct comparative case and group analyses. Ethics and dissemination The study adheres to the Declaration of Helsinki. All interviewees will sign informed consent forms and all patients will be observed during consultation. Strict rules for data security will apply. Developed theory and policy implications are going to be disseminated by a workshop, presentations for experts and laypersons and publications. PMID:23794555

  14. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  15. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  16. Subjective vs. objective evaluation of gallbladder opacification during oral cholecystography in comparative clinical trials: implications for studies involving visual assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fon, G.T.; Hunter, T.B.; Berk, R.N.; Patton, D.D.; Capp, M.P.

    1982-07-01

    Radiographs and CT images taken during oral cholecystography in dogs were interpreted in an independent, blind fashion by three radiologists on two occasions and visual assessment of gallbladder density compared to the actual CT values. While there was significant intra- and inter-observer variation, the mean scores for the observers' interpretations of both radiographs and prints correlated well with the actual CT values (p > 0.05). In five out of six comparisons between first and second readings, the observers gave a lower score on the second reading. The considerable variation reflects the problems inherent in subjective evaluation of agents that produce small but measurable differences in radiographic density. Studies involving such subjective data have to be carefully designed in order to obtain meaningful results.

  17. Serum cytokines are increased and circulating micronutrients are not altered in subjects with early compared to advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Aguirre, Dale; Trawick, Roy H; Rasmussen, G Lynn; Momberger, Nathan G

    2014-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of physical disability. At the early stage of knee OA, the increase in synovial fluid cytokine concentrations could contribute to the pathogenesis of OA by degrading articular cartilage. It is unknown, however, if inflammatory cytokines increase systemically at the early or advanced stage of knee OA. The systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines could be detrimental to the endogenous status of micronutrients that protect against excessive inflammation and cytokine-mediated events. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an increase in serum cytokines associate with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA. Advanced knee OA subjects (n=14) displayed radiographic, pain, and muscular weakness symptoms of knee OA. Early knee OA subjects (n=14) were matched (age, gender, and body mass index) to the advanced OA group and displayed one or two of the aforementioned symptoms of knee OA. Inflammatory cytokines, vitamins C (ascorbic acid), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), and E (α- and γ-tocopherols), and β-carotene were measured in fasting blood samples. In the early OA group, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13 concentrations were significantly (all p<0.05) increased. Circulating ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, α- and γ-tocopherol's, and β-carotene concentrations were not significantly different between groups. Based on these preliminary results, we conclude that the systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines is not associated with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA.

  18. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Gijs H.; Moors, Chantalle C. M.; Jocken, Johan W. E.; van der Zijl, Nynke J.; Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Diamant, Michaela; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. PMID:26985905

  19. The comparative effect of subjective and objective after-action reviews on team performance on a complex task.

    PubMed

    Villado, Anton J; Arthur, Winfred

    2013-05-01

    The after-action review (AAR; also known as the after-event review or debriefing) is an approach to training based on a review of trainees' performance on recently completed tasks or performance events. Used by the military for decades, nonmilitary organizations' use of AARs has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite the prevalence of AARs, empirical research investigating their effectiveness has been limited. This study sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of objective AARs (reviews based on an objective recording and playback of trainees' recent performance) and subjective AARs (reviews based on a subjective, memory-based recall of trainees' recent performance). One hundred eighty-eight individuals, participating in 47 4-person teams, were assigned to 1 of 3 AAR conditions and practiced and tested on a cognitively complex performance task. Although there were no significant differences between objective and subjective AAR teams across the 5 training outcomes, AAR teams had higher levels of team performance, team efficacy, openness of communication, and cohesion than did non-AAR teams but no differences in their levels of team declarative knowledge. Our results suggest that AARs are effective at enhancing training outcomes. Furthermore, AARs may not be dependent on objective reviews and therefore may be a viable training intervention when objective reviews are not feasible or possible.

  20. Tongue Stiffness is Lower in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Wakefulness Compared with Matched Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness. Design: Controlled experimental study. Setting: Medical research institute. Participants: Patients with OSA and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Measurements: Magnetic resonance elastography was performed in nine patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 events/h) and seven controls (AHI < 10 events/h) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Six of these OSA subjects were also scanned while 10 cmH2O CPAP was applied. Mean isotropic shear modulus and anisotropic shear moduli parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fascicles in the tongue were calculated. Results: Tongue shear modulus in patients with OSA was lower than that in matched controls (2.68 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) kPa versus 2.98 ± 0.44 kPa, P < 0.001). Shear modulus decreased with increasing AHI (R = −0.496, P = 0.043), but not age, BMI, or percentage tongue fat. Anisotropic analysis revealed that reduction in stiffness was greatest parallel to the muscle fibers. CPAP had no significant effect on tongue shear modulus. Conclusions: In awake subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, the tongue is less stiff than in similar healthy subjects and this difference occurs in the muscle fiber direction. CPAP did not significantly reduce tongue stiffness. Thus, any change in neural drive to genioglossus during wakefulness is insufficient to restore normal tongue stiffness. Citation: Brown EC, Cheng S, McKenzie DK, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects. SLEEP 2015;38(4):537–544. PMID:25409103

  1. Behavioral abnormalities in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD-like pathology: comparative analysis across multiple behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis.

  2. The matching of sinus arrhythmia to respiration: are trauma patients without serious injury comparable to healthy laboratory subjects?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Reisner, Andrew T; Chen, Liangyou; Edla, Shwetha; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    We sought to better understand the physiology underlying the metrics of heart rate variability (HRV) in trauma patients without serious injury, compared to healthy laboratory controls. In trauma patients without serious injury (110 subjects, 470 2-min data segments), we studied the correlation between sinus arrhythmia (SA) rate, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). Most segments with 2.4 < HR/RR < 4.8 exhibited SA-RR matching, whereas rate matching was absent in 81% of the segments with HR/RR < 2.4 and in 86% of the segments with HR/RR > 4.8. The findings were comparable, in some cases remarkably so, to previous reports from healthy laboratory subjects. The presence (or absence) of SA-RR matching, when SA is largely controlled by respiration, can be anticipated in this trauma population. This work provides a valuable step towards the definition of patterns of HRV found in trauma patients with and without life-threatening injury. PMID:25570720

  3. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  4. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries in the seagrass Zostera marina subjected to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Thorsten B H; Veron, Amelie S; Preuss, Christoph; Weiner, January; Wissler, Lothar; Beck, Alfred; Klages, Sven; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Global warming is associated with increasing stress and mortality on temperate seagrass beds, in particular during periods of high sea surface temperatures during summer months, adding to existing anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication and habitat destruction. We compare several expressed sequence tag (EST) in the ecologically important seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) to elucidate the molecular genetic basis of adaptation to environmental extremes. We compared the tentative unigene (TUG) frequencies of libraries derived from leaf and meristematic tissue from a control situation with two experimentally imposed temperature stress conditions and found that TUG composition is markedly different among these conditions (all P < 0.0001). Under heat stress, we find that 63 TUGs are differentially expressed (d.e.) at 25 degrees C compared with lower, no-stress condition temperatures (4 degrees C and 17 degrees C). Approximately one-third of d.e. eelgrass genes were characteristic for the stress response of the terrestrial plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. The changes in gene expression suggest complex photosynthetic adjustments among light-harvesting complexes, reaction center subunits of photosystem I and II, and components of the dark reaction. Heat shock encoding proteins and reactive oxygen scavengers also were identified, but their overall frequency was too low to perform statistical tests. In all conditions, the most abundant transcript (3-15%) was a putative metallothionein gene with unknown function. We also find evidence that heat stress may translate to enhanced infection by protists. A total of 210 TUGs contain one or more microsatellites as potential candidates for gene-linked genetic markers. Data are publicly available in a user-friendly database at http://www.uni-muenster.de/Evolution/ebb/Services/zostera .

  5. A Comparative Study of Exceptional Experiences of Clients Seeking Advice and of Subjects in an Ordinary Population

    PubMed Central

    Fach, W.; Atmanspacher, H.; Landolt, K.; Wyss, T.; Rössler, W.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptional experiences (EE) occur frequently within the populations of many countries and across various socio-cultural contexts. Although some EE show similarities with mental disorders, it would be a mistake to identify them in general as disorders. In fact, the vast number of individuals reporting EE includes subclinical and completely healthy subjects. We conducted a comparative empirical study of several characteristics of EE for two samples – one from ordinary population and the other from clients seeking advice. We found surprisingly similar phenomenological patterns of EE in both samples, but the frequency and intensity of EE for clients seeking advice significantly exceeded those for the ordinary population. Our results support the hypothesis of a continuous spectrum between mental health and mental disorder for the types of experiences analyzed. PMID:23423775

  6. Prevention praised, cure preferred: results of between-subjects experimental studies comparing (monetary) appreciation for preventive and curative interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure’ is a common saying, and indeed, most health economic studies conclude that people are more willing to pay for preventive measures than for treatment activities. This may be because most health economic studies ask respondents to compare preventive measures with treatment, and thus prompt respondents to consider other uses of resources. However, psychological theorizing suggests that, when methods do not challenge subjects to consider other uses of resources, curative treatment is favored over prevention. Could it be that while prevention is praised, cure is preferred? Methods In two experimental studies, we investigated, from a psychological perspective and using a between-subjects design, whether prevention or treatment is preferred and why. In both studies, participants first read a lung cancer prevention or treatment intervention scenario that varied on the prevention-treatment dimension, but that were the same on factors like 'costs per saved life’ and kind of disease. Then participants completed a survey measuring appreciation (general and monetary) as well as a number of potential mediating variables. Results Both studies clearly demonstrated that, when the design was between-subjects, participants had greater (general and monetary) appreciation for treatment interventions than for preventive interventions with perceived urgency of the intervention quite consistently mediating this effect. Differences in appreciation of treatment over preventive treatment were shown to be .59 (Study 1) and .45 (Study 2) on a 5-point scale. Furthermore, participants thought that health insurance should compensate more for the treatment than for preventive measures, differences of 16% (Study 1), and 22% (Study 2). When participants were asked to directly compare both interventions on the basis of a short description, they preferred the preventive intervention. Conclusion It appears that people claim to prefer

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Flexible and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Delivery: Effects on Compliance, Objective and Subjective Sleepiness and Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Jessie; Campbell, Angela; Neill, Alister

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be limited by suboptimal compliance. C-Flex technology (Philips Respironics, PA, USA) reduces pressure during expiration, aiming to improve comfort and therefore compliance. This may be of particular relevance to patients requiring high pressures. Many studies thus far have suffered from design limitations and small sample sizes. This study aimed to compare compliance with C-Flex and CPAP, as well as analyzing objective and subjective sleepiness and vigilance. Design: Three-month, double-blinded, parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Setting: A university-based sleep laboratory. Patients: 76 consecutive patients with severe OSA (mean ± SD AHI 60.2 ± 32.9 events/hour, ESS 13.6 ± 4.5/24, BMI 35.6 ± 7.8 kg/m2), without significant cardiac, respiratory, psychiatric, or sleep comorbidities. Interventions: Patients were randomized to C-Flex (dip level 2) or CPAP. Measurements and Results: Patients underwent titration with C-Flex/CPAP (mean pressure 11.6 cm H2O). Modified maintenance of wakefulness tests (mod-MWT), psychomotor vigilance tasks (PVT) and questionnaires were administered at baseline and after one and 3 months. Median compliance was 5.51 and 5.89 h/ night in the C-Flex and CPAP groups respectively (P = 0.82). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of PVT reaction time, subjective sleepiness, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, or treatment comfort. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the change in mod-MWT sleep latency values. Conclusions: In patients with severe OSA both CPAP and C-Flex resulted in substantial improvements in sleepiness, vigilance, and quality of life. The use of C-Flex did not result in greater compliance, and neither treatment appeared superior. Citation: Bakker J; Campbell A; Neill A. Randomized controlled trial comparing flexible and continuous positive airway pressure

  8. Effect of Non-rigid Registration Algorithms on Deformation Based Morphometry: A Comparative Study with Control and Williams Syndrome Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaoying; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    Deformation Based Morphometry (DBM) is a widely used method for characterizing anatomical differences across groups. DBM is based on the analysis of the deformation fields generated by non-rigid registration algorithms, which warp the individual volumes to a DBM atlas. Although several studies have compared non-rigid registration algorithms for segmentation tasks, few studies have compared the effect of the registration algorithms on group differences that may be uncovered through DBM. In this study, we compared group atlas creation and DBM results obtained with five well-established non-rigid registration algorithms using thirteen subjects with Williams Syndrome (WS) and thirteen Normal Control (NC) subjects. The five non-rigid registration algorithms include: (1) The Adaptive Bases Algorithm (ABA); (2) The Image Registration Toolkit (IRTK); (3) The FSL Nonlinear Image Registration Tool (FSL); (4) The Automatic Registration Tool (ART); and (5) the normalization algorithm available in SPM8. Results indicate that the choice of algorithm has little effect on the creation of group atlases. However, regions of differences between groups detected with DBM vary from algorithm to algorithm both qualitatively and quantitatively. The unique nature of the data set used in this study also permits comparison of visible anatomical differences between the groups and regions of difference detected by each algorithm. Results show that the interpretation of DBM results is difficult. Four out of the five algorithms we have evaluated detect bilateral differences between the two groups in the insular cortex, the basal ganglia, orbitofrontal cortex, as well as in the cerebellum. These correspond to differences that have been reported in the literature and that are visible in our samples. But our results also show that some algorithms detect regions that are not detected by the others and that the extent of the detected regions varies from algorithm to algorithm. These results suggest

  9. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  10. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (ps

  11. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets. PMID:22899888

  12. Pharmacokinetics and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in combination with either amlodipine or atenolol compared to respective monotherapies in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bolbrinker, Juliane; Huber, Matthias; Scholze, Jürgen; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate any influence on olmesartan plasma pharmacokinetics from amlodipine or atenolol. We analysed pharmacokinetics and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in combination with either amlodipine or atenolol compared to respective monotherapies in two separate studies. In one study, 18 subjects received once daily treatment for 7 days with olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg alone or with amlodipine 5 mg or amlodipine 5 mg alone. In the other study, atenolol 50 mg once daily replaced amlodipine. Concentration vs. time profiles for olmesartan monotherapy were similar to combination therapy. Mean olmesartan AUC(ss,tau) for olmesartan alone and with amlodipine were 2439 and 2388 ng h/mL and for olmesartan alone and with atenolol were 2340 and 2247 ng h/mL. Corresponding olmesartan C(ss,max) values were 465.7 and 439.5 ng/mL for amlodipine, and 447.4 and 423.8 ng/mL for atenolol. Median t(max) values for olmesartan were 1.5 h for each group in each study. Bioequivalence was established for all pharmacokinetic parameters. Lack of significant pharmacokinetic interactions between olmesartan and amlodipine or atenolol provides a basis for combination therapy.

  13. The Best and Worst Times of Life: Narratives and Assessments of Subjective Well-Being by Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie; Theuns, Peter; Erstad, Ida; Bernheim, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) measure of subjective well-being (SWB) aims to reduce the problems of cultural bias and relativity to external standards by allowing people to define the endpoints or "anchors" of the measurement scale. In medical terminology anamnestic denotes "based on memory". The ACSA uses subjects' memories of…

  14. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were obtained,…

  15. Personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects by gender and the relationship with illness severity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Personality traits and schizophrenia present gender differences; however, gender has not been considered in most studies on personality and schizophrenia. This study aims to identify the different personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients and healthy control subjects by gender and to explore the relationship between personality dimensions and illness severity variables by analyzing data for males and females separately. Methods Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised dimensions were compared by gender between 161 schizophrenia patients and 214 healthy controls from a population-based sample using independent t-tests. We then investigated whether personality dimensions are related to illness severity variables using correlation analyses and bivariate logistic regression, also by gender. Results The patients had significantly higher scores for harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) and lower scores for reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (C), and self-directedness (SD) than the controls. Similar results were obtained when the sample was stratified by gender, however the differences were higher and more significant for HA among males and for RD among females. The number of admissions to a psychiatric hospital positively correlated with novelty seeking (NS) in males and negatively with SD in females. In males, SD and ST negatively correlated with the number of suicide attempts. Conclusions Male and female patients present difficulties for regulating and adapting behavior to achieve goals (SD) and for identifying and accepting others (C), as well as a great sense of spirituality and universe identification (ST). However, male patients are more characterized by being fearful, doubtful and easily fatigued (HA), while female patients are characterized by presenting difficulties maintaining and pursuing associated reward behaviors (RD). Furthermore, male and female patients who are frequently admitted to psychiatric hospitals and male

  16. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  17. ArthropodaCyc: a CycADS powered collection of BioCyc databases to analyse and compare metabolism of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Parisot, Nicolas; Febvay, Gérard; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Vellozo, Augusto F; Gabaldón, Toni; Calevro, Federica; Charles, Hubert; Colella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods interact with humans at different levels with highly beneficial roles (e.g. as pollinators), as well as with a negative impact for example as vectors of human or animal diseases, or as agricultural pests. Several arthropod genomes are available at present and many others will be sequenced in the near future in the context of the i5K initiative, offering opportunities for reconstructing, modelling and comparing their metabolic networks. In-depth analysis of these genomic data through metabolism reconstruction is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the biology of arthropods, thereby allowing the development of new strategies to control harmful species. In this context, we present here ArthropodaCyc, a dedicated BioCyc collection of databases using the Cyc annotation database system (CycADS), allowing researchers to perform reliable metabolism comparisons of fully sequenced arthropods genomes. Since the annotation quality is a key factor when performing such global genome comparisons, all proteins from the genomes included in the ArthropodaCyc database were re-annotated using several annotation tools and orthology information. All functional/domain annotation results and their sources were integrated in the databases for user access. Currently, ArthropodaCyc offers a centralized repository of metabolic pathways, protein sequence domains, Gene Ontology annotations as well as evolutionary information for 28 arthropod species. Such database collection allows metabolism analysis both with integrated tools and through extraction of data in formats suitable for systems biology studies.Database URL: http://arthropodacyc.cycadsys.org/.

  18. Comparative effects of pressure support ventilation and intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) in non-intubated healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, J; Isabey, D; Lorino, H; Lofaso, F; Lemaire, F; Brochard, L

    1995-11-01

    We compared the efficacy of three devices delivering assisted non-invasive ventilation with different working mechanisms, during room air breathing and during CO2-induced hyperventilation. In seven healthy volunteers, breathing pattern, respiratory muscle activity and comfort were assessed: during unassisted spontaneous breathing through a mouth-piece (SB); during assisted breathing with a device delivering inspiratory pressure support (IPS); and with two devices delivering intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB), the Monaghan 505 (IPPB1), and the CPU 1 ventilator (IPPB2). All three devices were set at 10 cmH2O of maximal pressure. During room air breathing, the work of breathing expressed as power, was significantly greater with the two IPPB devices than with the two other modes (IPPB1 and IPPB2 7.3 +/- 5.2 and 7.2 +/- 6.2 J.min-1, respectively, versus SB and IPS 2.4 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 3.3 J.min-1, respectively). The difference did not reach the statistical significance for the pressure-time product (PTP). Discomfort was also greater during the IPPB modes. During CO2-induced hyperventilation, considerable differences in power of breathing were found between the two IPPB devices and the other two modes. The PTP was also much higher with IPPB. Transdiaphragmatic pressure was significantly smaller during IPS than during the three other modes (IPS 18 +/- 2.6 cmH2O versus SB 22 +/- 2.6, IPPB1 32 +/- 5.2, and IPPB2: 28 +/- 5.2). Maximal discomfort was observed during the IPPB modes and was correlated with the magnitude of transdiaphragmatic pressure (r = 0.60). Despite similarities in their operational principles, IPS and IPPB had very different effects on respiratory muscle activity in healthy non-intubated subjects. IPPB machines not only failed to reduce patient's effort but also induced a significant level of extra work by comparison to spontaneous ventilation at ambient pressure. Great caution is, therefore, needed in the use of patient-triggered devices

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Colour Subject between Canada Saskatchewan State and Visual Arts Education Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabancal, Meral Per

    2015-01-01

    A deeper analysis of the art education curriculums applied in developed countries and treating specific subjects within these curriculums holds vital importance in allowing the production of alternative solution methods by providing the educators multiple perspectives in the face of problems concerning art education. In present paper colour…

  20. ArthropodaCyc: a CycADS powered collection of BioCyc databases to analyse and compare metabolism of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Parisot, Nicolas; Febvay, Gérard; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Vellozo, Augusto F; Gabaldón, Toni; Calevro, Federica; Charles, Hubert; Colella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods interact with humans at different levels with highly beneficial roles (e.g. as pollinators), as well as with a negative impact for example as vectors of human or animal diseases, or as agricultural pests. Several arthropod genomes are available at present and many others will be sequenced in the near future in the context of the i5K initiative, offering opportunities for reconstructing, modelling and comparing their metabolic networks. In-depth analysis of these genomic data through metabolism reconstruction is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the biology of arthropods, thereby allowing the development of new strategies to control harmful species. In this context, we present here ArthropodaCyc, a dedicated BioCyc collection of databases using the Cyc annotation database system (CycADS), allowing researchers to perform reliable metabolism comparisons of fully sequenced arthropods genomes. Since the annotation quality is a key factor when performing such global genome comparisons, all proteins from the genomes included in the ArthropodaCyc database were re-annotated using several annotation tools and orthology information. All functional/domain annotation results and their sources were integrated in the databases for user access. Currently, ArthropodaCyc offers a centralized repository of metabolic pathways, protein sequence domains, Gene Ontology annotations as well as evolutionary information for 28 arthropod species. Such database collection allows metabolism analysis both with integrated tools and through extraction of data in formats suitable for systems biology studies.Database URL: http://arthropodacyc.cycadsys.org/. PMID:27242037

  1. No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence supports that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lowered risk of chronic diseases included coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. One potential mechanism for the protective properties of whole grains is their antioxidant content. The aim of this study was to compare differences in antioxidant measures when subjects consumed either refined or whole grain diets. Methods Twenty healthy subjects took part in a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study. Subjects consumed either a refined grain or whole grain diet for 14 days and then the other diet for the next 14 days. Male subjects consumed 8 servings of grains per day and female subjects consumed 6 servings of grains per day. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of each diet. Antioxidant measures included oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in blood, and isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. Results The whole grain diet was significantly higher in dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, selenium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and cystine compared to the refined grain diet. Despite high intakes of whole grains, no significant differences were seen in any of the antioxidant measures between the refined and whole grain diets. Conclusions No differences in antioxidant measures were found when subjects consumed whole grain diets compared to refined grain diets. PMID:20302646

  2. Comparative localization of Dax-1 and Ad4BP/SF-1 during development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suggests their closely related and distinct functions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Takeda, Y; Shikayama, T; Mukai, T; Hisano, S; Morohashi, K I

    2001-04-01

    Two nuclear receptors, Ad4BP/SF-1 and Dax-1, are essential regulators for development and function of the mammalian reproductive system. Similarity in expression sites, such as adrenal glands, gonads, pituitary, and hypothalamus, suggests a functional interaction, and the phenotype similarities were manifested in Ad4BP/SF-1-deficient mice and in cases of natural human mutations of Dax-1. In this study, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that expression profiles of Dax-1 in embryonic gonads are different between the two sexes and also from those of Ad4BP/SF-1. Immunohistochemical analyses clarified the spatial and temporal expressions of the Dax-1 protein during development of tissues composing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. During gonadal development, Dax-1 occurred after Ad4BP/SF-1 exhibiting a sexually dimorphic expression pattern at indifferent stages, indicating a possibility of Dax-1 involvement in earliest sex differentiation. When cord formation begins in the testis at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), Dax-1 was expressed strongly in Sertoli cells, but its expression level markedly decreased in Sertoli cells and increased in interstitial cells between E13.5 and E17.5. In the female, Dax-1 was strongly expressed in the entire ovarian primordium from E12.5 until E14.5, and then its expression level was decreased and limited to cells near the surface epithelium between E17.5 and postnatal day 0 (P0). During postnatal development of the testis, the variable staining of Dax-1 in Sertoli cells was detected as early as P7 and Dax-1-expressing Leydig cells became rare. In the postnatal ovary, Dax-1 expression was detected in granulosa cells with variable staining intensity, and occasionally in interstitial cells. During pituitary organogenesis, Dax-1 but not Ad4BP/SF-1 was expressed in the dorsal part of Rathke's pouch from E9.5. Later in development after E14.5, the distribution of Dax-1 overlapped with that of Ad4BP

  3. Comparative localization of Dax-1 and Ad4BP/SF-1 during development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suggests their closely related and distinct functions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Takeda, Y; Shikayama, T; Mukai, T; Hisano, S; Morohashi, K I

    2001-04-01

    Two nuclear receptors, Ad4BP/SF-1 and Dax-1, are essential regulators for development and function of the mammalian reproductive system. Similarity in expression sites, such as adrenal glands, gonads, pituitary, and hypothalamus, suggests a functional interaction, and the phenotype similarities were manifested in Ad4BP/SF-1-deficient mice and in cases of natural human mutations of Dax-1. In this study, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that expression profiles of Dax-1 in embryonic gonads are different between the two sexes and also from those of Ad4BP/SF-1. Immunohistochemical analyses clarified the spatial and temporal expressions of the Dax-1 protein during development of tissues composing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. During gonadal development, Dax-1 occurred after Ad4BP/SF-1 exhibiting a sexually dimorphic expression pattern at indifferent stages, indicating a possibility of Dax-1 involvement in earliest sex differentiation. When cord formation begins in the testis at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), Dax-1 was expressed strongly in Sertoli cells, but its expression level markedly decreased in Sertoli cells and increased in interstitial cells between E13.5 and E17.5. In the female, Dax-1 was strongly expressed in the entire ovarian primordium from E12.5 until E14.5, and then its expression level was decreased and limited to cells near the surface epithelium between E17.5 and postnatal day 0 (P0). During postnatal development of the testis, the variable staining of Dax-1 in Sertoli cells was detected as early as P7 and Dax-1-expressing Leydig cells became rare. In the postnatal ovary, Dax-1 expression was detected in granulosa cells with variable staining intensity, and occasionally in interstitial cells. During pituitary organogenesis, Dax-1 but not Ad4BP/SF-1 was expressed in the dorsal part of Rathke's pouch from E9.5. Later in development after E14.5, the distribution of Dax-1 overlapped with that of Ad4BP

  4. Comparative Distribution, Correlation, and Chemometric Analyses of Selected Metals in Scalp Hair of Angina Patients and Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Asim; Ahmad, Hamad; Shah, Munir H

    2015-11-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies are preponderance of evidences intimating development of coronary artery disease caused by metal imbalance. The present study was aimed to analyze Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr, and Zn in the scalp hair of angina patients and healthy subjects/controls employing HNO3-HCLO4-based wet digestion followed by quantification with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Sr revealed significantly higher levels in scalp hair of patients than controls; however, Na and Zn were appreciably higher in healthy subjects. Dissimilarity in the trace metal distribution was also observed with gender, residence, dietary habits, and smoking habits of both donor groups. The correlation study and multivariate analyses revealed diverse mutual relationships and apportionment of the trace metals in the scalp hair of patients and controls.

  5. Analysis of Relative Parallelism Between Hamular-Incisive-Papilla Plane and Campers Plane in Edentulous Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tambake, Deepti; Shetty, Shilpa; Satish Babu, C L; Fulari, Sangamesh G

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the parallelism between hamular-incisive-papilla plane (HIP) and the Campers plane. And to determine which part of the posterior reference of the tragus i.e., the superior, middle or the inferior of the Camper's plane is parallel to HIP using digital lateral cephalograms. Fifty edentulous subjects with well formed ridges were selected for the study. The master casts were obtained using the standard selective pressure impression procedure. On the deepest point of the hamular notches and the centre of the incisive papilla stainless steel spherical bearings were glued to the cast at the marked points. The study templates were fabricated with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The subjects were prepared for the lateral cephalograms. Stainless steel spherical bearings were adhered to the superior, middle, inferior points of the tragus of the ear and inferior border of the ala of the nose using surgical adhesive tape. The subjects with study templates were subjected to lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric tracings were done using Autocad 2010 software. Lines were drawn connecting the incisive papilla and hamular notch and the stainless steel spherical bearings placed on the superior, middle and inferior points on the tragus and the ala of the nose i.e., the Campers line S, Campers line M, Campers line I. The angles between the three Camper's line and the HIP were measured and recorded. Higher mean angulation was recorded in Campers line S -HIP (8.03) followed by Campers line M-HIP (4.60). Campers line I-HIP recorded the least angulation (3.80). The HIP is parallel to the Camper's plane. The Camper's plane formed with the posterior reference point as inferior point of the tragus is relatively parallel to the HIP. PMID:26199503

  6. Comparing Different Accounts of Inversion Errors in Children's Non-Subject Wh-Questions: "What Experimental Data Can Tell Us?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated different accounts of children's acquisition of non-subject wh-questions. Questions using each of 4 wh-words ("what," "who," "how" and "why"), and 3 auxiliaries (BE, DO and CAN) in 3sg and 3pl form were elicited from 28 children aged 3;6-4;6. Rates of non-inversion error ("Who she is hitting?") were found not to differ by…

  7. Analysis of Relative Parallelism Between Hamular-Incisive-Papilla Plane and Campers Plane in Edentulous Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tambake, Deepti; Shetty, Shilpa; Satish Babu, C L; Fulari, Sangamesh G

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the parallelism between hamular-incisive-papilla plane (HIP) and the Campers plane. And to determine which part of the posterior reference of the tragus i.e., the superior, middle or the inferior of the Camper's plane is parallel to HIP using digital lateral cephalograms. Fifty edentulous subjects with well formed ridges were selected for the study. The master casts were obtained using the standard selective pressure impression procedure. On the deepest point of the hamular notches and the centre of the incisive papilla stainless steel spherical bearings were glued to the cast at the marked points. The study templates were fabricated with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The subjects were prepared for the lateral cephalograms. Stainless steel spherical bearings were adhered to the superior, middle, inferior points of the tragus of the ear and inferior border of the ala of the nose using surgical adhesive tape. The subjects with study templates were subjected to lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric tracings were done using Autocad 2010 software. Lines were drawn connecting the incisive papilla and hamular notch and the stainless steel spherical bearings placed on the superior, middle and inferior points on the tragus and the ala of the nose i.e., the Campers line S, Campers line M, Campers line I. The angles between the three Camper's line and the HIP were measured and recorded. Higher mean angulation was recorded in Campers line S -HIP (8.03) followed by Campers line M-HIP (4.60). Campers line I-HIP recorded the least angulation (3.80). The HIP is parallel to the Camper's plane. The Camper's plane formed with the posterior reference point as inferior point of the tragus is relatively parallel to the HIP.

  8. A comparative subjective assessment study of PENNSAID® and Voltaren Gel®, two topical formulations of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Galer, Bradley S

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that is debilitating for many individuals. While oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remain a common and effective treatment approach to managing OA, concerns over cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse events can potentially limit their use. Various formulations of topical NSAIDs have been shown to provide effective localized treatment with minimal adverse events. A patient perception study was conducted to evaluate patient preference between topical diclofenac sodium gel and that of diclofenac sodium topical solution with the penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomized and asked to administer one dose of the topical products. Surveys were provided and assessed immediately after application, 5 minutes after application, and after the application had dried to gauge subjects' overall experience with the topical preparation. Overall, each drug's application was well tolerated and no adverse events were reported. Results of the patient preference survey demonstrated that topical diclofenac solution with DMSO had a number of characteristics that were rated significantly better than for diclofenac sodium gel. Mean subjective responses to topical diclofenac solution with DMSO were also more favorable for most items in the questionnaire, and more subjects preferred or highly preferred topical diclofenac solution with DMSO over diclofenac sodium gel.

  9. Comparing apples and oranges: using reward-specific and reward-general subjective value representation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dino J; Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-10-12

    The ability of human subjects to choose between disparate kinds of rewards suggests that the neural circuits for valuing different reward types must converge. Economic theory suggests that these convergence points represent the subjective values (SVs) of different reward types on a common scale for comparison. To examine these hypotheses and to map the neural circuits for reward valuation we had food and water-deprived subjects make risky choices for money, food, and water both in and out of a brain scanner. We found that risk preferences across reward types were highly correlated; the level of risk aversion an individual showed when choosing among monetary lotteries predicted their risk aversion toward food and water. We also found that partially distinct neural networks represent the SVs of monetary and food rewards and that these distinct networks showed specific convergence points. The hypothalamic region mainly represented the SV for food, and the posterior cingulate cortex mainly represented the SV for money. In both the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and striatum there was a common area representing the SV of both reward types, but only the vmPFC significantly represented the SVs of money and food on a common scale appropriate for choice in our data set. A correlation analysis demonstrated interactions across money and food valuation areas and the common areas in the vmPFC and striatum. This may suggest that partially distinct valuation networks for different reward types converge on a unified valuation network, which enables a direct comparison between different reward types and hence guides valuation and choice.

  10. Comparing Apples and Oranges: Using Reward-Specific and Reward-General Subjective Value Representation in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Glimcher, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of human subjects to choose between disparate kinds of rewards suggests that the neural circuits for valuing different reward types must converge. Economic theory suggests that these convergence points represent the subjective values (SVs) of different reward types on a common scale for comparison. To examine these hypotheses and to map the neural circuits for reward valuation we had food and water-deprived subjects make risky choices for money, food, and water both in and out of a brain scanner. We found that risk preferences across reward types were highly correlated; the level of risk aversion an individual showed when choosing among monetary lotteries predicted their risk aversion toward food and water. We also found that partially distinct neural networks represent the SVs of monetary and food rewards and that these distinct networks showed specific convergence points. The hypothalamic region mainly represented the SV for food, and the posterior cingulate cortex mainly represented the SV for money. In both the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and striatum there was a common area representing the SV of both reward types, but only the vmPFC significantly represented the SVs of money and food on a common scale appropriate for choice in our data set. A correlation analysis demonstrated interactions across money and food valuation areas and the common areas in the vmPFC and striatum. This may suggest that partially distinct valuation networks for different reward types converge on a unified valuation network, which enables a direct comparison between different reward types and hence guides valuation and choice. PMID:21994386

  11. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Antidiabetic Drug Regimens Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, Diana M.; White, C. Michael; Saulsberry, Whitney J.; Kohn, Christine G.; Doleh, Yunes; Zaccaro, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When first line therapy with metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antidiabetic agents in patients with inadequately controlled T2D on metformin alone. Materials and Methods A search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, regulatory websites was performed. We included randomized controlled trials of 3–12 months duration, evaluating Food and Drug Administration or European Union approved agents (noninsulin and long acting, once daily basal insulins) in patients experiencing inadequate glycemic control with metformin monotherapy (≥1500 mg daily or maximally tolerated dose for ≥4 weeks). Random-effects network meta-analyses were used to compare the weighted mean difference for changes from baseline in HbA1c, body weight (BW) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and the risk of developing hypoglycemia, urinary (UTI) and genital tract infection (GTI). Results Sixty-two trials evaluating 25 agents were included. All agents significantly reduced HbA1c vs. placebo; albeit not to the same extent (range, 0.43% for miglitol to 1.29% for glibenclamide). Glargine, sulfonylureas (SUs) and nateglinide were associated with increased hypoglycemia risk vs. placebo (range, 4.00–11.67). Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, miglitol and empagliflozin/linagliptin significantly reduced BW (range, 1.15–2.26kg) whereas SUs, thiazolindinediones, glargine and alogliptin/pioglitazone caused weight gain (range, 1.19–2.44kg). SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin/linagliptin, liraglutide and sitagliptin decreased SBP (range, 1.88–5.43mmHg). No therapy increased UTI risk vs. placebo; however, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of GTI (range, 2.16–8.03). Conclusions Adding different AHAs to metformin was associated with varying effects on HbA1c, BW, SBP, hypoglycemia, UTI and GTI

  12. How Teacher Evaluation Methods Matter for Accountability: A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Effectiveness Ratings by Principals and Teacher Value-Added Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Ingle, William K.; Rutledge, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers are revolutionizing teacher evaluation by attaching greater stakes to student test scores and observation-based teacher effectiveness measures, but relatively little is known about why they often differ so much. Quantitative analysis of thirty schools suggests that teacher value-added measures and informal principal evaluations are…

  13. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  14. A Comparative Study of Directly Selected, In-Service Promoted and Online Selected Subject Specialists Regarding Teaching Effectiveness in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Gul, Rizwana

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the teaching effectiveness of directly selected, in-service promoted and online selected subject specialists teaching at higher secondary school level in Kohat Division, Pakistan. The target population of the study was the higher secondary school students in Kohat Division, Pakistan. A sample of 600…

  15. Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of Education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Anwar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the teaching methods and evaluation practices in English subject at secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education GCE-O-level in Pakistan. The population of the study was students, teachers and experts at SSC and 0-level in the Punjab province. Purposive and random sampling techniques…

  16. Investigating the relationship between sexual and chemical addictions by comparing executive function in subjects with pedophilia or opiate addiction and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nesci, Cristina; Steinfeld, Matthew; Haeri, Sophia; Galynker, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Disorders of driven sexual behavior have been conceptualized as sexual addictions. In the following study, we compared 51 subjects with pedophilia, 53 subjects with opiate addiction, and 84 healthy control subjects on neuropsychological tests that tap executive functions. The test battery included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color-Word Test, the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Porteus Mazes, Controlled Word Association (COWA), and Trailmaking Test. The groups differed on tests of cognitive flexibility and set switching (WCST), sustained attention (Stroop), and impulsivity (MFFT and Porteus Mazes). There were no differences on verbal fluency (COWA). The subjects with pedophilia differed significantly from those with opiate addiction on several tests, with longer latency to response on MFFT and fewer completed mazes but also fewer errors on Porteus Mazes. Thus, while both subjects with pedophilia and those with opiate addiction show executive dysfunction, the nature of that dysfunction may differ between the two groups; specifically, opiate addicted subjects may be more prone to cognitive impulsivity.

  17. Overweight in trained subjects - are we looking at wrong numbers? (Body mass index compared with body fat percentage in estimating overweight in athletes.).

    PubMed

    Mazic, Sanja; Djelic, Marina; Suzic, Jelena; Suzic, Slavica; Dekleva, Milica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Scepanovic, Ljiljana; Starcevic, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as an index of obesity in adults. In trained population, individual with low body fat could be classified as overweight by BMI. To evaluate this problem, the purposes of this study were to determine the BMI and body fat percentage (BF%) of trained and untrained subjects and to evaluate the accuracy of BMI classification (> or =25 kg.m(-2)) as a prediction of overweight/obesity in trained subjects. The total number of 299 trained (basketball players) and 179 untrained male subjects participated in this study. Body height and body mass were measured; BMI was calculated for all subjects. BF% was determined via Tanita bioimpedance body composition analyzer. BMI >or = 25 kg.m(-2) and BF% > 20% were used to define overweight. There was no significant age differences. Body mass, height (p < 0.01) and BMI (p < 0.05) were significantly higher, although BF% was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in trained group when compared to untrained. Eighty-five trained subjects had a BMI of 25 or higher, indicating overweight. Of these, only three individuls had excess BF%. The results of the present study suggest that a BMI > or = 25 kg.m(-2) is not an accurate predictor of overweight in trained subjects.

  18. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    PubMed

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. PMID:25554622

  19. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  20. Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Detected by Computed Tomographic Angiography in Subjects with Diabetes Compared to Those without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Khazai, Bahram; Luo, Yanting; Rosenberg, Steven; Wingrove, James; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little data are available regarding coronary plaque composition and semi-quantitative scores in individuals with diabetes; the extent to which diabetes may affect the presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) needs more evaluation. Considering that this information may be of great value in formulating preventive interventions in this population, we compared these findings in individuals with diabetes to those without. Methods Multi-Detector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) images of 861 consecutive patients with diabetes who were referred to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute from January 2000 to September 2012, were evaluated using a 15–coronary segment model. All 861 patients underwent calcium scoring and from these; 389 had coronary CT angiography (CTA). CAC score was compared to 861 age, sex and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI), family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Segment Involvement Score (SIS; the total number of segments with any plaque), Segment Stenosis Score (SSS; the sum of maximal stenosis score per segment), Total Plaque Score (TPS; the sum of the plaque amount per segment) and plaque compositionwere compared to 389 age, sex and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for BMI, family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Results Diabetes was positively correlated to the presence and extent of CAC (P<0.0001 for both). SIS, SSS and TPS were significantly higher in those with diabetes (P<0.0001). Number of mixed and calcified plaques were significantly higher in those with diabetes (P = 0.018 and P<0.001 respectively) but there was no significant difference in the number of non-calcified plaques between the two groups (P = 0.398). Conclusions Patients with diabetes have higher CAC and semi-quantitative coronary plaque scores compared to the age, gender and ethnicity

  1. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  2. A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS)

    PubMed Central

    Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush. Aim Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system. Materials and methods We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine. Discussion and conclusion Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX. PMID:26330902

  3. Excess conductivity analysis in YBa2Cu3O7-d added with SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Salem, M. Ben; Azzouz, F. Ben

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles (denoted NP-SiO2) and nanowires (denoted NW-SiO2) additions during the final processing stage on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123 for brevity) in the mean field region has been reported. Series of samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid-state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 0.5 wt.%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity properties have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical measurements. TEM investigations show the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples, however nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. The fluctuation conductivity was analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Using the Lawrence-Doniach equations, the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number (NG) and equations, the coherence length, the effective layer thickness, the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0) and the critical current density Jc(0) were estimated. It was found that the addition of an optimum concentration of SiO2 nanomaterials, that depends on the shape, effectively controlled the microstructure, the grains coupling and hence improved the physical properties of Y-123 compound.

  4. Excess conductivity analysis in YBa2Cu3O7‑d added with SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Salem, M. Ben; Azzouz, F. Ben

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles (denoted NP-SiO2) and nanowires (denoted NW-SiO2) additions during the final processing stage on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123 for brevity) in the mean field region has been reported. Series of samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid-state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 0.5 wt.%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity properties have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical measurements. TEM investigations show the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples, however nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. The fluctuation conductivity was analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Using the Lawrence-Doniach equations, the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number (NG) and equations, the coherence length, the effective layer thickness, the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0) and the critical current density Jc(0) were estimated. It was found that the addition of an optimum concentration of SiO2 nanomaterials, that depends on the shape, effectively controlled the microstructure, the grains coupling and hence improved the physical properties of Y-123 compound.

  5. A randomized crossover study to evaluate LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of a generic product of simvastatin (Unison Company) compared to simvastatin (Zocor) in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Assawawitoontip, Surin; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2002-06-01

    It is agreed that people with a high blood LDL-cholesterol level will have a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CAD) than those with low blood LDL-cholesterol level. Because of the present National Drug Strategy of Thailand, the promotion of "in-country production" of a generic drug has been established. Simvastatin is one of the drugs in this strategy. In this, the primary report of a randomized crossover study with washout period for a cholesterol lowering effect in a generic product of simvastatin (Unison company) which was compared to the original simvastatin (Zocor) hypercholesterolemic to the subjects were presented. Simvastatin used in this study were derived from two sources. The first group was the original product (Zocor), dosage 10 mg, Lot No IC4/36(N) from Merck Sharp & Dohme Company and the second group was a generic product, dosage 10 mg, Lot No T05/080 and T06/109 from Unison Company. All simvastatin tablets from the first and second sources were inserted into closed capsule of the same shape and called drug A and drug B, respectively. Both the physician in-charge and the subjects in this study were blinded for the content inside the capsule (Double blind). Thirty drug capsules were put into a sachet and distributed to the subject at each visit. The interval between each visit was 4 weeks. All subjects were asked to bring back the residual capsule within the sachet to the researcher at each visit in order to evaluate the subject's compliance. All subjects had physical examination and blood tests at each visit. Furthermore, all subjects were advised to practice diet control and regular in-take of the drug capsule daily after their evening meal. All 48 subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups. This study was run as a randomized crossover study. After taking the drugs for the first 8 weeks, no statistically significant difference of blood LDL-cholesterol between the first and second group was detected. After a 4 week washout period, crossover

  6. Finite Element Analysis Applied to 3-T MR Imaging of Proximal Femur Microarchitecture: Lower Bone Strength in Patients with Fragility Fractures Compared with Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Honig, Stephen; Brown, Ryan; Deniz, Cem M.; Egol, Kenneth A.; Babb, James S.; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of using finite element analysis applied to 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) images of proximal femur microarchitecture for detection of lower bone strength in subjects with fragility fractures compared with control subjects without fractures. Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Postmenopausal women with (n = 22) and without (n = 22) fragility fractures were matched for age and body mass index. All subjects underwent standard dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Images of proximal femur microarchitecture were obtained by using a high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence at 3 T. Finite element analysis was applied to compute elastic modulus as a measure of strength in the femoral head and neck, Ward triangle, greater trochanter, and intertrochanteric region. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare bone mineral density T scores and elastic moduli between the groups. The relationship (R2) between elastic moduli and bone mineral density T scores was assessed. Results Patients with fractures showed lower elastic modulus than did control subjects in all proximal femur regions (femoral head, 8.51–8.73 GPa vs 9.32–9.67 GPa; P = .04; femoral neck, 3.11–3.72 GPa vs 4.39–4.82 GPa; P = .04; Ward triangle, 1.85–2.21 GPa vs 3.98–4.13 GPa; P = .04; intertrochanteric region, 1.62–2.18 GPa vs 3.86–4.47 GPa; P = .006–.007; greater trochanter, 0.65–1.21 GPa vs 1.96–2.62 GPa; P = .01–.02), but no differences in bone mineral density T scores. There were weak relationships between elastic moduli and bone mineral density T scores in patients with fractures (R2 = 0.25–0.31, P = .02–.04), but not in control subjects. Conclusion Finite element analysis applied to high-spatial-resolution 3-T MR images of proximal femur microarchitecture can allow detection of lower elastic modulus, a marker of bone

  7. Multi-Center Randomized Phase II Study Comparing Cediranib plus Gefitinib with Cediranib plus Placebo in Subjects with Recurrent/Progressive Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicholas; McBain, Catherine; Nash, Stephen; Hopkins, Kirsten; Sanghera, Paul; Saran, Frank; Phillips, Mark; Dungey, Fiona; Clifton-Hadley, Laura; Wanek, Katharina; Krell, Daniel; Jeffries, Sarah; Khan, Iftekhar; Smith, Paul; Mulholland, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Cediranib, an oral pan-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, failed to show benefit over lomustine in relapsed glioblastoma. One resistance mechanism for cediranib is up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This study aimed to determine if dual therapy with cediranib and the oral EGFR inhibitor gefitinib improved outcome in recurrent glioblastoma. Methods and Findings This was a multi-center randomized, two-armed, double-blinded phase II study comparing cediranib plus gefitinib versus cediranib plus placebo in subjects with first relapse/first progression of glioblastoma following surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS) and radiologic response rate. Recruitment was terminated early following suspension of the cediranib program. 38 subjects (112 planned) were enrolled with 19 subjects in each treatment arm. Median PFS with cediranib plus gefitinib was 3.6 months compared to 2.8 months for cediranib plus placebo (HR; 0.72, 90% CI; 0.41 to 1.26). Median OS was 7.2 months with cediranib plus gefitinib and 5.5 months with cediranib plus placebo (HR; 0.68, 90% CI; 0.39 to 1.19). Eight subjects (42%) had a partial response in the cediranib plus gefitinib arm versus five patients (26%) in the cediranib plus placebo arm. Conclusions Cediranib and gefitinib in combination is tolerated in patients with glioblastoma. Incomplete recruitment led to the study being underpowered. However, a trend towards improved survival and response rates with the addition of gefitinib to cediranib was observed. Further studies of the combination incorporating EGFR and VEGF inhibition are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01310855 PMID:27232884

  8. A comparative evaluation of the change in hardness, of two commonly used maxillofacial prosthetic silicone elastomers, as subjected to simulated weathering in tropical climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kheur, M G; Sethi, T; Coward, T; Jambhekar, S S

    2012-12-01

    Silicone elastomers have become the materials of choice for fabrication of facial prostheses. However such prostheses need periodic replacement due to the degradation of their physical properties due to weathering of polymers. The effect of environmental factors, disinfection solutions and skin secretions on weathering of silicones has been reported. However, the literature does not report on the comparative evaluation on the change in hardness of two commonly used maxillofacial prosthetic silicone elastomers, cured by different techniques and subjected to tropical climatic conditions. This study provides improved insight and understanding into the behavior of such materials for better material selection and treatment results.

  9. Grand average ERP-image plotting and statistics: A method for comparing variability in event-related single-trial EEG activities across subjects and conditions

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern computing methods, modeling trial-to-trial variability in biophysical recordings including electroencephalography (EEG) has become of increasingly interest. Yet no widely used method exists for comparing variability in ordered collections of single-trial data epochs across conditions and subjects. We have developed a method based on an ERP-image visualization tool in which potential, spectral power, or some other measure at each time point in a set of event-related single-trial data epochs are represented as color coded horizontal lines that are then stacked to form a 2-D colored image. Moving-window smoothing across trial epochs can make otherwise hidden event-related features in the data more perceptible. Stacking trials in different orders, for example ordered by subject reaction time, by context-related information such as inter-stimulus interval, or some other characteristic of the data (e.g., latency-window mean power or phase of some EEG source) can reveal aspects of the multifold complexities of trial-to-trial EEG data variability. This study demonstrates new methods for computing and visualizing grand ERP-image plots across subjects and for performing robust statistical testing on the resulting images. These methods have been implemented and made freely available in the EEGLAB signal-processing environment that we maintain and distribute. PMID:25447029

  10. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5.

  11. Efficacy of the FEV1/FEV6 ratio compared to the FEV1/FVC ratio for the diagnosis of airway obstruction in subjects aged 40 years or over.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F W; Perez-Padilla, R; Camelier, A; Nascimento, O A; Menezes, A M B; Jardim, J R

    2007-12-01

    The present cross-sectional, population-based study was designed to evaluate the performance of the FEV1/FEV6 ratio for the detection of airway-obstructed subjects compared to the FEV1/FVC <0.70 fixed ratio test, as well as the lower limit of normality (LLN) for 1000 subjects (3)40 years of age in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. After the exclusion of 37 (3.7%) spirometries, a total of 963 pre-bronchodilator (BD) and 918 post-BD curves were constructed. The majority of the post-BD curves (93.1%) were of very good quality and achieved grade A (762 curves) or B (93 curves). The FEV1/FEV6 and FEV1/FVC ratios were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.92, P < 0.000). Two receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed in order to express the imbalance between the sensitivity and specificity of the FEV1/FEV6 ratio compared to two FEV1/FVC cut-off points for airway obstruction: equal to 70 (area under the curve = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and the LLN (area under the curve = 0.97, P < 0.0001), in the post-BD curves. According to an FEV1/FVC <0.70, the cut-off point for the FEV1/FEV6 ratio with the highest sum for sensitivity and specificity was 0.75. The FEV1/FEV6 ratio can be considered to be a good alternative to the FEV1/FVC ratio for the diagnosis of airway obstruction, both using a fixed cut-off point or below the LLN as reference. The FEV1/FEV6 ratio has the additional advantage of being an easier maneuver for the subjects and for the lung function technicians, providing a higher reproducibility than traditional spirometry maneuvers.

  12. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R.; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. Materials and Methodology: For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. Results: The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P < 0.001). And there was no statistically significant difference when assessment using a periodontal probe was compared to direct measurement (P < 0.676). There is no correlation for the Biotype among the different age groups. Conclusion: Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement. PMID:26929533

  13. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fresán, Ana; Sarmiento, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n = 95) and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P > 0.05). In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents. PMID:24724019

  14. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Klemm, Dietmar

    2009-03-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other. The conserved charges, stress tensor and R-current of the fluid are shown to be in exact agreement with the corresponding quantities of the black hole. Furthermore, we obtain stationary solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in four dimensions, which yield predictions for (yet to be constructed) charged rotating black strings in AdS5 carrying nonvanishing momentum along the string. Finally, we consider Scherk-Schwarz reduced AdS gravity on a circle. In this theory, large black holes and black strings are dual to lumps of deconfined plasma of the associated CFT. We analyze the effects that a magnetic field introduces in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a plasma tube, which is holographically dual to the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a magnetically charged black string.

  15. Added value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared to mammography, ultrasound and 3-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seymer, A; Keinrath, P; Holzmannhofer, J; Pirich, C; Hergan, K; Meissnitzer, M W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively analyse the diagnostic value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared with that of mammography (MG), breast ultrasound and MRI of the breast. Methods: Within a 15-month period, 67 patients with 92 breast lesions rated as Category IV or V according to the breast imaging reporting and data system detected with MG and/or ultrasound were included into the study. After the injection of 740–1110 MBq of Technetium-99m (99mTc) SestaMIBI intravenously, scintigrams were obtained in two projections comparable to MG. The BSGI was analysed visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating a relative uptake factor (X). With the exception of two patients with cardiac pacemakers, all patients underwent 3-T breast MRI. Biopsy results were obtained as the reference standard in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values, accuracy and area under the curve were calculated for each modality. Results: Among the 92 lesions, 67 (72.8%) were malignant. 60 of the 67 cancers of any size were detected by BSGI with an overall sensitivity of 90%, only exceeded by ultrasound with a sensitivity of 99%. The sensitivity of BSGI for lesions <1 cm declined significantly to 60%. Overall specificity of ultrasound was only 20%. Specificity, accuracy and positive-predictive value were the highest for BSGI (56%, 80% and 85%, respectively). X was significantly higher for malignant lesions (mean, 4.27) and differed significantly between ductal types (mean, 4.53) and the other histopathological entities (mean, 3.12). Conclusion: Semi-quantitative BSGI with calculation of the relative uptake factor (X) can help to characterize breast lesions. BSGI negativity may obviate the need for biopsy of breast lesions >1 cm with low or intermediate prevalence for malignancy. Advances in knowledge: Compared with morphological imaging modalities, specificity, positive

  16. Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Kalburgi, Veena C; Koregol, Arati C; Patanashetti, Jyoti; Rao, Subramaniam; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing. Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results suggested that

  17. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  18. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  19. Treatment with Tacrolimus and Sirolimus Reveals No Additional Adverse Effects on Human Islets In Vitro Compared to Each Drug Alone but They Are Reduced by Adding Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Sahraoui, Afaf; Vethe, Nils Tore; Korsgren, Olle; Bergan, Stein; Foss, Aksel; Scholz, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus and sirolimus are important immunosuppressive drugs used in human islet transplantation; however, they are linked to detrimental effects on islets and reduction of long-term graft function. Few studies investigate the direct effects of these drugs combined in parallel with single drug exposure. Human islets were treated with or without tacrolimus (30 μg/L), sirolimus (30 μg/L), or a combination thereof for 24 hrs. Islet function as well as apoptosis was assessed by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Cell Death ELISA. Proinflammatory cytokines were analysed by qRT-PCR and Bio-Plex. Islets exposed to the combination of sirolimus and tacrolimus were treated with or without methylprednisolone (1000 μg/L) and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines was investigated. We found the following: (i) No additive reduction in function and viability in islets existed when tacrolimus and sirolimus were combined compared to the single drug. (ii) Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines mRNA and protein levels in islets took place. (iii) Methylprednisolone significantly decreased the proinflammatory response in islets induced by the drug combination. Although human islets are prone to direct toxic effect of tacrolimus and sirolimus, we found no additive effects of the drug combination. Short-term exposure of glucocorticoids could effectively reduce the proinflammatory response in human islets induced by the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus. PMID:26885529

  20. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Slagman, Maartje C J; Waanders, Femke; Hemmelder, Marc H; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; Janssen, Wilbert M T; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Navis, Gerjan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects on proteinuria and blood pressure of addition of dietary sodium restriction or angiotensin receptor blockade at maximum dose, or their combination, in patients with non-diabetic nephropathy receiving background treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition at maximum dose. Design Multicentre crossover randomised controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. Participants 52 patients with non-diabetic nephropathy. Interventions All patients were treated during four 6 week periods, in random order, with angiotensin receptor blockade (valsartan 320 mg/day) or placebo, each combined with, consecutively, a low sodium diet (target 50 mmol Na+/day) and a regular sodium diet (target 200 mmol Na+/day), with a background of ACE inhibition (lisinopril 40 mg/day) during the entire study. The drug interventions were double blind; the dietary interventions were open label. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was proteinuria; the secondary outcome measure was blood pressure. Results Mean urinary sodium excretion, a measure of dietary sodium intake, was 106 (SE 5) mmol Na+/day during a low sodium diet and 184 (6) mmol Na+/day during a regular sodium diet (P<0.001). Geometric mean residual proteinuria was 1.68 (95% confidence interval 1.31 to 2.14) g/day during ACE inhibition plus a regular sodium diet. Addition of angiotensin receptor blockade to ACE inhibition reduced proteinuria to 1.44 (1.07 to 1.93) g/day (P=0.003), addition of a low sodium diet reduced it to 0.85 (0.66 to 1.10) g/day (P<0.001), and addition of angiotensin receptor blockade plus a low sodium diet reduced it to 0.67 (0.50 to 0.91) g/day (P<0.001). The reduction of proteinuria by the addition of a low sodium diet to ACE inhibition (51%, 95% confidence interval 43% to 58%) was significantly larger (P<0.001) than the reduction of proteinuria by the addition of angiotensin receptor blockade to ACE inhibition (21%, (8% to 32%) and was

  1. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country. PMID:27139592

  2. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country.

  3. Impact of industrialization: comparative study of child health in four sites from medieval and postmedieval England (A.D. 850-1859).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mary E

    2002-11-01

    The morbidity and mortality profiles of 831 non-adult skeletons from four contrasting sites in medieval and postmedieval England were compared to assess whether urbanization and later industrialization, had a detrimental effect on the health of the inhabitants. Failure in the population's ability to adapt to these environments should be evident in the higher rates of mortality, retarded growth, higher levels of stress, and a greater prevalence of metabolic and infectious disease in the urban groups. Non-adult skeletons were examined from Raunds Furnells in Northamptonshire, from St. Helen-on-the-Walls and Wharram Percy in Yorkshire, and from Christ Church Spitalfields in London. Results showed that a greater number of older children were being buried at the later medieval sites and that the skeletal growth profiles of the medieval urban and rural children did not differ significantly. A comparison of the growth profiles of St. Helen-on-the-Walls (urban) and Spitalfields (industrial) showed that the Spitalfields children were up to 3 cm shorter than their later medieval counterparts. At Spitalfields, cribra orbitalia and enamel hypoplasias occurred during the first 6 months of life, and 54% of the non-adults had evidence of metabolic disease. It is argued that differences in the morbidity and mortality of non-adults from urban and rural environments did exist in the past, but that it was industrialization that had the greatest impact on child health. Environmental conditions, urban employment, socioeconomic status, and changes in weaning ages and infant feeding practices contributed to differences in health in rural, urban, and industrial environments.

  4. Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two oral formulations of flurbiprofen: a single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study in Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Aisha; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Abbas, Mateen

    2013-11-01

    Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  5. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Krishna D.; Shetty, Manoj; Chandy, Binoj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system) and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich) fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). PMID:26321837

  6. Comparing the impact of an acute exercise bout on plasma amino acid composition, intraerythrocytic Ca(2+) handling, and red cell function in athletes and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Makhro, Asya; Haider, Thomas; Wang, Jue; Bogdanov, Nikolay; Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Gassmann, Max; Hecksteden, Anne; Kaestner, Lars; Bogdanova, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediating Ca(2+) uptake upon stimulation with glutamate and glycine were recently discovered in red blood cells (RBC) of healthy humans. Activation of these receptors with agonists triggered transient Ca(2+)-dependent decrease in hemoglobin oxygen affinity in RBC suspension. The aim of this study was to assess the potential physiological relevance of this phenomenon. Two groups formed by either healthy untrained volunteers or endurance athletes were subjected to a stepwise incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Plasma glutamate levels, activity of the NMDARs, and hemoglobin O2 affinity were measured in blood samples obtained before and after the exercise in both groups. Increase in plasma glutamate levels following exercise was observed in both groups. Transient Ca(2+) accumulation in response to the NMDAR stimulation with NMDA and glycine was followed by facilitated Ca(2+) extrusion from the RBC and compensatory decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Short-term activation of the receptors triggered a transient decrease in O2 affinity of hemoglobin in both groups. These exercise-induced responses were more pronounced in athletes compared to the untrained subjects. Athletes were initially presented with lower basal intracellular Ca(2+) levels and hemoglobin oxygen affinity compared to non-trained controls. High basal plasma glutamate levels were associated with induction of hemolysis and formation of echinocytes upon stimulation with the receptor agonists. These findings suggest that glutamate release occurring during exhaustive exercise bouts may acutely facilitate O2 liberation from hemoglobin and improve oxygen delivery to the exercising muscle. PMID:27292137

  7. Anteroposterior condylar position: A comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; da Silva Campos, Marcio José; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Material/Methods Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett’s t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. Results The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett’s t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Conclusions Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group. PMID:24165809

  8. Comparing the impact of an acute exercise bout on plasma amino acid composition, intraerythrocytic Ca(2+) handling, and red cell function in athletes and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Makhro, Asya; Haider, Thomas; Wang, Jue; Bogdanov, Nikolay; Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Gassmann, Max; Hecksteden, Anne; Kaestner, Lars; Bogdanova, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediating Ca(2+) uptake upon stimulation with glutamate and glycine were recently discovered in red blood cells (RBC) of healthy humans. Activation of these receptors with agonists triggered transient Ca(2+)-dependent decrease in hemoglobin oxygen affinity in RBC suspension. The aim of this study was to assess the potential physiological relevance of this phenomenon. Two groups formed by either healthy untrained volunteers or endurance athletes were subjected to a stepwise incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Plasma glutamate levels, activity of the NMDARs, and hemoglobin O2 affinity were measured in blood samples obtained before and after the exercise in both groups. Increase in plasma glutamate levels following exercise was observed in both groups. Transient Ca(2+) accumulation in response to the NMDAR stimulation with NMDA and glycine was followed by facilitated Ca(2+) extrusion from the RBC and compensatory decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Short-term activation of the receptors triggered a transient decrease in O2 affinity of hemoglobin in both groups. These exercise-induced responses were more pronounced in athletes compared to the untrained subjects. Athletes were initially presented with lower basal intracellular Ca(2+) levels and hemoglobin oxygen affinity compared to non-trained controls. High basal plasma glutamate levels were associated with induction of hemolysis and formation of echinocytes upon stimulation with the receptor agonists. These findings suggest that glutamate release occurring during exhaustive exercise bouts may acutely facilitate O2 liberation from hemoglobin and improve oxygen delivery to the exercising muscle.

  9. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  10. Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    So, C H; Siu, T O; Chan, K M; Chin, M K; Li, C T

    1994-03-01

    A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports. PMID:8044488

  11. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    PubMed

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided. PMID:25900468

  12. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (p<0.01) in peak internal stresses and in the loading rate of the amputated limb, while walking with the hydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain.

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Profile in Individuals With Diabetes Compared With Non-Diabetic Subjects in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Niroumand, Shabnam; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Eghbali, Babak; Abrishami, Maryam; Gholoobi, Arash; Bahrami Taghanaki, Hamid Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors. Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups. Patients and Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran). Data from the participants were collected during their first visit by primary care physicians. Statistical package for social science (version 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The chi-square or Fisher’s exact, student’s t or the Mann-Whitney U and correlation tests were used in the analysis. Results The age and gender of the participants were not different between the two groups (P = 0.1 and P = 0.4, respectively). The most common patterns of dyslipidemia in both groups were isolated dyslipidemia followed by combined dyslipidemia. Prevalence of dyslipidemia as a whole (one, two or three lipid profile abnormalities) in patients with diabetes and non-diabetic participants was 89.3% and 82.6%, respectively and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). Subjects with diabetes had higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002) and higher body mass index (P = 0.09) compared to non-diabetics. Moreover, they were more likely to have higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.01), triglycerides (P = 0.001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.009) and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.2). Conclusions Cardiovascular diseases risk factors are more common in patients with diabetes; however, non-diabetic individuals also had a high prevalence of risk factors

  14. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  15. Is Nephrolithiasis an Unrecognized Extra-Articular Manifestation in Ankylosing Spondylitis? A Prospective Population-Based Swedish National Cohort Study with Matched General Population Comparator Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Ane Krag; Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.; Patschan, Oliver; Askling, Johan; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with several extra-articular manifestations. Nephrolithiasis (NL) has not been recognized as one of those, however, several factors known to increase the risk of NL are at play in AS patients. The objective was to estimate rates and predictors of NL in Swedish patients with AS compared to the general population. Methods and Findings We performed a prospective population-based nationwide cohort study based on linkage of data from Swedish registries. 8,572 AS patients were followed for 49,258 person-years (py) and 39,639 matched general population comparators were followed for 223,985 py. Patients were followed prospectively together with comparator subjects from January 2001 through December 2009. The first occurrence of NL during follow-up was the primary outcome. Hazard Ratios (HR) were used to compare these rates adjusting for comorbidities and treatment, and to assess predictors for NL. Mean age at study entry was 46 years (inter quartile range 36–56 years), 65% were males. Based on 250 vs. 466 NL events, the adjusted HR of NL in AS patients was 2.1 (95%CI 1.8 to 2.4). Predictors of NL within the AS group included prior diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (HR 2.3; 95%CI 1.7 to 3.3), prior diagnosis of NL (HR 16.4; 95%CI 11.5 to 23.4), and patients receiving anti-TNF treatment (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.2 to 2.1). Male sex was a risk factor for NL both in AS patients and in the general population. Limitations The risk for residual confounding and inability to study the chemical nature of NL were considered the main limitations of the study. Conclusions Patients with AS are at increased risk of NL, which may be considered a novel extra-articular manifestation. Previous history of NL, IBD, AS disease severity and male sex were identified as predictors of NL in AS. PMID:25423471

  16. A comparative study of the antitussive activity of levodropropizine and dropropizine in the citric acid-induced cough model in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, G; Cordaro, C I; Vanasia, M; Balzarotti, C; Camusso, L; Caiazzo, G; Maghini, L; Mazzocchi, M; Zennaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the levo-rotatory (S)-enantiomer of dropropizine, a racemic non-opiate antitussive agent which has been used clinically for many years. Compared with the racemic drug, levodropropizine exhibits in animal models similar antitussive activity but considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is also less likely to cause sedation in treated patients. Since the comparative antitussive potency of the two drugs in clinical experimental models has not been evaluated, the authors performed a randomized, double blind, cross over investigation in which the effects of single oral doses (60 and 90 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine were assessed by using the citric acid-induced cough model in eight normal volunteers. Stimulation tests involved inhalation of individual cumulative doses of citric acid (6.3 to 53.3 mg) which at pre-study assessment had been found to induce reproducibly at least ten coughs over a 30 sec period. Each subject was studied by repeating the citric acid stimulation test four times (0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h) on each of five different days separated by intervals of at least three days. In the absence of drug administration (control session), cough response to citric inhalation was remarkably reproducible throughout the 6 h period of observation. A marked and statistically significant reduction in cough response (to about one third--one sixth of the pre-drug values) was observed 1 h after intake for both compounds. At subsequent testing 2 h and 6 h after dosing, cough response was still depressed and did not differ significantly from that observed at 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Compared to whom? Subjective social status, self-rated health, and referent group sensitivity in a diverse U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S. V.; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Weber, Deanne; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Emerging research has revealed that subjective social status (SSS), or how people perceive their position in the social hierarchy, is significantly associated with multiple health outcomes. Yet few studies have examined how this association is affected by the person or group to whom respondents are comparing themselves. While previous studies have used distal referent groups when assessing SSS, scholars have suggested that individuals may prefer to make comparisons to those who share similar characteristics to themselves. Overall, there has been little empirical analysis assessing the health impact of comparing oneself to one referent group over another. Using a diverse, national U.S. sample (n=3,644), this study explores whether the relationship between SSS and self-rated health is sensitive to the referent used for social comparison. Data are from respondents who completed the Styles mail surveys and who have assessed their SSS against four referents: others in American society, others of the same race or ethnicity, neighbors, and parents at the same age. Self-rated health was the dependent variable, while we controlled for household income, education, home ownership, race/ethnicity, and other covariates. In logistic regression models, SSS using each of the four referents was significantly associated with self-rated health, but the model using the referent of others in American society had the strongest association with self-rated health and was the most parsimonious. Findings validate previous studies which typically have used a more distal referent such as others in American society in exploring the SSS-health relationship. However, future work should explore whether this referent is salient to diverse population groups when making social comparisons. Researchers may also want to consider using SSS as an additional status measure since it may capture more subtle differences in the status hierarchy than traditional economic measures. PMID:20381225

  18. A comparative study of the antitussive activity of levodropropizine and dropropizine in the citric acid-induced cough model in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, G; Cordaro, C I; Vanasia, M; Balzarotti, C; Camusso, L; Caiazzo, G; Maghini, L; Mazzocchi, M; Zennaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the levo-rotatory (S)-enantiomer of dropropizine, a racemic non-opiate antitussive agent which has been used clinically for many years. Compared with the racemic drug, levodropropizine exhibits in animal models similar antitussive activity but considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is also less likely to cause sedation in treated patients. Since the comparative antitussive potency of the two drugs in clinical experimental models has not been evaluated, the authors performed a randomized, double blind, cross over investigation in which the effects of single oral doses (60 and 90 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine were assessed by using the citric acid-induced cough model in eight normal volunteers. Stimulation tests involved inhalation of individual cumulative doses of citric acid (6.3 to 53.3 mg) which at pre-study assessment had been found to induce reproducibly at least ten coughs over a 30 sec period. Each subject was studied by repeating the citric acid stimulation test four times (0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h) on each of five different days separated by intervals of at least three days. In the absence of drug administration (control session), cough response to citric inhalation was remarkably reproducible throughout the 6 h period of observation. A marked and statistically significant reduction in cough response (to about one third--one sixth of the pre-drug values) was observed 1 h after intake for both compounds. At subsequent testing 2 h and 6 h after dosing, cough response was still depressed and did not differ significantly from that observed at 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1295724

  19. Comparative effect of a 1 h session of electrical muscle stimulation and walking activity on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Jean-François; Crowe, Louis; De Vito, Giuseppe; O'Shea, Donal; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) techniques can induce increases in energy expenditure similar to those associated with exercise. This study investigated the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of a 1 h session of lower limb NMES and compared cardiovascular response with that observed during walking in nine obese subjects (three males) (age = 43.8 ± 3.0 years; body mass index (BMI) = 41.5 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)). The NMES protocol consisted of delivering a complex pulse pattern to the thigh muscles for 1 h. The walking test consisted of five 4-min bouts starting at 2 km/h with 1 km/h increments up to 6 km/h. In both tests, an open-circuit gas analyser was used to assess O(2) consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2)), CO(2) production ([Formula: see text]CO(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR). Rates of fat oxidation (RFO) and carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) were estimated by indirect calorimetry. One hour of NMES significantly increased [Formula: see text]O(2), HR, RER, and mean energy expenditure compared with resting values, reaching 8.7 ± 1.3 mL·min(-2)·kg(-1) (47% of [Formula: see text]O(2peak)), 114.8 ± 7.5 bpm, 0.95, and 318.5 ± 64.3 kcal/h, respectively. CHO, but not RFO, increased during 1 h of NMES. With NMES, CHO was greater and RFO was less than at all walking speeds except 6 km/h. Lactate also increased more with NMES, to 3.5 ± 0.7 mmol versus a maximum of 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol with the walking protocol. These results suggest that NMES can be used in an obese population to induce an effective cardiovascular exercise response. In fact, the observed increase in energy expenditure induced by 1 h of NMES is clinically important and comparable with that recommended in weight management programs.

  20. Boundary conditions and partition functions in higher spin AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss alternative definitions of the semiclassical partition function in two-dimensional CFTs with higher spin symmetry, in the presence of sources for the higher spin currents. Theories of this type can often be described via Hamiltonian reduction of current algebras, and a holographic description in terms of three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with generalized AdS boundary conditions becomes available. By studying the CFT Ward identities in the presence of sources, we determine the appropriate choice of boundary terms and boundary conditions in Chern-Simons theory for the various types of partition functions considered. In particular, we compare the Chern-Simons description of deformations of the field theory Hamiltonian versus those encoding deformations of the CFT action. Our analysis clarifies various issues and confusions that have permeated the literature on this subject.

  1. Comparable Postprandial Glucose Reductions with Viscous Fiber Blend Enriched Biscuits in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Acute Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Wolever, Thomas M.S.; Rogovik, Alexander L.; Jovanovski, Elena; Božikov, Velimir; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the blood glucose-lowering effect of a highly viscous fiber blend (VFB) added to a starchy snack on postprandial glycemia between healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus. Methods Ten healthy participants (4 men and 6 women, aged 28 ± 2.6 years, body mass index [BMI], 24.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2) and 9 participants with diabetes mellitus type 2 (3 men and 6 women, aged 68 ± 3.8 years, BMI 28.8 ± 1.2 kg/m2) on four separate occasions took either 50 g available carbohydrates as control biscuits, biscuits with 10 g of highly viscous fiber blend, white bread with 12 g of margarine, or white bread alone. Postprandial blood glucose response, glycemic index (GI), and palatability were determined. Results Mean (95% confidence interval) GI values of the viscous fiber blend biscuits were 26 (16-36) and 37 (27-47) GI units for healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of white bread, white bread with 12 g of margarine, and control biscuits (P < 0.001, paired t test) both in healthy participants (GI 100, 108 [57-159], and 101 [44-158], respectively) and participants with diabetes mellitus (GI 100, 103 [79-127], and 94 [78-110], respectively). Viscous fiber blend significantly reduced the glycemic index by 74% (7.4 GI units/g of fiber) in healthy participants and by 63% (6.3 GI units/g of fiber) in participants with diabetes. The GI did not differ between control meals in both healthy participants and participants with diabetes. There were no significant differences in palatability among the types of meals, although participants with diabetes found the viscous fiber blend biscuits more palatable (P = 0.002, t test). Conclusion Viscous fiber blend is a very potent and palatable soluble fiber addition to a starchy snack, which is able to reduce the glycemic response to a similar extent in both healthy participants and individuals with diabetes

  2. Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2002-01-01

    Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

  3. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  4. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  5. Comparative study of linear and curvilinear ultrasound probes to assess quadriceps rectus femoris muscle mass in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, S; Suh, E; Thompson, A; Connolly, B; Ramsay, M; Harding, R; Puthucheary, Z; Moxham, J; Hart, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound measurements of rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) are clinically useful measurements in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and critically ill patients. Technical considerations as to the type of probe used, which affects image resolution, have limited widespread clinical application. We hypothesised that measurement of RFCSA would be similar with linear and curvilinear probes. Methods Four studies were performed to compare the use of the curvilinear probe in measuring RFCSA. Study 1 investigated agreement of RFCSA measurements using linear and curvilinear probes in healthy subjects, and in patients with chronic respiratory disease. Study 2 investigated the intra-rater and inter-rater agreement using the curvilinear probe. Study 3 investigated the agreement of RFCSA measured from whole and spliced images using the linear probe. Study 4 investigated the applicability of ultrasound in measuring RFCSA during the acute and recovery phases of an exacerbation of COPD. Results Study 1 showed demonstrated no difference in the measurement of RFCSA using the curvilinear and linear probes (308±104 mm2 vs 320±117 mm2, p=0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.97). Study 2 demonstrated high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of RFCSA measurement with ICC>0.95 for both. Study 3 showed that the spliced image from the linear probe was similar to the whole image RFCSA (308±103.5 vs 263±147 mm2, p=0.34; ICC>0.98). Study 4 confirmed the clinical acceptability of using the curvilinear probe during an exacerbation of COPD. There were relationships observed between admission RFCSA and body mass index (r=+0.65, p=0.018), and between RFCSA at admission and physical activity levels at 4 weeks post-hospital discharge (r=+0.75, p=0.006). Conclusions These studies have demonstrated that clinicians can employ whole and spliced images from the linear probe or use images from the curvilinear probe, to measure RFCSA. This will extend

  6. Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe added on to atorvastatin (40 mg) compared with uptitration of atorvastatin (to 80 mg) in hypercholesterolemic patients at high risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Bays, Harold; Conard, Scott; Bird, Steven; Rubino, Joseph; Hanson, Mary E; Tomassini, Joanne E; Tershakovec, Andrew M

    2008-12-01

    The percentage of change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after the addition of ezetimibe 10 mg to atorvastatin 40 mg was compared with uptitration to atorvastatin 80 mg. In this multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, adult hypercholesterolemic patients using atorvastatin 40 mg/day were randomly assigned to atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg or uptitration to atorvastatin 80 mg. After 6 weeks of treatment, compared with atorvastatin 80 mg, atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe significantly reduced the primary end point of LDL cholesterol by -27% versus atorvastatin 80 mg by -11% (p <0.001), as well as significantly reduced non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, and triglycerides significantly more than atorvastatin 80 mg (all p <0.001). Percentages of change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I were similar between groups. Significantly more patients treated with atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe reached LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl versus patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (74% vs 32%; p <0.001). Safety and tolerability profiles and incidence of liver and muscle adverse experiences were generally similar between groups. In conclusion, these results showed that adding ezetimibe to atorvastatin 40 mg was significantly more effective than uptitrating to atorvastatin 80 mg at lowering LDL cholesterol and other lipid parameters. Both treatments were generally well tolerated (clinical trial no. NCT00276484).

  7. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  8. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  9. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials. PMID:26402088

  11. Adding flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-11-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a Bbb C4/Bbb Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric U(Nc) × U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero Script N = 3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one Script N = (0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by D8-branes; codimension-one Script N = (3,3) supersymmetric non-chiral flavor, described by M5/D4-branes; codimension-two Script N = 4 supersymmetric flavor, described by M2/D2-branes. Finally we discuss special physical equivalences between brane embeddings in M-theory, and their interpretation in the field theory description.

  12. Twistor methods for AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack

    2016-08-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS5 is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  13. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  14. Postural responses without versus with acute external cervical spine fixation: a comparative study in healthy subjects and patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Bohne, Silvia; Heine, Sabrina; Volk, G Fabian; Stadler, Joachim; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Using a diagnostic prospective cohort single center study design, the influence of a cervical collar on standing balance during dynamic postural perturbations in healthy adults and patients with acute unilateral vestibular dysfunction was measured in 31 healthy subjects and 27 patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss. The main outcome measures were completed standard protocols on the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Motor Control Test (MCT) of the NeuroCom Equitest(®) computerized posturography platform measured without and with acute cervical fixation, respectively. Paired t test showed no significant difference during the six conditions of neither the SOT scores nor analyzing the SOT strategies or during the MCT between the non-fixed and fixed neck in healthy subjects and in the patients (all p > 0.05). Older healthy subjects showed decreased SOT scores but equal MCT results. The age effect was more dominant in the patients when wearing the collar. Gender had no influence whether in healthy individuals nor in patients. In almost all conditions of the SOT but only in some MCT subtests patients had significantly lower scores than healthy subjects without collar and with collar (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, the SOT but only some subtest of the MCT could clearly distinguish between healthy adults and patient with acute unilateral vestibular loss. Equilibrium scores did not change significantly when the cervical spine was fixed with a collar. Acute fixation of the neck with a collar seems not to affect standing balance, even not when vestibular, visual and/or somatosensory input are also reduced. PMID:22237759

  15. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  16. Plantar-flexor Static Stretch Training Effect on Eccentric and Concentric Peak Torque – A comparative Study of Trained versus Untrained Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-aziem, Amr Almaz; Mohammad, Walaa Sayed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of static stretching of the plantar-flexor muscles on eccentric and concentric torque and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy subjects. Seventy five healthy male volunteers, with no previous history of trauma to the calf that required surgery, absence of knee flexion contracture and no history of neurologic dysfunction or disease, systemic disease affecting the lower extremities were selected for this study. The participants were divided into three equal groups. The control group did not stretch the plantar-flexor muscles. Two Experimental groups (trained and untrained) were instructed to perform static stretching exercise of 30 second duration and 5 repetitions twice daily. The stretching sessions were carried out 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The dorsiflexion range of motion was measured in all subjects. Also measured was the eccentric and concentric torque of plantar-flexors at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s pre and post stretching. Analysis of variance showed a significant increase in plantar-flexor eccentric and concentric torque (p < 0.05) of trained and untrained groups, and an increase in dorsiflexion range of motion (p < 0.05) at both angular velocities for the untrained group only. The static stretching program of plantar-flexors was effective in increasing the concentric and eccentric plantarflexion torque at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s. Increases in plantar-flexors flexibility were observed in untrained subjects. PMID:23486840

  17. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  18. Comparative assessment of the effects of salinomycin and monensin on the biodistribution of lead and some essential metal ions in mice, subjected to subacute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Dimova, Donika; Pavlova, Ekaterina; Arpadjan, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a comparative assessment of the effects of two polyether ionophorous antibiotics (monensin and salinomycin) on the concentrations of lead (Pb), cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in the kidneys, spleen, liver and brain of Pb-intoxicated animals. Our data demonstrated that the intoxication of ICR male mice with Pb salt resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in all studied organs of the mice compared to the untreated control animals. The biodistribution of the toxic metal was in the order kidneys>spleen>liver>brain. The treatment of the Pb-intoxicated animals with tetraethylammonium salts of monensic and salinomycinic acids significantly decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ion compared to the toxic control. The effect varied in the interval 38% (for kidneys) to 52% (for brain) compared to the toxic control group (Pb). The tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid was more effective in reducing the Pb concentration in the brain of the Pb-treated mice compared to monensin. Pb-intoxication did not affect significantly the Zn endogenous concentration compared to the normal values. The treatment of ICR male mice with Pb-salt decreased the Cu concentration in the spleen and increased the Cu concentration in the liver compared to the untreated control animals. The detoxification of the Pb-intoxicated mice with tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids restored the Cu concentration in the spleen, but did not affect the Cu levels in the liver. The Pb-intoxication of the ICR mice resulted in a significant decrease of the Fe-concentration in the spleen and liver compared to the untreated control animals. The administration of the tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids to the Pb-treated animals restored the levels of Fe in both organs. PMID:26653741

  19. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  20. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  1. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  2. Hemodynamic performance of coil embolization and stentassisted coil embolization treatments: a numerical comparative study based on subject-specific models of cerebral aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Yisen; Lu, Gang; Yang, Xinjian; Zhang, Xiaolong; Ding, Guanghong

    2011-11-01

    Hemodynamic characteristics such as blood velocity, blood pressure, flow impingement, wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are considered to play important roles in the initiation, growth, rupture and recurrence of the cerebral aneurysms. Endovascular therapy is widely implemented to treat the cerebral aneurysms by releasing coils into the aneurysm sac for limiting the blood flow to the sac and stent-assisted coil embolization is adopted to occlude the wide-necked or complex aneurysms. Some researchers believe that stents are not only a mechanical device but may act as a biological system and contribute to vessel wall healing. Hemodynamics simulation helps people understand the effect of hemodynamic characteristics on the recurrence of the coiled aneurysm and it also benefits the interventional planning of neurosurgeons. This study constructed the numerical model for a subject-specific ICA aneurysm treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, which combined the coiled model of the aneurysm with a porous stent placement, and simulated the pulsatile blood flow in these aneurysm models. When a stent was placed across the aneurysm orifice in the coiled aneurysm, the high wall shear stress around the distal aneurysm root was reduced more than that of the coiled aneurysm without a stent. The simulated results point to the conclusion that the stent not only protects the parent artery from occlusion due to extension of coils or thrombosis, but may also reduce the recurrence risk of the stent-assisted coiled aneurysm.

  3. Visual function assessment in simulated real-life situations in patients with age-related macular degeneration compared to normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Barteselli, G; Gomez, M L; Doede, A L; Chhablani, J; Gutstein, W; Bartsch, D-U; Dustin, L; Azen, S P; Freeman, W R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate visual function variations in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to normal eyes under different light/contrast conditions using a time-dependent visual acuity testing instrument, the Central Vision Analyzer (CVA). Methods Overall, 37 AMD eyes and 35 normal eyes were consecutively tested with the CVA after assessing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using ETDRS charts. The CVA established visual thresholds for three mesopic environments (M1 (high contrast), M2 (medium contrast), and M3 (low contrast)) and three backlight-glare environments (G1 (high contrast, equivalent to ETDRS), G2 (medium contrast), and G3 (low contrast)) under timed conditions. Vision drop across environments was calculated, and repeatability of visual scores was determined. Results BCVA significantly reduced with decreasing contrast in all eyes. M1 scores for BCVA were greater than M2 and M3 (P<0.001); G1 scores were greater than G2 and G3 (P<0.01). BCVA dropped more in AMD eyes than in normal eyes between M1 and M2 (P=0.002) and between M1 and M3 (P=0.003). In AMD eyes, BCVA was better using ETDRS charts compared to G1 (P<0.001). The drop in visual function between ETDRS and G1 was greater in AMD eyes compared to normal eyes (P=0.004). Standard deviations of test–retest ranged from 0.100 to 0.139 logMAR. Conclusion The CVA allowed analysis of the visual complaints that AMD patients experience with different lighting/contrast time-dependent conditions. BCVA changed significantly under different lighting/contrast conditions in all eyes, however, AMD eyes were more affected by contrast reduction than normal eyes. In AMD eyes, timed conditions using the CVA led to worse BCVA compared to non-timed ETDRS charts. PMID:25081294

  4. Effectiveness of slow motion video compared to real time video in improving the accuracy and consistency of subjective gait analysis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D.M.; Hill, S.A.; Huntingford, J.L.; Lafuente, P.; Wall, R.; Jones, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman’s rho, Cramer’s V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters’ SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways. PMID:26623383

  5. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product.

  6. DNA breaks as measured by the alkaline comet assay in exfoliated cells as compared to voided urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: a study of 105 subjects.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Franceschetti, Paola; Doria, Denise; Talamini, Giorgio; Bonetti, Franco

    2004-11-14

    In this study we evaluated the clinical usefulness of identifying urothelial cells with increased DNA damage with the alkaline comet assay and compare it with voided urine cytology for the assessment of markers indicative of bladder cancer. The analysis was carried out on 105 subjects having clinical suspicion of bladder cancer, and who had undergone cytology for the first time. Urine cytology and alkaline comet assay were performed on the same fresh urine samples obtained from each patient. The subjects were divided according to negative or positive cytology. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that the comet parameters (tail moment, tail length, and % of DNA in the tail) and the numbers of comets (cells with an arbitrary cut-off value of head intensity <90% of DNA content) in subjects positive in both tests were significantly higher than in the negative group. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the comet assay were compared with those of cytology, which is regarded as the gold standard. Sensitivity was 71.4%, specificity was 91.8%, positive and negative predictive values were 38.5 and 97.8, respectively. Two subjects negative in the comet assay were positive in cytology. Eight patients were positive in the comet assay and negative for cytology. Interestingly, one of these eight patients was later found positive for cytology. Logistic regression analysis indicates that the tail moment is significantly associated with an increased risk for positive cytology. PMID:15474411

  7. Dental Age Estimation: A Test of the Reliability of Correctly Identifying a Subject Over 18 Years of Age Using the Gold Standard of Chronological Age as the Comparator.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; Andiappan, Manoharan; McDonald, Fraser; Roberts, Graham

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability of using the third molars to demarcate between child and adult status. A total of 2000 dental panoramic tomographs were used for assessment of the calculated age using the 8-stage system of tooth development and applied to all four third molars. The LL8 was also assessed using this 8-stage system. For each tooth development stage, the Normal distribution and percentile summary data were estimated. The calculated dental age compared with the chronological age was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) for both females and males giving underestimates of the true age. Comparison of single tooth dental age and chronological age was only slightly different. The most important finding is that the assignment to above or below the 18-year threshold, in the age range 17 years to 19 years, could be wrong on up to 50% of occasions.

  8. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  9. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Nadal, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Capellades, Gemma; Kubista, Mikael; Messeguer, Joaquima; Pla, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in many countries follows strict regulations to ensure that only safety-tested products are marketed. Over the last few years, targeted approaches have been complemented by profiling methods to assess possible unintended effects of transformation. Here we used a commercial (Affymertix) microarray platform (i.e. allowing assessing the expression of approximately 1/3 of the genes of maize) to evaluate transcriptional differences between commercial MON810 GM maize and non-transgenic crops in real agricultural conditions, in a region where about 70% of the maize grown was MON810. To consider natural variation in gene expression in relation to biotech plants we took two common MON810/non-GM variety pairs as examples, and two farming practices (conventional and low-nitrogen fertilization). MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties grown in the field have very low numbers of sequences with differential expression, and their identity differs among varieties. Furthermore, we show that the differences between a given MON810 variety and the non-GM counterpart do not appear to depend to any major extent on the assayed cultural conditions, even though these differences may slightly vary between the conditions. In our study, natural variation explained most of the variability in gene expression among the samples. Up to 37.4% was dependent upon the variety (obtained by conventional breeding) and 31.9% a result of the fertilization treatment. In contrast, the MON810 GM character had a very minor effect (9.7%) on gene expression in the analyzed varieties and conditions, even though similar cryIA(b) expression levels were detected in the two MON810 varieties and nitrogen treatments. This indicates that transcriptional differences of conventionally-bred varieties and under different environmental conditions should be taken into account in safety assessment studies of GM plants. PMID:20349115

  10. A comparative evaluation of bond strength of feldspathic porcelain to nickel-chromium alloy, when subjected to various surface treatments: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kavan A.; Mathur, Somil; Upadhyay, Snehal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments and sandblasting with different particle size on the bond strength of feldspathic porcelain with predominantly base metal alloys, using a universal testing machine. Materials and Methods: Totally, 40 specimen of nickel-chromium alloy were prepared in an induction casting machine. The groups divided were as follows: Group I-sandblasted with 50 μ Al2O3, Group II-sandblasted with 110 μ Al2O3, Group III-sandblasted with 250 μ Al2O3 and Group IV-sandblasted with 250 μ Al2O3, followed by oxidation and again sandblasted with 250 μ Al2O3. The dimensions of each specimen were adjusted so as to maintain the thickness of ceramic at 1 mm. The specimen were loaded on the assembly of the universal testing machine, and a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min was used to apply a compressive force at the junction of metal and feldspathic porcelain. The force application continued until adhesive fracture occurred, and the readings of the load applied to that particular specimen were recorded. Results: The means for shear bond strength for Group I, II, III and IV were found to be (226.92 ± 1.67), (233.16 ± 3.85), (337.81 ± 16.97) and (237.08 ± 4.33), respectively. Means of shear bond strength among the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance test. Comparison between individual groups were made with Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post-hoc test. Conclusion: Different particle size and surface treatment have an important role on the bond strength of ceramic-metal interface. Greater particle size demonstrated higher bond strength. PMID:26929487

  11. Comparative assessment of the prevalence of periodontal disease in subjects with and without systemic autoimmune diseases: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Kumar, S. G.; Aswath Narayanan, M. B.; Jayanthi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immune mechanism shares a common pathway both for systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases. Scientific exploration of literature revealed limited studies on the association between systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of the study is to find whether the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases in an individual is a risk factor for the development of periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case–control study. Materials and Methods: A sample of 253 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the Rheumatology Department of Government General Hospital, Chennai-3, and 262 patients without systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the outpatient department of the Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai-3, constituted the case and control groups, respectively. Age, gender, and oral hygiene status matching was done. Oral hygiene status was assessed using oral hygiene index (OHI) and periodontal status was assessed using community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) index. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc, 2006, Chicago). Results: Results showed 99.2% and 73.9% prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively, in the case group as compared to 85.5% and 14.9%, respectively, in the control group. There is no linear relationship between OHI scores and prevalence of periodontitis (CPI and LOA scores) in the case group. Patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases showed more prevalence of periodontal diseases irrespective of oral hygiene scores. Conclusion: It is postulated that the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases may pose a risk for the development of periodontal diseases. PMID:27307662

  12. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Nadal, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Capellades, Gemma; Kubista, Mikael; Messeguer, Joaquima; Pla, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in many countries follows strict regulations to ensure that only safety-tested products are marketed. Over the last few years, targeted approaches have been complemented by profiling methods to assess possible unintended effects of transformation. Here we used a commercial (Affymertix) microarray platform (i.e. allowing assessing the expression of approximately 1/3 of the genes of maize) to evaluate transcriptional differences between commercial MON810 GM maize and non-transgenic crops in real agricultural conditions, in a region where about 70% of the maize grown was MON810. To consider natural variation in gene expression in relation to biotech plants we took two common MON810/non-GM variety pairs as examples, and two farming practices (conventional and low-nitrogen fertilization). MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties grown in the field have very low numbers of sequences with differential expression, and their identity differs among varieties. Furthermore, we show that the differences between a given MON810 variety and the non-GM counterpart do not appear to depend to any major extent on the assayed cultural conditions, even though these differences may slightly vary between the conditions. In our study, natural variation explained most of the variability in gene expression among the samples. Up to 37.4% was dependent upon the variety (obtained by conventional breeding) and 31.9% a result of the fertilization treatment. In contrast, the MON810 GM character had a very minor effect (9.7%) on gene expression in the analyzed varieties and conditions, even though similar cryIA(b) expression levels were detected in the two MON810 varieties and nitrogen treatments. This indicates that transcriptional differences of conventionally-bred varieties and under different environmental conditions should be taken into account in safety assessment studies of GM plants.

  13. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  14. [Comparative studies of the response of normolipemic and dyslipemic aged subjects to 2 forms of delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters. Pentaerythrotol tetranicotinate and inositol hexanicotinate. Results of a controlled cross-over trial].

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, G R; Lamberti, G; Wagner, A; Cima, L; Genco, G

    1977-01-01

    A cross-over trial was run to compare the effects of two delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters (pentaerythritol-tetranticotinate, PETN, and inositol-hexanicotinate, MIEN) in 59 aged normo- and dyslipaemic subjects. PETN tended to normalise the lipid picture in much the same way as nicotin acid, without a drastic effect on circulating lipids and lipoproteins. MIEN, on the other hand, had only a slight effect on total blood lipids, and appeared to be ineffective or negative with respect to the other lipid parameters. PETN proved capable of releasing active concentrations of nicotinic acid in vivo for a period of time that was sufficient to correct hyperlipaemia in age subjects. The side-effects were slight, infrequent and quickly reversible. PMID:345998

  15. Comparative assessment of different methods for the estimation of gait temporal parameters using a single inertial sensor: application to elderly, post-stroke, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Trojaniello, Diana; Ravaschio, Andrea; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cereatti, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The estimation of gait temporal parameters with inertial measurement units (IMU) is a research topic of interest in clinical gait analysis. Several methods, based on the use of a single IMU mounted at waist level, have been proposed for the estimate of these parameters showing satisfactory performance when applied to the gait of healthy subjects. However, the above mentioned methods were developed and validated on healthy subjects and their applicability in pathological gait conditions was not systematically explored. We tested the three best performing methods found in a previous comparative study on data acquired from 10 older adults, 10 hemiparetic, 10 Parkinson's disease and 10 Huntington's disease subjects. An instrumented gait mat was used as gold standard. When pathological populations were analyzed, missed or extra events were found for all methods and a global decrease of their performance was observed to different extents depending on the specific group analyzed. The results revealed that none of the tested methods outperformed the others in terms of accuracy of the gait parameters determination for all the populations except the Parkinson's disease subjects group for which one of the methods performed better than others. The hemiparetic subjects group was the most critical group to analyze (stride duration errors between 4-5 % and step duration errors between 8-13 % of the actual values across methods). Only one method provides estimates of the stance and swing durations which however should be interpreted with caution in pathological populations (stance duration errors between 6-14 %, swing duration errors between 10-32 % of the actual values across populations).

  16. Comparative assessment of different methods for the estimation of gait temporal parameters using a single inertial sensor: application to elderly, post-stroke, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Trojaniello, Diana; Ravaschio, Andrea; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cereatti, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The estimation of gait temporal parameters with inertial measurement units (IMU) is a research topic of interest in clinical gait analysis. Several methods, based on the use of a single IMU mounted at waist level, have been proposed for the estimate of these parameters showing satisfactory performance when applied to the gait of healthy subjects. However, the above mentioned methods were developed and validated on healthy subjects and their applicability in pathological gait conditions was not systematically explored. We tested the three best performing methods found in a previous comparative study on data acquired from 10 older adults, 10 hemiparetic, 10 Parkinson's disease and 10 Huntington's disease subjects. An instrumented gait mat was used as gold standard. When pathological populations were analyzed, missed or extra events were found for all methods and a global decrease of their performance was observed to different extents depending on the specific group analyzed. The results revealed that none of the tested methods outperformed the others in terms of accuracy of the gait parameters determination for all the populations except the Parkinson's disease subjects group for which one of the methods performed better than others. The hemiparetic subjects group was the most critical group to analyze (stride duration errors between 4-5 % and step duration errors between 8-13 % of the actual values across methods). Only one method provides estimates of the stance and swing durations which however should be interpreted with caution in pathological populations (stance duration errors between 6-14 %, swing duration errors between 10-32 % of the actual values across populations). PMID:26163348

  17. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  18. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  19. BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid and its relation to markers of AD pathology.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Sandra D; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Verheijen, Jan H; Mulder, Cees; Scheltens, Philip; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Hack, C Erik; Veerhuis, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that reduced amyloid-beta 1-42 (Abeta(42)) and increased tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the brain. beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is thought to be the major beta-secretase involved in Abeta production in the brain, and therefore we investigated the relation between BACE1 activity and CSF markers Abeta(40), Abeta(42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau) in CSF of control (n=12), mild cognitive impairment (n=18), and AD (n=17) subjects. Patients were classified according to their Abeta(42), t-tau, and p-tau CSF biomarker levels, with either an AD-like biomarker profile (two or three biomarkers abnormal: Abeta(42) < 495 pg/ml in combination with t-tau > 356 pg/ml, and/or p-tau > 54 pg/ml) or a normal biomarker profile (subjects with an AD-like biomarker profile (66 +/- 6 years, 53% female, and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score: 23 +/- 5) and 28 subjects with a normal biomarker profile (62 +/- 11 years, 43% female, and MMSE score: 27 +/- 4). Subjects with an AD-like biomarker profile had higher CSF BACE1 activity levels, compared to patients with a normal biomarker profile (20 pg/ml and 16 pg/ml respectively; p=0.01), when controlled for age and gender. In the whole sample, BACE1 activity correlated with CSF levels of Abeta(40), t-tau, and p-tau (r=0.38, r=0.63, and r=0.65; all p< 0.05), but not with Abeta(42). These data suggest that increased BACE1 activity in CSF relates to AD pathology in the brain.

  20. BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid and its relation to markers of AD pathology.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Sandra D; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Verheijen, Jan H; Mulder, Cees; Scheltens, Philip; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Hack, C Erik; Veerhuis, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that reduced amyloid-beta 1-42 (Abeta(42)) and increased tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the brain. beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is thought to be the major beta-secretase involved in Abeta production in the brain, and therefore we investigated the relation between BACE1 activity and CSF markers Abeta(40), Abeta(42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau) in CSF of control (n=12), mild cognitive impairment (n=18), and AD (n=17) subjects. Patients were classified according to their Abeta(42), t-tau, and p-tau CSF biomarker levels, with either an AD-like biomarker profile (two or three biomarkers abnormal: Abeta(42) < 495 pg/ml in combination with t-tau > 356 pg/ml, and/or p-tau > 54 pg/ml) or a normal biomarker profile (subjects with an AD-like biomarker profile (66 +/- 6 years, 53% female, and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score: 23 +/- 5) and 28 subjects with a normal biomarker profile (62 +/- 11 years, 43% female, and MMSE score: 27 +/- 4). Subjects with an AD-like biomarker profile had higher CSF BACE1 activity levels, compared to patients with a normal biomarker profile (20 pg/ml and 16 pg/ml respectively; p=0.01), when controlled for age and gender. In the whole sample, BACE1 activity correlated with CSF levels of Abeta(40), t-tau, and p-tau (r=0.38, r=0.63, and r=0.65; all p< 0.05), but not with Abeta(42). These data suggest that increased BACE1 activity in CSF relates to AD pathology in the brain. PMID:20164582

  1. Nonlinear realization of local symmetries of AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2005-10-15

    Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local symmetries of AdS{sub d+1} space due to the embedding of an AdS{sub d} brane. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the AdS{sub d} gravitational vielbein, also includes a massive vector field localized on the brane. Its long wavelength dynamics is the same as a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity in AdS{sub d} space.

  2. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  3. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects. PMID:21272402

  4. A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Frank; Amariglio, Rebecca E; van Boxtel, Martin; Breteler, Monique; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Dufouil, Carole; Ellis, Kathryn A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Glodzik, Lidia; van Harten, Argonde C; de Leon, Mony J; McHugh, Pauline; Mielke, Michelle M; Molinuevo, Jose Luis; Mosconi, Lisa; Osorio, Ricardo S; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C; Rabin, Laura A; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M; Sachdev, Perminder S; de la Sayette, Vincent; Saykin, Andrew J; Scheltens, Philip; Shulman, Melanie B; Slavin, Melissa J; Sperling, Reisa A; Stewart, Robert; Uspenskaya, Olga; Vellas, Bruno; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Wagner, Michael

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in individuals with unimpaired performance on cognitive tests may represent the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The research on SCD in early AD, however, is limited by the absence of common standards. The working group of the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) addressed this deficiency by reaching consensus on terminology and on a conceptual framework for research on SCD in AD. In this publication, research criteria for SCD in pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are presented. In addition, a list of core features proposed for reporting in SCD studies is provided, which will enable comparability of research across different settings. Finally, a set of features is presented, which in accordance with current knowledge, increases the likelihood of the presence of preclinical AD in individuals with SCD. This list is referred to as SCD plus.

  5. Bubbling geometries for AdS2× S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg

    2015-10-01

    We construct BPS geometries describing normalizable excitations of AdS2×S2. All regular horizon-free solutions are parameterized by two harmonic functions in R 3 with sources along closed curves. This local structure is reminiscent of the "bubbling solutions" for the other AdS p ×S q cases, however, due to peculiar asymptotic properties of AdS2, one copy of R 3 does not cover the entire space, and we discuss the procedure for analytic continuation, which leads to a nontrivial topological structure of the new geometries. We also study supersymmetric brane probes on the new geometries, which represent the AdS2×S2 counterparts of the giant gravitons.

  6. Clear Away the Smoke and Mirrors of Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2010-01-01

    Current value-added models for teacher accountability are better than models based only on student achievement, but they have their weakness. They are subject to systematic and random error, as are all measures, and there are concerns about the tests used for the measurements. However, value-added models are better than the alternatives at the…

  7. Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.

    Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads or soft liquor ads…

  8. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  9. Catecholamine-Based Treatment in AD Patients: Expectations and Delusions

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Alessandro; Olivola, Enrica; Liguori, Claudio; Hainsworth, Atticus H.; Saviozzi, Valentina; Angileri, Giacoma; D’Angelo, Vincenza; Galati, Salvatore; Pierantozzi, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease, the gap between excellence of diagnostics and efficacy of therapy is wide. Despite sophisticated imaging and biochemical markers, the efficacy of available therapeutic options is limited. Here we examine the possibility that assessment of endogenous catecholamine levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may fuel new therapeutic strategies. In reviewing the available literature, we consider the effects of levodopa, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and noradrenaline (NE) modulators, showing disparate results. We present a preliminary assessment of CSF concentrations of dopamine (DA) and NE, determined by HPLC, in a small dementia cohort of either Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or frontotemporal dementia patients, compared to control subjects. Our data reveal detectable levels of DA, NE in CSF, though we found no significant alterations in the dementia population as a whole. AD patients exhibit a small impairment of the DA axis and a larger increase of NE concentration, likely to represent a compensatory mechanism. While waiting for preventive strategies, a pragmatic approach to AD may re-evaluate catecholamine modulation, possibly stratified to dementia subtypes, as part of the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:25999852

  10. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  11. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  12. A single centre, open-label, cross-over study of pharmacokinetics comparing topical zinc/clindamycin gel (Zindaclin) and topical clindamycin lotion (Dalacin T) in subjects with mild to moderate acne.

    PubMed

    Chassard, Didier; Kanis, Roo; Namour, Florence; Evene, Eric; Ntssikoussalabongui, Bernard; Schmitz, Valérie

    2006-01-01

    Zinc/clindamycin gel (Zindaclin 1%) gel, is a new once-daily topical acne treatment (Strakan Ltd) containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 1% clindamycin and zinc acetate in a formulation, which leads to a reduced systemic absorption of clindamycin through the skin. The objective of the study was to compare the systemic absorption of clindamycin from zinc/clindamycin gel and clindamycin lotion (Dalacin T topical lotion, Pharmacia Ltd) after repeated twice-daily topical administration for two periods of 5 days with an intervening gap of 2 weeks in 24 subjects with mild to moderate acne. Plasma Cmax, and AUC0-12 of clindamycin measured after single and multiple applications of zinc/clindamycin gel were between 30% and 50% lower than for clindamycin lotion. As zinc/clindamycin gel is a topical treatment for acne, the lower systemic bioavailability may be beneficial because there may be a correspondingly lower risk of systemic events in zinc/clindamycin gel-treated subjects.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of the evogliptin/metformin extended-release (5/1,000 mg) fixed-dose combination formulation compared to the corresponding loose combination, and food effect in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A new fixed-dose combination formulation of evogliptin 5 mg and metformin extended-release (XR) 1,000 mg (FDC_EVO5/MET1000) was developed to improve medication adherence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetics of FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was compared to the corresponding loose combination in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 36 healthy male subjects (Part 1), and the food effect on FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was assessed (under fasted or fed conditions) in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 28 healthy male subjects (Part 2). Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 72 hours, and pharmacokinetic parameters of evogliptin and metformin were calculated using non-compartmental methods. The geometric mean ratios (fixed-dose combination to loose combination) and 90% confidence intervals of pharmacokinetic parameters for evogliptin and metformin were all within 0.800-1.250, suggesting bioequivalent pharmacokinetic. After a single oral dose of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, food did not significantly affect evogliptin pharmacokinetic while systemic exposure of metformin was increased about 47.5% under the fed condition, which is consistent with the already established food effect on metformin XR. FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was generally well tolerated without any drug-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, FDC_EVO5/MET1000 can be substituted for the loose combination of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, providing better compliance with convenient administration. PMID:27110098

  14. Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, John Sang Won

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension

  15. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and…

  16. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  17. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  18. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  19. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  20. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  1. Holography and AdS4 self-gravitating dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. R.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a self-gravitating dyon solution of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations of motion in asymptotically AdS space. The back reaction of gauge and Higgs fields on the space-time geometry leads to the metric of an asymptotically AdS black hole. Using the gauge/gravity correspondence we analyze relevant properties of the finite temperature quantum field theory defined on the boundary. In particular we identify an order operator, characterize a phase transition of the dual theory on the border and also compute the expectation value of the finite temperature Wilson loop.

  2. AdS box graphs, unitarity and operator product expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Mesref, L.; Rühl, W.

    2000-11-01

    We develop a method of singularity analysis for conformal graphs which, in particular, is applicable to the holographic image of AdS supergravity theory. It can be used to determine the critical exponents for any such graph in a given channel. These exponents determine the towers of conformal blocks that are exchanged in this channel. We analyze the scalar AdS box graph and show that it has the same critical exponents as the corresponding CFT box graph. Thus pairs of external fields couple to the same exchanged conformal blocks in both theories. This is looked upon as a general structural argument supporting the Maldacena hypothesis.

  3. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  4. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  5. Non-Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the General Population: The Incidence of Abnormal Findings in Patients 50 Years Old and Younger Compared to Older Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Maj, Edyta; Kulisiewicz, Piotr; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P.; Jakoniuk-Glodala, Karolina; Chlipala-Nitek, Irena; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess and compare the incidence of abnormal findings detected during non-contrast-enhanced whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in the general population in two age groups: (1) 50 years old and younger; and (2) over 50 years old. Materials and Methods The analysis included 666 non-contrast-enhanced WB-MRIs performed on a 1.5-T scanner between December 2009 and June 2013 in a private hospital in 451 patients 50 years old and younger and 215 patients over 50 years old. The following images were obtained: T2-STIR (whole body-coronal plane), T2-STIR (whole spine-sagittal), T2-TSE with fat-saturation (neck and trunk-axial), T2-FLAIR (head-axial), 3D T1-GRE (thorax-coronal, axial), T2-TSE (abdomen-axial), chemical shift (abdomen-axial). Detected abnormalities were classified as: insignificant (type I), potentially significant, requiring medical attention (type II), significant, requiring treatment (type III). Results There were 3375 incidental findings depicted in 659 (98.9%) subjects: 2997 type I lesions (88.8%), 363 type II lesions (10.8%) and 15 type III lesions (0.4%), including malignant or possibly malignant lesions in seven subjects. The most differences in the prevalence of abnormalities on WB-MRI between patients 50 years old and younger and over 50 years old concerned: brain infarction (22.2%, 45.0% respectively), thyroid cysts/nodules (8.7%, 18.8%), pulmonary nodules (5.0%, 16.2%), significant degenerative disease of the spine (23.3%, 44.5%), extra-spinal degenerative disease (22.4%, 61.1%), hepatic steatosis (15.8%, 24.9%), liver cysts/hemangiomas (24%, 34.5%), renal cysts (16.9%, 40.6%), prostate enlargement (5.1% of males, 34.2% of males), uterine fibroids (16.3% of females, 37.9% of females). Conclusions Incidental findings were detected in almost all of the subjects. WB-MRI demonstrated that the prevalence of the vast majority of abnormalities increases with age. PMID:25259581

  6. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of a combination of formoterol and ciclesonide with ciclesonide alone in asthma subjects with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Vaidya, Abhijit J; Kodgule, Rahul R; Gogtay, Jaideep A

    2016-01-01

    Context: The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) is widely used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma uncontrolled by ICS alone. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new ICS-LABA combination inhaler containing Formoterol (F) and Ciclesonide (C). Settings and Design: A double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group fashion, multi-centric study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 169 asthma patients received Ciclesonide 80 μg once daily during a 4-week run-in period, after which, they were randomized to receive either C (80 μg) or a combination of F (4.5 μg) and C (80 μg) (FC) both delivered through a hydro-fluro-alkane pressurized-metered-dose inhaler as 1 puff twice daily, for 6 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Inter-group differences were compared using t-test for independent samples at a significance level of 5%. Results: From baseline, the improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (110 ml vs. 40 ml, 140 ml vs. 20 ml, and 110 ml vs. 40 ml, respectively, all P < 0.05). From baseline, the improvements in mean morning peak expiratory flow at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (17 L/min vs.−3 L/min, 22 L/min vs. 3 L/min, and 30 ml vs. 8 L/min respectively, all P < 0.05). The changes in symptom scores were similar in both the groups. The adverse events in the FC group were not significantly different from those in the C group. Conclusions: FC provides better improvement than C alone in terms of lung function and symptoms without increased risk of adverse events in asthma patients. PMID:27185990

  7. A randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, comparative study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination compared to 1% azithromycin alone, 0.1% dexamethasone alone, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Kamran; Lindstrom, Richard L; Foulks, Gary; Nichols, Kelly K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination in DuraSite (“combination”) compared to 0.1% dexamethasone in DuraSite, 1% azithromycin in DuraSite, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis. Materials and methods This was a Phase III, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, four-arm study in which 907 subjects with blepharitis were randomized to combination (n=305), 0.1% dexamethasone (n=298), 1% azithromycin (n=155), or vehicle (n=149). Ten study visits were scheduled: screening visit, days 1 and 4 (dosing phase) and 15, and months 1–6 (follow-up phase). On day 1, subjects applied one drop of the study drug to the eyelid of the inflamed eye(s) twice daily, and continued with twice-daily dosing for 14 days. After completing 14 days of dosing, subjects were followed for 6 months for efficacy and safety. Results A total of 57 subjects (6.3%) had complete clinical resolution at day 15: 25 (8.2%), 17 (5.7%), 8 (5.2%), and 7 (4.7%) subjects in the combination-, 0.1% dexamethasone-, 1% azithromycin-, and vehicle-treatment groups, respectively. The combination was superior to 1% azithromycin and vehicle alone, but not to 0.1% dexamethasone alone. Mean composite (total) clinical sign and symptom scores improved in all four treatment groups during the post-treatment evaluation phase for the intent-to-treat population, but outcomes were superior when a drop containing 0.1% dexamethasone was utilized. Clinical response was noted as early as day 4, and persisted as long as 6 months. Most adverse events were considered mild in severity and not related to the study drug. Conclusion A higher percentage of subjects in the combination group achieved complete clinical resolution of the signs and symptoms of blepharitis at day 15 than with 1% azithromycin and vehicle, but outcomes were similar to treatment with 0.1% dexamethasone alone. The combination was well tolerated. PMID:27570444

  8. How Should Educators Interpret Value-Added Scores? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Jean, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    A teacher's value-added score is intended to convey how much that teacher has contributed to student learning in a particular subject in a particular year. Different school districts define and compute value-added scores in different ways. A variety of people may see value-added estimates, and each group may use them for different purposes.…

  9. D-branes on AdS flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerber, Paul; Martucci, Luca

    2008-01-01

    We study D-branes in Script N = 1 flux compactifications to AdS4. We derive their supersymmetry conditions and express them in terms of background generalized calibrations. Basically because AdS has a boundary, the analysis of stability is more subtle and qualitatively different from the usual case of Minkowski compactifications. For instance, stable D-branes filling AdS4 may wrap trivial internal cycles. Our analysis gives a geometric realization of the four-dimensional field theory approach of Freedman and collaborators. Furthermore, the one-to-one correspondence between the supersymmetry conditions of the background and the existence of generalized calibrations for D-branes is clarified and extended to any supersymmetric flux background that admits a time-like Killing vector and for which all fields are time-independent with respect to the associated time. As explicit examples, we discuss supersymmetric D-branes on IIA nearly Kähler AdS4 flux compactifications.

  10. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  11. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Israel; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2016-05-01

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  12. Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022

  13. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  14. 3D maps from multiple MRI illustrate changing atrophy patterns as subjects progress from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Przybelski, Scott A; Weigand, Stephen D; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R

    2007-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), particularly the amnestic subtype (aMCI), is considered as a transitional stage between normal aging and a diagnosis of clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aMCI construct is particularly useful as it provides an opportunity to assess a clinical stage which in most subjects represents prodromal AD. The aim of this study was to assess the progression of cerebral atrophy over multiple serial MRI during the period from aMCI to progression to AD. Thirty-three subjects were selected that fulfilled clinical criteria for aMCI and had three serial MRI scans: the first scan approximately 3 years before the diagnosis of AD, the second scan approximately 1 year before, and the third scan at the time of the diagnosis of AD. A group of 33 healthy controls were age and gender-matched to the study cohort. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess patterns of grey matter atrophy in the aMCI subjects at each time-point compared to the control group. Customized templates and prior probability maps were used to avoid normalization and segmentation bias. The pattern of grey matter loss in the aMCI subject scans that were 3 years before the diagnosis of AD was focused primarily on the medial temporal lobes, including the amygdala, anterior hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, with some additional involvement of the fusiform gyrus, compared to controls. The extent and magnitude of the cerebral atrophy further progressed by the time the subjects were 1 year before the diagnosis of AD. At this point atrophy in the temporal lobes spread to include the middle temporal gyrus, and extended into more posterior regions of the temporal lobe to include the entire extent of the hippocampus. The parietal lobe also started to become involved. By the time the subjects had progressed to a clinical diagnosis of AD the pattern of grey matter atrophy had become still more widespread with more severe involvement of the medial temporal lobes and the

  15. The AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2015-06-01

    We give a brief review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which posits the equivalence between a certain gravitational theory and a lower-dimensional non-gravitational one. This remarkable duality, formulated in 1997, has sparked a vigorous research program that has gained in breadth over the years, with applications to many aspects of theoretical (and even experimental) physics, not least to general relativity and quantum gravity. To put the AdS/CFT correspondence into historical context, we start by reviewing the relevant aspects of string theory (of which no prior knowledge is assumed). We then develop the statement of the correspondence, and explain how the two sides of the duality map into each other. Finally, we discuss the implications and applications of the correspondence, and indicate some of the current trends in this subject. The presentation attempts to convey the main concepts in a simple and self-contained manner, relegating supplementary remarks to footnotes.

  16. Minimal Intensity Physical Activity (Standing and Walking) of Longer Duration Improves Insulin Action and Plasma Lipids More than Shorter Periods of Moderate to Vigorous Exercise (Cycling) in Sedentary Subjects When Energy Expenditure Is Comparable

    PubMed Central

    Duvivier, Bernard M. F. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Bremers, Michelle A.; van Crombrugge, Glenn; Menheere, Paul P. C. A.; Kars, Marleen; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that excessive sitting time is associated with increased health risk, independent of the performance of exercise. We hypothesized that a daily bout of exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity during the rest of the day on insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen healthy subjects, age 21±2 year, BMI 22.6±2.6 kgm−2 followed randomly three physical activity regimes for four days. Participants were instructed to sit 14 hr/day (sitting regime); to sit 13 hr/day and to substitute 1 hr of sitting with vigorous exercise 1 hr (exercise regime); to substitute 6 hrs sitting with 4 hr walking and 2 hr standing (minimal intensity physical activity (PA) regime). The sitting and exercise regime had comparable numbers of sitting hours; the exercise and minimal intensity PA regime had the same daily energy expenditure. PA was assessed continuously by an activity monitor (ActivPAL) and a diary. Measurements of insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) and plasma lipids were performed in the fasting state, the morning after the 4 days of each regime. In the sitting regime, daily energy expenditure was about 500 kcal lower than in both other regimes. Area under the curve for insulin during OGTT was significantly lower after the minimal intensity PA regime compared to both sitting and exercise regimes 6727.3±4329.4 vs 7752.0±3014.4 and 8320.4±5383.7 mU•min/ml, respectively. Triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B plasma levels improved significantly in the minimal intensity PA regime compared to sitting and showed non-significant trends for improvement compared to exercise. Conclusions One hour of daily physical exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity on insulin level and plasma lipids if the rest of the day is spent sitting. Reducing inactivity by increasing the time spent walking/standing is more effective than one hour of

  17. Effective Ad-Hoc Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    1983-01-01

    Ad-hoc committees may be symbolic, informational, or action committees. A literature survey indicates such committees' structural components include a suprasystem and three subsystems involving linkages, production, and implementation. Other variables include size, personal factors, and timing. All the factors carry implications about ad-hoc…

  18. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  19. One-loop diagrams in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen

    2011-01-15

    We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

  20. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  1. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  2. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Munro, Catherine E.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. Objective To compare the three AES sub-scales—subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C)—over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Methods Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Results Fifty seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53–86) were followed for 1.4±1.2 years and 0.7±0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male sex. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the clinician-reported AES (AES-C) best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. Conclusion In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. Self-reported AES scores may be more sensitive than informant and clinician-report when subjects are CN, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the clinician-reported AES sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia. PMID:26401564

  3. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  4. AdS6 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Very few AdS6 × M 4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Σ. M 4 is then a fibration of S 2 over Σ; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of ( p, q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT5's. We also show that there are no AdS6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  5. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space-time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  6. Preferential infection of human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells by HIV in Ad5 naturally exposed and recombinant Ad5-HIV vaccinated individuals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haitao; Eller, Michael A; Zafar, Shah; Zhou, Yu; Gu, Mengnan; Wei, Zhi; Currier, Jeffrey R; Marovich, Mary A; Kibuuka, Hannah N; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Ratto-Kim, Silvia

    2014-09-16

    Efficacy trials of adenovirus 5-vectored candidate HIV vaccines [recombinant Ad5 (rAd5)-HIV] were halted for futility due to lack of vaccine efficacy and unexpected excess HIV infections in the vaccine recipients. The potential immunologic basis for these observations is unclear. We comparatively evaluated the HIV susceptibility and phenotypes of human CD4 T cells specific to Ad5 and CMV, two viruses that have been used as HIV vaccine vectors. We show that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells, either induced by natural Ad5 exposure or expanded by rAd5 vaccination, are highly susceptible to HIV in vitro and are preferentially lost in HIV-infected individuals compared with CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Further investigation demonstrated that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells selectively display a proinflammatory Th17-like phenotype and express macrophage inflammatory protein 3α and α4β7 integrin, suggestive of gut mucosa homing potential of these cells. Analysis of HIV p24 and cytokine coexpression using flow cytometry revealed preferential infection of IL-17- and IL-2-producing, Ad5-specific CD4 T cells by HIV in vitro. Our data suggest a potential mechanism explaining the excess HIV infections in vaccine recipients after rAd5-HIV vaccination and highlight the importance of testing the HIV susceptibility of vaccine-generated, vector and insert-specific CD4 T cells in future HIV vaccine studies. PMID:25197078

  7. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  8. A Comparative Study of Clinical Correlates in Schizophrenia with Onset in Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Parthasarathy; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil; Gupta, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare disorder. Comparative data on the effect of differential age of onset on clinical profile in schizophrenia are very few. Method: Subjects with COS (n = 15), adolescence onset schizophrenia (AdOS, n = 20) and adulthood onset schizophrenia (AOS, n = 20) were compared on socio-demographic,…

  9. Integration and relative value of biomarkers for prediction of MCI to AD progression: spatial patterns of brain atrophy, cognitive scores, APOE genotype and CSF biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Da, Xiao; Toledo, Jon B; Zee, Jarcy; Wolk, David A; Xie, Sharon X; Ou, Yangming; Shacklett, Amanda; Parmpi, Paraskevi; Shaw, Leslie; Trojanowski, John Q; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the individual, as well as relative and joint value of indices obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of brain atrophy (quantified by the SPARE-AD index), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, APOE genotype, and cognitive performance (ADAS-Cog) in progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) within a variable follow-up period up to 6 years, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1). SPARE-AD was first established as a highly sensitive and specific MRI-marker of AD vs. cognitively normal (CN) subjects (AUC = 0.98). Baseline predictive values of all aforementioned indices were then compared using survival analysis on 381 MCI subjects. SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog were found to have similar predictive value, and their combination was significantly better than their individual performance. APOE genotype did not significantly improve prediction, although the combination of SPARE-AD, ADAS-Cog and APOE ε4 provided the highest hazard ratio estimates of 17.8 (last vs. first quartile). In a subset of 192 MCI patients who also had CSF biomarkers, the addition of Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p to the previous model did not improve predictive value significantly over SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog combined. Importantly, in amyloid-negative patients with MCI, SPARE-AD had high predictive power of clinical progression. Our findings suggest that SPARE-AD and ADAS-Cog in combination offer the highest predictive power of conversion from MCI to AD, which is improved, albeit not significantly, by APOE genotype. The finding that SPARE-AD in amyloid-negative MCI patients was predictive of clinical progression is not expected under the amyloid hypothesis and merits further investigation.

  10. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  11. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  12. Hexon hypervariable region-modified adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors display reduced hepatotoxicity but induce T lymphocyte phenotypes similar to Ad5 vectors.

    PubMed

    Teigler, Jeffrey E; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Obeng, Rebecca; Provine, Nicholas M; Larocca, Rafael A; Borducchi, Erica N; Barouch, Dan H

    2014-08-01

    Hexon modification of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors with the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad48 has been shown to allow Ad5HVR48 vectors to circumvent the majority of the preexisting Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. However, it remains unclear whether modifying hexon HVRs impacts innate or adaptive immune responses elicited by this vector. In this study, we investigated the influence of the HVR substitution of Ad5 on innate and adaptive immune responses following vaccination. Ad5HVR48 displayed an intermediate level of innate immune cytokines and chemokines relative to those of Ad5 and Ad48, consistent with its chimeric nature. Hepatotoxicity was observed after Ad5 immunization but not after Ad5HVR48 or Ad48 immunization. However, the CD8(+) T-cell responses elicited by Ad5HVR48 vectors displayed a partially exhausted phenotype, as evidenced by the sustained expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), decreased effector-to-central memory conversion, and reduced memory recall responses, similar to those elicited by Ad5 vectors and in contrast to those induced by Ad48 vectors. Taken together, these results indicate that although Ad5HVR48 largely bypasses preexisting Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and shows reduced hepatotoxicity compared to that of Ad5, it induces adaptive immune phenotypes that are functionally exhausted similar to those elicited by Ad5.

  13. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  14. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  15. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  16. Most general AdS3 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Riegler, Max

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl{(2)}_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k = ℓ/(4 G N ), where ℓ is the AdS radius and G N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  17. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  18. Autoantibodies Profile in Matching CSF and Serum from AD and aMCI patients: Potential Pathogenic Role and Link to Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Fabio; Pupo, Gilda; Giraldo, Esther; Lloret, Ana; Badia, Mari-Carmen; Schinina, Maria Eugenia; Giorgi, Alessandra; Butterfield, D Allan; Vina, Jose; Perluigi, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly and is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognition. Amyloid-ß-peptide (Aß) forms senile plaques, which, together with hyperphosphorylated tau-based neurofibrillary tangles, are the hallmarks of AD neuropathology. Evidence support the involvement of immune system in AD progression and current concepts regarding its pathogenesis include the participation of inflammatory and autoimmune components in the neurodegenerative process. Pathologically, immune system components have been detected in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in serum of AD subjects and their trend of variation correlates with disease progression. However, patients with AD present significantly lower levels of antibody immunoreactivity against Aß in serum and CSF than healthy controls suggesting that a depletion of such patrolling system is involved in the deposition of toxic aggregates in AD. Within this frame, incomplete and often controversial results are reported about CNS immune/ autoimmune responses during AD, and a better comprehension of such processes is needed. Our research will aim to shed light on the nature and potential role of autoantibodies in CSF and serum from AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients compared to healthy subjects by using an immunoproteomics approach. Our method allows recognition of natural occurring antibodies by the identification of brain antigen targeted by human IgGs. Overall our data reveal that the alterations of autoantibodies profile both in CSF and serum follow disease staging and progression. However, we demonstrate a fair overlap between CSF and serum suggesting the existence of different immunogenic events. Interestingly, CSF autoantibodies recognized, among others, key players of energy metabolic pathway, including glycolysis and TCA cycle, found oxidatively modified in AD brain studies. These data suggest a potential casual sequence

  19. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  20. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  1. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  2. Added Value in Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Theo J. D.

    Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The…

  3. 3D τ RR -minimization in AdS4 gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Gnecchi, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose the identification in AdS4 N = 2 gauged supergravity of the coefficient τRR of 3D N = 2 SCFTs. We constrain the structure of this function in supergravity by combining the results from unitarity, holography and localization. We show that our conjectured function is minimized by the exact R-charge, corresponding to a gravitational attractor for the scalars of special geometry. We identify this mechanism with the supergravity dual of τ RR -minimization. We check this proposal in ABJM model, comparing with expectations from localization and AdS/CFT duality. We comment also on possible relations with black hole microstates counting, recently obtained from application of localization techniques.

  4. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  5. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  6. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  7. Superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen

    1999-07-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the correspondence between string theory on nti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, we provide an explicit construction of an infinite dimensional class of superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3. These space-time algebras are N extended superconformal algebras of the kind obtainable by hamiltonian reduction of affine SL(2|N/2) current superalgebras for N even, and are induced by the same current superalgebras residing on the world sheet. Thus, such an extended superconformal algebra is generated by N supercurrents and an SL(N/2) current algebra in addition to a U(1) current algebra. The results are obtained within the framework of free field realizations.

  8. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  9. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  10. S-duality in AdS/CFT magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kraus, Per

    2009-10-01

    We study the nonlinear hydrodynamics of a 2+1 dimensional charged conformal fluid subject to slowly varying external electric and magnetic fields. Following recent work on deriving nonlinear hydrodynamics from gravity, we demonstrate how long wavelength perturbations of the AdS dyonic black brane solution of 4D supergravity are governed by equations equivalent to fluid dynamics equations in the boundary theory. We investigate the implications of S-duality for our system, and derive restrictions imposed on the transport coefficients of a generic fluid invariant under the S operation. We also expand on our earlier work and determine a new set of previously undetermined transport coefficients for the conformal fluid with an AdS gravity dual. Quite surprisingly, we discover that half of the transport coefficients allowed by symmetry vanish in the holographic fluid at linear order in the hydrodynamic expansion.

  11. The forecaster's added value in QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2010-03-01

    : - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance for the period +24 h/+48 h (i.e. the warning period in the Piemonte system); - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterization and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  12. The forecaster's added value in QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-04-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: · despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; · in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; · the QPFs verification is one of the most important activities of a Centro Funzionale because it allows a better understanding of the model behaviour in the different meteorological configurations, highlights the systematic characteristics, and helps in evaluating the reliability, in average or extreme values, over long term or in current situations; · eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical tecniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  13. mRNA levels and methylation patterns of the 2-5A synthetase gene in control and Alzheimer's disease (AD) fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    An, S; Khanna, K K; Wu, J M

    1994-08-01

    We have examined the mRNA levels and methylation patterns of the interferon-inducible 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase gene in skin fibroblasts derived from AD and age/sex-matched control subjects. Northern or slot hybridization analysis of total RNA showed a 63% and 46% decrease in the steady state level of 2-5A synthetase mRNA in AD cells as compared to controls, following a 24 h and 48 h treatment with IFN-beta ser. The 2-5A synthetase gene as studied by Southern analysis using the methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes HpaII and Msp I was found to be hypomethylated in AD cells. No difference in methylation patterns of the actin gene existed between control and AD fibroblasts.

  14. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  15. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  16. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  17. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD. PMID:27255810

  18. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD.

  19. There are no differences in IL-6, CRP and homocystein concentrations between women whose mothers had AD and women whose mothers did not have AD.

    PubMed

    Devčić, Sanja; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Ruljancic, Nedjeljka; Mihanovic, Mate

    2014-12-30

    A wide range of recent studies have detected inflammation as one of the most influent factors in the appearance and spreading of neurodegenerative brain diseases. We aimed to understand the influence of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) on patients suffering from Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and on their descendants. Three groups of subjects were analyzed: 55 patients suffering from AD, 51 middle-aged daughters of the patients of the first group, and 53 subjects without positive family history of AD. The results of the conducted research are in accordance with the present scientific knowledge, namely a statistically significant difference for examined parameters has been determined between women suffering from AD and their daughters and control group examinees. No difference was found in serum concentrations of IL-6, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hcy between the groups of the middle-aged descendants of patients with AD and healthy controls without family history of AD. This finding supports the hypothesis that these markers may not play causal role in the development of AD. This is supported by the obtained positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP and IL-6 and Hcy in AD patients while there is no such correlation between female subjects with or without a family history of AD. PMID:25240941

  20. Metabolic rate of carrying added mass: a function of walking speed, carried mass and mass location.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Eliran; Riemer, Raziel

    2014-11-01

    The effort of carrying additional mass at different body locations is important in ergonomics and in designing wearable robotics. We investigate the metabolic rate of carrying a load as a function of its mass, its location on the body and the subject's walking speed. Novel metabolic rate prediction equations for walking while carrying loads at the ankle, knees and back were developed based on experiments where subjects walked on a treadmill at 4, 5 or 6km/h bearing different amounts of added mass (up to 2kg per leg and 22kg for back). Compared to previously reported equations, ours are 7-69% more accurate. Results also show that relative cost for carrying a mass at a distal versus a proximal location changes with speed and mass. Contrary to mass carried on the back, mass attached to the leg cannot be modeled as an increase in body mass. PMID:24793822

  1. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  2. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  3. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  4. Does habituation differ in chronic low back pain subjects compared to pain-free controls? A cross-sectional pain rating ERP study reanalyzed with the ERFIA multilevel method.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Catherine J; Vossen, Helen G M; Joosten, Engelbert A; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate cortical differences between chronic low back pain (CLBP) subjects and pain-free controls with respect to habituation and processing of stimulus intensity. The use of a novel event-related fixed-interval areas (ERFIA) multilevel technique enables the analysis of event-related electroencephalogram (EEG) of the whole post stimulus range at a single trial level. This technique makes it possible to disentangle the cortical processes of habituation and stimulus intensity.In a cross-sectional study, 78 individuals with CLBP and 85 pain-free controls underwent a rating paradigm of 150 nonpainful and painful somatosensory electrical stimuli. For each trial, the entire epoch was partitioned into 20-ms ERFIAs, which acted as dependent variables in a multilevel analysis. The variability of each consecutive ERFIA period was modeled with a set of predictor variables, including 3 forms of habituation and stimulus intensity.Seventy-six pain-free controls and 65 CLBP subjects were eligible for analysis. CLBP subjects showed a significantly decreased linear habituation at 340 to 460 ms in the midline electrodes and C3 (Ps < .05) and had a significantly more pronounced dishabituation for the regions of 400 to 460 ms and 800 to 820 ms for all electrodes, except for T3 and T4 (Ps < .05). No significant group differences for stimulus intensity processing were observed.In this study, group differences with respect to linear habituation and dishabituation were demonstrated. By means of the ERFIA multilevel technique, habituation effects were found in a broad post stimulus range and were not solely limited to peaks. This study suggests that habituation may be a key mechanism involved in the transition process to chronic pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design are required to solve this issue.

  5. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  6. Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, K.

    2011-10-15

    Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

  7. AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

  8. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  9. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  10. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  11. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  12. A Multicenter, Open-Label, Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of MVA Smallpox Vaccine (IMVAMUNE) in 18–40 Year Old Subjects with Diagnosed Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Richard N; Hurley, Yadira; Dinh, Dinh V.; Mraz, Serena; Vera, Javier Gomez; von Bredow, Dorothea; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Roesch, Siegfried; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Schmidt, Darja; Nichols, Richard; Young, Philip; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Replicating smallpox vaccines can cause severe complications in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD). Prior studies evaluating Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA), a non-replicating vaccine in humans, showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy volunteers. Objective This Phase II study compared the safety and immunogenicity of MVA enrolling groups of 350 subjects with AD (SCORAD ≤ 30) and 282 healthy subjects. Methods Subjects were vaccinated twice with MVA, each dose given subcutaneously 4 weeks apart. Adverse events, cardiac parameters, and the development of vaccinia virus humoral immune responses were monitored. Results The overall safety of the vaccine was similar in both groups. Adverse events affecting skin were experienced significantly more often in subjects with AD, but the majority of these events were mild to moderate in intensity. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers for total and neutralizing vaccinia-specific antibodies in the AD group were non-inferior compared to the healthy subjects. Limitations The size of the study population limited the detection of serious adverse events occurring at a frequency less than 1%. Conclusion MVA has a favorable safety profile and the ability to elicit vaccinia-specific immune responses in subjects with AD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316602 PMID:26439129

  13. Secure ADS-B authentication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viggiano, Marc J (Inventor); Valovage, Edward M (Inventor); Samuelson, Kenneth B (Inventor); Hall, Dana L (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A secure system for authenticating the identity of ADS-B systems, including: an authenticator, including a unique id generator and a transmitter transmitting the unique id to one or more ADS-B transmitters; one or more ADS-B transmitters, including a receiver receiving the unique id, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id with the ADS-B transmitter's identification, data and secret key and generating a secure code identification and a transmitter transmitting a response containing the secure code and ADSB transmitter's data to the authenticator; the authenticator including means for independently determining each ADS-B transmitter's secret key, a receiver receiving each ADS-B transmitter's response, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id, ADS-B transmitter's identification and data and generating a secure code, and comparison processing comparing the authenticator-generated secure code and the ADS-B transmitter-generated secure code and providing an authentication signal based on the comparison result.

  14. Baldcypress tree ring elemental concentrations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee from AD 1795 to AD 1820

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdale, R.; Hall, G.

    1995-11-01

    Many two hundred year old baldcypress trees in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, lived through the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811--1812. This study was undertaken to determine if the elemental composition of baldcypress tree rings showed any systematic variation through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820. Multiple cores were collected from two Reelfoot Lake baldcypress trees and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Individual yearly rings and five-year ring segments were analyzed to determine their elemental compositions. The cores were analyzed for Li through U but only Ba, Ce, Cs, Cu, I, La, Mg, Mn, Nd, Rb, Sm, Sr, and Zn were found to be in appropriate concentrations for this study. Of these elements only Ce, I, La, Nd, Rb, and Sm showed any systematic changes within individual cores. Comparison of three cores taken from one tree reveal that tree-ring elemental concentrations and changes in tree-ring elemental concentration through time are very different among the cores. When comparing the elemental concentrations of tree rings for the same years in the two different trees neither elemental concentrations nor changes in elemental concentration through time were similar. We conclude that the elemental concentrations in the tree rings of the two baldcypress trees analyzed in this study show no systematic change through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820.

  15. Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4 from perturbed W minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4, which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in {N} = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU( n - 4)4 /U(1) n-5 generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n = 6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n = 6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS3 case.

  16. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  17. Supersymmetric partition functions in the AdS/CFT conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Suvrat

    We study supersymmetric partition functions in several versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We present an Index for superconformal field theories in d = 3, 4, 5, 6. This captures all information about the spectrum that is protected, under continuous deformations of the theory, purely by group theory. We compute our Index in N = 4 SYM at weak coupling using gauge theory and at strong coupling using supergravity and find perfect agreement at large N. We also compute this Index for supergravity on AdS4 x S7 and AdS7 x S4 and for the recently constructed Chern Simons matter theories. We count 1/16 BPS states in the free gauge theory and find qualitative agreement with the entropy of big black holes in AdS5. We note that the near horizon geometry of some small supersymmetric black holes is an extremal BTZ black holes fibered on a compact base and propose a possible explanation for this, based on giant gravitons. We also find the partition function of the chiral ring of the N = 4 SYM theory at finite coupling and finite N. Turning to AdS3, we study the low energy 1/4 and 1/2 BPS partition functions by finding all classical supersymmetric probe brane solutions of string theory on this background. If the background BNS field and theta angle vanish, AdS3 x S 3 x T4/K3 supports supersymmetric probes: D1 branes, D5 branes and bound states of D5 and D1 branes. In global AdS, upon quantization, these solutions give rise to states in discrete representations of the SL(2,R) WZW model on AdS 3. We conclude that (a) the 1/4 BPS partition function jumps if we turn on a theta angle or NS-NS field (b) generic 1/2 BPS states are protected. We successfully compare our 1/2 BPS partition function with that of the symmetric product. We also discuss puzzles, and their possible resolutions, in reproducing the elliptic genus of the symmetric product. Finally, we comment on the spectrum of particles in the theory of gravity dual to non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on S3 x time.

  18. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  19. Condom ads slated for TV.

    PubMed

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. PMID:12269166

  20. Sensitivity of lymphocytes to prostaglandin E2 increases in subjects over age 70.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, J S; Messner, R P

    1979-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity of lymphocytes from different age groups to inhibition by prostaglandin E2. Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 12 healthy subjects over the age of 70 were much more sensitive to inhibition by exogenously added prostaglandin E2 than were cells from 17 young controls (ID50 congruent to 10 nM for the subjects over 70 vs. greater than 3 micronM for the young controls). The more senstivie lymphocytes from a subject over 70 were to prostaglandin E2, the lower was his or her response to phytohemagglutinin (r = 0.75, P less than 0.01). The mean responses to phytohemagglutinin of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the subjects over 70 were significantly depressed compared to the young controls. Addition of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, to the cultures resulted in an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation of 140 +/- 16% in the cells of the subjects over 70 vs. a 36 +/- 3% increase in the young controls (mean +/- SEM, P less than 0.001). The mean phytohemagglutinin response of the subjects over 70 was 40% of the control response without indomethacin. With addition of indomethacin the response of subjects over 70 rose to 72% of control. Thus, increased sinsitivity to prostaglandin E2 appears to be responsible in part for the depressed mitogen response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects over 70. PMID:457862

  1. Just a Spoonful of Sugar Will Land You Six Feet Underground: Should the Food and Drug Administration Revoke Added Sugar's GRAS Status?

    PubMed

    Card, Melissa Marie; Abela, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses whether added sugar meets FDA's standard to be generally recognized as safe ("GRAS"). If added sugar is not GRAS, then manufacturers are subject to premarket approval prior to using added sugar in their products. This article advocates that FDA should issue a Federal Register notice determining that added sugar is not GRAS, allowing FDA to regulate the amount of added sugar used in processed foods, decreasing the health adversities that stem from added sugar consumption. PMID:26630822

  2. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  3. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  4. All-loop Bethe ansatz equations for AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Using the S-matrix for the {d}{{( {2, 1; α } )}^2} symmetric spin-chain of AdS3/CFT2, we propose a new set of all-loop Bethe equations for the system. These equations differ from the ones previously found in the literature by the choice of relative grading between the two copies of the {d}( {2, 1; α } ) superalgebra, and involve four undetermined scalar factors that play the role of dressing phases. Imposing crossing symmetry and comparing with the near-BMN form of the S-matrix found in the literature, we find several novel features. In particular, the scalar factors must differ from the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher phase, and should couple nodes of different masses to each other. In the semiclassical limit the phases are given by a suitable generalization of Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase.

  5. Holographic antiferromagnetic quantum criticality and AdS2 scaling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2015-08-01

    A holographic description on the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by the magnetic field and the criticality in the vicinity of the quantum critical point have been investigated numerically recently. In this paper, we show that the properties of QPT in this holographic model are governed by a CFT dual to the emergent AdS2 in the IR region, which confirms that the dual boundary theory is a strong coupling theory with dynamic exponent z =2 and logarithmic corrections appearing. We also compare them with the results from the Hertz model by solving the RG equation at its upper critical dimension and with some experimental data from pyrochlores Er2 -2 xY2 xTi2 O7 and BiCoPO5 .

  6. Developing Critical Literacy in Adolescence: Adolescents' Responses to Sex Role Stereotyping in Ads and Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard; Freedman, Kerry

    This study examined the nature of adolescents' responses to ads and stories containing different degrees of stereotypical portrayal of females. Subjects were 115 students in grades 8 and 11 enrolled in English classes in two middle-class suburban school districts. The materials used consisted of four ads and two stories portraying females,…

  7. Old Words, New Meanings: A Study of Trends in Science Librarian Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bychowski, Brenna K. H.; Caffrey, Carolyn M.; Costa, Mia C.; Moore, Angela D.; Sudhakaran, Jessamyn; Zhang, Yuening

    2010-01-01

    Job ads are supposed to provide careful descriptions of the positions being advertised. Based on this premise, an analysis of job ads over time should reveal emerging trends and changes in a profession. The existing literature on science librarianship emphasizes that there are fluctuations in the demand for subject expertise and technology skills…

  8. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  9. Inhibitory receptor expression on memory CD8 T cells following Ad vector immunization.

    PubMed

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Alayo, Quazim A; Ra, Joshua; Provine, Nicholas M; Larocca, Rafael; Lee, Benjamin; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-22

    T cells are an important component of immune responses, and their function is influenced by their expression of inhibitory receptors. Immunization with alternative serotype adenovirus (Ad) vectors induces highly functional T cell responses with lower programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression and increased boostability relative to Ad5 vectors. However, a detailed phenotypic characterization of other inhibitory receptors is lacking, and it is unknown whether Ad5-induced CD8 T cells eventually recover function with time. In this report, we measure the expression of various inhibitory receptors and memory markers during early and late time points following vaccination with Ad5 and alternative serotype Ad vectors. CD8 T cells induced by Ad5 exhibited increased expression of the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 and showed decreased central memory differentiation as compared with alternative serotype Ad vectors, even a year following immunization. Moreover, relative to Ad5-primed mice, Ad26-primed mice exhibited substantially improved recall of SIV Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses following heterologous boosting with MVA or Ad35 vectors. We also demonstrate that low doses of Ad5 priming resulted in more boostable immune responses with lower PD-1 expression as compared to high Ad5 doses, suggesting a role for vector dose in influencing immune dysfunction following Ad5 vaccination. These data suggest that Ad5 vectors induce a long-term pattern of immune exhaustion that can be partly overcome by lowering vector dose and modulating inhibitory signals. PMID:27566899

  10. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  11. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  12. Learning and Motivational Characteristics of Boys with AD/HD and/or Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Moon, Sidney M.; Hall, Arlene M.; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    A study compared the academic and learning characteristics of three students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), three gifted students, and three gifted students with AD/HD. Giftedness conferred benefits related to specific talents but did not offer protection from the negative outcomes of AD/HD, such as inattention and…

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  14. The User-Subjective Approach to Personal Information Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ofer; Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Nachmias, Rafi

    2003-01-01

    Explains personal information management (PIM) systems and suggests a user-subjective approach to PIM system design. Advocates that PIM systems relate to the subjective value-added attributes that the user gives the stored data so that the user can find information again, recall it when needed, and use it effectively in the next interaction.…

  15. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  16. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  17. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  18. Segmentation and quantification for Alzheimer's disease (AD): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Zhuge, Ying; Moonis, Gul; Clark, Christopher

    2003-05-01

    Alzheimer's is a progressive brain disease and is clinically characterized by cognitive symptoms that, in combination with behavioral disturbances, significantly interfere with activities of daily living. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of developing volumetric measures of the structural damage and atrophy of brain derived from multiprotocol MR imaging. Our approach first applies intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity standardization to PD and T2 weighted MR images to create base images for quantitative image analysis. Then, vectorial scale-based fuzzy connectedness segmentation (VSFCS) and morphological operations are applied to the base images to extract masks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM), and white matter (WM), and further to create a clean and accurate intracranial (IC) mask. After separating CSF from brain parenchyma (BP), VSFCS is applied to BP (PD and T2) images to generate pure GM and WM masks, and then subtracting these pure from the BP mask to detect AD lesions. This method was applied to a set of conventional PD and T2 weighted MR images that were obtained from 5 patients with probable AD and 5 healthy normal control subjects. The segmented images of individual brain tissue regions (CSF, GM, WM, and AD lesion) are consistent with a Neuroradiologist's examination. The quantitative analysis shows that patients with AD have more atrophy. The mean value of the volume of brain parenchyma of patients with AD is about 10% less than that of healthy controls.

  19. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  20. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  1. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  2. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  3. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  4. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  5. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  6. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  7. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  8. Trends in Pictorial Pedagogics: Adding to the Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Approaches taken in the United States and France to use of visual pedagogy are compared and discussed. The necessity of integrating semiotic theory and visual pedagogy is underscored, a semiotic model of visual literacy and decoding is outlined, and some advertisements are analyzed, giving suggestions for teaching use. (MSE)

  9. Global Coverage from Ad-Hoc Constellations in Rideshare Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Armin; Mercury, Michael; Brown, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A promising area of small satellite development is in providing higher temporal resolution than larger satellites. Traditional constellations have required specific orbits and dedicated launch vehicles. In this paper we discuss an alternative architecture in which the individual elements of the constellation are launched as rideshare opportunities. We compare the coverage of such an ad-hoc constellation with more traditional constellations. Coverage analysis is based on actual historical data from rideshare opportunities. Our analysis includes ground coverage and temporal revisits for Polar, Tropics, Temperate, and Global regions, comparing ad-hoc and Walker constellation.

  10. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa e; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. Subjects/Methods The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18–65 years old, BMI: 18.5–49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. Results For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p < 0.0001. In the ROC analysis, compared with the HOMA1-IR, the HOMA-AD showed higher values of the AUC for the identification of IR based on the clamp test (AUC: 0.844 vs. AUC: 0.804) and on the metabolic syndrome (AUC: 0.703 vs. AUC: 0.689), respectively; p < 0.001 for all. However, the pairwise comparison did not show evidence of superiority for the HOMA-AD in comparison with the HOMA1-IR in the diagnosis of IR and metabolic syndrome (p > 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. Conclusions The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities. PMID:27490249

  11. High energy QCD from Planckian scattering in AdS space and the Froissart bound

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungsik; Nastase, Horatiu

    2005-11-15

    We reanalyze high-energy QCD scattering regimes from scattering in cutoff AdS space via gravity-gauge dualities (a la Polchinski-Strassler). We look at 't Hooft scattering, Regge behavior, and black hole creation in AdS space. Black hole creation in the gravity dual is analyzed via gravitational shockwave collisions. We prove the saturation of the QCD Froissart unitarity bound, corresponding to the creation of black holes of AdS size, as suggested by Giddings.

  12. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  13. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  14. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  15. Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.

  16. Malicious node detection in ad-hoc wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Richard L.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2003-07-01

    Advances in wireless communications and the proliferation of mobile computing devices has led to the rise of a new type of computer network: the ad-hoc wireless network. Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of fixed infrastructure, which give ad-hoc networks a great deal of flexibility, but also increases the risk of security problems. In wired networks, key pieces of network infrastructure are secured to prevent unauthorized physical access and tampering. Network administrators ensure that everything is properly configured and are on-hand to fix problems and deal with intrusions. In contrast, the nodes in an ad-hoc network are responsible for routing and forwarding data in the network, and there are no network administrators to handle potential problems. This makes an ad-hoc network more vulnerable to a misconfigured, faulty, or compromised node. We propose a means for a node in an ad-hoc network to detect and handle these malicious nodes by comparing data available to the routing protocol, such as cached routes in Dynamic Source Routing, ICMP messages, and transport layer information, such as TCP timeouts. This data can then be used along with network probes to isolate the malicious node.

  17. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  18. ADS Labs: Supporting Information Discovery in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an open access digital library portal for researchers in astronomy and physics, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) under a NASA grant, successfully serving the professional science community for two decades. Currently there are about 55,000 frequent users (100+ queries per year), and up to 10 million infrequent users per year. Access by the general public now accounts for about half of all ADS use, demonstrating the vast reach of the content in our databases. The visibility and use of content in the ADS can be measured by the fact that there are over 17,000 links from Wikipedia pages to ADS content, a figure comparable to the number of links that Wikipedia has to OCLC's WorldCat catalog. The ADS, through its holdings and innovative techniques available in ADS Labs, offers an environment for information discovery that is unlike any other service currently available to the astrophysics community. Literature discovery and review are important components of science education, aiding the process of preparing for a class, project, or presentation. The ADS has been recognized as a rich source of information for the science education community in astronomy, thanks to its collaborations within the astronomy community, publishers and projects like ComPADRE. One element that makes the ADS uniquely relevant for the science education community is the availability of powerful tools to explore aspects of the astronomy literature as well as the relationship between topics, people, observations and scientific papers. The other element is the extensive repository of scanned literature, a significant fraction of which consists of historical literature.

  19. The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Akın, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.

  20. Value-Added Tax -- Can Schools Use It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Richard G.

    1973-01-01

    Defines the value-added tax and examines it in light of equity, economic effects, cost of administration, and stability and yield. Compares the tax with the property tax and suggests alternative ways in which States and the Federal Government may participate in the financing of education. (DN)

  1. Modelling Precursor Decay in AD-99.5 Alumnina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj Simha, C. Hari; Bless, Stephan J.; Bedford, Anthony M.

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we present a simple model to explain the absence of precursor decay in the Coor's AD-99.5 Alumina ceramic, as shown by Grady in his plate impact experiments. The model is incorporated in the WONDY finite difference code. The simulations of Grady's experiments compare well with the results.

  2. Modelling precursor decay in AD-99.5 Alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Bless, S. J.; Bedford, A.

    1998-07-10

    In this paper we present a simple model to explain the absence of precursor decay in the Coor's AD-99 5 Alumina ceramic, as shown by Grady in his plate impact experiments. The model is incorporated into the Research EPIC 95 finite element code. The simulations compare well with Grady's results.

  3. Modelling precursor decay in AD-99.5 Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Bless, S. J.; Bedford, A.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper we present a simple model to explain the absence of precursor decay in the Coor's AD-99 5 Alumina ceramic, as shown by Grady in his plate impact experiments. The model is incorporated into the Research EPIC 95 finite element code. The simulations compare well with Grady's results.

  4. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  5. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  6. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: An ADNI study of 515 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D.; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J.; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7 ± 7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3 ± 1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0 ± 7.2 years; 27.0 ± 1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9 ± 5.1 years; 29.1 ± 1.0), as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at α = 0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD. PMID:19615450

  7. Introducing Behavioral Subjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A true elaboration of educational goals will include a set of both more and less well-structured aims, corresponding to behavioral objectives and subjectives, which can be tested respectively by direct methods and by less direct methods such as the native speaker or Turing tests. (Author/LS)

  8. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  9. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  10. Inspiratory and expiratory resistive load detection in normal and asthmatic subjects. A sensory decision theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, A M; Mathiot, M J; Grimaud, C

    1985-01-01

    The ability to detect added external inspiratory and expiratory resistive loads was studied in normal and asthmatic subjects using sensory decision theory as a psychophysical method. Performances P(A)/delta R [where P(A) represents the index of sensitivity and delta R the additional resistor] were similar in normal and asthmatic subjects, but when sensitivity was expressed in relation to airway resistance [P(A)/delta R/Raw], asthmatics showed higher inspiratory and expiratory performances than normal subjects. After bronchodilation the relative sensitivity in the asthmatic group was impaired and approached that of normal subjects. Comparing inspiratory and expiratory load detection, normal subjects showed a higher sensitivity for expiratory than for inspiratory loads. In contrast, there was no difference in the asthmatic group. The response bias remained the same across conditions. If one accepts the assumption that the variability of sensitivity presented by asthmatic and normal subjects might be related to the variable state of their pulmonary function, our results can be interpreted as demonstrating a relationship between sensitivity and pulmonary distension or airway obstruction. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the site of perception for respiratory load detection is the chest wall. PMID:4023435

  11. Metadata-driven Ad Hoc Query of Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aniruddha M.; Brandt, Cynthia; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical study data management systems (CSDMSs) have many similarities to clinical patient record systems (CPRSs) in their focus on recording clinical parameters. Requirements for ad hoc query interfaces for both systems would therefore appear to be highly similar. However, a clinical study is concerned primarily with collective responses of groups of subjects to standardized therapeutic interventions for the same underlying clinical condition. The parameters that are recorded in CSDMSs tend to be more diverse than those required for patient management in non-research settings, because of the greater emphasis on questionnaires for which responses to each question are recorded separately. The differences between CSDMSs and CPRSs are reflected in the metadata that support the respective systems' operation, and need to be reflected in the query interfaces. The authors describe major revisions of their previously described CSDMS ad hoc query interface to meet CSDMS needs more fully, as well as its porting to a Web-based platform. PMID:12087118

  12. Synthesis of a Potent Vinblastine: Rationally Designed Added Benign Complexity.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Oliver; Brutsch, Manuela; Lukesh, John C; Brody, Daniel M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-07-13

    Many natural products, including vinblastine, have not been easily subjected to simplifications in their structures by synthetic means or modifications by late-stage semisynthetic derivatization in ways that enhance their biological potency. Herein, we detail a synthetic vinblastine that incorporates added benign complexity (ABC), which improves activity 10-fold, and is now accessible as a result of advances in the total synthesis of the natural product. The compound incorporates designed added molecular complexity but no new functional groups and maintains all existing structural and conformational features of the natural product. It constitutes a member of an analogue class presently inaccessible by semisynthetic derivatization of the natural product, by its late-stage functionalization, or by biosynthetic means. Rather, it was accessed by synthetic means, using an appropriately modified powerful penultimate single-step vindoline-catharanthine coupling strategy that proceeds with a higher diastereoselectivity than found for the natural product itself. PMID:27356080

  13. Rhazes (865-925 AD), the icon of Persian cardiology.

    PubMed

    Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi; Dalfardi, Behnam

    2014-12-20

    For many long centuries, the function of the human cardiovascular system was an important issue among scholars of different eras and areas. Abubakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925 AD), known by the Latin name Rhazes, was one of the scholars concerned with this issue. This physician is recognized as the first great scientist of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine (9th-12th centuries AD). He authored Kitab al-Mansuri (Liber Al-Mansuri), a ten-volume medical encyclopedia that covers a large number of medical subjects. The first chapter of this book is allocated to human anatomy and functions. In this article, we review the chapter from Al-Mansuri that deals with Rhazes' views on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25465822

  14. On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Piermarco; Seminara, Domenico; Tonni, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.

  15. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  16. AdS/CFT and Light-Front QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2008-02-04

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently nonperturbative aspects of QCD such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection leads to AdS/CFT predictions for the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties. The LFWFs in turn predict decay constants and spin correlations, as well as dynamical quantities such as form factors, structure functions, generalized parton distributions, and exclusive scattering amplitudes. Relativistic light-front equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the fifth-dimensional theory and have remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. As specific examples we describe the behavior of the pion form factor in the space and time-like regions and determine the Dirac nucleon form factors in the space-like region. An extension to nonzero quark mass is used to determine hadronic distribution amplitudes of all mesons, heavy and light. We compare our results with the moments of the distribution amplitudes which have recently been computed from lattice gauge theory.

  17. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  18. Adding Memantine to Rivastigmine Therapy in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a 12-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riepe, Matthias W.; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Objective: At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Method: Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6–12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5–20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Conclusion: Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:17235381

  19. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  20. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  1. On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2016-09-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  2. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  3. FAST{_}AD Code Verification: A Comparison to ADAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.L.; Wright, A.D.; Pierce, K.G.

    2001-02-15

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has refocused its wind turbine design-code comparison effort to verify FAST{_}AD with ADAMS. FAST{_}AD is a wind turbine structural-response code developed by Oregon State University for the NWTC. ADAMS is a commercial, general-purpose, multibody-dynamics code developed by Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. ADAMS, which is used in many industries, has been rigorously tested. Both ADAMS and FAST{_}AD use the AeroDyn subroutine package for calculating aerodynamic forces. The University of Utah developed AeroDyn for the NWTC. To compare FAST{_}AD to ADAMS, we modeled a rough approximation of the AWT-27 P4 turbine, using the same properties for both simulators. The AWT-27 is a 275-kilowatt (kW), two-bladed wind turbine. We also created three-bladed versions of the turbine models to verify FAST{_}AD for three-bladed turbines. In this paper, we list the aerodynamic features used in the comparison. We also explain how the programs model the turbine structure, describe the degrees of freedom (DOFs) used for this study, and present simulation comparisons that show very good agreement.

  4. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  5. The BEHAVE-AD Assessment System: A Perspective, A Commentary on New Findings, and A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Barry; Monteiro, Isabel; Torossian, Carol; Auer, Stefanie; Shulman, Melanie B.; Ghimire, Santosh; Boksay, Istvan; BenArous, Francoise Guillo; Osorio, Ricardo; Vengassery, Aninditha; Imran, Sheema; Shaker, Hussam; Noor, Sadaf; Naqvi, Shazia; Kenowsky, Sunnie; Xu, Jinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and associated disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a source of distress and burden for spouses, professional caregivers, and others with responsibilities for the care of individuals with AD. BPSD with behavioral disturbances are also associated with more rapid institutionalization and increased morbidity and mortality for persons with AD. Objectives In this review and commentary, we discuss the history of the development of BPSD and behavioral disturbance assessments, which are distinct from those evaluating cognitive and functional symptoms of AD. In particular, we review the informant-based Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the related, potentially more sensitive, BEHAVE-AD Frequency-Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW), and the direct subject evaluation-based Empirical BEHAVE-AD Rating Scale (E-BEHAVE-AD). The kinds of medications that alleviate behavioral symptoms on these measures as well as the problems and possibilities for further advances with these medications are discussed. Finally, the importance of distinguishing BPSD and behavioral disturbance remediation in AD from the treatment of cognitive decline and other aspects of AD is emphasized in the context of appropriate assessment methodology. The objective of this paper is to provide a framework for further advances in the treatment of BPSD and associated behavioral disturbances in AD and, consequently, a framework for continuing improvements in the lives of individuals with AD and those who share the burden of the disease with the AD person. PMID:24714384

  6. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  7. Removing inter-subject technical variability in magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Muschelli, John; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensities are acquired in arbitrary units, making scans non-comparable across sites and between subjects. Intensity normalization is a first step for the improvement of comparability of the images across subjects. However, we show that unwanted inter-scan variability associated with imaging site, scanner effect, and other technical artifacts is still present after standard intensity normalization in large multi-site neuroimaging studies. We propose RAVEL (Removal of Artificial Voxel Effect by Linear regression), a tool to remove residual technical variability after intensity normalization. As proposed by SVA and RUV [Leek and Storey, 2007, 2008, Gagnon-Bartsch and Speed, 2012], two batch effect correction tools largely used in genomics, we decompose the voxel intensities of images registered to a template into a biological component and an unwanted variation component. The unwanted variation component is estimated from a control region obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where intensities are known to be unassociated with disease status and other clinical covariates. We perform a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the control voxels to estimate factors of unwanted variation. We then estimate the unwanted factors using linear regression for every voxel of the brain and take the residuals as the RAVEL-corrected intensities. We assess the performance of RAVEL using T1-weighted (T1-w) images from more than 900 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as healthy controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We compare RAVEL to two intensity-normalization-only methods: histogram matching and White Stripe. We show that RAVEL performs best at improving the replicability of the brain regions that are empirically found to be most associated with AD, and that these regions are significantly more present in structures impacted by AD (hippocampus, amygdala

  8. A robust cross-layer metric for routing protocol in mobile wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-12-01

    In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.

  9. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  10. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-02-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7-18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  11. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  12. Studies on the ADS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muck, Wolfgang

    1999-11-01

    This thesis summarizes original research on the topic of the ``AdS/CFT correspondence.'' This correspondence, which was first conjectured by Maldacena [ Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 231 (1998)] and subsequently formulated by Gubser, Klebanov and Polyakov [Phys. Lett. B 428, 105 (1998) and by Witten [Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 253 (1998)], relates field theories on (d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces and conformal field theories (CFTs) in d dimensions with each other. Its main prediction is that the correlation functions of certain quantum CFTs are determined by the dynamics of classical field theories on AdS spaces. Starting from a correspondence formula provided by the authors above, several CFT correlation functions are calculated and agreement with the forms dictated by conformal invariance is found. The necessary renormalization is carried out in the ``ɛ- prescription.'' Details of renormalization and the breaking of conformal symmetries in special cases are investigated by means of the example of the scalar field. The ``asymptotic prescription'' is used to prove a suggestion by Klebanov and Witten [hep- th/9905104] about the treatment of irregular boundary conditions valid to all orders of perturbation theory. The treatment of AdS gravity, which enables the calculation of correlation functions of CFT energy momentum tensors, is carried out in the time slicing formalism. The calculated two-point functions and Weyl anomalies agree with results known from pure CFT considerations. The Wess Zumino model on AdS4 is discussed as an example containing supersymmetry. It is shown that the model yields the correlation functions of conformal fields belonging to a d = 3, N = 1 superconformal multiplet.

  13. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  14. Inadequate awareness among chronic kidney disease patients regarding food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shutto, Yoshiko; Shimada, Michiko; Kitajima, Maiko; Yamabe, Hideaki; Saitoh, Yoko; Saitoh, Hisao; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years) who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid) in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed "fast food" once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females). Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine) excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001). Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients.

  15. A high speed CMOS A/D converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Don R.; Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The converter is a 7 bit flash converter with one half LSB accuracy. Typical parts will function at approximately 200 MHz. The converter uses a novel comparator circuit that is shown to out perform more traditional comparators, and thus increases the speed of the converter. The comparator is a clocked, precharged circuit that offers very fast operation with a minimal offset voltage (2 mv). The converter was designed using a standard 1 micron digital CMOS process and is 2,244 microns by 3,972 microns.

  16. Homologous Boosting with Adenoviral Serotype 5 HIV Vaccine (rAd5) Vector Can Boost Antibody Responses despite Preexisting Vector-Specific Immunity in a Randomized Phase I Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Uzma N.; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E.; Plummer, Sarah A.; Koup, Richard A.; Nason, Martha C.; Bailer, Robert T.; McDermott, Adrian B.; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Graham, Barney S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Needle-free delivery improves the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines but is also associated with more local reactogenicity. Here we report the first comparison of Biojector and needle administration of a candidate rAd5 HIV vaccine. Methods Thirty-one adults, 18–55 years, 20 naive and 11 prior rAd5 vaccine recipients were randomized to receive single rAd5 vaccine via needle or Biojector IM injection at 1010 PU in a Phase I open label clinical trial. Solicited reactogenicity was collected for 5 days; clinical safety and immunogenicity follow-up was continued for 24 weeks. Results Overall, injections by either method were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Frequency of any local reactogenicity was 16/16 (100%) for Biojector compared to 11/15 (73%) for needle injections. There was no difference in HIV Env-specific antibody response between Biojector and needle delivery. Env-specific antibody responses were more than 10-fold higher in subjects receiving a booster dose of rAd5 vaccine than after a single dose delivered by either method regardless of interval between prime and boost. Conclusions Biojector delivery did not improve antibody responses to the rAd5 vaccine compared to needle administration. Homologous boosting with rAd5 gene-based vectors can boost insert-specific antibody responses despite pre-existing vector-specific immunity. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00709605 NCT00709605 PMID:25264782

  17. Standardized measurement of self-awareness deficits in FTD and AD

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Craig; Alcantar, Oscar; Rothlind, Johannes; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diminished ability to perceive one’s own impairments, whether cognitive or social, is common in dementia, in particular frontotemporal dementia (FTD), where “lack of insight” is listed as a core diagnostic feature. Yet, there is no currently accepted method for measuring insight in dementia. The most commonly used methods, which involve comparing patients’ opinions of their level of impairment with the opinions of caregivers or close family members, are subjective and require the participation of a knowledgeable informant. Here, we introduce a new method that allows objective quantification of an individual’s awareness of their cognitive abilities and relies upon objective bedside testing. Methods We administered several tests of everyday, real-world functions to patients with FTD (n=10), Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=10) and to control subjects (n=10). Prior to the tasks, participants were asked to predict their performance using a percentile-based rating system. They were also asked to estimate their performance after task completion. Differences between their self-rated and actual performances were calculated. Results Whereas the control group showed very little discrepancy between pre-test predictions, post-task estimates and actual performance (mean difference of 3.9 percentile points for prediction /3.0 percentile points for post-task estimate), both patient groups over-predicted and overestimated their performance, with a significantly greater discrepancy for FTD (49.0/54.3 percentile points) than AD (27.2/28.3 percentile points). Discussion Failures of insight and self-awareness of cognitive dysfunction can be objectively measured in dementia without the assistance of an informant, which will facilitate further study of this key component of higher cognitive functioning. PMID:19204020

  18. Incorporation of Inter-Subject Information to Improve the Accuracy of Subject-Specific P300 Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minpeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Long; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Although the inter-subject information has been demonstrated to be effective for a rapid calibration of the P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it has never been comprehensively tested to find if the incorporation of heterogeneous data could enhance the accuracy. This study aims to improve the subject-specific P300 classifier by adding other subject's data. A classifier calibration strategy, weighted ensemble learning generic information (WELGI), was developed, in which elementary classifiers were constructed by using both the intra- and inter-subject information and then integrated into a strong classifier with a weight assessment. 55 subjects were recruited to spell 20 characters offline using the conventional P300-based BCI, i.e. the P300-speller. Four different metrics, the P300 accuracy and precision, the round accuracy, and the character accuracy, were performed for a comprehensive investigation. The results revealed that the classifier constructed on the training dataset in combination with adding other subject's data was significantly superior to that without the inter-subject information. Therefore, the WELGI is an effective classifier calibration strategy which uses the inter-subject information to improve the accuracy of subject-specific P300 classifiers, and could also be applied to other BCI paradigms.

  19. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  20. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...

  1. Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160278.html Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk Study links lower body weight to increased ... older adults' risk of the memory-robbing disorder Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. The study included 280 ...

  2. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  3. Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...

  4. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  5. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  6. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  7. The Mutation SK(ad-3A) Cancels the Dominance of ad-3A+ over ad-3A in the Ascus of Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Delange, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A newly induced mutant of Neurospora, when crossed with an ad-3A mutant, produces asci with four viable black and four inviable white ascospores. The survivors always contain the new mutant allele, never ad-3A. The new allele, which is called SK(ad-3A) (for spore killer of ad-3A), is located at or very near the ad-3A locus.—In crosses homozygous for ad-3A, each ascus contains only inviable white ascospores. This defect in ascospore maturation is complemented by the wild-type allele, ad-3A+ (crosses heterozygous for ad-3A and ad-3A+ produce mainly viable ascospores), but it is not complemented by the new SK(ad-3A) allele (all ad-3A ascospores from crosses heterozygous for SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A are white and inviable). In crosses homozygous for SK(ad-3A) or heterozygous for SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A+, each ascus contains only viable black ascospores. SK(ad-3A) does not require adenine for growth, and forced heterokaryons between SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A grow at wild-type rates and produce conidia of both genotypes with approximately equal frequency. Thus, the action of SK(ad-3A) is apparently restricted to ascospore formation. Possible mechanisms of the action of this new allele are discussed. PMID:6456169

  8. Subjective Evaluations of Motion Area and Velocity Characteristics of Dual Manipulator in Young and Elderly People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Mitsumasa; Yoda, Asako; Shiota, Yasuhito

    In this study, we conducted a subjective evaluation experiment of a dual manipulator, which exhibits different motion characteristics. There are three motion characteristics: two of which are age-related, and the third is a robot motion characteristic and is newly added to these two motions. The motions are evaluated from motion areas and motion velocities. Subjects are elderly and young people, and the impressions of the motions are compared in two of the different age groups by the Semantic Differential (SD) method. The obtained results indicate that there are age differences in the evaluation of three manipulator motion areas. The elderly people show a higher reliability and a higher familiarity in a robot motion area than in the other two motions. The elderly people seem to be more affected by the manipulator motion than the young people. Therefore, a careful consideration is required when planning the motion of a manipulator for elderly people.

  9. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    PubMed

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  10. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  11. Comment on the scaling function in AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Mikhaylov, Victor

    2009-04-01

    The folded spinning string in AdS3 gives us an important insight into AdS/CFT duality. Recently its one-loop energy was analyzed in the context of AdS4/CFT3 by McLoughlin and Roiban arXiv:0807.3965, by Alday, Arutyunov and Bykov arXiv:0807.4400 and by Krishnan arXiv:0807.4561. They computed the spectrum of the fluctuations around the classical solution. In this paper we reproduce their results using the algebraic curve technique and show that under some natural resummation of the fluctuation energies the one-loop energy agrees perfectly with the predictions of arXiv:0807.0777. This provides a further support of the all-loop Bethe equations and of the AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 algebraic curve developed in arXiv:0807.0437.

  12. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally. PMID:25615306

  13. Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U (1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus.

  14. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.

  15. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CA...

  16. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    PubMed

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  17. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  18. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    PubMed

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-07-20

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  19. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  20. Comparing two treatments by decision theory.

    PubMed

    Longford, Nicholas T

    2016-09-01

    Decision theory is applied to the general problem of comparing two treatments in an experiment with subjects assigned to the treatments at random. The inferential agenda covers collection of evidence about superiority, non-inferiority and average bioequivalence of the treatments. The proposed approach requires defining the terms 'small' and 'large' to qualify the magnitude of the treatment effect and specifying the losses (or loss functions) that quantify the consequences of the incorrect conclusions. We argue that any analysis that ignores these two inputs is deficient, and so is any ad hoc way of taking them into account. Sample size calculation for studies intended to be analysed by this approach is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27247139

  1. Comparative metacognition.

    PubMed

    Terrace, Herbert S; Son, Lisa K

    2009-02-01

    Metacognition is knowledge about knowledge, often expressed as confidence judgments about what we know. Most of the literature on metacognition in humans is based on subjects' verbal reports. Investigators of animal cognition have recently described nonverbal methods for investigating metacognition in animals. In one, subjects are given the option to escape from difficult trials. In another, subjects are trained to place bets about the accuracy of their most recent response. To rule out noncognitive interpretations of purported evidence of metacognition in animals, one must ensure that escape responses do not increase the overall density of reinforcement and that they do not occur in the presence of the stimuli on which the subject was trained. The nonverbal techniques used to investigate metacognition in animals make possible two interesting lines of research: investigating the contribution of language and explicit instruction in establishing metacognition, and the investigation of the neural substrates of metacognition. PMID:19553102

  2. Higher spin contributions to holographic fluid dynamics in AdS5/CFT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Polyakov, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We calculate the graviton's β function in the AdS string-theoretic sigma model, perturbed by vertex operators for Vasiliev's higher spin gauge fields in AdS5. The result is given by βmn=Rmn+4Tmn(g ,u) (with the AdS radius set to 1 and the graviton polarized along the AdS5 boundary), with the matter stress-energy tensor given by that of conformal holographic fluid in d =4, evaluated at the temperature given by T =1/π. The stress-energy tensor is given by Tmn=gmn+4umun+∑NTmn(N) where u is the vector excitation satisfying u2=-1 and N is the order of the gradient expansion in the dissipative part of the tensor. We calculate the contributions up to N =2. The higher spin excitations contribute to the β function, ensuring the overall Weyl covariance of the matter stress tensor. We conjecture that the structure of gradient expansion in d =4 conformal hydrodynamics at higher orders is controlled by the higher spin operator algebra in AdS5.

  3. AdS and Lifshitz scalar hairy black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Lu-Yao

    2016-09-01

    We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is nonminimally coupled to a scalar field. By choosing a scalar potential of the type V (ϕ )=2 Λ0+1/2 m2ϕ2+γ4ϕ4 , we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti- de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of the planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exist unique AdS vacua. In fact, a Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for an either minimally or nonminimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions, the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.

  4. CSR: Constrained Selfish Routing in Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassem, Christine; Bestavros, Azer

    Routing protocols for ad-hoc networks assume that the nodes forming the network are either under a single authority, or else that they would be altruistically forwarding data for other nodes with no expectation of a return. These assumptions are unrealistic since in ad-hoc networks, nodes are likely to be autonomous and rational (selfish), and thus unwilling to help unless they have an incentive to do so. Providing such incentives is an important aspect that should be considered when designing ad-hoc routing protocols. In this paper, we propose a dynamic, decentralized routing protocol for ad-hoc networks that provides incentives in the form of payments to intermediate nodes used to forward data for others. In our Constrained Selfish Routing (CSR) protocol, game-theoretic approaches are used to calculate payments (incentives) that ensure both the truthfulness of participating nodes and the fairness of the CSR protocol. We show through simulations that CSR is an energy efficient protocol and that it provides lower communication overhead in the best and average cases compared to existing approaches.

  5. Improving the Reliability and Interpretability of Value-Added Scores for Post-Secondary Institutional Assessment Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steedle, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of college learning are often administered to obtain value-added scores indicating whether score gains are below, near, or above typical performance for students of given entering academic ability. This study compares the qualities of value-added scores generated by the original Collegiate Learning Assessment value-added approach and a new…

  6. Value-Added Workers Earn Less, Have Less Education Than Other Rural Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…

  7. The Value-Added of Primary Schools: What Is It Really Measuring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the official value-added scores in 2005 for all primary schools in three adjacent Local Educational Authorities (LEAs) in England with the raw-score Key Stage 2 (KS2) results for the same schools. The correlation coefficient for the raw- and value-added scores of these 457 schools is around +0.75. Scatterplots show that there…

  8. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  9. Global N-Acetylaspartate in Normal Subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Glodzik, L.; Sollberger, M.; Gass, A.; Gokhale, A.; Rusinek, H.; Babb, J. S.; Hirsch, J. G.; Amann, M.; Monsch, A. U.; Gonen, O.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that since mild cognitive impairment (MCI), believed to be an intermediary state on the way to, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are both neurodegenerative, quantification of the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in their whole brain (WBNAA) could differentiate them from cognitively intact matched controls. METHODS Proton MR spectroscopy to quantify the WBNAA was applied to 197 subjects (86 females) 72.6±8.4 years old (mean±standard deviation). Of these, 102 were cognitively intact, 42 diagnosed as MCI and 53 as probable AD. Their WBNAA amounts were converted into absolute concentration by dividing with the brain volume segmented from the MRI that also yielded the fractional brain volume (fBPV), an atrophy metric. RESULTS WBNAA concentration of MCI and AD patients (10.5±3.0 and 10.1±2.9mM) were not significantly different (p=0.85), they were, however, highly significantly 25–29% lower than the 14.1±2.4mM of normal matched controls (p‹10−4). The fBPV of MCI and AD patients (72.9±4.9 and 69.9±4.7%) differed significantly from each other (4%, p=0.02) and both were significantly lower than the 74.6±4.4% of normal elderly (2%, p=0.003 for MCI; 6%, p‹10−4 for AD). ROC curve analysis has shown WBNAA to have 70.5% sensitivity and 84.3% specificity to differentiate MCI or AD patients from normal elderly versus just 68.4 and 65.7% for fBPV. CONCLUSION Low WBNAA in MCI patients compared with cognitively normal contemporaries may indicate early neuronal damage accumulation and supports the notion of MCI as an early stage of AD. It also suggests WBNAA as a potential marker of early AD pathology. PMID:25125458

  10. Spinning strings at one-loop in AdS4 × Bbb P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Tristan; Roiban, Radu

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the folded spinning string in AdS4 × Bbb P3 with spin S in AdS4 and angular momentum J in Bbb P3. We calculate the one-loop correction to its energy in the scaling limit of both ln S and J large with their ratio kept fixed. This result should correspond to the first subleading strong coupling correction to the anomalous dimension of operators of the type Tr(DS(Y†Y)J) in the dual Script N = 6 Chern-Simons-matter theory. Our result appears to depart from the predictions for the generalized scaling function found from the all-loop Bethe equations conjectured for this AdS4/CFT3 duality. We comment on the possible origin of this difference.

  11. A stochasticity threshold in holography and the instability of AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Saurabh, Ayush

    2015-07-01

    We give strong numerical evidence that a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS, with only a few modes turned on initially, will undergo fast thermalization only if it is above a certain energetic threshold. Below the threshold the energy stays close to constant in a few modes for a very long time instead of cascading quickly. This indicates the existence of a Strong Stochasticity Threshold (SST) in holography. The idea of SST is familiar from certain statistical mechanical systems, and we suggest that it exists also in AdS gravity. This would naturally reconcile the generic nonlinear instability of AdS observed by Bizon and Rostworowski, with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou-like quasiperiodicity noticed recently for some classes of initial conditions. We show that our simple setup captures many of the relevant features of the full gravity-scalar system.

  12. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  13. Asymptotically AdS Solutions of Five Dimensional Gravity-Dilaton Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, Ardian

    2016-08-01

    We search for Asymptotically AdS solutions of the background metric in which dilaton back reacts to gravity in five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory. The five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory generally appears in the context of the low energy effective action of closed string theory in the Einstein frame. In particular, we consider dilaton which are minimally coupled to gravity in which the potential for dilation is taken to be simple and contain only one exponential term parametrized by a constant a. We solve analytically and show for a simple constant dilaton potential it appears there are no black hole solutions if we turn on the dilaton contribution. On the other hand, the exponential dilaton potential has black hole solutions but they are not in general Asymptotically AdS. We argue that there are some possible Asymptotically AdS black hole solutions in the range of |a| \\lt \\frac{4}{\\sqrt{6}}

  14. Superstring theory on AdS 2× S2 as a coset supermanifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovits, N.; Bershadsky, M.; Hauer, T.; Zhukov, S.; Zwiebach, B.

    We quantize the superstring on the AdS 2× S2 background with Ramond-Ramond flux using a PSU(1,1|2)/ U(1)× U(1) sigma model with a WZ term. One-loop conformal invariance of the model is guaranteed by a general mechanism which holds for coset spaces G/ H where G is Ricci-flat and H is the invariant locus of a Z4 automorphism of G. This mechanism gives conformal theories for the PSU(1,1|2)× PSU(2|2)/ SU(2)× SU(2) and PSU(2,2|4)/ SO(4,1)× SO(5) coset spaces, suggesting our results might be useful for quantizing the superstring on AdS 3× S3 and AdS 5× S5 backgrounds.

  15. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  16. Interpolating from Bianchi attractors to Lifshitz and AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Kundu, Nilay; Saha, Arpan; Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2014-03-01

    We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or AdS 2 × S 3 geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or AdS 2 × S 3 geometries can in turn be connected to AdS 5 spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to AdS 5 spacetime. The asymptotic AdS 5 spacetime has no non-normalizable metric deformation turned on, which suggests that furthermore, the Bianchi attractor geometries can be the IR geometries dual to field theories living in flat space, with the breaking of symmetries being either spontaneous or due to sources for other fields. Finally, we show that for a large class of flows which connect two Bianchi attractors, a C-function can be defined which is monotonically decreasing from the UV to the IR as long as the null energy condition is satisfied. However, except for special examples of Bianchi attractors (including AdS space), this function does not attain a finite and non-vanishing constant value at the end points.

  17. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  18. Early alterations in blood and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression and the effect of exercise frequency in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Morgan; Jones, Terry E; Lu, Qun; Bareiss, Sonja K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to protect against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression, however the dose of exercise required to protect against AD is unknown. Recent studies show that the pathological processes leading to AD cause characteristic alterations in blood and brain inflammatory proteins that are associated with the progression of AD, suggesting that these markers could be used to diagnosis and monitor disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of exercise frequency on AD blood chemokine profiles, and correlate these findings with chemokine brain expression changes in the triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mouse model. Three month old 3xTg-AD mice were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate intensity wheel running at a frequency of either 1×/week or 3×/week. Blood and cortical tissue were analyzed for expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Alterations in blood RANTES and MCP-1 expression were evident at 3 and 6 month old animals compared to WT animals. Three times per week exercise but not 1×/week exercise was effective at reversing serum and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression to the levels of WT controls, revealing a dose dependent response to exercise. Analysis of these chemokines showed a strong negative correlation between blood and brain expression of RANTES. The results indicate that alterations in serum and brain inflammatory chemokines are evident as early signs of Alzheimer's disease pathology and that higher frequency exercise was necessary to restore blood and brain inflammatory expression levels in this AD mouse model.

  19. A multicenter evaluation of the A&D TM-2420 ambulatory blood pressure recorder.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Pickering, T G; Morganroth, J; James, G D; McCabe, E J; Moucha, O; Hunter, H

    1991-11-01

    The A&D TM-2420 (A&D Engineering, Milpitas, CA) is an automatic, portable, noninvasive blood pressure (BP) recorder which uses a dual microphone system for the detection of Korotkoff sounds. Its accuracy and clinical performance were assessed in a multicenter study that also addressed issues such as observer agreement and the effects of age, arm circumference, heart rate, posture, and blood pressure level on the observer-device differences. We compared 906 simultaneous, same-arm BP measurements in 151 subjects using the TM-2420 versus two skilled clinicians per site using a teaching stethoscope. The agreement between the TM-2420 and mercury column determinations were within 10 mm Hg for 86 to 91% of systolic readings and 91 to 94% of diastolic readings, depending on the posture; a level of agreement which would receive a 'B+' grade from the recent British Hypertension Society guidelines. The limits of agreement (2 standard deviations about the mean difference) for systolic BP between observers and the TM-2420 tended to be greater for the standing position (-20 to 15 mm Hg) compared to supine (-14 to 12 mm Hg) and seated (-13 to 8 mm Hg) positions. Limits of agreement between the observers and device were not dependent upon age, heart rate, arm size, or blood pressure level. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure monitoring in two of the four centers demonstrated an error code rate of 3.4%, excluding 'retries' that are one of the device's features. These data demonstrate an acceptable level of accuracy and performance of the sixth generation of the TM-2420 for use in clinical practice and research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Flowing along the edge: Spinning up black holes in AdS spacetimes with test particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the consequences of throwing point particles into odd-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds. We restrict our attention to the case in which the angular momenta of the background geometry are all equal. This process allows us to test the generalization of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture to asymptotically AdS spacetimes in higher dimensions. We find no evidence for overspinning in D =5,7,9 and 11 dimensions. Instead, test particles carrying the maximum possible angular momentum that still fall into an extremal rotating black hole generate a flow along the curve of extremal solutions.

  1. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: The hidden symmetry of higher dimensional Kerr NUT AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiznák, David; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2007-02-01

    It is well known that four-dimensional Kerr NUT AdS spacetime possesses the hidden symmetry associated with the Killing Yano tensor. This tensor is 'universal' in the sense that there exist coordinates where it does not depend on any of the free parameters of the metric. Recently, the general higher dimensional Kerr NUT AdS solutions of the Einstein equations were obtained. We demonstrate that all these metrics with arbitrary rotation and NUT parameters admit a universal Killing Yano tensor. We give an explicit presentation of the Killing Yano tensor and associated second rank Killing tensor and briefly discuss their properties.

  2. {{AdS}}_{3}/{{CFT}}_{2} and q-Poincaré superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömwall, Joakim; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    We discover that a certain deformation of the 1+1 dimensional Poincaré superalgebra is exactly realised in the massless sector of the {{AdS}}3/{{CFT}}2 integrable scattering problem. Deformed Poincaré superalgebras were previously noticed to appear in the {{AdS}}5/{{CFT}}4 correspondence—which displays only massive excitations, but they were there only a partial symmetry. We obtain a representation of the boost operator and its coproduct, and show that the comultiplication exactly satisfies the homomorphism property. We present a classical limit, and finally speculate on an analogy with the physics of phonons.

  3. Targeting modulates audiences' brain and behavioral responses to safe sex video ads.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Shi, Zhenhao; Bissey, Bryn; Metzger, David S; Langleben, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    Video ads promoting condom use are a key component of media campaigns to stem the HIV epidemic. Recent neuroimaging studies in the context of smoking cessation, point to personal relevance as one of the key variables that determine the effectiveness of public health messages. While minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are at the highest risk of HIV infection, most safe-sex ads feature predominantly Caucasian actors in heterosexual scenarios. We compared brain respons of 45 African American MSM to safe sex ads that were matched (i.e. 'Targeted') to participants' sexual orientation and race, and 'Untargeted' ads that were un matched for these characteristics. Ad recall, perceived 'convincingness' and attitudes towards condom use were also assessed. We found that Targeted ads were better remembered than the Untargeted ads but perceived as equally convincing. Targeted ads engaged brain regions involved in self-referential processing and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC) and the precuneus. Connectivity between MPFC and precuneus and middle temporal gyrus was stronger when viewing Targeted ads. Our results suggest that targeting may increase cognitive processing of safe sex ads and justify further prospective studies linking brain response to media public health interventions and clinical outcomes. PMID:27217112

  4. Targeting modulates audiences' brain and behavioral responses to safe sex video ads.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Shi, Zhenhao; Bissey, Bryn; Metzger, David S; Langleben, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    Video ads promoting condom use are a key component of media campaigns to stem the HIV epidemic. Recent neuroimaging studies in the context of smoking cessation, point to personal relevance as one of the key variables that determine the effectiveness of public health messages. While minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are at the highest risk of HIV infection, most safe-sex ads feature predominantly Caucasian actors in heterosexual scenarios. We compared brain respons of 45 African American MSM to safe sex ads that were matched (i.e. 'Targeted') to participants' sexual orientation and race, and 'Untargeted' ads that were un matched for these characteristics. Ad recall, perceived 'convincingness' and attitudes towards condom use were also assessed. We found that Targeted ads were better remembered than the Untargeted ads but perceived as equally convincing. Targeted ads engaged brain regions involved in self-referential processing and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, temporal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC) and the precuneus. Connectivity between MPFC and precuneus and middle temporal gyrus was stronger when viewing Targeted ads. Our results suggest that targeting may increase cognitive processing of safe sex ads and justify further prospective studies linking brain response to media public health interventions and clinical outcomes.

  5. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; ReyBacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-11-01

    The ADS Abstract Service contains over 2.3 million references in four databases: Astronomy/Astrophysics/Planetary Sciences, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and Preprints. We provide abstracts and articles free to the astronomical community for all major and many smaller astronomy journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings, and technical reports. These four databases can be queried either separately of jointly. The ADS also has scanned 1.3 million pages in 180,000 articles in the ADS Article Service. This literature archive contains all major Astronomy journals and many smaller journals, as well as conference proceedings, including the abstract books from all the LPSCs back to volume 2. A new feature gives our users the ability to see list of articles that were also read by the readers of a given article. This is a powerful tool to find out what current articles are relevant in a particular field of study. We have recently expanded the citation and reference query capabilities. It allows our users to select papers for which they want to see references or citations and then retrieve these citations/references. Another new capability is the ability to sort a list of articles by their citation count. As usual, users should be reminded that the citations in ADS are incomplete because we do not obtain reference lists from all publishers. In addition, we cannot match all references (e.g. in press, private communications, author errors, some conference papers, etc.). Anyone using the citations for analysis of publishing records should keep this in mind. More work on expanding the citation and reference features is planned over the next year. ADS Home Page http://ads.harvard.edu/

  6. Comorbid Externalising Behaviour in AD/HD: Evidence for a Distinct Pathological Entity in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Sharnel; Crewther, David; Croft, Rodney; Keage, Hannah; Hermens, Daniel; Clark, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    While the profiling of subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) have been the subject of considerable scrutiny, both psychometrically and psychophysiologically, little attention has been paid to the effect of diagnoses comorbid with AD/HD on such profiles. This is despite the greater than 80% prevalence of comorbidity under the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic definitions. Here we investigate the event related potential (ERP) and psychometric profiles of Controls, AD/HD, and comorbid AD/HD (particularly AD/HD+ODD/CD) groups on six neurocognitive tasks thought to probe the constructs of selective and sustained attention, response inhibition and executive function. Data from 29 parameters extracted from a child group (age range 6 to 12; 52 Controls and 64 AD/HD) and from an adolescent group (age range 13 to 17; 79 Controls and 88 AD/HD) were reduced via a Principal Components Analysis, the 6 significant eigenvectors then used as determinants of cluster membership via a Two-Step Cluster Analysis. Two clusters were found in the analysis of the adolescent age group - a cluster dominated by Control and AD/HD participants without comorbidity, while the second cluster was dominated by AD/HD participants with externalising comorbidity (largely oppositional defiant/conduct disorder ODD/CD). A similar segregation within the child age group was not found. Further analysis of these objectively determined clusters in terms of their clinical diagnoses indicates a significant effect of ODD/CD comorbidity on a concurrent AD/HD diagnosis. We conclude that comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD constitutes a distinct pathological entity in adolescence. PMID:22984398

  7. Comparison of the Life Cycles of Genetically Distant Species C and Species D Human Adenoviruses Ad6 and Ad26 in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Mallory A.; Middha, Sumit; Hofherr, Sean E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our understanding of adenovirus (Ad) biology is largely extrapolated from human species C Ad5. Most humans are immune to Ad5, so lower-seroprevalence viruses like human Ad6 and Ad26 are being tested as therapeutic vectors. Ad6 and Ad26 differ at the DNA level by 34%. To better understand how this might impact their biology, we examined the life cycle of the two viruses in human lung cells in vitro. Both viruses infected A549 cells with similar efficiencies, executed DNA replication with identical kinetics within 12 h, and began killing cells within 72 h. While Ad6-infected cells remained adherent until death, Ad26-infected cells detached within 12 h of infection but remained viable. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mRNA from infected cells demonstrated that viral transcripts constituted 1% of cellular mRNAs within 6 h and 8 to 16% within 12 h. Quantitative PCR and NGS revealed the activation of key early genes at 6 h and transition to late gene activation by 12 h by both viruses. There were marked differences in the balance of E1A and E1B activation by the two viruses and in the expression of E3 immune evasion mRNAs. Ad6 was markedly more effective at suppressing major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) display on the cell surface and in evading TRAIL-mediated apoptosis than was Ad26. These data demonstrate shared as well as divergent life cycles in these genetically distant human adenoviruses. An understanding of these differences expands the knowledge of alternative Ad species and may inform the selection of related Ads for therapeutic development. IMPORTANCE A burgeoning number of adenoviruses (Ads) are being harnessed as therapeutics, yet the biology of these viruses is generally extrapolated from Ad2 and Ad5. Here, we are the first to compare the transcriptional programs of two genetically distant Ads by mRNA next-generation sequencing (NGS). Species C Ad6 and Ad26 are being pursued as lower-seroprevalence Ad vectors but differ at the DNA

  8. Auditory localization by subjects with unilateral tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Petteri; Mendonça, Catarina; Santala, Olli; Pulkki, Ville; Aarnisalo, Antti A

    2016-05-01

    Tinnitus is associated with changes in neural activity. How such alterations impact the localization ability of subjects with tinnitus remains largely unexplored. In this study, subjects with self-reported unilateral tinnitus were compared to subjects with matching hearing loss at high frequencies and to normal-hearing subjects in horizontal and vertical plane localization tasks. Subjects were asked to localize a pink noise source either alone or over background noise. Results showed some degree of difference between subjects with tinnitus and subjects with normal hearing in horizontal plane localization, which was exacerbated by background noise. However, this difference could be explained by different hearing sensitivities between groups. In vertical plane localization there was no difference between groups in the binaural listening condition, but in monaural listening the tinnitus group localized significantly worse with the tinnitus ear. This effect remained when accounting for differences in hearing sensitivity. It is concluded that tinnitus may degrade auditory localization ability, but this effect is for the most part due to the associated levels of hearing loss. More detailed studies are needed to fully disentangle the effects of hearing loss and tinnitus. PMID:27250123

  9. MAC protocol for ad hoc networks using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L; Reyna, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  10. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  11. Decreased Effective Connectivity from Cortices to the Right Parahippocampal Gyrus in Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangyu; Ward, B. Douglas; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to detect effective connectivity (EC) changes in the default mode network and hippocampus network in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 cognitively normal (CN) subjects, using multivariate Granger causality. The authors used the maximum coefficients in the multivariate autoregression model to quantitatively measure the different EC strength levels between the CN and AD groups. It was demonstrated that the EC strength difference can classify AD from CN subjects. Further, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHP_R) showed imbalanced bidirectional EC connections. The PHP_R received weaker input connections from the neocortices, but its output connections were significantly increased in AD. These findings may provide neural physiological mechanisms for interpreting AD subjects' memory deficits during the encoding processes. PMID:25132215

  12. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  13. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  14. Difficulties Regarding Subject Difficulties: Developing Reasonable Explanations for Observable Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol Taylor; Vincent, Luke

    1997-01-01

    Responds to an article that questioned the authors' previous attempts to define "subject difficulty" and compare subjects based on their level of difficulty. Argues that "subject difficulty" is a reasonable term and is important to the interpretation of examination data. Questions arguments that only qualitative judgments of difficulty are…

  15. Variation in Subject Pronominal Expression in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates subject pronominal expression in second language Chinese and compares learner usage with patterns found in their first language. The results show that (a) overt pronouns are used more for singular, +animate subjects than plural, -animate ones; (b) switch in subject surface form favors overt pronouns; (c) English and Russian…

  16. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Truffa, Márcio A. M.; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. Objective To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure Methods The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. Results A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm2, while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times. PMID:26351982

  17. Comparative interactomics: comparing apples and pears?

    PubMed

    Kiemer, Lars; Cesareni, Gianni

    2007-10-01

    The study of the complex web of interactions that link biological molecules in a cell is the subject of interactomics--currently one of the fastest moving fields in molecular biology. The recent completion of high-throughput studies to investigate systematically all the possible interactions in a variety of model organisms has provided unique opportunities to compare interaction networks and ask questions about their conservation during evolution. It is expected that this approach will yield a scientific return as rich as that obtained in the past decade from comparing genomes and proteomes from different organisms.

  18. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  19. HOW GAS-DYNAMIC FLARE MODELS POWERED BY PETSCHEK RECONNECTION DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH AD HOC ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, D. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2015-11-10

    Aspects of solar flare dynamics, such as chromospheric evaporation and flare light curves, have long been studied using one-dimensional models of plasma dynamics inside a static flare loop, subjected to some energy input. While extremely successful at explaining the observed characteristics of flares, all such models so far have specified energy input ad hoc, rather than deriving it self-consistently. There is broad consensus that flares are powered by magnetic energy released through reconnection. Recent work has generalized Petschek’s basic reconnection scenario, topological change followed by field line retraction and shock heating, to permit its inclusion in a one-dimensional flare loop model. Here we compare the gas dynamics driven by retraction and shocking to those from more conventional static loop models energized by ad hoc source terms. We find significant differences during the first minute, when retraction leads to larger kinetic energies and produces higher densities at the loop top, while ad hoc heating tends to rarify the loop top. The loop-top density concentration is related to the slow magnetosonic shock, characteristic of Petschek’s model, but persists beyond the retraction phase occurring in the outflow jet. This offers an explanation for observed loop-top sources of X-ray and EUV emission, with advantages over that provided by ad hoc heating scenarios. The cooling phases of the two models are, however, notably similar to one another, suggesting that observations at that stage will yield little information on the nature of energy input.

  20. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  1. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (<= 40 nm) lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  2. Offset compensation for A/D converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, S. S.; Hurd, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter eliminates dc offset in final digitized signal as well as in analog input by using digital feedback for compensation. Circuit could prove useful in data processing applications in which analog-format data are entered at high rates, as in point-of-sale data input systems.

  3. Value-Added Modeling in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The educational reform movement in the United States has resulted in a variety of states moving toward a system of value-added modeling (VAM) to measure a teacher's contribution to student achievement. Recently, many states have begun using VAM scores as part of a larger system to evaluate teacher performance. In the past decade, only "core…

  4. Fitting Value-Added Models in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Harold C.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Value-added models of student achievement have received widespread attention in light of the current test-based accountability movement. These models use longitudinal growth modeling techniques to identify effective schools or teachers based upon the results of changes in student achievement test scores. Given their increasing popularity, this…

  5. Adding a Statistical Wrench to the "Toolbox"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; Lindsay, Nathan K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a formal statistical test that can be used to help researchers make decisions about alternative statistical model specifications. This test is commonly used by researchers who would like to test whether adding new variables to a model improves the model fit. However, we demonstrate that this formal test can also be employed…

  6. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

  7. Double relaxation via AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.

    2016-08-01

    We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.

  8. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  9. The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.

    1977-01-01

    It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)

  10. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…

  11. "Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…

  12. Drag force in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2006-12-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  13. Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)

  14. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  15. Value-Added Analysis in Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Michael R.; Brown, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added data provide a viable alternative for gauging school effectiveness--one virtually free of the confounding effects of student demographics and other factors relating to student learning. How is it different from other measuring methods? It concentrates on growth, rather than attainment. This strengthens the concept and measurement of…

  16. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  17. The Value Simulation-Based Learning Added to Machining Technology in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Linda; Tan, Hock Soon; Thwin, Mya Mya; Tan, Kim Cheng; Koh, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the value simulation-based learning (SBL) added to the learning of Machining Technology in a 15-week core subject course offered to university students. The research questions were: (1) How did SBL enhance classroom learning? (2) How did SBL help participants in their test? (3) How did SBL prepare participants for…

  18. Methods for Accounting for Co-Teaching in Value-Added Models. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Heinrich; Isenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Isolating the effect of a given teacher on student achievement (value-added modeling) is complicated when the student is taught the same subject by more than one teacher. We consider three methods, which we call the Partial Credit Method, Teacher Team Method, and Full Roster Method, for estimating teacher effects in the presence of co-teaching.…

  19. Learning and Forgetting New Names and Objects in MCI and AD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronholm-Nyman, Petra; Rinne, Juha O.; Laine, Matti

    2010-01-01

    We studied how subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls learned and maintained the names of unfamiliar objects that were trained with or without semantic support (object definitions). Naming performance, phonological cueing, incidental learning of the definitions and recognition of the…

  20. Teacher Value-Added at the High-School Level: Different Models, Different Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan D.; Goldschmidt, Pete; Tseng, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings based on analyses of a unique dataset collected by ACT that includes information on student achievement in a variety of subjects at the high-school level. The authors examine the relationship between teacher effect estimates derived from value-added model (VAM) specifications employing different student learning…

  1. Comparison of Autonomic Reactions during Urodynamic Examination in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries and Able-Bodied Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Sung-Lang; Lin, Yu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose This study compares heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during urodynamic study (UDS) with able-bodied controls. Methods Twenty four complete suprasacral SCI patients (12 tetraplegia and 12 paraplegia) and 12 age-matched able-bodied volunteers received BP and HRV evaluation throughout urodynamic examination. We chose seven time points during the examinations: resting, Foley catheter insertion, start of infusion, and infused volume reaching 1/4, 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 of maximal capacity. At each time point, electrocardiogram with a duration of 5 min was used for power spectral density analysis of HRV. Results Only control subjects displayed significant elevation of SBP during Foley catheter insertion compared to resting values. Both control and tetraplegic groups experienced significant elevation of SBP at maximal bladder capacity compared to resting values. Tetraplegic values were also significantly greater than the other two groups. Control subjects displayed significant elevation of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratios during Foley catheter insertion and when approaching maximum bladder capacity. These findings were not seen in the paraplegic and tetraplegic groups. However, subgroup analysis of tetraplegic subjects with SBP elevation >50 mmHg demonstrated a similar LF/HF response to the able-bodied controls. Conclusion Tetraplegic patients experienced BP elevation but did not experience significant changes in HRV during bladder distension. This finding may imply that different neurological pathways contribute to AD reaction and HRV changes during bladder distension. However, profound AD during UDS in tetraplegic patients was associated with corresponding changes in HRV. Whether HRV monitoring would be beneficial in SCI patients presenting with significant AD, it needs further studies to elucidate. PMID:27575616

  2. Holographic Hydrodynamics with Baryon Chemical Potential for Charged AdS Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    We work out the decoupling problem and hydrodynamic analysis for the sound mode in charged AdS black hole and calculate the sound velocity, the charge susceptibility and the electrical conductivity. We find that Einstein relation among the conductivity, the diffusion constant and the susceptibility holds exactly.

  3. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Gregg, Edward W; Flanders, W Dana; Merritt, Robert; Hu, Frank B

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher intake of added sugar is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Few prospective studies have examined the association of added sugar intake with CVD mortality. OBJECTIVE To examine time trends of added sugar consumption as percentage of daily calories in the United States and investigate the association of this consumption with CVD mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1988-1994 [III], 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 [n = 31,147]) for the time trend analysis and NHANES III Linked Mortality cohort (1988-2006 [n = 11 733]), a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of US adults for the association study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS Among US adults, the adjusted mean percentage of daily calories from added sugar increased from 15.7% (95% CI, 15.0%-16.4%) in 1988-1994 to 16.8% (16.0%-17.7%; P = .02) in 1999-2004 and decreased to 14.9% (14.2%-15.5%; P < .001) in 2005-2010. Most adults consumed 10% or more of calories from added sugar (71.4%) and approximately 10% consumed 25% or more in 2005-2010. During a median follow-up period of 14.6 years, we documented 831 CVD deaths during 163,039 person-years. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality across quintiles of the percentage of daily calories consumed from added sugar were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.13), 1.23 (1.12-1.34), 1.49 (1.24-1.78), and 2.43 (1.63-3.62; P < .001), respectively. After additional adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, HRs were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (1.02-1.12), 1.18 (1.06-1.31), 1.38 (1.11-1.70), and 2.03 (1.26-3.27; P = .004), respectively. Adjusted HRs were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.09-1.55) and 2.75 (1.40-5.42; P = .004), respectively, comparing participants who consumed 10.0% to 24.9% or 25.0% or

  4. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  5. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  6. Hairy black holes in AdS5 × S 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markeviciute, Julija; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We use numerical methods to exhaustively study a novel family of hairy black hole solutions in AdS5. These solutions can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity with AdS5 × S 5 asymptotics and are thus expected to play an important role in our understanding of AdS/CFT. We find an intricate phase diagram, with the aforementioned family of hairy black hole solutions branching from the Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of the superradiance instability. We analyse black holes with spherical and planar horizon topology and explain how they connect in the phase diagram. Finally, we detail their global and local thermodynamic stability across several ensembles.

  7. Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe added to atorvastatin versus atorvastatin uptitration or switching to rosuvastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Averna, Maurizio; Majul, Claudio; Muller-Wieland, Dirk; De Pellegrin, Annamaria; Giezek, Hilde; Lee, Raymond; Lowe, Robert S; Brudi, Philippe; Triscari, Joseph; Farnier, Michel

    2013-12-15

    Hypercholesterolemic patients (n = 1,547) at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ≥100 and ≤160 mg/dl while treated with atorvastatin 10 mg/day entered a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, clinical trial using two 6-week study periods. Period I compared the efficacy/safety of (1) adding ezetimibe 10 mg (ezetimibe) to stable atorvastatin 10 mg, (2) doubling atorvastatin to 20 mg, or (3) switching to rosuvastatin 10 mg. Subjects in the latter 2 groups who persisted with elevated LDL-C levels (≥100 and ≤160 mg/dl) after period I, entered period II; subjects on atorvastatin 20 mg had ezetimibe added to their atorvastatin 20 mg, or uptitrated their atorvastatin to 40 mg; subjects on rosuvastatin 10 mg switched to atorvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe or uptitrated their rosuvastatin to 20 mg. Some subjects on atorvastatin 10 mg plus ezetimibe continued the same treatment into period II. At the end of period I, ezetimibe plus atorvastatin 10 mg reduced LDL-C significantly more than atorvastatin 20 mg or rosuvastatin 10 mg (22.2% vs 9.5% or 13.0%, respectively, p <0.001). At the end of period II, ezetimibe plus atorvastatin 20 mg reduced LDL-C significantly more than atorvastatin 40 mg (17.4% vs 6.9%, p <0.001); switching from rosuvastatin 10 mg to ezetimibe plus atorvastatin 20 mg reduced LDL-C significantly more than uptitrating to rosuvastatin 20 mg (17.1% vs 7.5%, p <0.001). Relative to comparative treatments, ezetimibe added to atorvastatin 10 mg (period I) or atorvastatin 20 mg (period II) produced significantly greater percent attainment of LDL-C targets <100 or <70 mg/dl, and significantly greater percent reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, most lipid and lipoprotein ratios, and apolipoprotein B (except ezetimibe plus atorvastatin 20 vs atorvastatin 40 mg). Reports of adverse experiences were generally

  8. A Measure of Subjective Burden for Dementia Care: The Caregiving Difficulty Scale Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallion, P.; McCarron, M.; Force, L. T.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested in the literature on family caregiving for persons with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) that levels of objective and subjective burden among carers often predict institutionalization of the persons with AD. There is a paucity of measures to assess whether perceived burden among formal caregivers may also predict movement to more…

  9. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  10. Ubiquitous and Secure Certificate Service for Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Meng; Lam, Kwok-Yan; Li, Jianbin; Chung, Siu-Leung

    Wireless ad hoc network is one of the most suitable platforms for providing communication services to support mobile applications in public areas where no fixed communication infrastructure exists. However, due to the open nature of wireless links and lack of security infrastructure in an ad hoc network environment, applications operating on ad hoc network platforms are subjected to non-trivial security challenges. Asymmetric key management, which is widely adopted to be an effective basis for security services in an open network environment, typically plays a crucial role in meeting the security requirements of such applications. In this paper, we propose a secure asymmetric key management scheme, the Ubiquitous and Secure Certificate Service (USCS), which is based on a variant of the Distributed Certificate Authority (DCA) - the Fully Distributed Certificate Authority (FDCA). Similar to FDCA, USCS introduces the presence of 1-hop neighbors which hold shares of DCA's private signature key, and can collaborate to issue certificates, thereby providing asymmetric key management service. Both USCS and FDCA aim to achieve higher availability than the basic DCA scheme; however, USCS is more secure than FDCA in that the former achieves high availability by distributing existing shares to new members, rather than generating new shares as the FDCA scheme does. In order to realise the high availability potential of USCS, a share selection algorithm is also proposed. Experimental results demonstrated that USCS is a more secure approach of the DCA scheme in that it can achieve stronger security than FDCA while attaining high availability similar to that of FDCA. Experiments also showed that USCS incurs only moderate communication overheads.

  11. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  12. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mellingsæter, Marte Rognstad; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD) as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°). Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF) variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF) variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:25873932

  13. [Subjective cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a two year follow up of 51 subjects during two years].

    PubMed

    Sambuchi, Nathalie; Muraccioli, Isabelle; Alescio-Lautier, Béatrice; Paban, Véronique; Sambuc, Roland; Jouve, Élisabeth; Geda, Yonas Endale; Petersen, Ronald Karl; Michel, Bernard François

    2015-12-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) is defined by a state of subjective complaint, without objective cognitive deterioration. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI), which characterizes a syndrome between normal cognitive aging and early Alzheimer's disease (E-AD), is preceded by A-MCI from many years. SCI expresses a metacognitive impairment. A cohort of 51 subjects [7 normal controls (NC), 28 SCI, 12 A-MCI and 5 E-AD] was followed up during 24 months, with a neuropsychological evaluation each 6 months during 1 year (V1, V2, V3), then 1 year later (V4). Among the 28 SCI, 6 converted to A-MCI at V4 (21.42%), 1 to A-MCI-A at V3, then to E-AD at V4. These results suggest a continuum from SCI to A-MCI, and E-AD. Progressive SCI differed from non-progressive SCI on verbal episodic memory and executive functions tests at the initial examination. MRI showed anterior cingular atrophy in all SCI patients but hippocampal atrophy was only observed in 20 patients. Our results suggest that metacognition impairment is the expression of a dysfunction in the anterior pre-frontal cortex, in correlation with a syndrome of hyper-attention.

  14. Plasma levels of nitric oxide related amino acids in demented subjects with Down syndrome are related to neopterin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Coppus, A M W; Fekkes, D; Verhoeven, W M A; Tuinier, S; van Duijn, C M

    2010-03-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have abnormalities in virtually all aspects of the immune system and almost all will be affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of AD. In the present study, including a total of 401 elderly DS subjects, the spectrum of plasma amino acids and neopterin was investigated and related to development of AD. Concentrations of nearly all amino acids in DS subjects differed significantly from those of healthy controls. Neopterin was increased in DS subjects, especially in dementia. The production of NO as reflected by an increased citrulline/arginine ratio (Cit/Arg ratio) was enhanced during development of clinical dementia. Neopterin concentrations correlated to the Cit/Arg ratio only in the group of prevalent demented subjects (rho = 0.48, P = 0.006). The results of this study are suggestive for an increase in oxidative processes in DS subjects with AD.

  15. Comparison of heat stability of goat milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, B Y; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M J

    2012-03-01

    Goat milk with and without stabilizing salt was subjected to in-container and UHT sterilization. Heat stability was assessed by measuring the amount of sediment in the milk. Without stabilizing salts, goat milk usually produced less sediment when subjected to in-container sterilization compared with UHT processing. Addition of stabilizing salts up to 12.8mM resulted in a progressive increase in sediment for in-container sterilization. In contrast, adding stabilizing salts at 6.4mM initially reduced sediment formation in UHT-treated milk but addition of stabilizing salts at 12.8mM increased sediment formation. Adding stabilizing salts to goat milk increased pH, decreased ionic calcium, and increased ethanol stability. Adding up to 2mM calcium chloride increased sediment formation more after UHT treatment than after in-container sterilization. These results suggest that no single mechanism or set of reactions causes milk to produce sediment during heating and that the favored pathway is different for UHT and in-container sterilization processes. Poor heat stability could be induced both by increasing ionic calcium and by decreasing it. Ethanol stability is not a good indicator of heat stability for in-container sterilization, but it may be for UHT sterilization, if milk does not enter the region of poor heat stability found at low concentrations of ionic calcium.

  16. Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice.

    PubMed

    Overk, C R; Perez, S E; Ma, C; Taves, M D; Soma, K K; Mufson, E J

    2013-02-01

    Decreases in testosterone and 17β-oestradiol (E(2)) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in β-amyloid and tau pathological lesions. Although recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, almost none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in testosterone and E(2) concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and nontransgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain testosterone levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (IR) cell number in the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal testosterone levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau up-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E(2) levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-IR cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Furthermore, E(2) levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E(2). Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

  17. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  18. An Algorithm Combining for Objective Prediction with Subjective Forecast Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, JunTae; Kim, SooHyun

    2016-04-01

    As direct or post-processed output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models has begun to show acceptable performance compared with the predictions of human forecasters, many national weather centers have become interested in automatic forecasting systems based on NWP products alone, without intervention from human forecasters. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) is now developing an automatic forecasting system for dry variables. The forecasts are automatically generated from NWP predictions using a post processing model (MOS). However, MOS cannot always produce acceptable predictions, and sometimes its predictions are rejected by human forecasters. In such cases, a human forecaster should manually modify the prediction consistently at points surrounding their corrections, using some kind of smart tool to incorporate the forecaster's opinion. This study introduces an algorithm to revise MOS predictions by adding a forecaster's subjective forecast information at neighbouring points. A statistical relation between two forecast points - a neighbouring point and a dependent point - was derived for the difference between a MOS prediction and that of a human forecaster. If the MOS prediction at a neighbouring point is updated by a human forecaster, the value at a dependent point is modified using a statistical relationship based on linear regression, with parameters obtained from a one-year dataset of MOS predictions and official forecast data issued by KMA. The best sets of neighbouring points and dependent point are statistically selected. According to verification, the RMSE of temperature predictions produced by the new algorithm was slightly lower than that of the original MOS predictions, and close to the RMSE of subjective forecasts. For wind speed and relative humidity, the new algorithm outperformed human forecasters.

  19. LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, Robert W; Sheffreld, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  20. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.