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Sample records for ad subjects compared

  1. Differential hippocampal shapes in posterior cortical atrophy patients: A comparison with control and typical AD subjects

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Kate E.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Young, Jonathan; Pepple, Tracey; Lehmann, Manja; Zuluaga, Maria A.; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Schott, Jonathan M.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Crutch, Sebastian; Fox, Nick C.; Barnes, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by predominant visual deficits and parieto‐occipital atrophy, and is typically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In AD, assessment of hippocampal atrophy is widely used in diagnosis, research, and clinical trials; its utility in PCA remains unclear. Given the posterior emphasis of PCA, we hypothesized that hippocampal shape measures may give additional group differentiation information compared with whole‐hippocampal volume assessments. We investigated hippocampal volume and shape in subjects with PCA (n = 47), typical AD (n = 29), and controls (n = 48). Hippocampi were outlined on MRI scans and their 3D meshes were generated. We compared hippocampal volume and shape between disease groups. Mean adjusted hippocampal volumes were ∼8% smaller in PCA subjects (P < 0.001) and ∼22% smaller in tAD subject (P < 0.001) compared with controls. Significant inward deformations in the superior hippocampal tail were observed in PCA compared with controls even after adjustment for hippocampal volume. Inward deformations in large areas of the hippocampus were seen in tAD subjects compared with controls and PCA subjects, but only localized shape differences remained after adjusting for hippocampal volume. The shape differences observed, even allowing for volume differences, suggest that PCA and tAD are each associated with different patterns of hippocampal tissue loss that may contribute to the differential range and extent of episodic memory dysfunction in the two groups. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5123–5136, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26461053

  2. A Value-Added Study of Teacher Spillover Effects across Four Core Subjects in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the existence, magnitude, and impact of teacher spillover effects (TSEs) across teachers of four subject areas (i.e., mathematics, English language arts [ELA], science, and social studies) on student achievement in each of the four subjects at the middle school level. The author conducted a series of value-added (VA) analyses,…

  3. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, S; Miller, J J; Edwards, R A

    1989-09-01

    This study compared the effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the usual diet of individuals with well-controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A double-blind, cross-over design was used with each 6-wk study period. During the sucrose period, 45 g sucrose (9% of total daily energy) was added, 10 g with each main meal and 5 g with each between-meal beverage. An equivalent sweetening quantity of aspartame (162 mg) was ingested during the aspartame period. The addition of sucrose did not have a deleterious effect on glycemic control, lipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin action. No differences were observed between sucrose and aspartame. Sucrose added as an integral part of the diabetic diet does not adversely affect metabolic control in well-controlled NIDDM subjects. Aspartame is an acceptable sugar substitute for diabetic individuals but no specific advantage over sucrose was demonstrated. PMID:2672774

  4. Donepezil delays progression to AD in MCI subjects with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lu, P H.; Edland, S D.; Teng, E; Tingus, K; Petersen, R C.; Cummings, J L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of depression predicts higher rate of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and whether donepezil treatment beneficially affect this relationship. Methods: The study sample was composed of 756 participants with aMCI from the 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study drug trial of donepezil and vitamin E. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptoms at baseline and participants were followed either to the end of study or to the primary endpoint of progression to probable or possible AD. Results: Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age at baseline, gender, apolipoprotein genotype, and NYU paragraph delayed recall score, showed that higher BDI scores were associated with progression to AD (p = 0.03). The sample was stratified into depressed (BDI score ≥10; n = 208) and nondepressed (BDI <10; n = 548) groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that among the depressed subjects, the proportion progressing to AD was lower for the donepezil group than the combined vitamin E and placebo groups at 1.7 years (p = 0.023), at 2.2 years (p = 0.025), and remained marginally lower at 2.7 years (p = 0.070). The survival curves among the three treatment groups did not differ within the nondepressed participants. Conclusions: Results suggest that depression is predictive of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD) and treatment with donepezil delayed progression to AD among depressed subjects with aMCI. Donepezil appears to modulate the increased risk of AD conferred by the presence of depressive symptoms. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; ADCS = Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study; aMCI = amnestic mild cognitive impairment; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; ChEI = cholinesterase inhibitors; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

  5. Adjustment on subjective annoyance of low frequency noise by adding additional sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Guo-qing; Li, Zheng-guang; Zhang, Bang-jun; Shi, Yao

    2011-11-01

    Structure-borne noise originating from a heat pump unit was selected to study the influence on subjective annoyance of low frequency noise (LFN) combined with additional sound. Paired comparison test was used for evaluating the subjective annoyance of LFN combined with different sound pressure levels (SPL) of pink noise, frequency-modulated pure tones (FM pure tones) and natural sounds. The results showed that, with pink noise of 250-1000 Hz combined with the original LFN, the subjective annoyance value (SAV) first dropped then rose with increasing SPL. When SPL of the pink noise was 15-25 dB, SAV was lower than that of the original LFN. With pink noise of frequency 250-20,000 Hz added to LFN, SAV increased linearly with increasing SPL. SAV and the psychoacoustic annoyance value (PAV) obtained by semi-theoretical formulas were well correlated. The determination coefficient ( R2) was 0.966 and 0.881, respectively, when the frequency range of the pink noise was 250-1000 and 250-20,000 Hz. When FM pure tones with central frequencies of 500, 2000 and 8000 Hz, or natural sounds (including the sound of singing birds, flowing water, wind or ticking clock) were, respectively, added to the original sound, the SAV increased as the SPL of the added sound increased. However, when a FM pure tone of 15 dB with a central frequency of 2000 Hz and a modulation frequency of 10 Hz was added, the SAV was lower than that of the original LFN. With SPL and central frequency held invariable, the SAV declined primarily when modulation frequency increased. With SPL and modulation frequency held invariable, the SAV became lowest when the central frequency was 2000 Hz. This showed a preferable correlation between SAV and fluctuation extent of FM pure tones.

  6. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  7. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  8. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  9. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  10. The Rhetorical Construction of the AD/HD Subject: Managing the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Edward

    2015-01-01

    As the diagnosis of AD/HD becomes more frequent in our schools, and as many individuals across ages embrace an AD/HD identity, scholars need to account for the lived experience of the disorder to understand the meanings individuals give to it. This paper analyses the relationship between ethical practices of self-formation, power, and knowledge…

  11. Repeatability, Reproducibility, and Comparability of Subjective and Objective Measurements of Intraocular Forward Scattering in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Ayaka; Shimizu, Kimiya; Kobashi, Hidenaga; Saito, Aya; Kamiya, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability, reproducibility, and comparability of measurements of subjective and objective forward scattering in healthy subjects. Methods. We prospectively examined twenty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (7 men and 13 women; ages, 28.4 ± 4.1 years). The logarithmic straylight value (log(s)) and the objective scattering index (OSI) were measured with a straylight meter (C-Quant) and a point-spread function meter (OQAS), respectively. Results. The 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between first and second measurements ranged from −0.211 to 0.207 for the C-Quant and from −0.302 to 0.477 for the OQAS. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the repeatability of the log(s) and OSI measurements were 0.815 and 0.926, respectively. The mean difference between examiners was −0.051 ± 0.133 (95% LoA; −0.311 to 0.209) for the C-Quant and 0.080 ± 0.307 (−0.522 to 0.682) for the OQAS. There was a modest, but significant, correlation between the log(s) and the OSI (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.498, p = 0.026). Conclusions. The C-Quant and the OQAS provide good repeatability and reproducibility, although the OQAS measurement provides a slightly higher ICC than the C-Quant measurement. The subjective forward scattering may be to some extent expressed in the objective forward scattering in healthy subjects. PMID:26176015

  12. Comparative toxicity of five metals on various biological subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Fargasova, A. )

    1994-08-01

    Environmental contaminants, including metals, can have toxic effects on many different organisms and affect biological processes at cellular, population, community and ecosystem levels of organization. Metals are of particular interest because they may have a positive effect as micronutrients at low concentrations as well as a toxic effect at higher levels. Numerous efforts have been made to correlate and predict metal-ion toxicities on various aquatic and terrestrial species, according to the physical and chemical properties of the metals. The acute and chronic toxicities of metals have been studied on many freshwater organisms and also on plants. The water flea, Daphnia magna, an important freshwater zooplankter, is a useful test species to study sensitivity to environmental toxicants and has been recognized as a general representative for other freshwater animals. As Khangarot described, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment and are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. Most recent hazard evaluation programs recommend algal toxicity tests for initial evaluations of chemicals that are expected to reach surface waters and that have suspected or unknown phytotoxic properties. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew in sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues form phosphate fertilizers. No reports were available indicating the effects of these metals on seed germination and root growth. This study was conducted to determine the acute toxicological effects of some metals (As, Pb, Cr, Hg, Cd) on four biological subjects (tubificid worms, Daphnia magna sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda, seeds of Sinapis alba) and to compare their sensitivity to individual test metals. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Tensor-Based Morphometry as a Neuroimaging Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease: An MRI Study of 676 AD, MCI, and Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6 ± 7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8 ± 7.5), and 181 controls (75.9 ± 5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements - the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers - 1/6 of the normal group - showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies. PMID:18691658

  14. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and memory present distinct associations along the continuum from healthy subjects to AD patients.

    PubMed

    Rami, Lorena; Fortea, Juan; Bosch, Beatriz; Solé-Padullés, Cristina; Lladó, Albert; Iranzo, Alex; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Molinuevo, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)(1-42), t-tau, and p-tau and cognitive performance along the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum from healthy subjects to AD patients and, specifically, among patients in the pre-dementia stage of the disease. A total of 101 subjects were studied: 19 healthy controls (CTR), 17 subjects with subjective memory complaints (SMC), 47 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 18 AD patients. Only memory performance significantly correlated with CSF levels of Aβ(1-42), t-tau, and p-tau along the AD continuum. Subgroup analyses revealed that in SMC patients Aβ(1-42) levels positively correlated with the total recall score of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCRST) (r = 0.666; p < 0.005), Digit Span (r = 0.752; p < 0.005), and CERAD world list learning (r = 0.697; p < 0.005). In MCI patients, a significant inverse correlation was found between the word list recall score from the CERAD and t-tau (r = -0.483; p < 0.005) and p-tau levels (r = -0.495; p < 0.005), as well as between the total recall subtest score from the FCRST and both t-tau (r = -0.420; p < 0.005) and p-tau levels (r = -0.422; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between other aspects of cognition and CSF levels in CTR or AD patients. These results indicate that memory performance is related to Aβ(1-42) levels in SMC, while it is associated with tau in the prodromal stage of the disease. This suggests that in the continuum from healthy aging to AD, memory performance is first related with Aβ(1-42) levels and then with t-tau or p-tau, before becoming independent of biomarker levels in the dementia stage. PMID:21098971

  16. Alternative Serotype Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Elicit Memory T Cells with Enhanced Anamnestic Capacity Compared to Ad5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Provine, Nicholas M.; Ra, Joshua; Borducchi, Erica N.; McNally, Anna; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; Iampietro, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine in the STEP study has led to the development of adenovirus vectors derived from alternative serotypes, such as Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48. We have recently demonstrated that vaccines using alternative-serotype Ad vectors confer partial protection against stringent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges in rhesus monkeys. However, phenotypic differences between the T cell responses elicited by Ad5 and those of alternative-serotype Ad vectors remain unexplored. Here, we report the magnitude, phenotype, functionality, and recall capacity of memory T cell responses elicited in mice by Ad5, Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP). Our data demonstrate that memory T cells elicited by Ad5 vectors were high in magnitude but exhibited functional exhaustion and decreased anamnestic potential following secondary antigen challenge compared to Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors. These data suggest that vaccination with alternative-serotype Ad vectors offers substantial immunological advantages over Ad5 vectors, in addition to circumventing high baseline Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. PMID:23152535

  17. Comparative studies of glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by conventional and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, Prapun

    2013-03-01

    Glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique, slow cooling along with seed rotation and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. The size of the grown crystal in slow cooling method was 35 × 25 × 20 mm3 and in SR method it was 20 mm in diameter and 110 mm in length. The grown crystals were subjected to powder X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, Vickers microhardness, dielectric, laser damage threshold, higher resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and nonlinear optical (NLO) studies. All the grown crystals have good transparency in the entire visible region. In order to determine mechanical strength of crystal, Vickers micro-hardness measurement was carried out. Dielectric study reveals higher dielectric constant and low dielectric loss for SR method grown crystal. High laser damage threshold was observed in SR method grown glycine added KDP crystal compared to SR method grown pure KDP crystal. The second harmonic efficiency of the glycine added KDP is increased compared to pure KDP.

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetics of brotizolam and triazolam in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jochemsen, Roeline; Wesselman, J. G. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.; Hermans, J.; Breimer, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    1 Pharmacokinetics of oral brotizolam (0.50 mg) and triazolam (0.50 mg) were studied in healthy young volunteers. 2 The plasma concentration profile of brotizolam can be described as a one compartmental open model with first-order absorption. The absorption of triazolam was less regular and in half of the subjects was not consistent with first-order kinetics. Inter-individual variability in absorption rate (peak times) was larger for brotizolam. 3 Mean peak times were 1.1 ± 1.0 h for brotizolam and 1.2 ± 0.5 h for triazolam. Mean peak concentrations were 7.3 ± 3.1 ng/ml and 5.0 ± 3.9 ng/ml respectively. 4 The elimination half-life of brotizolam was twice that of triazolam with mean values of 5.0 ± 1.1 h and 2.6 ± 0.7 h respectively. There was no correlation between the half-lives of the two drugs. 5 Protein unbound fraction was similar for triazolam and brotizolam with mean values of 9.9 ± 1.5% and 8.4 ± 0.7% respectively. PMID:6140948

  19. Comparative proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid between living and post mortem ALS and control subjects

    PubMed Central

    RANGANATHAN, SRIKANTH; NICHOLL, GEORGINA C.B.; HENRY, SARAH; LUTKA, FRAN; SATHANOORI, RAMASRI; LACOMIS, DAVID; BOWSER, ROBERT

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), lack definitive diagnostic tests or biomarkers of disease progression. Most studies that investigate protein abnormalities in ALS have used biofluids such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while some have used post mortem tissue or CSF samples. Since ALS disease progression and post mortem effects probably induce significant alterations to protein modifications or proteolysis, we directly examined the CSF proteome from ALS subjects at various lengths of time from symptom onset and at autopsy by mass spectrometry based proteomics. CSF was also obtained from both healthy age-matched control subjects and at autopsy from healthy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) controls. We identified significant differences in the CSF proteome between living and post mortem ALS subjects, as well as living and post mortem control subjects. We also noted differences in the CSF proteome of ALS subjects that have exhibited symptoms for varying lengths of time and between ALS and AD subjects at end-stage of disease. This is the first study describing differences in the CSF proteome from post mortem and living ALS subjects using a mass spectrometric approach. These differences highlight the importance of utilizing CSF from living ALS subjects near the time of symptom onset for the identification of early protein biomarkers, although some protein alterations that occur early in the disease process are maintained throughout the course of disease and in post mortem samples. PMID:17852009

  20. How Stable Are Value-Added Estimates across Years, Subjects and Student Groups? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Candelaria, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models measure teacher performance by the test score gains of their students, adjusted for a variety of factors such as the performance of students when they enter the class. The measures are based on desired student outcomes such as math and reading scores, but they have a number of potential drawbacks. One of them is the…

  1. Comparability of GCSE Examinations in Different Subjects: An Application of the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The comparability of examinations in different subjects has been a controversial topic for many years and a number of criticisms have been made of statistical approaches to estimating the "difficulties" of achieving particular grades in different subjects. This paper argues that if comparability is understood in terms of a linking construct then…

  2. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  3. A comparative study of objective and subjective assessment of occupational risk.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, Danuta; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Augusty Nska, Danuta; Radkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of dangerous, harmful and annoying factors in the working environment are used to assess occupational risk. Surveys on workers' subjective perception of risk are used, too. This study aimed to compare subjective assessment of work-related factors with their objective measurements and a national database on occupational risk. Spearman's correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and structural modelling were used to determine the relationship between subjective and objective risk assessment and to acquire knowledge about the role of psychosocial job characteristics as predictors of subjective assessment. Subjective assessment of hazards was related not only to their objective measurements but also to psychosocial job characteristics, workers' individual characteristics and work load. Even though subjective and objective assessments of hazard are strongly related, they are distinct phenomena. Hence, risk assessment should be carried out with both objective and subjective methods. PMID:20331915

  4. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in South East Nigeria: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Attama, CM; Uwakwe, R; Onyeama, GM; Igwe, MN

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. Sociodemographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) assessed the sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric morbidity, respectively. GHQ positive cases and 10% of noncases for each group were interviewed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory for specific ICD-10 diagnoses. Results: Fifty-five percent (55/100) subjects with leprosy were GHQ positive cases while 41% (41/100) with albinism were GHQ positive cases. The risk of developing psychiatric morbidity was significantly higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.00 – 3.08, P = 0.04). The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among subjects with leprosy were depression 49% (49/100), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 18% (18/100), alcohol/drug abuse 16% (16/100), whereas in albinism depression was 51% (51/100), GAD 27% (27/100), and alcohol/drug abuse 7% (7/100). Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy had significantly higher psychiatric morbidity than the male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity was higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism. Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy significantly had higher morbidity than male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism respectively. PMID:26097762

  6. Comparing AdS/CFT calculations to HERA F{sub 2} data

    SciTech Connect

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Lu Zhun; Rezaeian, Amir H.

    2009-10-01

    We show that HERA data for the inclusive structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) at small Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2} can be reasonably well described by a color-dipole model with an anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT)-inspired dipole-proton cross section. The model contains only three free parameters fitted to data. In our AdS/CFT-based parameterization the saturation scale varies in the range of 1 divide 3 GeV becoming independent of energy/Bjorken-x at very small x. This leads to the prediction of x independence of the F{sub 2} and F{sub L} structure functions at very small x. We provide predictions for F{sub 2} and F{sub L} in the kinematic regions of future experiments. We discuss the limitations of our approach and its applicability region, and argue that our AdS/CFT-based model of nonperturbative physics could be viewed as complementary to the perturbative description of data based on saturation/color glass condensate physics.

  7. AdVEGF-All6A+ Preconditioning of Murine Ischemic Skin Flaps Is Comparable to Surgical Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Phillips, Brett T.; Nasser, Ahmed; McClain, Steve A.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical flap delay is commonly used in preconditioning reconstructive flaps to prevent necrosis. However, staged procedures are not ideal. Pharmacologic up-regulation of angiogenic and arteriogenic factors before flap elevation poses a nonsurgical approach to improve flap survival. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 16), surgical delay (Delay), AdNull, AdEgr-1, and AdVEGF (n ≥ 9/group) groups. Delay rats had a 9 cm × 3 cm cranial based pedicle skin flap incised 10 days prior to elevation. Adenoviral groups received 28 intradermal injections (109 pu/animal total) throughout the distal two thirds of the flap 1 week prior to elevation. At postoperative day (POD) 0 flaps were elevated and silicone sheeting was placed between flap and wound bed. Perfusion analysis in arbitrary perfusion units of the ischemic middle third of the flap using laser Doppler imaging was conducted preoperatively and on POD 0, 3, and 7. Clinical and histopathologic assessments of the skin flaps were performed on POD 7. Results: AdVEGF (50.8 ± 10.9 APU) and AdEgr-1 (39.3 ± 10.6 APU) perfusion levels were significantly higher than controls (16.5 ± 4.2 APU) on POD 7. Delay models were equivalent to controls (25.9 ± 6.8 APU). AdVEGF and Delay animals showed significantly more viable surface area on POD 7 (14.4 ± 1.3 cm2, P < 0.01 and 12.4 ± 1.2 cm2, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with Controls (8.7 ± 0.7 cm2). Conclusions: AdVEGF preconditioning resulted in flap survival comparable to surgical delay. Adenoviral preconditioning maintained perfusion levels postoperatively while surgical delay did not. PMID:26495207

  8. Increased CNV-Region deletions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects in the ADNI sample

    PubMed Central

    Guffanti, Guia; Torri, Federica; Rasmussen, Jerod; Clark, Andrew P.; Lakatos, Anita; Turner, Jessica A.; Fallon, James H.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Weiner, Michael; Vawter, Marquis P.; Knowles, James A.; Potkin, Steven G.; Macciardi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the genome-wide distribution of CNVs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) sample (146 with AD, 313 with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 181 controls). Comparison of single CNVs between cases (MCI and AD) and controls shows overrepresentation of large heterozygous deletions in cases (p-value < 0.0001). The analysis of CNV-Regions identifies 44 copy number variable loci of heterozygous deletions, with more CNV-Regions among affected than controls (p = 0.005). Seven of the 44 CNV-Regions are nominally significant for association with cognitive impairment. We validated and confirmed our main findings with genome re-sequencing of selected patients and controls. The functional pathway analysis of the genes putatively affected by deletions of CNV-Regions reveals enrichment of genes implicated in axonal guidance, cell–cell adhesion, neuronal morphogenesis and differentiation. Our findings support the role of CNVs in AD, and suggest an association between large deletions and the development of cognitive impairment PMID:23583670

  9. Subjective Symptoms in Euthymic Bipolar Disorder and Remitted Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621

  10. Maximum likelihood ratio tests for comparing the discriminatory ability of biomarkers subject to limit of detection.

    PubMed

    Vexler, Albert; Liu, Aiyi; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2008-09-01

    In this article, we consider comparing the areas under correlated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of diagnostic biomarkers whose measurements are subject to a limit of detection (LOD), a source of measurement error from instruments' sensitivity in epidemiological studies. We propose and examine the likelihood ratio tests with operating characteristics that are easily obtained by classical maximum likelihood methodology. PMID:18047527

  11. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  12. Teaching through Research--Research through Teaching: Comparing Scientific and Subjective Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patry, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Teaching through research has a great potential for Master's studies. The paper presents how this has been done in a particular case, comparing scientific and subjective theories, and how this course was simultaneously used to do research about this topic. The course proved to be a win-win-situation for the students and for the teacher/researcher.…

  13. Comparing subjective contours for Kanizsa squares and linear edge alignments ('New York Titanic' figures).

    PubMed

    Gillam, Barbara; Marlow, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    One current view is that subjective contours may involve high-level detection of a salient shape with back propagation to early visual areas where small receptive fields allow for scrutiny of relevant details. This idea applies to Kanizsa-type figures. However, Gillam and Chan (2002 Psychological Science, 13, 279-282) using figures based on Gillam's graphic 'New York Titanic' (Gillam, 1997 Thresholds: Limits of perception. New York: Arts Magazine) showed that strong subjective contours can be seen along the linearly aligned edges of a set of shapes if occlusion cues of 'extrinsic edge' and 'entropy contrast' are strong. Here we compared ratings of the strength of subjective contours along linear alignments with those seen in Kanizsa figures. The strongest subjective contour for a single set of linearly aligned shapes was similar in strength to the edges of a Kanizsa square (controlling for support ratio) despite the lack of a salient region. The addition of a second set of linearly aligned inducers consistent with a common surface increased subjective-contour strength, as did having four rather than two 'pacmen' in the Kanizsa figure, indicating a role for surface support. We argue that linear subjective contours allow for the investigation of certain occlusion cues and the interactions between them that are not easily explored with Kanizsa figures. PMID:25507320

  14. Comparing subjective contours for Kanizsa squares and linear edge alignments ('New York Titanic' figures).

    PubMed

    Gillam, Barbara; Marlow, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    One current view is that subjective contours may involve high-level detection of a salient shape with back propagation to early visual areas where small receptive fields allow for scrutiny of relevant details. This idea applies to Kanizsa-type figures. However, Gillam and Chan (2002 Psychological Science, 13, 279-282) using figures based on Gillam's graphic 'New York Titanic' (Gillam, 1997 Thresholds: Limits of perception. New York: Arts Magazine) showed that strong subjective contours can be seen along the linearly aligned edges of a set of shapes if occlusion cues of 'extrinsic edge' and 'entropy contrast' are strong. Here we compared ratings of the strength of subjective contours along linear alignments with those seen in Kanizsa figures. The strongest subjective contour for a single set of linearly aligned shapes was similar in strength to the edges of a Kanizsa square (controlling for support ratio) despite the lack of a salient region. The addition of a second set of linearly aligned inducers consistent with a common surface increased subjective-contour strength, as did having four rather than two 'pacmen' in the Kanizsa figure, indicating a role for surface support. We argue that linear subjective contours allow for the investigation of certain occlusion cues and the interactions between them that are not easily explored with Kanizsa figures. PMID:25420336

  15. Comparative Analysis of GCF Resistin Levels in Obese Subjects with and without Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Singh, Gurdeep; Pradeep, AR; Sundaravikram; Sekar, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Resistin is an adipocyte derived hormone that has been shown to play a substantial role in the development of insulin resistance. Resistin acts as a pro-inflammatory molecule and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have reported the association of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) resistin levels with periodontal condition. Aim The aim of this study was to assess and compare the GCF resistin levels in obese subjects with periodontal health and disease and to correlate the disease severity with GCF resistin levels. Materials and Methods Ninety subjects of both the sexes with age between 20–45 years were selected for the study and were categorized into four groups: 25 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-I), 25 obese or overweight subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-II), 25 non-obese subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-III) and 15 non obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-IV). The demographic variables like age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) were recorded and the clinical periodontal parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were also assessed in all the groups. GCF was collected and assessed for resistin levels. Results The mean GCF resistin levels in Groups I, II, III & IV were 15.14, 9.06, 12.74 and 5.41 ng/dl respectively and the difference in mean GCF resistin level was statistically significant with the p-value<0.001. The mean GCF resistin levels in Group-I was higher compared to Group II and III and the differences in mean GCF resistin levels were statistically significant. GCF resistin levels were positively correlated with BMI, WC and CAL in Group I and CAL correlated with GCF resistin in Group III and this correlation was statistically significant. Conclusion From our study we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more GCF resistin levels

  16. Parental bonding in subjects with pathological gambling disorder compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Laia; Arévalo, Rubén; Valdepérez, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; de los Cobos, J Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) includes pathological gambling disorder (PGD) in the subgroup of "Addiction and Related Disorders" due to the similarities between PGD and substance-based addictions in neurobiological, psychological, and social risk factors. Family factors as parental rearing attitudes play a crucial role in the development of substance use disorders and PGD. The aim of the present study was to assess the parental bonding during childhood perceived for adults with PGD compared with healthy controls. Twenty males with PGD and 20 control subjects answered the parental bonding instrument, which measures subjects' recollections of parenting on dimensions of care and protection. Subjects with PGD showed significantly lower maternal and paternal care (p = 0.016 and p = 0.031, respectively) than controls, and higher paternal protection (p = 0.003). The most common parental pattern for PGD subjects was the affectionless control (50% for the father and 60% for the mother). Preliminary results suggest that, as previously reported for substance use disorders, an affectionless control parenting style is associated with PGD. PMID:25447192

  17. How Do Value-Added Indicators Compare to Other Measures of Teacher Effectiveness? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent drive to revamp teacher evaluation and accountability, measures of a teacher's value added have played the starring role. But the star of the show is not always the best actor, nor can the star succeed without a strong supporting cast. In assessing teacher performance, observations of classroom practice, portfolios of teachers' work,…

  18. Comparative study of multimodal intra-subject image registration methods on a publicly available database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Ghayoor, Ali; Johnson, Hans J.; Sonka, Milan

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on a comparative study between five manual and automated methods for intra-subject pair-wise registration of images from different modalities. The study includes a variety of inter-modal image registrations (MR-CT, PET-CT, PET-MR) utilizing different methods including two manual point-based techniques using rigid and similarity transformations, one automated point-based approach based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, and two automated intensity-based methods using mutual information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI). These techniques were employed for inter-modal registration of brain images of 9 subjects from a publicly available dataset, and the results were evaluated qualitatively via checkerboard images and quantitatively using root mean square error and MI criteria. In addition, for each inter-modal registration, a paired t-test was performed on the quantitative results in order to find any significant difference between the results of the studied registration techniques.

  19. Creating Customizable Subject Guides at Your Library to Support Online, Distance and Traditional Education: Comparing Three Self-Developed and One Commercial Online Subject Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Julie; Kim, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article compares three self-developed subject guides and one commercial online subject guide (LibGuides) to provide information to other institutions which have a plan or are in the process of developing a plan to implement similar services to support online, distance and traditional education. This is a comparison of the current subject…

  20. Comparing Subjective With Objective Sleep Parameters Via Multisensory Actigraphy in German Physical Education Students.

    PubMed

    Kölling, Sarah; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study compared subjective with objective sleep parameters among 72 physical education students. Furthermore, the study determined whether 24-hr recording differs from nighttime recording only. Participants wore the SenseWear Armband™ for three consecutive nights and kept a sleep log. Agreement rates ranged from moderate to low for sleep onset latency (ICC = 0.39 to 0.70) and wake after sleep onset (ICC = 0.22 to 0.59), while time in bed (ICC = 0.93 to 0.95) and total sleep time (ICC = 0.90 to 0.92) revealed strong agreement during this period. Comparing deviations between 24-hr wearing time (n = 24) and night-only application (n = 20) revealed no statistical difference (p > 0.05). As athletic populations have yet to be investigated for these purposes, this study provides useful indicators and practical implications for future studies. PMID:26372692

  1. Consumer evaluation of palatability characteristics of a beef value-added cut compared to common retail cuts.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Germolus, A J; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to educate consumers about value-added beef cuts and evaluate their palatability responses of a value cut and three traditional cuts. Three hundred and twenty-two individuals participated in the beef value cut education seminar series presented by trained beef industry educators. Seminar participants evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of four samples, bottom round, top sirloin, ribeye, and a value cut (Delmonico or Denver), on a 9-point scale. The ribeye and the value cut were found to be similar in all four attributes and differed from the top sirloin and bottom round. Correlations and regression analysis found that flavor was the largest influencing factor for overall like for the ribeye, value cut, and top sirloin. The value cut is comparable to the ribeye and can be a less expensive replacement. PMID:23988667

  2. Subjective and objective knowledge and decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Riechel, Christina; Alegiani, Anna Christina; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Rosenkranz, Michael; Thomalla, Götz; Heesen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262) and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274). The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data interpretation competence was moderate in both groups. Age and basic mathematical and statistical understanding (numeracy) were the only independent predictors of objective stroke knowledge, whereas previous stroke had no impact on stroke knowledge. However, patients were thought to be better informed than controls. Approximately 60% of both patients and controls claimed to prefer a shared decision-making approach in treatment decisions. Conclusion The level of stroke risk knowledge in patients with cerebrovascular diseases was as low as in randomly selected pedestrians, although patients felt better informed. Both groups preferred involvement in treatment decision-making. We conclude that educational concepts

  3. Comparative responses to nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitic subjects with or without asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) is useful to study the pathophysiology of rhinitis, and multiple challenges may more adequately approximate natural exposure. Objective To determine the effect of 4 consecutive daily NAC, on clinical and inflammatory parameters in rhinitics with or without asthma. Methods Rhinitic subjects were recruited: 19 with mild asthma and 13 without asthma. Subjects underwent a control challenge (normal saline) followed by 4 consecutive daily NAC. Allergen challenge consisted of spraying the chosen allergen extract into each nostril until a positive nasal response occurred. Symptoms were recorded on a Likert scale, and oral peak expiratory and nasal peak inspiratory flows allowed assessment of a nasal blockage index (NBI), for a period of 7 hours. Induced sputum and nasal lavage were performed on control day and after 1 and 4 days of NAC. Results Compared with the control day, there was a significant increase in symptom scores and NBI 10 minutes after each last daily NAC in both groups (p < 0.05). Symptom scores and NBI were similar for the 2 groups, except for nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea, which were more marked in subjects with asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Nasal lavage eosinophils were increased after 4 days of challenges in both groups, but there was no change in sputum eosinophils. No cumulative effect or any late response were observed in any of the groups over the challenge period. Conclusion Multiple NAC may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis or its relationships with asthma. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01286129 PMID:21507261

  4. Assessment of subjective intensity of pain during ultrasonic supragingival calculus removal: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Malagi, Sachin; Pattanshetti, Kirti; Bharmappa, Radhika; Reddy, Annaji Sreedhara; Pai, Jagadish; Joseph, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: The background of the following study is to measure the subjective intensity of pain using the verbal rating scale (VRS) during supragingival scaling in relation to mandibular anteriors, with an ultrasonic scaler, with 2 different inserts (Slimline and Focus spray)- split mouth study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with a combination of 17 males and 13 females with the chronic generalized gingivitis with a minimum calculus score of 1 (CSSI – Ennever J 1961) who reported to Department of Periodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore were chosen for the study. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive scaler unit CAVITRON BOBCAT PRO®– (DENTSPLY) with maximum power setting at 130A and 25kHZ frequency with 2 different inserts i.e., Slim line insert and Focus spray (DENTSPLY) were used for supragingival scaling in the study. A VRS was used to assess the subjective intensity of pain. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in pain perception when the scores were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. VRS rating scores with slimline inserts showed a pain intensity of 2 in 43.3%, 1 in 53.3% and 0 in 3.3%, whereas the focus spray insert showed a pain intensity of 1 in 23.3% and 0 in 76.7%. Statistical analysis showed a P = 0.251 and a z - 1.147a. Conclusions: The use of both Slim line insert and Focus spray inserts when used at same settings of the scaling unit, showed no statistical significant difference in the intensity of pain perceived and it showed no correlation between patient acceptance and their pain perception. PMID:25210262

  5. Comparing subjective image quality measurement methods for the creation of public databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Judith; Liu, Hantao; Alers, Hani; Zunino, Rodolfo; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    The Single Stimulus (SS) method is often chosen to collect subjective data testing no-reference objective metrics, as it is straightforward to implement and well standardized. At the same time, it exhibits some drawbacks; spread between different assessors is relatively large, and the measured ratings depend on the quality range spanned by the test samples, hence the results from different experiments cannot easily be merged . The Quality Ruler (QR) method has been proposed to overcome these inconveniences. This paper compares the performance of the SS and QR method for pictures impaired by Gaussian blur. The research goal is, on one hand, to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for quality assessment and, on the other, to make quality data of blur impaired images publicly available. The obtained results show that the confidence intervals of the QR scores are narrower than those of the SS scores. This indicates that the QR method enhances consistency across assessors. Moreover, QR scores exhibit a higher linear correlation with the distortion applied. In summary, for the purpose of building datasets of subjective quality, the QR approach seems promising from the viewpoint of both consistency and repeatability.

  6. [Older immigrants' health compared with that of native Swedes. Greatest differences are subjective in nature].

    PubMed

    Waern, E; Steen, B

    1995-02-01

    Within the framework of the gerontological and geriatric population studies in Gothenburg, Sweden, the health of immigrants of non-Nordic origin was compared with that of native Swedes in a cohort of 70-year-olds born in 1922. Of the sample examined, 11.4 per cent were of non-Nordic origin, among whom the non-response rate was relatively high (48%). Although there were few differences in "objective" health criteria between the Swedish and immigrant subgroups, there were manifest differences in "subjective" criteria and quality of life. In view of the increasing proportion of elderly immigrants in the Swedish community, these findings need to be borne in mind. PMID:7853931

  7. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals. PMID:26338460

  8. Comparing Beginning Teachers' Instructional Quality Growth on Subject-Specific and Global Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neergaard, Laura; Smith, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Observation measures of instructional quality tend to fall into two broad categories--those for use across subject areas and those intended for use in specific subject areas. The move toward content-specific measures is a result of research suggesting that effective teaching looks different across subject areas and that both content knowledge and…

  9. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH3COO)2, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO4 < Ni(CH3COO)2 < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl2 < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg−1 for NiSO4, 1315 mg·kg−1 for NiCl2, and 89 mg·kg−1 for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  10. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl₂, NiSO₄, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH₃COO)₂, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO₄ < Ni(CH₃COO)₂ < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl₂ < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg(-1) for NiSO₄, 1315 mg·kg(-1) for NiCl₂, and 89 mg·kg(-1) for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  11. Subjective health legacy of the Chornobyl accident: a comparative study of 19-year olds in Kyiv

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the Chornobyl accident in 1986, the physical health of exposed children in Ukraine has been monitored, but their perceived health has not been studied. This study examines health perceptions of Ukrainian adolescents exposed to radioactive fallout in utero or as infants, and the epidemiologic and Chornobyl-related influences on self-reported health. Method We assessed three groups of 19-year olds in Kyiv: 262 evacuees from contaminated areas near the plant; 261 classmate controls; and 325 population-based controls. The evacuees and classmates were previously assessed at age 11. Structured interviews were conducted with the adolescents and their mothers (N = 766), followed by general physical examinations (N = 722) and blood tests (N = 707). Proportional odds logistic regression and multi-group path analysis were the major statistical tests. Results The examination and blood test results were similar across groups except for a significantly elevated rate of thyroid enlargement found by palpation in evacuees (17.8%) compared former classmates (8.7%) and population-based controls (8.0%). In addition, four evacuees and one population control had had a thyroidectomy. Compared to controls, the evacuees rated their health the least positively and reported more medically diagnosed illnesses during the 5 years preceding the interview, particularly thyroid disease, migraine headache, and vascular dystony. The consistent risk factors (p < 0.001) for these subjective health reports were evacuee status, female gender, multiple hospitalizations, and health risk perception regarding Chornobyl. All three groups of mothers rated their children's health more negatively than the adolescents themselves, and maternal ratings were uniquely associated with the adolescents' health reports in the adjusted models. In the longitudinal evacuee and classmate subsamples, path analysis showed that mothers' health ratings when the children were age 11 predicted their later

  12. A propos de l'agraphie des aphasiques sensoriels: etude comparative italien-francais (On Agraphia of Subjects with Sensory Aphasia: A Comparative Study of Italian and French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Agostini, Maria

    1977-01-01

    A report on research on agraphia using subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. It compares performance in Italian, a phonetic language, with performance in French. The disorders in the Italian language appear less varied than in French. (Text is in French.)

  13. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liangsuo; Steinberg, Joel L.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Lane, Scott D.; Bjork, James M.; Neelakantan, Harshini; Price, Amanda E.; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Bechara, Antoine; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response) in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD) subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to study the effective (directional) neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard). The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced) during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L) anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition. PMID:26082893

  14. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liangsuo; Steinberg, Joel L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Lane, Scott D; Bjork, James M; Neelakantan, Harshini; Price, Amanda E; Narayana, Ponnada A; Kosten, Thomas R; Bechara, Antoine; Moeller, F Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response) in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD) subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to study the effective (directional) neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard). The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal-striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced) during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L) anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition. PMID:26082893

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Student/Subject Orientation of ABE Teachers in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prey, Phillip O.

    A study was conducted to (1) establish the subject or student orientation of adult basic education (ABE) teachers and non-ABE teachers in West Virginia and (2) identify the degree to which certain biographical and educational characteristics may be related to their orientation. Data for the study were based on responses of forty-one ABE…

  16. "Chips with Everything": A Laboratory Exercise for Comparing Subjective and Objective Measurements of Potato Chips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    The following laboratory exercise was designed to aid student understanding of the differences between subjective and objective measurements. Students assess the color and texture of different varieties of potato chip (crisps) by means of an intensity rating scale and a rank test and objectively with a colorimeter and texture analyzer. For data…

  17. Comparative ultrasonographic evaluation of the Achilles paratenon in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects: an imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stecco, A; Busoni, F; Stecco, C; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Soldani, P; Condino, S; Ermolao, A; Zaccaria, M; Gesi, M

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon analysis represents one of the most frequently requested ultrasonographic evaluations, due to the high incidence of tendinopathy. Various authors have described inflammatory features of the paratenon recruited 22 subjects complaining of pain in the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon and 22 healthy subjects. Both groups underwent ultrasonographic examination and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire administration. It was found statistically significant inter-group differences of the paratenon (p = 0.0001) as well as tendon thickness (p < 0.0001). Our results show that Achilles symptoms could also be associated with an increase in the paratenon thickness. We suggest that clinicians should carefully analyze paratenon thickness when evaluating patients with Achillodynia using ultrasound. It may be that the paratenon, when thickened, may explain some of the painful symptoms reported by patients and it is associated with a tendinopathy process, hence we suggest careful analysis in patients with Achillodynia. PMID:25047541

  18. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection). PMID:24554231

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7–9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26097786

  20. Exemplary Advanced Placement Programs: Comparing AP Test Scores by Subject and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, John

    This study compared performance of seniors at 21 Montgomery County (Maryland) high schools on the Advanced Placement (AP) Tests. The schools were ranked by the percentage of college-educated adults within the school boundaries, and the ranking was compared to Advanced Placement test results (the average number of students, per 100 seniors, who…

  1. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  2. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  3. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study)

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabeza, Ignacio; Gómez, Juan-Carlos; Sacristán, Jose A; Edgell, Eric; González de Chavez, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy) with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS. PMID:11835695

  4. Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

  5. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  6. Making Sense of Decades of Debate on Inter-Subject Comparability in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates how a new framework for conceptualising comparability has the potential to help assessment professionals to understand and to conduct debate on linking theory and practice. The framework was used as a lens through which to study a corpus of research reports, from which a narrative was constructed to characterise the…

  7. [Comparative effects of couscous and pasta on glycemia in normal subjects and type I diabetics].

    PubMed

    Jamel, N; Hajri, S; Jenkins, D J; Bousnina, S; Naggati, K; Jedidi, H; Boukhris, R; Bennaceur, B

    1990-01-01

    8 healthy subjects have eaten in the morning, after an overnight fast, in two separated occasions and in a randomised order 50 gr of CHO as pasta or couscous. Blood glucose after pasta ingestion was lower at 30 mn (p less than 0.05) at 45 mn (p less than 0.01) and at 60 mn (p less than 0.05). Area under the curve after pasta was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01). In a second time 6 IDDM patients have eaten in a randomised order a meal made of pasta with tomato sauce (P = 11%, F = 30%, G = 59%) or couscous with vegetables and sauce (P = 10%, F = 37%, G = 53%). Blood glucose after the pasta was lower than couscous at 90 mn (p less than 0.05) the area under the curve after the pasta ingestion was reduced of 38% but did'nt reach significance. In conclusion couscous has a higher glycemic effect than pasta although it has a similar composition. This phenomenon is still observed when the cereal products are mixed with other foods and ingested by IDDM patients. PMID:2332095

  8. a Comparative Study of Alto Saxophone Reeds Through Spectral and Subjective Analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Caroline Blythe

    The purpose of this study was to analyze six brands of cane reeds and five brands of synthetic reeds to determine the differences in tone quality produced by each. Spectral analysis was used to determine the individual reed which conformed most closely to the average profile of each brand. A panel of seven saxophone performers then presented their opinions of the each reed's tone quality upon hearing a live performance of an excerpt from Eugene Bozza's Aria for alto saxophone and piano performed on the reeds most representative of each brand. The evaluation form used by the judges included ten sets of bipolar adjectives: good-bad, harmonious-dissonant, clean-dirty, light-dark, pleasurable-painful, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, complex -simple, masculine-feminine, and interesting-boring. The results indicated that the primary factors influencing the tone quality of a given reed were the strength of the overtones present regardless of their order and the dominance of either the fundamental or the first overtone. Although professional musicians normally hand-select their reeds for performance, this research based on both spectral and subjective analyses provides clear evidence for both musicians and music educators to refine and improve their reed selection process.

  9. Lung Function in Sickle Cell Hemoglobinopathy Patients Compared With Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Young, Roscoe C.; Rachal, Raylinda E.; Reindorf, Carl A.; Armstrong, Earl M.; Polk, Octavius D.; Hackney, Robert L.; Scott, Roland B.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of lung function tests performed on patients with sickle cell disease have shown a restrictive ventilatory defect, usually a diffusion defect, and mild hypoxia at rest. The present study was undertaken to explain the pathophysiology of these changes and to extend these studies to include functional measurements not reported previously. Lung function studies were performed at rest and during treadmill walking on 66 patients with sickle cell anemia and on 16 healthy control subjects. Patients had restrictive ventilatory defects, decreased lung compliance, and uneven ventilation-perfusion ratios. These abnormalities caused an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference that caused hypoxemia. The diffusion defects were because of the sickle cell disease. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were increased in patients with sickle cell disease. This increase may be caused by a combination of factors, including increased cigarette smoking, hemolysis, and preferential survival of red blood cells that contain carbon monoxide and which do not sickle. During treadmill walking, the patients with sickle cell disease showed a decreased work tolerance caused by impaired oxygen delivery. The anaerobic threshold is reached sooner in patients with sickle cell disease and may also account for the limitations in work capacity of these patients. PMID:3418733

  10. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    PubMed

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results. PMID:20653190

  11. Nonlinear dynamics and comparative analysis of hybrid piezoelectric-inductive energy harvesters subjected to galloping vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, U.; Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Modeling and comparative analysis of galloping-based hybrid piezoelectric-inductive energy harvesting systems are investigated. Both piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers are attached to the transverse degree of freedom of the prismatic structure in order to harvest energy from two possible sources. A fully-coupled electroaeroelastic model is developed which takes into account the coupling between the generated voltage from the piezoelectric transducer, the induced current from the electromagnetic transducer, and the transverse displacement of the bluff body. A nonlinear quasi-steady approximation is employed to model the galloping force. To determine the influences of the external load resistances that are connected to the piezoelectric and electromagnetic circuits on the onset speed of galloping, a deep linear analysis is performed. It is found that the external load resistances in these two circuits have significant effects on the onset speed of galloping of the harvester with the presence of optimum values. To investigate the effects of these transduction mechanisms on the performance of the galloping energy harvester, a nonlinear analysis is performed. Using the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation, it is demonstrated that the hybrid energy harvester has a supercritical instability for different values of the external load resistances. For well-defined wind speed and external load resistance in the electromagnetic circuit, the results showed that there is a range of external load resistances in the piezoelectric circuit at which the output power generated by the electromagnetic induction is very small. On the other hand, there are two optimal load resistances at which the output power by the piezoelectric transducer is maximum. Based on a comparative study, it is demonstrated the hybrid piezoelectric-inductive energy harvester is very beneficial in terms of having two sources of energy. However, compared to the classical piezoelectric and

  12. How well do subjective Hospital Compare metrics reflect objective outcomes in spine surgery?

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The accuracy of public reporting in health care is an issue of debate. The authors investigated the association of patient satisfaction measures from a public reporting platform with objective outcomes for patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS The authors performed a cohort study involving patients undergoing elective spine surgery from 2009 to 2013 who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. This cohort was merged with publicly available data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website. A mixed-effects regression analysis, controlling for clustering at the hospital level, was used to investigate the association of patient satisfaction metrics with outcomes. RESULTS During the study period, 160,235 patients underwent spine surgery. Using a mixed-effects multivariable regression analysis, the authors demonstrated that undergoing elective spine surgery in hospitals with a higher percentage of patient-assigned high satisfaction scores was not associated with a decreased rate of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57-1.06), mortality (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.01), or hospitalization charges (β 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.23). However, it was associated with decreased length of stay (LOS; β -0.19, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.05). Similar associations were identified for hospitals with a higher percentage of patients who claimed they would recommend these institutions to others. CONCLUSIONS Merging a comprehensive all-payer cohort of spine surgery patients in New York state with data from the CMS Hospital Compare website, the authors were not able to demonstrate an association of improved performance in patient satisfaction measures with decreased mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and hospitalization charges. Increased patient satisfaction was associated with decreased LOS. PMID:26989975

  13. Comparative in vitro and in vivo evaluation of three tablet formulations of amiodarone in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The relative in vivo bioavailability and in vitro dissolution studies of three chemically equivalent amiodarone generic products in healthy volunteers was evaluated in three separate occasions. The possibility of a correlation between in vitro and in vivo performances of these tablet formulations was also evaluated. Methods The bioequivalence studies were conducted based on a single dose, two-sequence, cross over randomized design. The bioavailability was compared using AUC0–72, AUC0–8, Cmax and Tmax. Similarity factor, dissolution efficiency (DE), and mean dissolution time (MDT) was used to compare the dissolution profiles. Polynomial linear correlation models were tested using either MDT vs mean residence time (MRT) or fraction of the drug dissolved (FRD) vs fraction of the drug absorbed (FRA). Results Significant differences were found in the dissolution performances of the tested formulations and therefore they were included in the development of the correlation. The 90% confidence intervals of the log-transformed AUC0-72, AUC0–8, and Cmax of each two formulations in each bioequivalence studies were within the acceptable range of 80–125%. Differences were not observed between the untransformed Tmax values. Poor correlation was found between MRT and MDT of the products. A point-to-point correlation which is essential for a reliable correlation was not obtained between pooled FRD and FRA. The dissolution condition which was used for amiodarone tablets failed for formulations which were bioequivalent in vivo and significant difference between the dissolution characteristics of products (f2<50) did not reflect their in vivo properties. Major conclusions Bioequivalence studies should be considered as the only acceptable way to ensure the interchangeability and in vivo equivalence of amiodarone generic drug products. The dissolution conditions used of the present study could be used for routine and in-process quality

  14. Added Value of Long-Term Cytokine Release Assays to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Subjects in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dirix, Violette; Schepers, Kinda; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Worodria, William; Colebunders, Robert; Singh, Mahavir; Locht, Camille; Kestens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether mycobacterial antigen–induced cytokine secretions are helpful in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in a cohort of HIV-infected patients living in a country with a high burden of Mtb and HIV infections, and to determine their predictive value for the development of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Design: A total of 352 HIV-infected patients (186 with active TB) were prospectively enrolled when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sequential blood samples were collected during the first 6 months of ART. Eighty-three HIV-uninfected subjects (39 with active TB) were enrolled as controls. Methods: The concentrations of 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants from blood mononuclear cells in vitro stimulated with purified protein derivative (PPD), heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) or early secreted antigen-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10), and results were compared with those of tuberculin skin tests (TST). Results: The best detection of Mtb infection was achieved by ESAT-6/CFP-10–induced interferon-γ concentrations, but results were often negative for patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <50 per cubic millimeters. Patients with active TB were identified by high ESAT-6/CFP-10–induced interleukin-6. Conversions of interferon-γ-release assays (IGRA) and TST occurred under ART, and combined TB and antiretroviral treatments of coinfected patients resulted in a decrease of ESAT-6/CFP-10–induced and an increase of HBHA-induced interferon-γ responses. No Mtb antigen–induced cytokines allowed us to predict TB–immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or ART-associated TB. Conclusions: In Uganda, ESAT-6/CFP-10–IGRA is better in detecting Mtb infection than TST and, when combined with an HBHA–IGRA, could help to evaluate anti-TB treatment success. PMID:27306506

  15. The "Ad Circulorum" Fallacy and Comparative Advantage Debating or: Why Don't Debate Cases Make Sense to Outside Listeners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Larry S.

    Circular reasoning is often employed in comparative advantage debate cases when only a plan and advantages are articulated without adequate reference to the resolution which inspired the proposal. The advancing of such subtopical analyses as debate cases is deleterious to the long-range interests of educational debate because the practice…

  16. What Is the Added Benefit of Oropharyngeal Swabs Compared to Nasal Swabs Alone for Respiratory Virus Detection in Hospitalized Children Aged <10 Years?

    PubMed

    Dawood, Fatimah S; Jara, Jorge; Estripeaut, Dora; Vergara, Ofelina; Luciani, Kathia; Corro, Mary; de León, Tirza; Saldaña, Ricardo; Castillo Baires, Juan Miguel; Rauda Flores, Rafael; Cazares, Rafael A; Brizuela de Fuentes, Yarisa Sujey; Franco, Danilo; Gaitan, Melissa; Schneider, Eileen; Berman, LaShondra; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the added value of collecting both nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, compared with collection of nasal swabs alone, for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in hospitalized children aged <10 years. Nasal swabs had equal or greater sensitivity than oropharyngeal swabs for detection of respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and influenza virus but not parainfluenza virus. The addition of an oropharyngeal swab, compared with use of a nasal swab alone, increased the frequency of detection of each respiratory virus by no more than 10% in children aged <10 years. PMID:25943205

  17. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  18. Postprandial plasma retinyl ester response is greater in older subjects compared with younger subjects. Evidence for delayed plasma clearance of intestinal lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Krasinski, S D; Cohn, J S; Schaefer, E J; Russell, R M

    1990-01-01

    Postprandial vitamin A and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism was studied in 86 healthy men and women, aged 19-76 yr. Three independent experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, a supplement dose of vitamin A (3,000 retinol equivalents [RE]) was given without a meal to 59 subjects, aged 22-76 yr. In the second experiment, 20 RE/kg body wt was given with a fat-rich meal (1 g fat/kg body wt) to seven younger subjects (aged less than 50 yr) and seven older subjects (aged greater than or equal to 50 yr). In both experiments, postprandial plasma retinyl ester response increased significantly with advancing age (P less than 0.05). In the third experiment, retinyl ester-rich plasma was infused intravenously into nine young adult subjects (aged 18-30 yr) and nine elderly subjects (aged greater than or equal to 60 yr), and the rate of retinyl ester disappearance from plasma during the subsequent 3 h was determined. Mean (+/- SE) plasma retinyl ester residence time was 31 +/- 4 min in the young adult subjects vs. 57 +/- 8 min in the elderly subjects (P less than 0.05). These data are consistent with the concept that increased postprandial plasma retinyl ester concentrations in older subjects are due to delayed plasma clearance of retinyl esters in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of intestinal origin. PMID:2312731

  19. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Gijs H; Moors, Chantalle C M; Jocken, Johan W E; van der Zijl, Nynke J; Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Diamant, Michaela; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-03-01

    Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [²H₂]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-(13)C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. PMID:26985905

  20. Visuo-locomotor coordination for direction changes in a manual wheelchair as compared to biped locomotion in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Charette, Caroline; Routhier, François; McFadyen, Bradford J

    2015-02-19

    The visual system during walking provides travel path and environmental information. Although the manual wheelchair (MWC) is also a frequent mode of locomotion, its underlying visuo-locomotor control is not well understood. This study begins to understand the visuo-locomotor coordination for MWC navigation in relation to biped gait during direction changes in healthy subjects. Eight healthy male subjects (26.9±6.4 years) were asked to walk as well as to propel a MWC straight ahead and while changing direction by 45° to the right guided by a vertical pole. Body and MWC movement (speed, minimal clearance, point of deviation, temporal body coordination, relative timing of body rotations) and gaze behavior were analysed. There was a main speed effect for direction and a direction by mode interaction with slower speeds for MWC direction change. Point of deviation was later for MWC direction change and always involved a counter movement (seen for vehicular control) with greater minimal distance from the vertical pole as compared to biped gait. In straight ahead locomotion, subjects predominantly fixed their gaze on the end target for both locomotor modes while there was a clear trend for subjects to fixate on the vertical pole more for MWC direction change. When changing direction, head movement always preceded gaze changes, which was followed by trunk movement for both modes. Yet while subjects turned the trunk at the same time during approach regardless of locomotor mode, head movement was earlier for MWC locomotion. These results suggest that MWC navigation combines both biped locomotor and vehicular-based movement control. Head movement to anticipate path deviations and lead steering for locomotion appears to be stereotypic across locomotor modes, while specific gaze behavior predominantly depends on the environmental demands. PMID:25562632

  1. [The subjective quality of life of patients with schizophrenia: influence of psychopathology and patients' expectations. A comparative study].

    PubMed

    Salomé, F; Petitjean, F; Germain, C; Demant, J-C

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on the quality of life (Qol) of patients with schizophrenia deal with objective living conditions and how they are perceived by hospitalized patients. The few studies that compare Qol for patients treated in part time services with the Qol of ambulatory patients do not show any significant difference in terms of subjective Qol. Some stu-dies evaluate the influence of psychopathology and needs (or expectations) on the subjective Qol in these groups of patients. Available data indicate that the general well-being is influenced by psychopathology (positive, negative or depressive symptoms) and unmet needs in ambulatory patients. They also show that subjective Qol in certain life domains (social relations, family relations, leisure, health, law and security) is influenced by negative symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients treated in part-time services. The aim of this study is to compare the objective and subjective Qol of patients with schizophrenia treated in part time services (day hospital and day care center) to the Qol of out-patients treated on a purely ambulatory basis (out patient clinic). We studied the Qol of 2 groups of 30 patients with schizophrenia (ICD 10 criteria) treated in various centers. The first group was made of ambulatory patients, the second one was constituted of patients treated in a day hospital or a day care center. Patients were matched for age, duration of illness, number of hospitalizations. The instruments used for rating were the following: Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Positive And Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10). The Qol was measured with a french version of the Lancashire Quality Of Life Profile (LQOLP) (Salomé, Germain, Petitjean, Demant and Boyer, 2000). This instrument measures the objective Qol as well as the subjective Qol. It does possess satisfying psychometric properties and offers the possibility to establish Qol profiles. All

  2. Tongue Stiffness is Lower in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Wakefulness Compared with Matched Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness. Design: Controlled experimental study. Setting: Medical research institute. Participants: Patients with OSA and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Measurements: Magnetic resonance elastography was performed in nine patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 events/h) and seven controls (AHI < 10 events/h) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Six of these OSA subjects were also scanned while 10 cmH2O CPAP was applied. Mean isotropic shear modulus and anisotropic shear moduli parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fascicles in the tongue were calculated. Results: Tongue shear modulus in patients with OSA was lower than that in matched controls (2.68 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) kPa versus 2.98 ± 0.44 kPa, P < 0.001). Shear modulus decreased with increasing AHI (R = −0.496, P = 0.043), but not age, BMI, or percentage tongue fat. Anisotropic analysis revealed that reduction in stiffness was greatest parallel to the muscle fibers. CPAP had no significant effect on tongue shear modulus. Conclusions: In awake subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, the tongue is less stiff than in similar healthy subjects and this difference occurs in the muscle fiber direction. CPAP did not significantly reduce tongue stiffness. Thus, any change in neural drive to genioglossus during wakefulness is insufficient to restore normal tongue stiffness. Citation: Brown EC, Cheng S, McKenzie DK, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects. SLEEP 2015;38(4):537–544. PMID:25409103

  3. The matching of sinus arrhythmia to respiration: are trauma patients without serious injury comparable to healthy laboratory subjects?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Reisner, Andrew T; Chen, Liangyou; Edla, Shwetha; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    We sought to better understand the physiology underlying the metrics of heart rate variability (HRV) in trauma patients without serious injury, compared to healthy laboratory controls. In trauma patients without serious injury (110 subjects, 470 2-min data segments), we studied the correlation between sinus arrhythmia (SA) rate, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). Most segments with 2.4 < HR/RR < 4.8 exhibited SA-RR matching, whereas rate matching was absent in 81% of the segments with HR/RR < 2.4 and in 86% of the segments with HR/RR > 4.8. The findings were comparable, in some cases remarkably so, to previous reports from healthy laboratory subjects. The presence (or absence) of SA-RR matching, when SA is largely controlled by respiration, can be anticipated in this trauma population. This work provides a valuable step towards the definition of patterns of HRV found in trauma patients with and without life-threatening injury. PMID:25570720

  4. Comparing within-subject classification and regularization methods in fMRI for large and small sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Nathan W; Yourganov, Grigori; Strother, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, a variety of multivariate classifier models have been applied to fMRI, with different modeling assumptions. When classifying high-dimensional fMRI data, we must also regularize to improve model stability, and the interactions between classifier and regularization techniques are still being investigated. Classifiers are usually compared on large, multisubject fMRI datasets. However, it is unclear how classifier/regularizer models perform for within-subject analyses, as a function of signal strength and sample size. We compare four standard classifiers: Linear and Quadratic Discriminants, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. Classification was performed on data in the linear kernel (covariance) feature space, and classifiers are tuned with four commonly-used regularizers: Principal Component and Independent Component Analysis, and penalization of kernel features using L₁ and L₂ norms. We evaluated prediction accuracy (P) and spatial reproducibility (R) of all classifier/regularizer combinations on single-subject analyses, over a range of three different block task contrasts and sample sizes for a BOLD fMRI experiment. We show that the classifier model has a small impact on signal detection, compared to the choice of regularizer. PCA maximizes reproducibility and global SNR, whereas Lp -norms tend to maximize prediction. ICA produces low reproducibility, and prediction accuracy is classifier-dependent. However, trade-offs in (P,R) depend partly on the optimization criterion, and PCA-based models are able to explore the widest range of (P,R) values. These trends are consistent across task contrasts and data sizes (training samples range from 6 to 96 scans). In addition, the trends in classifier performance are consistent for ROI-based classifier analyses. PMID:24639383

  5. A Comparative Study of Exceptional Experiences of Clients Seeking Advice and of Subjects in an Ordinary Population

    PubMed Central

    Fach, W.; Atmanspacher, H.; Landolt, K.; Wyss, T.; Rössler, W.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptional experiences (EE) occur frequently within the populations of many countries and across various socio-cultural contexts. Although some EE show similarities with mental disorders, it would be a mistake to identify them in general as disorders. In fact, the vast number of individuals reporting EE includes subclinical and completely healthy subjects. We conducted a comparative empirical study of several characteristics of EE for two samples – one from ordinary population and the other from clients seeking advice. We found surprisingly similar phenomenological patterns of EE in both samples, but the frequency and intensity of EE for clients seeking advice significantly exceeded those for the ordinary population. Our results support the hypothesis of a continuous spectrum between mental health and mental disorder for the types of experiences analyzed. PMID:23423775

  6. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

    PubMed

    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized. PMID:25808718

  7. Prevention praised, cure preferred: results of between-subjects experimental studies comparing (monetary) appreciation for preventive and curative interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure’ is a common saying, and indeed, most health economic studies conclude that people are more willing to pay for preventive measures than for treatment activities. This may be because most health economic studies ask respondents to compare preventive measures with treatment, and thus prompt respondents to consider other uses of resources. However, psychological theorizing suggests that, when methods do not challenge subjects to consider other uses of resources, curative treatment is favored over prevention. Could it be that while prevention is praised, cure is preferred? Methods In two experimental studies, we investigated, from a psychological perspective and using a between-subjects design, whether prevention or treatment is preferred and why. In both studies, participants first read a lung cancer prevention or treatment intervention scenario that varied on the prevention-treatment dimension, but that were the same on factors like 'costs per saved life’ and kind of disease. Then participants completed a survey measuring appreciation (general and monetary) as well as a number of potential mediating variables. Results Both studies clearly demonstrated that, when the design was between-subjects, participants had greater (general and monetary) appreciation for treatment interventions than for preventive interventions with perceived urgency of the intervention quite consistently mediating this effect. Differences in appreciation of treatment over preventive treatment were shown to be .59 (Study 1) and .45 (Study 2) on a 5-point scale. Furthermore, participants thought that health insurance should compensate more for the treatment than for preventive measures, differences of 16% (Study 1), and 22% (Study 2). When participants were asked to directly compare both interventions on the basis of a short description, they preferred the preventive intervention. Conclusion It appears that people claim to prefer

  8. Effect of Non-rigid Registration Algorithms on Deformation Based Morphometry: A Comparative Study with Control and Williams Syndrome Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaoying; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    Deformation Based Morphometry (DBM) is a widely used method for characterizing anatomical differences across groups. DBM is based on the analysis of the deformation fields generated by non-rigid registration algorithms, which warp the individual volumes to a DBM atlas. Although several studies have compared non-rigid registration algorithms for segmentation tasks, few studies have compared the effect of the registration algorithms on group differences that may be uncovered through DBM. In this study, we compared group atlas creation and DBM results obtained with five well-established non-rigid registration algorithms using thirteen subjects with Williams Syndrome (WS) and thirteen Normal Control (NC) subjects. The five non-rigid registration algorithms include: (1) The Adaptive Bases Algorithm (ABA); (2) The Image Registration Toolkit (IRTK); (3) The FSL Nonlinear Image Registration Tool (FSL); (4) The Automatic Registration Tool (ART); and (5) the normalization algorithm available in SPM8. Results indicate that the choice of algorithm has little effect on the creation of group atlases. However, regions of differences between groups detected with DBM vary from algorithm to algorithm both qualitatively and quantitatively. The unique nature of the data set used in this study also permits comparison of visible anatomical differences between the groups and regions of difference detected by each algorithm. Results show that the interpretation of DBM results is difficult. Four out of the five algorithms we have evaluated detect bilateral differences between the two groups in the insular cortex, the basal ganglia, orbitofrontal cortex, as well as in the cerebellum. These correspond to differences that have been reported in the literature and that are visible in our samples. But our results also show that some algorithms detect regions that are not detected by the others and that the extent of the detected regions varies from algorithm to algorithm. These results suggest

  9. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  10. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants’ other experiences of the two diets from the same study. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: “What thoughts do you have about this diet?”, “Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet” and “How do you think this diet has affected your health?”. Results The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. Conclusions A

  11. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were obtained,…

  12. The Best and Worst Times of Life: Narratives and Assessments of Subjective Well-Being by Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Valerie; Theuns, Peter; Erstad, Ida; Bernheim, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Anamnestic Comparative Self Assessment (ACSA) measure of subjective well-being (SWB) aims to reduce the problems of cultural bias and relativity to external standards by allowing people to define the endpoints or "anchors" of the measurement scale. In medical terminology anamnestic denotes "based on memory". The ACSA uses subjects' memories of…

  13. Personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients compared to control subjects by gender and the relationship with illness severity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Personality traits and schizophrenia present gender differences; however, gender has not been considered in most studies on personality and schizophrenia. This study aims to identify the different personality dimensions of schizophrenia patients and healthy control subjects by gender and to explore the relationship between personality dimensions and illness severity variables by analyzing data for males and females separately. Methods Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised dimensions were compared by gender between 161 schizophrenia patients and 214 healthy controls from a population-based sample using independent t-tests. We then investigated whether personality dimensions are related to illness severity variables using correlation analyses and bivariate logistic regression, also by gender. Results The patients had significantly higher scores for harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) and lower scores for reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (C), and self-directedness (SD) than the controls. Similar results were obtained when the sample was stratified by gender, however the differences were higher and more significant for HA among males and for RD among females. The number of admissions to a psychiatric hospital positively correlated with novelty seeking (NS) in males and negatively with SD in females. In males, SD and ST negatively correlated with the number of suicide attempts. Conclusions Male and female patients present difficulties for regulating and adapting behavior to achieve goals (SD) and for identifying and accepting others (C), as well as a great sense of spirituality and universe identification (ST). However, male patients are more characterized by being fearful, doubtful and easily fatigued (HA), while female patients are characterized by presenting difficulties maintaining and pursuing associated reward behaviors (RD). Furthermore, male and female patients who are frequently admitted to psychiatric hospitals and male

  14. Comparative Cognitive and Subjective Side Effects of Immediate Release Oxycodone in Healthy Middle Age and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherrier, M.; Amory, J.; Ersek, M.; Risler, L.; Shen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the objective and subjective neurocognitive effects of a single 10mg dose of immediate-release oxycodone in healthy, older (>65 years) and middle age (35 – 55 years) adults who were not suffering from chronic or significant daily pain. Seventy-one participants completed two separate study days and were blind to medication condition (placebo, 10 mg oxycodone). Plasma oxycodone concentration peaked between 60 and 90 min post dose (p<0.01) and pupil size, an indication of physiological effects of the medication peaked at approximately 90 to 120 min post dose (p<0.01). Significant declines in simple and sustained attention, working memory and verbal memory were observed at one hour post dose compared to baseline for both age groups with a trend toward return to baseline by five hours post dose. For almost all cognitive measures there were no medication by age interaction effects, which indicates that the two age groups exhibited a similar responses to the medication challenge. This study suggests that for healthy older adults who are not suffering from chronic pain, neurocognitive and pharmacodynamic changes in response to a 10 mg dose of immediate release oxycodone are similar to those observed for middle age adults. Perspective Study findings indicate that the metabolism, neurocognitive effects, and physical side effects of oral oxycodone are similar for healthy middle-age and older adults. Therefore, clinicians should not avoid prescribing oral opioids to older adults based on the belief that older adults are at higher risk for side effects than younger adults. PMID:19729346

  15. Is a Good Teacher a Good Teacher for All? Comparing Value-Added of Teachers with Their English Learners and Non-English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Soland, James; Fox, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Districts, states, and researchers are using value-added models with increasing frequency to evaluate educational policies and programs, as well as teachers and other educators individually. Despite their prevalence, little research assesses whether value-added measures (VAM) are consistent across student subgroups. Are teachers who are effective…

  16. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Colour Subject between Canada Saskatchewan State and Visual Arts Education Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabancal, Meral Per

    2015-01-01

    A deeper analysis of the art education curriculums applied in developed countries and treating specific subjects within these curriculums holds vital importance in allowing the production of alternative solution methods by providing the educators multiple perspectives in the face of problems concerning art education. In present paper colour…

  18. ArthropodaCyc: a CycADS powered collection of BioCyc databases to analyse and compare metabolism of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Parisot, Nicolas; Febvay, Gérard; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Vellozo, Augusto F; Gabaldón, Toni; Calevro, Federica; Charles, Hubert; Colella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods interact with humans at different levels with highly beneficial roles (e.g. as pollinators), as well as with a negative impact for example as vectors of human or animal diseases, or as agricultural pests. Several arthropod genomes are available at present and many others will be sequenced in the near future in the context of the i5K initiative, offering opportunities for reconstructing, modelling and comparing their metabolic networks. In-depth analysis of these genomic data through metabolism reconstruction is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the biology of arthropods, thereby allowing the development of new strategies to control harmful species. In this context, we present here ArthropodaCyc, a dedicated BioCyc collection of databases using the Cyc annotation database system (CycADS), allowing researchers to perform reliable metabolism comparisons of fully sequenced arthropods genomes. Since the annotation quality is a key factor when performing such global genome comparisons, all proteins from the genomes included in the ArthropodaCyc database were re-annotated using several annotation tools and orthology information. All functional/domain annotation results and their sources were integrated in the databases for user access. Currently, ArthropodaCyc offers a centralized repository of metabolic pathways, protein sequence domains, Gene Ontology annotations as well as evolutionary information for 28 arthropod species. Such database collection allows metabolism analysis both with integrated tools and through extraction of data in formats suitable for systems biology studies.Database URL: http://arthropodacyc.cycadsys.org/. PMID:27242037

  19. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  20. Analysis of Relative Parallelism Between Hamular-Incisive-Papilla Plane and Campers Plane in Edentulous Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Tambake, Deepti; Shetty, Shilpa; Satish Babu, C L; Fulari, Sangamesh G

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the parallelism between hamular-incisive-papilla plane (HIP) and the Campers plane. And to determine which part of the posterior reference of the tragus i.e., the superior, middle or the inferior of the Camper's plane is parallel to HIP using digital lateral cephalograms. Fifty edentulous subjects with well formed ridges were selected for the study. The master casts were obtained using the standard selective pressure impression procedure. On the deepest point of the hamular notches and the centre of the incisive papilla stainless steel spherical bearings were glued to the cast at the marked points. The study templates were fabricated with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The subjects were prepared for the lateral cephalograms. Stainless steel spherical bearings were adhered to the superior, middle, inferior points of the tragus of the ear and inferior border of the ala of the nose using surgical adhesive tape. The subjects with study templates were subjected to lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric tracings were done using Autocad 2010 software. Lines were drawn connecting the incisive papilla and hamular notch and the stainless steel spherical bearings placed on the superior, middle and inferior points on the tragus and the ala of the nose i.e., the Campers line S, Campers line M, Campers line I. The angles between the three Camper's line and the HIP were measured and recorded. Higher mean angulation was recorded in Campers line S -HIP (8.03) followed by Campers line M-HIP (4.60). Campers line I-HIP recorded the least angulation (3.80). The HIP is parallel to the Camper's plane. The Camper's plane formed with the posterior reference point as inferior point of the tragus is relatively parallel to the HIP. PMID:26199503

  1. Comparing Different Accounts of Inversion Errors in Children's Non-Subject Wh-Questions: "What Experimental Data Can Tell Us?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated different accounts of children's acquisition of non-subject wh-questions. Questions using each of 4 wh-words ("what," "who," "how" and "why"), and 3 auxiliaries (BE, DO and CAN) in 3sg and 3pl form were elicited from 28 children aged 3;6-4;6. Rates of non-inversion error ("Who she is hitting?") were found not to differ by…

  2. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Antidiabetic Drug Regimens Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, Diana M.; White, C. Michael; Saulsberry, Whitney J.; Kohn, Christine G.; Doleh, Yunes; Zaccaro, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When first line therapy with metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antidiabetic agents in patients with inadequately controlled T2D on metformin alone. Materials and Methods A search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, regulatory websites was performed. We included randomized controlled trials of 3–12 months duration, evaluating Food and Drug Administration or European Union approved agents (noninsulin and long acting, once daily basal insulins) in patients experiencing inadequate glycemic control with metformin monotherapy (≥1500 mg daily or maximally tolerated dose for ≥4 weeks). Random-effects network meta-analyses were used to compare the weighted mean difference for changes from baseline in HbA1c, body weight (BW) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and the risk of developing hypoglycemia, urinary (UTI) and genital tract infection (GTI). Results Sixty-two trials evaluating 25 agents were included. All agents significantly reduced HbA1c vs. placebo; albeit not to the same extent (range, 0.43% for miglitol to 1.29% for glibenclamide). Glargine, sulfonylureas (SUs) and nateglinide were associated with increased hypoglycemia risk vs. placebo (range, 4.00–11.67). Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, miglitol and empagliflozin/linagliptin significantly reduced BW (range, 1.15–2.26kg) whereas SUs, thiazolindinediones, glargine and alogliptin/pioglitazone caused weight gain (range, 1.19–2.44kg). SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin/linagliptin, liraglutide and sitagliptin decreased SBP (range, 1.88–5.43mmHg). No therapy increased UTI risk vs. placebo; however, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of GTI (range, 2.16–8.03). Conclusions Adding different AHAs to metformin was associated with varying effects on HbA1c, BW, SBP, hypoglycemia, UTI and GTI

  3. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    PubMed Central

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Feddersen, Søren; Larsen, John Teilmann; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. Methods We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g of metformin twice daily for 1 week with and without 21 days of preceding and concomitant treatment with St John's wort. The pharmacokinetics of metformin was determined, and a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results St John's wort decreased the renal clearance of metformin but did not affect any other metformin pharmacokinetic parameter. The addition of St John's wort decreased the area under the glucose concentration–time curve [702 (95% confidence interval, 643–761) vs. 629 min*mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 568–690), P = 0.003], and this effect was caused by a statistically significant increase in the acute insulin response. Conclusions St John's wort improves glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion independently of insulin sensitivity in healthy male subjects taking metformin. PMID:25223504

  4. How Teacher Evaluation Methods Matter for Accountability: A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Effectiveness Ratings by Principals and Teacher Value-Added Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Ingle, William K.; Rutledge, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers are revolutionizing teacher evaluation by attaching greater stakes to student test scores and observation-based teacher effectiveness measures, but relatively little is known about why they often differ so much. Quantitative analysis of thirty schools suggests that teacher value-added measures and informal principal evaluations are…

  5. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  6. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  7. A Comparative Study of Directly Selected, In-Service Promoted and Online Selected Subject Specialists Regarding Teaching Effectiveness in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Gul, Rizwana

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the teaching effectiveness of directly selected, in-service promoted and online selected subject specialists teaching at higher secondary school level in Kohat Division, Pakistan. The target population of the study was the higher secondary school students in Kohat Division, Pakistan. A sample of 600…

  8. Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of Education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Anwar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the teaching methods and evaluation practices in English subject at secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education GCE-O-level in Pakistan. The population of the study was students, teachers and experts at SSC and 0-level in the Punjab province. Purposive and random sampling techniques…

  9. Electrophysiological changes elicited by auditory stimuli given a positive or negative value: a study comparing anhedonic with hedonic subjects.

    PubMed

    Pierson, A; Ragot, R; Ripoche, A; Lesevre, N

    1987-07-01

    The present experiment investigates in 'normal' subjects the relationship between personality characteristics (anhedonia versus hedonia) and the influence of the affective value of acoustic stimuli (positive, negative, neutral) on various electrophysiological indices reflecting either tonic activation or phasic arousal (EEG power spectra, contingent negative variation: CNV, heart rate, skin potential responses: SPR) as well as on behavioural indices (reaction time: RT). Eighteen subjects were divided into two groups according to their scores at two self-rating questionnaires, the Chapman's Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS) and the Beck-Weissman's Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) that quantifies cognitive distortions presumed to constitute high risk for depression: 9 with high scores at both scales formed the A group (Anhedonic-dysfunctional), 9 with low scores at both scales, the H group (Hedonic-adapted) The electrophysiological indices were recorded during 3 situations: the first one was a classical CNV paradigm with a motor reaction time task in which one of 3 tones of different pitch represented the warning stimulus S1; during the second, conditioning phase, two of these tones were associated with either a success (and reward) or a failure (and punishment) during a memory task in order to make them acquire either a positive or a negative affective value; the third situation consisted in the repeating of the first CNV paradigm in order to test the effect of the positive and the negative stimuli versus the neutral one on RTs and electrophysiological data. Significant between-group differences were found regarding tonic activation as well as phasic arousal indices from the very beginning of the experiment when all stimuli were neutral ones, the anhedonics exhibiting higher activation and arousal than the hedonics at the cortical (increased CNV amplitude, increased power in the beta frequency band), cardiovascular (higher heart rate habituating more slowly) and

  10. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  11. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  12. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects. PMID:26473160

  13. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    PubMed

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. PMID:25554622

  14. High frequency of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections: patients with peripheral arterial disease and those with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases compared to normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, S S; Stivala, A; Bonaccorso, C; Anzaldi, M; Fiore, V; Simili, M; Neri, S; Garozzo, A; Tempera, G; Nicoletti, G

    2010-12-01

    The role of bacterial infections, mainly Chlamydophila pneumoniae, on atherosclerotic processes as well as the therapeutic utility of additional antibiotic treatment is still an open question. In this study we compared the serological profiles of 160 patients (80 with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), diagnosed with an ankle/brachial index (ABI) ≤ 0.9 and 80 with risk factors for cardiovascular disease - CVD) with those of 80 healthy subjects, serum levels of specific C. pneumoniae antibodies using the microimmunofluorescence test. Our results show that PAD patients had a higher frequency of C. pneumoniae infection than those with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This frequency was lower if compared to the previous two groups in controls. 44 out of the 80 (55%) patients with PAD and 34 out of the 80 (42.58%) subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease were seropositive while only 24 of the 80 (30%) healthy subjects showed seropositivity to C. pneumoniae. Furthermore, higher anticorpal titers were also found in patients with peripheral arterial disease and in patients with cardiovascular risk factors if compared to healthy subjects. On the basis of these results, we confirm that C. pneumoniae infection is frequent in peripheral arterial disease patients and we believe that it could be considered as an additional risk factor involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:21303746

  15. Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Detected by Computed Tomographic Angiography in Subjects with Diabetes Compared to Those without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Khazai, Bahram; Luo, Yanting; Rosenberg, Steven; Wingrove, James; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little data are available regarding coronary plaque composition and semi-quantitative scores in individuals with diabetes; the extent to which diabetes may affect the presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) needs more evaluation. Considering that this information may be of great value in formulating preventive interventions in this population, we compared these findings in individuals with diabetes to those without. Methods Multi-Detector Computed Tomographic (MDCT) images of 861 consecutive patients with diabetes who were referred to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute from January 2000 to September 2012, were evaluated using a 15–coronary segment model. All 861 patients underwent calcium scoring and from these; 389 had coronary CT angiography (CTA). CAC score was compared to 861 age, sex and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI), family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Segment Involvement Score (SIS; the total number of segments with any plaque), Segment Stenosis Score (SSS; the sum of maximal stenosis score per segment), Total Plaque Score (TPS; the sum of the plaque amount per segment) and plaque compositionwere compared to 389 age, sex and ethnicity matched controls without diabetes after adjustment for BMI, family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking. Results Diabetes was positively correlated to the presence and extent of CAC (P<0.0001 for both). SIS, SSS and TPS were significantly higher in those with diabetes (P<0.0001). Number of mixed and calcified plaques were significantly higher in those with diabetes (P = 0.018 and P<0.001 respectively) but there was no significant difference in the number of non-calcified plaques between the two groups (P = 0.398). Conclusions Patients with diabetes have higher CAC and semi-quantitative coronary plaque scores compared to the age, gender and ethnicity

  16. Bile acid production in human subjects: rate of oxidation of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol compared to fecal bile acid excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, N.O.; Bradlow, H.L.; Ahrens, E.H. Jr.; Rosenfeld, R.S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Bile acid production has been quantitated in seven subjects by methods that compare the results of two independent approaches, namely, quantitation of cholesterol side-chain oxidation and fecal bile acid excretion. Six hypertriglyceridemic (HT) subjects and one normolipidemic control were studied by both techniques. A further control subject was studied by the cholesterol side-chain oxidation method alone. Cholesterol side-chain oxidation was quantitated by measuring the appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O after intravenous administration of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol, using multicompartmental analysis of plasma cholesterol and (/sup 3/H)water specific activity. Body water kinetics were independently defined by use of oral D/sub 2/O. Two HT subjects were restudied while they were taking cholestyramine, 16 g/day. In all ten studies, multicompartmental analysis closely simulated the observed appearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. Values obtained for bile acid production suggest that cholesterol oxidation, or bile acid input, was significantly greater than fecal bile acid output in the HT subjects (P less than 0.05). Cholesterol side-chain oxidation rates in the two normal subjects were lower than those encountered in HT subjects, being similar to published values for normal subjects both for bile acid synthesis as determined by isotope dilution kinetics and fecal bile acid excretion. Studies conducted with two, synthetically different, preparations of (24,25-/sup 3/H)cholesterol indicated that, in one of the two preparations, approximately 20% of the tritium label was at positions proximal to C24. In the other preparation examined, all of the tritium was located at, or distal to, C24. Further studies revealed that 0.055-0.24% of the dose was present as labile tritium by virtue of its appearance as /sup 3/H/sub 2/O following in vitro incubation with human plasma. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Characteristics of Maxillary Morphology in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients Compared to Normal Subjects and Skeletal Class III Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chanyuan; Yin, Ningbei; Zheng, Yilue; Song, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This study is to investigate the anatomical features of maxillae in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients with maxillary retrusion. Additionally, the dissimilarities of retruded maxillae between the UCLP patients and the skeletal class III patients were compared. Craniofacial measurements were carried out among 32 UCLP adult patients with maxillary retrusion (GC), 24 adult patients in class III (SNA < 80°, ANB < 0°) patients (GIII), and 32 normal controls (GN). The authors measured the width and length of the maxillae, as well as their relative positions to the coronal plane passing through basion. The independent sample group t test was performed, and P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. In the GC group, the anterior and posterior maxillary length (A1-P3M⊥CP and P3M-P6M⊥CP) and overall maxillary length (A1-P6M⊥CP) at the dental level, the interdental widths of the maxillae, the maxillary volume (GM), and the volume consisting of maxilla and maxillary sinus (GT) significantly reduced compared with the GN group (P < 0.05). The distances from the points on the maxillae to the coronal plane (A1⊥CP, P3M⊥CP, and P6M⊥CP) in the GC and GIII groups were smaller than those in the GN group (P < 0.05). In summary, for the UCLP patients, the decreased prominence of maxillary complex could be mainly caused by the shortened maxillary length; meanwhile, posterior position of the maxillary body may have some influence on the maxillary protrusion. While for the class III patients, maxillary retrusion was resulted from malposition and malmorphology on an equal basis. PMID:26267583

  18. Comparative evaluation of adding different opiates (morphine, meperidine, buprenorphine, or fentanyl) to lidocaine in duration and quality of axillary brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Saryazdi, Hamid; Yazdani, Alireza; Sajedi, Parvin; Aghadavoudi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no agreement about the effect of adding opioids to local anesthetics in peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding different opioids with equipotent doses of lidocaine in axillary brachial plexus block using ultrasonography and nerve locator guidance. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, 72 adult patients aged 18–65 years old scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the forearm and hand with axillary brachial plexus block were selected and randomly allocated to four groups. Meperidine (pethidine), buprenorphine, morphine, and fentanyl with equipotent doses were added in 40cc of 1% lidocaine in P, B, M, and F groups, respectively. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks, severity of patients’ pain, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and adverse events (such as nausea and pruritus) during perioperative period were recorded. Results: The onset time for the sensory block was similar in the four groups. The onset time for the motor block was significantly faster in morphine and pethidine groups (P = 0.006). The duration of sensory and motor blocks was not statistically different among the four groups. The quality of motor blockade was complete in 100% of patients receiving pethidine or morphine and 77.8% of patients receiving buprenorphine or fentanyl (P = 0.021). Conclusion: In the upper extremity surgeries performed under axillary brachial plexus block addition of morphine or pethidine to lidocaine may be superior to other opioids (i.e. fentanyl and buprenorphine) due to better quality and quantity of motor blockade and faster onset of the block. PMID:26645017

  19. Nateglinide and Acarbose Are Comparably Effective Reducers of Postprandial Glycemic Excursions in Chinese Antihyperglycemic Agent–Naive Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Hong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Peng, Yongde; Mo, Yifei; Bao, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have identified postprandial glycemic excursions as risk factors for diabetes complications. This study aimed to compare the effects of nateglinide and acarbose treatments on postprandial glycemic excursions in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects and Methods This was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study. One hundred three antihyperglycemic agent–naive subjects with type 2 diabetes (hemoglobin A1c range, 6.5–9.0%) were prospectively recruited from four hospitals in China. The intervention was nateglinide (120 mg three times a day) or acarbose (50 mg three times a day) therapy for 2 weeks. A continuous glucose monitoring system was used to calculate the incremental area under the curve of postprandial blood glucose (AUCpp), the incremental glucose peak (IGP), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, SD of blood glucose, the mean of daily differences, and 24-h mean blood glucose (MBG). Subjects' serum glycated albumin and the plasma insulin levels were also analyzed. Results Both agents caused significant reductions on AUCpp and IGP. Similarly, both treatment groups showed significant improvements in the intra- and interday glycemic excursions, as well as the 24-h MBG and serum glycated albumin compared with baseline (P<0.001). However, neither of the agents produced a significantly better effect (P>0.05). Moreover, the nateglinide-treated group had significantly increased insulin levels at 30 min and at 120 min after a standard meal compared with baseline, whereas the acarbose-treated group decreased. No serious adverse events occurred in either group. The rates of hypoglycemic episodes were comparable in the two groups, and no severe hypoglycemic episode occurred in either group. Conclusions Nateglinide and acarbose were comparably effective in reducing postprandial glycemic excursions in antihyperglycemic agent–naive Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, possibly

  20. Comparative study on the stiffness of transverse carpal ligament between normal subjects and carpal tunnel syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the stiffness of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) between healthy volunteers and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients using sonoelastography. We studied 17 healthy volunteers (four men, 13 women; range 37-84 years) and 18 hands of 13 patients with CTS (three men, ten women; range 41-79 years). Thickness and elasticity of the TCL were evaluated by sonoelastography. Elasticity was estimated by strain ratio of an acoustic coupler, which has a standardized elasticity as a reference medium, to the TCL (AC/T strain ratio). The AC/T strain ratios of the healthy volunteers and the CTS patients were 6.0 and 8.1, respectively (p = 0.030). The AC/T strain ratio showed a positive correlation with the duration of symptoms in the CTS patients (p = 0.035, r = 0.50). We concluded that increased stiffness of the TCL could be one of the causes for CTS. PMID:24164125

  1. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  2. Identification of genes subject to positive selection in uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli: A comparative genomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Swaine L.; Hung, Chia-Seui; Xu, Jian; Reigstad, Christopher S.; Magrini, Vincent; Sabo, Aniko; Blasiar, Darin; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Meyer, Rekha R.; Ozersky, Philip; Armstrong, Jon R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Latreille, J. Phillip; Spieth, John; Hooton, Thomas M.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a model laboratory bacterium, a species that is widely distributed in the environment, as well as a mutualist and pathogen in its human hosts. As such, E. coli represents an attractive organism to study how environment impacts microbial genome structure and function. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) must adapt to life in several microbial communities in the human body, and has a complex life cycle in the bladder when it causes acute or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Several studies designed to identify virulence factors have focused on genes that are uniquely represented in UPEC strains, whereas the role of genes that are common to all E. coli has received much less attention. Here we describe the complete 5,065,741-bp genome sequence of a UPEC strain recovered from a patient with an acute bladder infection and compare it with six other finished E. coli genome sequences. We searched 3,470 ortholog sets for genes that are under positive selection only in UPEC strains. Our maximum likelihood-based analysis yielded 29 genes involved in various aspects of cell surface structure, DNA metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and UTI. These results were validated by resequencing a subset of the 29 genes in a panel of 50 urinary, periurethral, and rectal E. coli isolates from patients with UTI. These studies outline a computational approach that may be broadly applicable for studying strain-specific adaptation and pathogenesis in other bacteria. PMID:16585510

  3. Excess conductivity analysis in YBa2Cu3O7‑d added with SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Salem, M. Ben; Azzouz, F. Ben

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles (denoted NP-SiO2) and nanowires (denoted NW-SiO2) additions during the final processing stage on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123 for brevity) in the mean field region has been reported. Series of samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid-state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 0.5 wt.%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity properties have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical measurements. TEM investigations show the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples, however nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. The fluctuation conductivity was analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Using the Lawrence-Doniach equations, the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number (NG) and equations, the coherence length, the effective layer thickness, the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0) and the critical current density Jc(0) were estimated. It was found that the addition of an optimum concentration of SiO2 nanomaterials, that depends on the shape, effectively controlled the microstructure, the grains coupling and hence improved the physical properties of Y-123 compound.

  4. A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS)

    PubMed Central

    Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush. Aim Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system. Materials and methods We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine. Discussion and conclusion Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX. PMID:26330902

  5. Multi-Center Randomized Phase II Study Comparing Cediranib plus Gefitinib with Cediranib plus Placebo in Subjects with Recurrent/Progressive Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicholas; McBain, Catherine; Nash, Stephen; Hopkins, Kirsten; Sanghera, Paul; Saran, Frank; Phillips, Mark; Dungey, Fiona; Clifton-Hadley, Laura; Wanek, Katharina; Krell, Daniel; Jeffries, Sarah; Khan, Iftekhar; Smith, Paul; Mulholland, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Cediranib, an oral pan-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, failed to show benefit over lomustine in relapsed glioblastoma. One resistance mechanism for cediranib is up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This study aimed to determine if dual therapy with cediranib and the oral EGFR inhibitor gefitinib improved outcome in recurrent glioblastoma. Methods and Findings This was a multi-center randomized, two-armed, double-blinded phase II study comparing cediranib plus gefitinib versus cediranib plus placebo in subjects with first relapse/first progression of glioblastoma following surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS). Secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS) and radiologic response rate. Recruitment was terminated early following suspension of the cediranib program. 38 subjects (112 planned) were enrolled with 19 subjects in each treatment arm. Median PFS with cediranib plus gefitinib was 3.6 months compared to 2.8 months for cediranib plus placebo (HR; 0.72, 90% CI; 0.41 to 1.26). Median OS was 7.2 months with cediranib plus gefitinib and 5.5 months with cediranib plus placebo (HR; 0.68, 90% CI; 0.39 to 1.19). Eight subjects (42%) had a partial response in the cediranib plus gefitinib arm versus five patients (26%) in the cediranib plus placebo arm. Conclusions Cediranib and gefitinib in combination is tolerated in patients with glioblastoma. Incomplete recruitment led to the study being underpowered. However, a trend towards improved survival and response rates with the addition of gefitinib to cediranib was observed. Further studies of the combination incorporating EGFR and VEGF inhibition are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01310855 PMID:27232884

  6. Reduced mRNA Expression of PTGDS in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder Patients Compared with Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disturbances related to the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, as supported by a recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis; however, evidence from clinical studies on a transcriptional level is lacking. Two enzymes in the arachidonic acid cascade are the prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS), which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and the aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3), which catalyzes the reduction of PGD2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of PTGDS and AKR1C3 is deregulated in rapid-cycling disorder patients in a euthymic or current affective state compared with healthy control subjects, and that expression alters with affective states. Methods: PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6–12 months and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Results: Adjusted for age and gender, PTGDS mRNA expression was down-regulated in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients in a euthymic, depressive, and manic/hypomanic state compared with healthy control subjects. No difference in PTGDS mRNA expression was observed between affective states. AKR1C3 mRNA expression did not differ between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state or in comparison with healthy control subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest a role for aberrantly-regulated PTGDS mRNA expression in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. The sample size was limited; replication of the findings in larger, independent samples is warranted to further explore the role of the arachidonic acid cascade

  7. A multicentre, open-label, randomized comparative study of tigecycline versus ceftriaxone sodium plus metronidazole for the treatment of hospitalized subjects with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Towfigh, S; Pasternak, J; Poirier, A; Leister, H; Babinchak, T

    2010-08-01

    Tigecycline (TGC) has demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety, in comparison with imipenem/cilastatin in phase 3 clinical trials, for complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI). The present study comprised a multicentre, open-label, randomized study of TGC vs. ceftriaxone plus metronidazole (CTX/MET) for the treatment of patients with cIAI. Eligible subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive either an initial dose of TGC (100 mg) followed by 50 mg every 12 h or CTX (2 g once daily) plus MET (1-2 g daily), for 4-14 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the clinically evaluable (CE) population at the test of cure (TOC) assessment. Of 473 randomized subjects, 376 were CE. Among these, clinical cure rates were 70.4% (133/189) with TGC vs. 74.3% (139/187) with CTX/MET (95% CI -13.1 to 5.1; p 0.009 for non-inferiority). Clinical cure rates for subjects with Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores > or =10 were 56.8% (21/37) with TGC vs. 58.3% (21/36) with CTX/MET. The microbiologic response was similar between the two treatment arms, with microbiological eradication at TOC achieved in 68.1% (94/138) of TGC-treated subjects and 71.5% (98/137) of CTX/MET-treated subjects. (The most frequently reported adverse events (AEs) for both treatment arms were nausea (TGC, 38.6% vs CTX/MET, 27.7%) and vomiting (TGC, 23.3% vs CTX/MET, 17.7%). Overall discontinuation rates as a result of an AE were 8.9% and 4.8% in TGC- and comparator-treated subjects, respectively. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that TGC monotherapy is non-inferior to a combination regimen of CTX/MET with respect to treating subjects with cIAI. PMID:20670293

  8. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000

  9. Grand average ERP-image plotting and statistics: A method for comparing variability in event-related single-trial EEG activities across subjects and conditions

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern computing methods, modeling trial-to-trial variability in biophysical recordings including electroencephalography (EEG) has become of increasingly interest. Yet no widely used method exists for comparing variability in ordered collections of single-trial data epochs across conditions and subjects. We have developed a method based on an ERP-image visualization tool in which potential, spectral power, or some other measure at each time point in a set of event-related single-trial data epochs are represented as color coded horizontal lines that are then stacked to form a 2-D colored image. Moving-window smoothing across trial epochs can make otherwise hidden event-related features in the data more perceptible. Stacking trials in different orders, for example ordered by subject reaction time, by context-related information such as inter-stimulus interval, or some other characteristic of the data (e.g., latency-window mean power or phase of some EEG source) can reveal aspects of the multifold complexities of trial-to-trial EEG data variability. This study demonstrates new methods for computing and visualizing grand ERP-image plots across subjects and for performing robust statistical testing on the resulting images. These methods have been implemented and made freely available in the EEGLAB signal-processing environment that we maintain and distribute. PMID:25447029

  10. Sleep, morning alertness and quality of life in subjects treated with zopiclone and in good sleepers. Study comparing 167 patients and 381 good sleepers.

    PubMed

    Léger, D; Janus, C; Pellois, A; Quera-Salva, M; Dreyfus, J

    1995-01-01

    From 20,000 households regularly surveyed by a national survey institute (Sofres), two groups were selected and questioned (using a 23-item questionnaire) about sleep vigilance and quality of life. The first group was composed of insomniacs using zopiclone for the last 12 months and no other CNS treatments (167 subjects). The second group was composed of 381 "good sleepers" selected as having no or occasionally one sleep disturbance in the last 12 months. No difference was found between the two groups in average total sleep time. Sleep disturbances were statistically equal in the two groups except for difficulties in initiating sleep which is more present for zopiclone users (13% vs 3%). Vigilance was mostly comparable in both groups.Five aspects of quality of life explored by the questionnaires (the professional, relational and sentimental, domestic, leisure and safety aspects) appeared to be comparable in the two groups. PMID:19698404

  11. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Wickenberg, Jennie; Fahlström, Rickard; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof; Darwiche, Gassan

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1), cereal bran flakes (GER2) or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3). Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023). The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045) and 120 min (p = 0.023) after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy subjects, they should be

  12. Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Nourrisson, Céline; Scanzi, Julien; Pereira, Bruno; NkoudMongo, Christina; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Cian, Amandine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Livrelli, Valérie; Delbac, Frédéric; Dapoigny, Michel; Poirier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M) and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U) according to the Rome III criteria) and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder) subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group). We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56). Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder) positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance. PMID:25365580

  13. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fresán, Ana; Sarmiento, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n = 95) and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P > 0.05). In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents. PMID:24724019

  14. The Effect of Adding Magnesium Sulfate to Lidocaine Compared with Paracetamol in Prevention of Acute Pain in Hand Surgery Patients Under Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA)

    PubMed Central

    Mirkheshti, Alireza; Aryani, Mohammad Reza; Shojaei, Poujia; Dabbagh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study was done to compare the analgesic effects of “magnesium plus lidocaine”, “paracetamol plus lidocaine”, and “placebo plus lidocaine” on block characteristics for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) in patients undergoing upper extremity orthopedic surgery. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 90 patients were selected and entered randomly into three study groups after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Time to start of the sensory and motor block were measured separately and also the duration of these two block types were measured. Post-op pain assessment was measured using a numeric rating scale. Venous samples were checked and compared regarding blood gas and pH measurements. Results: The time from drug injection to sensory block onset was the shortest in the magnesium plus lidocaine group; the time from drug injection to the time of motor block onset was the shortest in the lidocaine plus magnesium group; the duration of the motor block was the longest in the lidocaine plus magnesium group. Discussion: Addition of magnesium lidocaine in patients undergoing upper extremity orthopedic operations using IVRA decreases significantly the time gap between drug administration and the start of the block; also, this drug combination increases the IVRA block length, while paracetamol does not have such a significant effect. PMID:23024850

  15. Added value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared to mammography, ultrasound and 3-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seymer, A; Keinrath, P; Holzmannhofer, J; Pirich, C; Hergan, K; Meissnitzer, M W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively analyse the diagnostic value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared with that of mammography (MG), breast ultrasound and MRI of the breast. Methods: Within a 15-month period, 67 patients with 92 breast lesions rated as Category IV or V according to the breast imaging reporting and data system detected with MG and/or ultrasound were included into the study. After the injection of 740–1110 MBq of Technetium-99m (99mTc) SestaMIBI intravenously, scintigrams were obtained in two projections comparable to MG. The BSGI was analysed visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating a relative uptake factor (X). With the exception of two patients with cardiac pacemakers, all patients underwent 3-T breast MRI. Biopsy results were obtained as the reference standard in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values, accuracy and area under the curve were calculated for each modality. Results: Among the 92 lesions, 67 (72.8%) were malignant. 60 of the 67 cancers of any size were detected by BSGI with an overall sensitivity of 90%, only exceeded by ultrasound with a sensitivity of 99%. The sensitivity of BSGI for lesions <1 cm declined significantly to 60%. Overall specificity of ultrasound was only 20%. Specificity, accuracy and positive-predictive value were the highest for BSGI (56%, 80% and 85%, respectively). X was significantly higher for malignant lesions (mean, 4.27) and differed significantly between ductal types (mean, 4.53) and the other histopathological entities (mean, 3.12). Conclusion: Semi-quantitative BSGI with calculation of the relative uptake factor (X) can help to characterize breast lesions. BSGI negativity may obviate the need for biopsy of breast lesions >1 cm with low or intermediate prevalence for malignancy. Advances in knowledge: Compared with morphological imaging modalities, specificity, positive

  16. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  17. Bright light in elderly subjects with nonseasonal major depressive disorder: a double blind randomised clinical trial using early morning bright blue light comparing dim red light treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lieverse, Ritsaert; Nielen, Marjan MA; Veltman, Dick J; Uitdehaag, Bernard MJ; van Someren, Eus JW; Smit, Jan H; Hoogendijk, Witte JG

    2008-01-01

    Background Depression frequently occurs in the elderly. Its cause is largely unknown, but several studies point to disturbances of biological rhythmicity. In both normal aging, and depression, the functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is impaired, as evidenced by an increased prevalence of day-night rhythm perturbations, such as sleeping disorders. Moreover, the inhibitory SCN neurons on the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis) have decreased activity and HPA-activity is enhanced, when compared to non-depressed elderly. Using bright light therapy (BLT) the SCN can be stimulated. In addition, the beneficial effects of BLT on seasonal depression are well accepted. BLT is a potentially safe, nonexpensive and well accepted treatment option. But the current literature on BLT for depression is inconclusive. Methods/Design This study aims to show whether BLT can reduce non-seasonal major depression in elderly patients. Randomized double blind placebo controlled trial in 126 subjects of 60 years and older with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD, DSM-IV/SCID-I). Subjects are recruited through referrals of psychiatric outpatient clinics and from case finding from databases of general practitioners and old-people homes in the Amsterdam region. After inclusion subjects are randomly allocated to the active (bright blue light) vs. placebo (dim red light) condition using two Philips Bright Light Energy boxes type HF 3304 per subject, from which the light bulbs have been covered with bright blue- or dim red light- permitting filters. Patients will be stratified by use of antidepressants. Prior to treatment a one-week period without light treatment will be used. At three time points several endocrinological, psychophysiological, psychometrically, neuropsychological measures are performed: just before the start of light therapy, after completion of three weeks therapy period, and three weeks thereafter. Discussion If BLT reduces nonseasonal

  18. Determining the Effect of Gutkha on Serum Levels of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid as Compared to Smoking among Chronic Periodontitis Subjects : A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Kalburgi, Veena C; Koregol, Arati C; Patanashetti, Jyoti; Rao, Subramaniam; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis, being a common inflammatory disease has a multifactorial origin , with smoking and gutkha as few of the causative entities. The role of smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis is been well documented in literature. Cigarette smoke also affects vitamin B12 and folic acid mechanisms. Nutritionally derived vitamin B12 occurs mainly as either hydroxycobalamin or deoxyadenosycobalmin. Folic acid is also heat sensitive and water soluble, closely linked to vitamin B12 in its metabolism. However, effect of smokeless tobacco in form of gutkha on serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid is yet to be explored. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and correlate serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and folic acid (FA) levels among periodontally healthy subjects and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) subjects with habit of smoking and gutkha chewing. Materials and Methods: The study included 111 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 60 y. Participants were divided into four groups: 30 healthy subjects (Group I), 29 subjects with CP (Group II), 25 smokers with CP (Group III) and 27 gutkha chewers with CP (Group IV). Clinical parameters included pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) & gingival index (GI) following which VB12 and FA levels were estimated through UV-spectrophotometry method and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software, Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. p-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results : Pairwise comparison by Mann-Whitney U-test showed an increase in the serum VB12 in Group IV when compared to Group I (p=0.01) and Group II (p=0.01). Although serum FA levels were found to be low in Group III (7.61 ug/ml) & Group IV (8.64 ug/ml), Group III was found to be statistically significant (P=0.046). The clinical parameters GI, PPD and CAL among the four groups of patients were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study results suggested that

  19. Safety and tolerability of theta burst stimulation vs. single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation: a comparative study of 165 pediatric subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yaejee H.; Wu, Steve W.; Pedapati, Ernest V.; Horn, Paul S.; Huddleston, David A.; Laue, Cameron S.; Gilbert, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although single- and paired-pulse (sp/pp) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies are considered minimal risk in adults and children, the safety profile for theta-burst TMS (TBS) is unknown. Objective: In this comparative analysis, we explored the rate, severity, and specific symptoms of TMS-related adverse effects (AEs) between sp/ppTMS and TBS in subjects between ages 6 and 18 years. Method: Data from 165 participants from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. Assessment of AEs was performed based on baseline and post-TMS administration of a symptom-based questionnaire that rated AEs on a 5-level ordinal scale (minimal, mild, moderate, marked, severe). AE rates and severity were compared using Chi Square or Fisher’s Exact Test depending on data characteristics. Result: Overall, no seizures or severe-rated AEs were reported by 165 pediatric participants. The rate of AE in all TBS sessions was 10.5% (n = 76, 95% CI: 4.7–19.7%), whereas the rate of AE in all sp/ppTMS sessions was 12.4% (n = 89, 95% CI: 6.3–21.0%). There was no statistical difference in AE rates between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p = 0.71). In all sp/ppTMS and TBS sessions, 20 subjects reported a total of 35 AEs, among these 31 (~88.6%) were rated as “minimal” or “mild”. There was no difference in the severity of AE between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p = 1.0). Only one of 76 TBS participants reported an AE rated as more than minimal/mild. Conclusion: Our comparative analysis showed that TBS appears to be as safe as sp/ppTMS in terms of AE rate and severity. This report supports further investigation of TBS in children. PMID:25698958

  20. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country. PMID:27139592

  1. Comparing the Psychometric Properties of the Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Behaviors (CNPI) and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAIN-AD) Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Herr, Keela; Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Buck, Harleah G.; Black, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine and compare the psychometric properties of two common observational pain assessment tools used in persons with dementia. Design In a cross-sectional descriptive study nursing home (NH) residents were videotaped at rest and during a structured movement procedure. Following one training session and one practice session, two trained graduate nursing research assistants independently scored the tapes using the two pain observation tools. Setting Fourteen nursing homes in Western Washington State participating in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to enhance pain assessment and management. Participants Sixty participants with moderate to severe pain were identified by nursing staff or chosen based on the pain items from the most recent Minimum Data Set assessment. Measures Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI) and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD), demographic and pain-related data (Minimum Data Set), nursing assistant reports of participants’ usual pain intensity, Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS). Results Internal consistency for both tools was good except for the CNPI at rest for one rater. Inter-rater reliability for pain presence was fair (K = 0.25 for CNPI with movement; K = 0.31 for PAINAD at rest) to moderate (K = 0.43 for CNPI at rest; K = 0.54 for PAINAD with movement). There were significant differences in mean CNPI and PAINAD scores at rest and during movement, providing support for construct validity. However, both tools demonstrated marked floor effects, particularly when participants were at rest, Conclusions Despite earlier studies supporting the reliability and validity of the CNPI and the PAINAD, findings from the current study indicate that these measures warrant further study with clinical users, should be used cautiously both in research and clinical settings and only as part of a comprehensive approach to pain assessment. PMID:20088854

  2. Preserved neurogenesis in non-demented individuals with AD neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Briley, David; Ghirardi, Valeria; Woltjer, Randy; Renck, Alicia; Zolochevska, Olga; Taglialatela, Giulio; Micci, Maria-Adelaide

    2016-01-01

    Rare individuals remain cognitively intact despite the presence of neuropathology usually associated with fully symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which we refer to as Non-Demented with Alzheimer's disease Neuropathology (NDAN). Understanding the involved mechanism(s) of their cognitive resistance may reveal novel strategies to treat AD-related dementia. In the pursuit of this goal, we determined the number of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) and investigated the expression of several miRNAs in NDAN and AD subjects. Laser-capture microdissection of autopsy human hippocampus DG and qRT-PCR miRNA analyses were combined with immunofluorescence in this study. The number of SOX2(+) NSCs in the DG was significantly increased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD subjects. Further, the prevalence of SOX2(+) NSCs was found to correlate with cognitive capacity. Neurogenesis-regulating miRNAs were decreased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD patients. An increased number of NSCs and new neurons in NDAN individuals is associated with a unique expression of regulating miRNAs and strongly support a role of neurogenesis in mediating, in part, the ability of these individuals to resist the pathological burden of AD. PMID:27298190

  3. Preserved neurogenesis in non-demented individuals with AD neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Briley, David; Ghirardi, Valeria; Woltjer, Randy; Renck, Alicia; Zolochevska, Olga; Taglialatela, Giulio; Micci, Maria-Adelaide

    2016-01-01

    Rare individuals remain cognitively intact despite the presence of neuropathology usually associated with fully symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which we refer to as Non-Demented with Alzheimer’s disease Neuropathology (NDAN). Understanding the involved mechanism(s) of their cognitive resistance may reveal novel strategies to treat AD-related dementia. In the pursuit of this goal, we determined the number of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) and investigated the expression of several miRNAs in NDAN and AD subjects. Laser-capture microdissection of autopsy human hippocampus DG and qRT-PCR miRNA analyses were combined with immunofluorescence in this study. The number of SOX2+ NSCs in the DG was significantly increased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD subjects. Further, the prevalence of SOX2+ NSCs was found to correlate with cognitive capacity. Neurogenesis-regulating miRNAs were decreased in NDAN individuals as compared to AD patients. An increased number of NSCs and new neurons in NDAN individuals is associated with a unique expression of regulating miRNAs and strongly support a role of neurogenesis in mediating, in part, the ability of these individuals to resist the pathological burden of AD. PMID:27298190

  4. Comparative short-term effects of two thoracic spinal manipulation techniques in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Méndez, Amaloha; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Gogorza-Arroitaonandia, Kristobal; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-08-01

    Spinal Manipulation (SM) has been purported to decrease pain and improve function in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Previous research has investigated which individuals with non-specific neck pain will be more likely to benefit from SM. It has not yet been proven whether or not the effectiveness of thoracic SM depends on the specific technique being used. This double-blind randomized trial has compared the short-term effects of two thoracic SM maneuvers in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sixty participants were distributed randomly into two groups. One group received the Dog technique (n = 30), with the subject in supine position, and the other group underwent the Toggle-Recoil technique (n = 30), with the participant lying prone, T4 being the targeted area in both cases. Evaluations were made of self-reported neck pain (Visual Analogue Scale); neck mobility (Cervical Range of Motion); and pressure pain threshold at the cervical and thoracic levels (C4 and T4 spinous process) and over the site described for location of tense bands of the upper trapezius muscle. Measurements were taken before intervention, immediately afterward, and 20 min later. Both maneuvers improved neck mobility and mechanosensitivity and reduced pain in the short term. No major or clinical differences were found between the groups. In the between-groups comparison slightly better results were observed in the Toggle-Recoil group only for cervical extension (p = 0.009), right lateral flexion (p = 0.004) and left rotation (p < 0.05). PMID:24679838

  5. Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    So, C H; Siu, T O; Chan, K M; Chin, M K; Li, C T

    1994-03-01

    A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports. PMID:8044488

  6. Isokinetic profile of dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle--a comparative study of élite versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed Central

    So, C H; Siu, T O; Chan, K M; Chin, M K; Li, C T

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work. This suggests that at a specific level of plantar flexion, the gymnasts had stronger dorsiflexion compared with the cyclists and that in sports involving jumping and running, increased attention should be given to strengthening the antagonist muscle groups (dorsiflexors) in order to achieve greater agonist-to-antagonist muscle balance thus preventing injury. The non-athletic subjects had substantially lower endurance capability in both flexors as measured by the endurance ratio. This implies that identifiable specialization in particular muscles results from training or participating in specialized sports. PMID:8044488

  7. Comparative analysis of CD4-4B4 and CD4-2H4 lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV negative homosexual, HIV seropositive and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vuillier, F; Lapresle, C; Dighiero, G

    1988-01-01

    A comparative analysis of subsets (4B4 and 2H4) within the CD4 lymphocyte subpopulation was made by double marker analysis among 23 healthy heterosexual, 16 healthy HIV seronegative high-risk homosexuals and 82 HIV seropositive subjects. Data show that the significant increase in CD4 lymphocytes observed among seronegative homosexuals corresponds mainly to an increase in CD4-4B4 positive cells while CD4-2H4 subset levels remain comparable to healthy heterosexual controls. A decrease both in CD4-4B4 and CD4-2H4, parallel to a decrease in CD4 subpopulation, was observed in asymptomatic seropositive carriers (SPC) and patients with ARC syndrome (AIDS-related complex) or AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Interestingly, an absolute decrease in CD4 subpopulation in patients with asymptomatic lymph node enlargement (LAS), is chiefly accounted for by a decrease in CD4-4B4 subset. The values of CD4-2H4 subset are significantly higher than those observed for SPC patients and are close to the normal values. These observations are of interest, as no differences between SPC and LAS patients could be detected when CD3, CD4 and CD8 subpopulations were studied. PMID:2964959

  8. A new formulation of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol has superior bioavailability compared to existing Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Meganathan, Puvaneswari; Jabir, Rafid Salim; Fuang, Ho Gwo; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Choudhury, Roma Basu; Taib, Nur Aishah; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Chik, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Gamma and delta tocotrienols are isomers of Vitamin E with established potency in pre-clinical anti-cancer research. This single-dose, randomized, crossover study aimed to compare the safety and bioavailability of a new formulation of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol (GDT) in comparison with the existing Tocotrienol-rich Fraction (TRF) in terms of gamma and delta isomers in healthy volunteers. Subjects were given either two 300 mg GDT (450 mg γ-T3 and 150 mg δ-T3) capsules or four 200 mg TRF (451.2 mg γ-T3 &102.72 mg δ-T3) capsules and blood samples were taken at several time points over 24 hours. Plasma tocotrienol concentrations were determined using HPLC method. The 90% CI for gamma and delta tocotrienols for the ratio of log-transformation of GDT/TRF for Cmax and AUC0-∞ (values were anti-logged and expressed as a percentage) were beyond the bioequivalence limits (106.21-195.46, 154.11-195.93 and 52.35-99.66, 74.82-89.44 respectively). The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for Tmax did not show any significant difference between GDT and TRF for both isomers (p > 0.05). No adverse events were reported during the entire period of study. GDT was found not bioequivalent to TRF, in terms of AUC and Cmax. Gamma tocotrienol in GDT showed superior bioavailability whilst delta tocotrienol showed less bioavailability compared to TRF. PMID:26323969

  9. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  10. Validity of nutrition risk index as a malnutrition screening tool compared with subjective global assessment in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, N.; Sinha, A.; Gupta, A.; Bhadauria, D.; Manjunath, R.; Kaul, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    We undertook this study to compare subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutrition risk index (NRI) as malnutrition screening tools in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nutrition status of the patients was categorized into low, moderate and high risk of malnutrition based on both NRI and SGA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of NRI were compared with SGA, an already validated tool of nutrition status assessment in PD patients. Two hundred and eighty-three end-stage renal disease patients (age 50.02 ± 13.76 years; 204 males, 150 diabetic) were included. Based on SGA, 71/283 (25.08%) had normal nutrition, 192/283 (67.84%) mild–moderate and 20/283 (7.07%) severe malnutrition. Based on NRI, 38/283 (13.43%) patients had normal nutritional status, 193/283 (68.20%) mild-moderate and 52/283 (18.37%) severe malnutrition. Twenty-three of 283 (8.1%) were correctly classified as normal by NRI (true negative) and 197/283 (69.6%) as malnourished (true positive), 15/283 (5.3%) as false negative, 48/283 (16.96%) were misclassified as malnourished (false positive). NRI has sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 32.39%. Positive predictive value and Negative predictive values (NPVs) of NRI are 80.41% and 60.53%, respectively. Accuracy of the test is 78%. The receiver operating characteristic curve of NRI is 0.63. To conclude, NRI carries high sensitivity but low specificity as compared to SGA. It can be used as screening tool but not as a diagnostic tool for assessment of nutritional status in PD patients because of its low specificity and NPV. PMID:26937075

  11. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    PubMed

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided. PMID:25900468

  12. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Phelan, Michael J; Keller, Robert; Shu, Cynthia; Argumedo, Ruby; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CFB) at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were −5.8 (P=0.0009) and −8.9 (P<0.0001) at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were −5.3 (P=0.06) and −13.73 (P<0.0001) at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake. PMID:24940052

  13. Is Nephrolithiasis an Unrecognized Extra-Articular Manifestation in Ankylosing Spondylitis? A Prospective Population-Based Swedish National Cohort Study with Matched General Population Comparator Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Ane Krag; Jacobsson, Lennart T. H.; Patschan, Oliver; Askling, Johan; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with several extra-articular manifestations. Nephrolithiasis (NL) has not been recognized as one of those, however, several factors known to increase the risk of NL are at play in AS patients. The objective was to estimate rates and predictors of NL in Swedish patients with AS compared to the general population. Methods and Findings We performed a prospective population-based nationwide cohort study based on linkage of data from Swedish registries. 8,572 AS patients were followed for 49,258 person-years (py) and 39,639 matched general population comparators were followed for 223,985 py. Patients were followed prospectively together with comparator subjects from January 2001 through December 2009. The first occurrence of NL during follow-up was the primary outcome. Hazard Ratios (HR) were used to compare these rates adjusting for comorbidities and treatment, and to assess predictors for NL. Mean age at study entry was 46 years (inter quartile range 36–56 years), 65% were males. Based on 250 vs. 466 NL events, the adjusted HR of NL in AS patients was 2.1 (95%CI 1.8 to 2.4). Predictors of NL within the AS group included prior diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (HR 2.3; 95%CI 1.7 to 3.3), prior diagnosis of NL (HR 16.4; 95%CI 11.5 to 23.4), and patients receiving anti-TNF treatment (HR 1.6; 95%CI 1.2 to 2.1). Male sex was a risk factor for NL both in AS patients and in the general population. Limitations The risk for residual confounding and inability to study the chemical nature of NL were considered the main limitations of the study. Conclusions Patients with AS are at increased risk of NL, which may be considered a novel extra-articular manifestation. Previous history of NL, IBD, AS disease severity and male sex were identified as predictors of NL in AS. PMID:25423471

  14. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  15. A new formulation of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol has superior bioavailability compared to existing Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Meganathan, Puvaneswari; Jabir, Rafid Salim; Fuang, Ho Gwo; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Choudhury, Roma Basu; Taib, Nur Aishah; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Chik, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Gamma and delta tocotrienols are isomers of Vitamin E with established potency in pre-clinical anti-cancer research. This single-dose, randomized, crossover study aimed to compare the safety and bioavailability of a new formulation of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol (GDT) in comparison with the existing Tocotrienol-rich Fraction (TRF) in terms of gamma and delta isomers in healthy volunteers. Subjects were given either two 300 mg GDT (450 mg γ-T3 and 150 mg δ-T3) capsules or four 200 mg TRF (451.2 mg γ-T3 & 102.72 mg δ-T3) capsules and blood samples were taken at several time points over 24 hours. Plasma tocotrienol concentrations were determined using HPLC method. The 90% CI for gamma and delta tocotrienols for the ratio of log-transformation of GDT/TRF for Cmax and AUC0–∞ (values were anti-logged and expressed as a percentage) were beyond the bioequivalence limits (106.21–195.46, 154.11–195.93 and 52.35–99.66, 74.82–89.44 respectively). The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for Tmax did not show any significant difference between GDT and TRF for both isomers (p > 0.05). No adverse events were reported during the entire period of study. GDT was found not bioequivalent to TRF, in terms of AUC and Cmax. Gamma tocotrienol in GDT showed superior bioavailability whilst delta tocotrienol showed less bioavailability compared to TRF. PMID:26323969

  16. A comparative study of the antitussive activity of levodropropizine and dropropizine in the citric acid-induced cough model in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, G; Cordaro, C I; Vanasia, M; Balzarotti, C; Camusso, L; Caiazzo, G; Maghini, L; Mazzocchi, M; Zennaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the levo-rotatory (S)-enantiomer of dropropizine, a racemic non-opiate antitussive agent which has been used clinically for many years. Compared with the racemic drug, levodropropizine exhibits in animal models similar antitussive activity but considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is also less likely to cause sedation in treated patients. Since the comparative antitussive potency of the two drugs in clinical experimental models has not been evaluated, the authors performed a randomized, double blind, cross over investigation in which the effects of single oral doses (60 and 90 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine were assessed by using the citric acid-induced cough model in eight normal volunteers. Stimulation tests involved inhalation of individual cumulative doses of citric acid (6.3 to 53.3 mg) which at pre-study assessment had been found to induce reproducibly at least ten coughs over a 30 sec period. Each subject was studied by repeating the citric acid stimulation test four times (0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h) on each of five different days separated by intervals of at least three days. In the absence of drug administration (control session), cough response to citric inhalation was remarkably reproducible throughout the 6 h period of observation. A marked and statistically significant reduction in cough response (to about one third--one sixth of the pre-drug values) was observed 1 h after intake for both compounds. At subsequent testing 2 h and 6 h after dosing, cough response was still depressed and did not differ significantly from that observed at 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1295724

  17. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  18. Comparative study of serology and histology based detection of Helicobacter pylori infections: a large population-based study of 7,241 subjects from China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y H; Sun, L P; Jin, S G; Yuan, Y

    2010-07-01

    Two detection methods for H. pylori infections, i.e. serological antibody titer measurements by Hp-ELISA and histological scoring by HE staining, have been compared to investigate the relationship between the diagnosis methods, to clarify the application scope of each diagnosis method and to determine its influencing factors. In the 7,241 subjects who participated in gastric cancer screening, H. pylori infection rate was 70.14% by the Hp-HE method and 41.87% by the Hp-ELISA method when 34EIU was recognized as the cut-off value. The IgG titers increased with the elevation of HE scores; however, the two methods were not closely correlated among those in different gastric disease status. Age, gender and drinking status did not have significant impact on the relationship between the two methods; however, smoking status seemed to significantly influence the correlation of the two diagnosis methods. In conclusion, it was necessary to reevaluate the cut-off value when using ELISA test kits in different population groups. In most cases, the results of two H. pylori infection diagnosis methods show high correlation. However, this relationship can be affected by smoking and gastric diseases status. Additionally, the dynamic change of H. pylori antibody titers is an indicator of gastric disease development. PMID:20440530

  19. Scaling symmetry and scalar hairy rotating AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byoungjoon; Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    By using the scaling symmetry in the reduced action formalism, we derive the novel Smarr relation which holds even for the hairy rotating AdS3 black holes. Then, by using the Smarr relation we argue that the hairy rotating AdS3 black holes are stable thermodynamically, compared to the nonhairy ones.

  20. The GRE Subject Test Performance of U.S. and Non-U.S. Examinees, 1982-84: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) subject-matter achievement tests are offered in 17 fields. This study investigated the performance of U.S. and non-U.S. citizens on the Subject Tests, and the relationship of selected English-proficiency-related background variables to the test performance of non-U.S. citizens. It was also concerned with…

  1. Comparative Proteomics of Thellungiella halophila Leaves from Plants Subjected to Salinity Reveals the Importance of Chloroplastic Starch and Soluble Sugars in Halophyte Salt Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Wang, Baichen; Wang, Dan; Li, Pinghua; Wang, Limin; Yi, Xiaoping; Huang, Qixing; Peng, Ming; Guo, Anping

    2013-01-01

    Thellungiella halophila, a close relative of Arabidopsis, is a model halophyte used to study plant salt tolerance. The proteomic/physiological/transcriptomic analyses of Thellungiella plant leaves subjected to different salinity levels, reported herein, indicate an extraordinary ability of Thellungiella to adapt to large concentrations of exogenous saline by compartmentalizing Na+ into cell vacuoles and accumulating proline and soluble sugars as organic osmolytes. Salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of starch in chloroplasts, which resulted in a greatly increased content of starch and total sugars in leaves. Comparative proteomics of Thellungiella leaves identified 209 salt-responsive proteins. Among these, the sequences of 108 proteins were strongly homologous to Arabidopsis protein sequences, and 30 had previously been identified as Thellungiella proteins. Functional classification of these proteins into 16 categories indicated that the majority are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, followed by those involved in energy production and conversion, and then those involved in the transport of inorganic ions. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the proteins are involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, carbon fixation, photosynthesis, and glycolysis. Of these processes, the most affected were starch and sucrose metabolism, which might be pivotal for salt tolerance. The gene expression patterns of the 209 salt-responsive proteins revealed through hierarchical clustering of microarray data and the expression patterns of 29 Thellungiella genes evaluated via quantitative RT-PCR were similar to those deduced via proteomic analysis, which underscored the possibility that starch and sucrose metabolism might play pivotal roles in determining the salt tolerance ability of Thellungiella. Our observations enabled us to propose a schematic representation of the systematic salt-tolerance phenotype in Thellungiella and suggested that the increased accumulation of

  2. Boundary conditions and partition functions in higher spin AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss alternative definitions of the semiclassical partition function in two-dimensional CFTs with higher spin symmetry, in the presence of sources for the higher spin currents. Theories of this type can often be described via Hamiltonian reduction of current algebras, and a holographic description in terms of three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with generalized AdS boundary conditions becomes available. By studying the CFT Ward identities in the presence of sources, we determine the appropriate choice of boundary terms and boundary conditions in Chern-Simons theory for the various types of partition functions considered. In particular, we compare the Chern-Simons description of deformations of the field theory Hamiltonian versus those encoding deformations of the CFT action. Our analysis clarifies various issues and confusions that have permeated the literature on this subject.

  3. Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2002-01-01

    Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

  4. Simeprevir added to peginterferon and ribavirin lessens time with fatigue, depressive symptoms and functional limitations in patients with chronic hepatitis C compared with peginterferon and ribavirin: results from 1161 patients in the QUEST-1, QUEST-2 and PROMISE studies.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Gilles, L; Fu, M; Brohan, E; Panter, C; Arbuckle, R; Jessner, W; Beumont, M

    2015-08-01

    The value of adding simeprevir (SMV) vs placebo (PBO) to peginterferon and ribavirin (PR) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection was examined using patient-reported outcomes (PROs); further, concordance of PROs with virology endpoints and adverse events (AEs) was explored. Patients (n = 768 SMV/PR, n = 393 PBO/PR) rated fatigue (FSS), depressive symptoms (CES-D) and functional impairment (WPAI: Hepatitis C Productivity, Daily Activity and Absenteeism) at baseline and throughout treatment in three randomised, double-blind trials comparing the addition of SMV or PBO during initial 12 weeks of PR. PR was administered for 48 weeks (PBO group) and 24/48 weeks (SMV group) using a response-guided therapy (RGT) approach. Mean PRO scores (except Absenteeism) worsened from baseline to Week 4 to the same extent in both groups but reverted after Week 24 for SMV/PR and only after Week 48 for PBO/PR. Accordingly, there was a significantly lower area under the curve (baseline-Week 60, AUC60 ) and fewer weeks with clinically important worsening of scores in the SMV/PR group at any time point. Incidences of patients with fatigue and anaemia AEs were similar in both groups, but FSS scores showed that clinically important increases in fatigue lasted a mean of 6.9 weeks longer with PBO/PR (P < 0.001). PRO score subgroup analysis indicated better outcomes for patients who met the criteria for RGT or achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12); differences in mean PRO scores associated with fibrosis level were only observed with PBO/PR. Greater efficacy of SMV/PR enabled reduced treatment duration and reduced time with PR-related AEs without adding to AE severity. PMID:25487355

  5. Comparative study of linear and curvilinear ultrasound probes to assess quadriceps rectus femoris muscle mass in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, S; Suh, E; Thompson, A; Connolly, B; Ramsay, M; Harding, R; Puthucheary, Z; Moxham, J; Hart, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound measurements of rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) are clinically useful measurements in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and critically ill patients. Technical considerations as to the type of probe used, which affects image resolution, have limited widespread clinical application. We hypothesised that measurement of RFCSA would be similar with linear and curvilinear probes. Methods Four studies were performed to compare the use of the curvilinear probe in measuring RFCSA. Study 1 investigated agreement of RFCSA measurements using linear and curvilinear probes in healthy subjects, and in patients with chronic respiratory disease. Study 2 investigated the intra-rater and inter-rater agreement using the curvilinear probe. Study 3 investigated the agreement of RFCSA measured from whole and spliced images using the linear probe. Study 4 investigated the applicability of ultrasound in measuring RFCSA during the acute and recovery phases of an exacerbation of COPD. Results Study 1 showed demonstrated no difference in the measurement of RFCSA using the curvilinear and linear probes (308±104 mm2 vs 320±117 mm2, p=0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.97). Study 2 demonstrated high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of RFCSA measurement with ICC>0.95 for both. Study 3 showed that the spliced image from the linear probe was similar to the whole image RFCSA (308±103.5 vs 263±147 mm2, p=0.34; ICC>0.98). Study 4 confirmed the clinical acceptability of using the curvilinear probe during an exacerbation of COPD. There were relationships observed between admission RFCSA and body mass index (r=+0.65, p=0.018), and between RFCSA at admission and physical activity levels at 4 weeks post-hospital discharge (r=+0.75, p=0.006). Conclusions These studies have demonstrated that clinicians can employ whole and spliced images from the linear probe or use images from the curvilinear probe, to measure RFCSA. This will extend

  6. Effect of redesigned Indian mixed meals on blood glucose and insulin levels in normal versus type 2 diabetic subjects--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Ashwini; Krishnamoorthy, Geetha; Moulick, N

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the glycemic as well as insulinemic response of seven types of Indian vegetarian mixed meals (MMs). Each of the seven MMs was given at weekly intervals to both normal and type 2 diabetic subjects on the same day to reduce variations in food preparations. In this Indian study, each MM consisted of five to six food items with a low glycemic index (GI) ranging from 28.98 to 46.12%, glycemic load ranging from 15.58 to 23.8 g and energy value (calculated) from each test meal ranging from 403 to 502 kcal. All the seven meals were found to have postprandial glycemic control in normal subjects which ranged from 86 to 102.4 mg%, and a good postprandial glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects which ranged from 132.8 to 148.4 mg%, and hence appropriate for routine consumption by diabetic subjects. The glycemic and insulinemic pattern of all these MMs was similar in normal and diabetic subjects. Sustained intake of such low GI MMs by diabetic can result in good glycemic control. PMID:21696299

  7. The AdS particle [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.

  8. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  9. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  10. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  11. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials. PMID:26402088

  13. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  14. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  15. Comparative assessment of the effects of salinomycin and monensin on the biodistribution of lead and some essential metal ions in mice, subjected to subacute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Dimova, Donika; Pavlova, Ekaterina; Arpadjan, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a comparative assessment of the effects of two polyether ionophorous antibiotics (monensin and salinomycin) on the concentrations of lead (Pb), cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in the kidneys, spleen, liver and brain of Pb-intoxicated animals. Our data demonstrated that the intoxication of ICR male mice with Pb salt resulted in a significant accumulation of Pb in all studied organs of the mice compared to the untreated control animals. The biodistribution of the toxic metal was in the order kidneys>spleen>liver>brain. The treatment of the Pb-intoxicated animals with tetraethylammonium salts of monensic and salinomycinic acids significantly decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ion compared to the toxic control. The effect varied in the interval 38% (for kidneys) to 52% (for brain) compared to the toxic control group (Pb). The tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid was more effective in reducing the Pb concentration in the brain of the Pb-treated mice compared to monensin. Pb-intoxication did not affect significantly the Zn endogenous concentration compared to the normal values. The treatment of ICR male mice with Pb-salt decreased the Cu concentration in the spleen and increased the Cu concentration in the liver compared to the untreated control animals. The detoxification of the Pb-intoxicated mice with tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids restored the Cu concentration in the spleen, but did not affect the Cu levels in the liver. The Pb-intoxication of the ICR mice resulted in a significant decrease of the Fe-concentration in the spleen and liver compared to the untreated control animals. The administration of the tetraethylammonium salts of salinomycinic and monensic acids to the Pb-treated animals restored the levels of Fe in both organs. PMID:26653741

  16. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  17. Experiences with Online Literature Searching in a Water-Related Subject Field: Aqualine, Biosis, CA Search and Pascal, Compared Using the ESA/Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong-Hofman, M. W.; Siebers, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluates database searching and compares results of online and manual literature retrieval conducted in support of environmental research. Discussion covers search topic and construction of online profile, results and costs of online searches, results of manual searching, relevant references missed by online searching, and availability and…

  18. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  19. Combination analysis of neuropsychological tests and structural MRI measures in differentiating AD, MCI and control groups--the AddNeuroMed study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawu; Paajanen, Teemu; Zhang, Yi; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Tunnard, Catherine; Sobow, Tomasz; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Evans, Alan; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka

    2011-07-01

    To study the ability of neuropsychological tests, manual MRI hippocampal volume measures, regional volume and cortical thickness measures to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Neuropsychological tests, manual hippocampal volume, automated regional volume and regional cortical thickness measures were performed in 120 AD patients, 120 MCI subjects, and 111 controls. The regional cortical thickness and volumes in MCI subjects were significantly decreased in limbic/paralimbic areas and temporal lobe compared to controls. Atrophy was much more extensive in the AD patients compared to MCI subjects and controls. The combination of neuropsychological tests and volumes revealed the highest accuracy (82% AD vs. MCI; 94% AD vs. control; 83% MCI vs. control). Adding regional cortical thicknesses into the discriminate analysis did not improve accuracy. We conclude that regional cortical thickness and volume measures provide a panoramic view of brain atrophy in AD and MCI subjects. A combination of neuropsychological tests and regional volumes are important when discriminating AD from healthy controls and MCI. PMID:19683363

  20. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-09-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMGΛ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS2, which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMGΛ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δFml and its logarithmic partner δFlog⁡4th.

  1. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  2. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  3. Visual function assessment in simulated real-life situations in patients with age-related macular degeneration compared to normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Barteselli, G; Gomez, M L; Doede, A L; Chhablani, J; Gutstein, W; Bartsch, D-U; Dustin, L; Azen, S P; Freeman, W R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate visual function variations in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to normal eyes under different light/contrast conditions using a time-dependent visual acuity testing instrument, the Central Vision Analyzer (CVA). Methods Overall, 37 AMD eyes and 35 normal eyes were consecutively tested with the CVA after assessing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using ETDRS charts. The CVA established visual thresholds for three mesopic environments (M1 (high contrast), M2 (medium contrast), and M3 (low contrast)) and three backlight-glare environments (G1 (high contrast, equivalent to ETDRS), G2 (medium contrast), and G3 (low contrast)) under timed conditions. Vision drop across environments was calculated, and repeatability of visual scores was determined. Results BCVA significantly reduced with decreasing contrast in all eyes. M1 scores for BCVA were greater than M2 and M3 (P<0.001); G1 scores were greater than G2 and G3 (P<0.01). BCVA dropped more in AMD eyes than in normal eyes between M1 and M2 (P=0.002) and between M1 and M3 (P=0.003). In AMD eyes, BCVA was better using ETDRS charts compared to G1 (P<0.001). The drop in visual function between ETDRS and G1 was greater in AMD eyes compared to normal eyes (P=0.004). Standard deviations of test–retest ranged from 0.100 to 0.139 logMAR. Conclusion The CVA allowed analysis of the visual complaints that AMD patients experience with different lighting/contrast time-dependent conditions. BCVA changed significantly under different lighting/contrast conditions in all eyes, however, AMD eyes were more affected by contrast reduction than normal eyes. In AMD eyes, timed conditions using the CVA led to worse BCVA compared to non-timed ETDRS charts. PMID:25081294

  4. Hemodynamic performance of coil embolization and stentassisted coil embolization treatments: a numerical comparative study based on subject-specific models of cerebral aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Yisen; Lu, Gang; Yang, Xinjian; Zhang, Xiaolong; Ding, Guanghong

    2011-11-01

    Hemodynamic characteristics such as blood velocity, blood pressure, flow impingement, wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are considered to play important roles in the initiation, growth, rupture and recurrence of the cerebral aneurysms. Endovascular therapy is widely implemented to treat the cerebral aneurysms by releasing coils into the aneurysm sac for limiting the blood flow to the sac and stent-assisted coil embolization is adopted to occlude the wide-necked or complex aneurysms. Some researchers believe that stents are not only a mechanical device but may act as a biological system and contribute to vessel wall healing. Hemodynamics simulation helps people understand the effect of hemodynamic characteristics on the recurrence of the coiled aneurysm and it also benefits the interventional planning of neurosurgeons. This study constructed the numerical model for a subject-specific ICA aneurysm treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, which combined the coiled model of the aneurysm with a porous stent placement, and simulated the pulsatile blood flow in these aneurysm models. When a stent was placed across the aneurysm orifice in the coiled aneurysm, the high wall shear stress around the distal aneurysm root was reduced more than that of the coiled aneurysm without a stent. The simulated results point to the conclusion that the stent not only protects the parent artery from occlusion due to extension of coils or thrombosis, but may also reduce the recurrence risk of the stent-assisted coiled aneurysm.

  5. Amygdalar Atrophy in Symptomatic AD Based on Diffeomorphometry: The BIOCARD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Younes, Laurent; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Brown, Timothy; Trinh, Huong; Lee, David S.; Tward, Daniel; Mahon, Pamela; Mori, Susumu; Albert, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the diffeomorphometry of MRI derived structural markers for the amygdala, in subjects with symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using linear mixed-effects models we show differences between those with symptomatic AD and controls. Based on template centered population analysis, the distribution of statistically significant change is seen in both the volume and shape of the amygdala in subjects with symptomatic AD compared to controls. We find that high-dimensional vertex based markers are statistically more significantly discriminating (p<.00001) than lower-dimensional markers and volumes, consistent with comparable findings in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease. Using a high-field 7T atlas, significant atrophy was found to be centered in the basomedial and basolateral subregions, with no evidence of centromedial involvement. PMID:25444602

  6. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  7. Effectiveness of slow motion video compared to real time video in improving the accuracy and consistency of subjective gait analysis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lane, D M; Hill, S A; Huntingford, J L; Lafuente, P; Wall, R; Jones, K A

    2015-01-01

    Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman's rho, Cramer's V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters' SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways. PMID:26623383

  8. Effectiveness of slow motion video compared to real time video in improving the accuracy and consistency of subjective gait analysis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D.M.; Hill, S.A.; Huntingford, J.L.; Lafuente, P.; Wall, R.; Jones, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective measures of canine gait quality via force plates, pressure mats or kinematic analysis are considered superior to subjective gait assessment (SGA). Despite research demonstrating that SGA does not accurately detect subtle lameness, it remains the most commonly performed diagnostic test for detecting lameness in dogs. This is largely because the financial, temporal and spatial requirements for existing objective gait analysis equipment makes this technology impractical for use in general practice. The utility of slow motion video as a potential tool to augment SGA is currently untested. To evaluate a more accessible way to overcome the limitations of SGA, a slow motion video study was undertaken. Three experienced veterinarians reviewed video footage of 30 dogs, 15 with a diagnosis of primary limb lameness based on history and physical examination, and 15 with no indication of limb lameness based on history and physical examination. Four different videos were made for each dog, demonstrating each dog walking and trotting in real time, and then again walking and trotting in 50% slow motion. For each video, the veterinary raters assessed both the degree of lameness, and which limb(s) they felt represented the source of the lameness. Spearman’s rho, Cramer’s V, and t-tests were performed to determine if slow motion video increased either the accuracy or consistency of raters’ SGA relative to real time video. Raters demonstrated no significant increase in consistency or accuracy in their SGA of slow motion video relative to real time video. Based on these findings, slow motion video does not increase the consistency or accuracy of SGA values. Further research is required to determine if slow motion video will benefit SGA in other ways. PMID:26623383

  9. A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. Methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. Conclusion The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable

  10. Classical worldsheets for string scattering on flat and AdS spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerfield, Charles M.; Thorn, Charles B.

    2008-08-15

    We present a study of the worldsheets that describe the classical limit of various string scattering processes. Our main focus is on string scattering in AdS spacetime because of its relation via the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence to gluon scattering in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. But we also consider analogous processes in flat Minkowski spacetime which we compare to the AdS case. In addition to scattering of string by string we also find and study worldsheets describing the scattering of a string by external sources.

  11. Comparative assessment of the prevalence of periodontal disease in subjects with and without systemic autoimmune diseases: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Kumar, S. G.; Aswath Narayanan, M. B.; Jayanthi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immune mechanism shares a common pathway both for systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases. Scientific exploration of literature revealed limited studies on the association between systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of the study is to find whether the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases in an individual is a risk factor for the development of periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case–control study. Materials and Methods: A sample of 253 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the Rheumatology Department of Government General Hospital, Chennai-3, and 262 patients without systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the outpatient department of the Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai-3, constituted the case and control groups, respectively. Age, gender, and oral hygiene status matching was done. Oral hygiene status was assessed using oral hygiene index (OHI) and periodontal status was assessed using community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) index. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc, 2006, Chicago). Results: Results showed 99.2% and 73.9% prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively, in the case group as compared to 85.5% and 14.9%, respectively, in the control group. There is no linear relationship between OHI scores and prevalence of periodontitis (CPI and LOA scores) in the case group. Patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases showed more prevalence of periodontal diseases irrespective of oral hygiene scores. Conclusion: It is postulated that the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases may pose a risk for the development of periodontal diseases. PMID:27307662

  12. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Nadal, Anna; Collado, Rosa; Capellades, Gemma; Kubista, Mikael; Messeguer, Joaquima; Pla, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in many countries follows strict regulations to ensure that only safety-tested products are marketed. Over the last few years, targeted approaches have been complemented by profiling methods to assess possible unintended effects of transformation. Here we used a commercial (Affymertix) microarray platform (i.e. allowing assessing the expression of approximately 1/3 of the genes of maize) to evaluate transcriptional differences between commercial MON810 GM maize and non-transgenic crops in real agricultural conditions, in a region where about 70% of the maize grown was MON810. To consider natural variation in gene expression in relation to biotech plants we took two common MON810/non-GM variety pairs as examples, and two farming practices (conventional and low-nitrogen fertilization). MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties grown in the field have very low numbers of sequences with differential expression, and their identity differs among varieties. Furthermore, we show that the differences between a given MON810 variety and the non-GM counterpart do not appear to depend to any major extent on the assayed cultural conditions, even though these differences may slightly vary between the conditions. In our study, natural variation explained most of the variability in gene expression among the samples. Up to 37.4% was dependent upon the variety (obtained by conventional breeding) and 31.9% a result of the fertilization treatment. In contrast, the MON810 GM character had a very minor effect (9.7%) on gene expression in the analyzed varieties and conditions, even though similar cryIA(b) expression levels were detected in the two MON810 varieties and nitrogen treatments. This indicates that transcriptional differences of conventionally-bred varieties and under different environmental conditions should be taken into account in safety assessment studies of GM plants. PMID:20349115

  13. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. PMID:26096889

  14. Innovations Without Added Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereghino, Edward

    1974-01-01

    There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

  15. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  16. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  17. Cortical thinning in individuals with subjective memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Meiberth, Dix; Scheef, Lukas; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Boecker, Henning; Block, Wolfgang; Träber, Frank; Erk, Susanne; Heneka, Michael T; Jacobi, Heike; Spottke, Annika; Walter, Henrik; Wagner, Michael; Hu, Xiaochen; Jessen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Elderly individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI) report memory decline, but perform within the age-, gender-, and education- adjusted normal range on neuropsychological tests. Longitudinal studies indicate SMI as a risk factor or early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging that at the group level, subjects with SMI display evidence of AD related pathology. This study aimed to determine differences in cortical thickness between individuals with SMI and healthy control subjects (CO) using the FreeSurfer environment. 110 participants (41 SMI/69 CO) underwent structural 3D-T1 MR imaging. Cortical thickness values were compared between groups in predefined AD-related brain regions of the medial temporal lobe, namely the bilateral entorhinal cortex and bilateral parahippocampal cortex. Cortical thickness reduction was observed in the SMI group compared to controls in the left entorhinal cortex (p = 0.003). We interpret our findings as evidence of early AD-related brain changes in persons with SMI. PMID:25471190

  18. Neurosonological Examination: A Non-Invasive Approach for the Detection of Cerebrovascular Impairment in AD

    PubMed Central

    Urbanova, Barbora; Tomek, Ales; Mikulik, Robert; Magerova, Hana; Horinek, Daniel; Hort, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in vascular impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This interest was stimulated by the findings of higher incidence of vascular risk factors in AD. Signs of vascular impairment were investigated notably in the field of imaging methods. Our aim was to explore ultrasonographic studies of extra- and intracranial vessels in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and define implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. The most frequently studied parameters with extracranial ultrasound are intima-media thickness in common carotid artery, carotid atherosclerosis, and total cerebral blood flow. The transcranial ultrasound concentrates mostly on flow velocities, pulsatility indices, cerebrovascular reserve capacity, and cerebral microembolization. Studies suggest that there is morphological and functional impairment of cerebral circulation in AD compared to healthy subjects. Ultrasound as a non-invasive method could be potentially useful in identifying individuals in a higher risk of progression of cognitive decline. PMID:24478651

  19. [Comparative studies of the response of normolipemic and dyslipemic aged subjects to 2 forms of delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters. Pentaerythrotol tetranicotinate and inositol hexanicotinate. Results of a controlled cross-over trial].

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, G R; Lamberti, G; Wagner, A; Cima, L; Genco, G

    1977-01-01

    A cross-over trial was run to compare the effects of two delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters (pentaerythritol-tetranticotinate, PETN, and inositol-hexanicotinate, MIEN) in 59 aged normo- and dyslipaemic subjects. PETN tended to normalise the lipid picture in much the same way as nicotin acid, without a drastic effect on circulating lipids and lipoproteins. MIEN, on the other hand, had only a slight effect on total blood lipids, and appeared to be ineffective or negative with respect to the other lipid parameters. PETN proved capable of releasing active concentrations of nicotinic acid in vivo for a period of time that was sufficient to correct hyperlipaemia in age subjects. The side-effects were slight, infrequent and quickly reversible. PMID:345998

  20. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  1. Comparative assessment of different methods for the estimation of gait temporal parameters using a single inertial sensor: application to elderly, post-stroke, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Trojaniello, Diana; Ravaschio, Andrea; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cereatti, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The estimation of gait temporal parameters with inertial measurement units (IMU) is a research topic of interest in clinical gait analysis. Several methods, based on the use of a single IMU mounted at waist level, have been proposed for the estimate of these parameters showing satisfactory performance when applied to the gait of healthy subjects. However, the above mentioned methods were developed and validated on healthy subjects and their applicability in pathological gait conditions was not systematically explored. We tested the three best performing methods found in a previous comparative study on data acquired from 10 older adults, 10 hemiparetic, 10 Parkinson's disease and 10 Huntington's disease subjects. An instrumented gait mat was used as gold standard. When pathological populations were analyzed, missed or extra events were found for all methods and a global decrease of their performance was observed to different extents depending on the specific group analyzed. The results revealed that none of the tested methods outperformed the others in terms of accuracy of the gait parameters determination for all the populations except the Parkinson's disease subjects group for which one of the methods performed better than others. The hemiparetic subjects group was the most critical group to analyze (stride duration errors between 4-5 % and step duration errors between 8-13 % of the actual values across methods). Only one method provides estimates of the stance and swing durations which however should be interpreted with caution in pathological populations (stance duration errors between 6-14 %, swing duration errors between 10-32 % of the actual values across populations). PMID:26163348

  2. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  3. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  4. An xp model on AdS2 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  5. Cortical phase changes measured using 7-T MRI in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment, and their association with cognitive function.

    PubMed

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Buijs, Mathijs; van Vliet, Marjolein E; Versluis, Maarten J; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van de Wiel, Lotte; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Goos, Jeroen D C; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Koene, Ted; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van de Rest, Ondine; Slagboom, P Eline; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Studies have suggested that, in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like changes may occur in the brain. Recently, an in vivo study has indicated the potential of ultra-high-field MRI to visualize amyloid-beta (Aβ)-associated changes in the cortex in patients with AD, manifested by a phase shift on T2 *-weighted MRI scans. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether cortical phase shifts on T2 *-weighted images at 7 T in subjects with SCI can be detected, possibly implicating the deposition of Aβ plaques and associated iron. Cognitive tests and T2 *-weighted scans using a 7-T MRI system were performed in 28 patients with AD, 18 subjects with SCI and 27 healthy controls (HCs). Cortical phase shifts were measured. Univariate general linear modeling and linear regression analysis were used to assess the association between diagnosis and cortical phase shift, and between cortical phase shift and the different neuropsychological tests, adjusted for age and gender. The phase shift (mean, 1.19; range, 1.00-1.35) of the entire cortex in AD was higher than in both SCI (mean, 0.85; range, 0.73-0.99; p < 0.001) and HC (mean, 0.94; range, 0.79-1.10; p < 0.001). No AD-like changes, e.g. increased cortical phase shifts, were found in subjects with SCI compared with HCs. In SCI, a significant association was found between memory function (Wechsler Memory Scale, WMS) and cortical phase shift (β = -0.544, p = 0.007). The major finding of this study is that, in subjects with SCI, an increased cortical phase shift measured at high field is associated with a poorer memory performance, although, as a group, subjects with SCI do not show an increased phase shift compared with HCs. This increased cortical phase shift related to memory performance may contribute to the understanding of SCI as it is still unclear whether SCI is a sign of pre-clinical AD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25522735

  6. BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid and its relation to markers of AD pathology.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Sandra D; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Verheijen, Jan H; Mulder, Cees; Scheltens, Philip; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Hack, C Erik; Veerhuis, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that reduced amyloid-beta 1-42 (Abeta(42)) and increased tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the brain. beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is thought to be the major beta-secretase involved in Abeta production in the brain, and therefore we investigated the relation between BACE1 activity and CSF markers Abeta(40), Abeta(42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau) in CSF of control (n=12), mild cognitive impairment (n=18), and AD (n=17) subjects. Patients were classified according to their Abeta(42), t-tau, and p-tau CSF biomarker levels, with either an AD-like biomarker profile (two or three biomarkers abnormal: Abeta(42) < 495 pg/ml in combination with t-tau > 356 pg/ml, and/or p-tau > 54 pg/ml) or a normal biomarker profile (subjects with an AD-like biomarker profile (66 +/- 6 years, 53% female, and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score: 23 +/- 5) and 28 subjects with a normal biomarker profile (62 +/- 11 years, 43% female, and MMSE score: 27 +/- 4). Subjects with an AD-like biomarker profile had higher CSF BACE1 activity levels, compared to patients with a normal biomarker profile (20 pg/ml and 16 pg/ml respectively; p=0.01), when controlled for age and gender. In the whole sample, BACE1 activity correlated with CSF levels of Abeta(40), t-tau, and p-tau (r=0.38, r=0.63, and r=0.65; all p< 0.05), but not with Abeta(42). These data suggest that increased BACE1 activity in CSF relates to AD pathology in the brain. PMID:20164582

  7. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  8. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

  9. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  10. A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Frank; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; van Boxtel, Martin; Breteler, Monique; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Dufouil, Carole; Ellis, Kathryn A.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Glodzik, Lidia; van Harten, Argonde C.; de Leon, Mony J.; McHugh, Pauline; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, Jose Luis; Mosconi, Lisa; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rabin, Laura A.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; de la Sayette, Vincent; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scheltens, Philip; Shulman, Melanie B.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Stewart, Robert; Uspenskaya, Olga; Vellas, Bruno; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Wagner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in individuals with unimpaired performance on cognitive tests may represent the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The research on SCD in early AD, however, is limited by the absence of common standards. The working group of the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) addressed this deficiency by reaching consensus on terminology and on a conceptual framework for research on SCD in AD. In this publication, research criteria for SCD in pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are presented. In addition, a list of core features proposed for reporting in SCD studies is provided, which will enable comparability of research across different settings. Finally, a set of features is presented, which in accordance with current knowledge, increases the likelihood of the presence of preclinical AD in individuals with SCD. This list is referred to as SCD plus. PMID:24798886

  11. Catecholamine-Based Treatment in AD Patients: Expectations and Delusions

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Alessandro; Olivola, Enrica; Liguori, Claudio; Hainsworth, Atticus H.; Saviozzi, Valentina; Angileri, Giacoma; D’Angelo, Vincenza; Galati, Salvatore; Pierantozzi, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease, the gap between excellence of diagnostics and efficacy of therapy is wide. Despite sophisticated imaging and biochemical markers, the efficacy of available therapeutic options is limited. Here we examine the possibility that assessment of endogenous catecholamine levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may fuel new therapeutic strategies. In reviewing the available literature, we consider the effects of levodopa, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and noradrenaline (NE) modulators, showing disparate results. We present a preliminary assessment of CSF concentrations of dopamine (DA) and NE, determined by HPLC, in a small dementia cohort of either Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or frontotemporal dementia patients, compared to control subjects. Our data reveal detectable levels of DA, NE in CSF, though we found no significant alterations in the dementia population as a whole. AD patients exhibit a small impairment of the DA axis and a larger increase of NE concentration, likely to represent a compensatory mechanism. While waiting for preventive strategies, a pragmatic approach to AD may re-evaluate catecholamine modulation, possibly stratified to dementia subtypes, as part of the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:25999852

  12. A guide to gauging ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cashill, J

    1987-09-01

    Techniques that have proven successful in private industry can help hospital executives increase their accountability for advertising expenditures. Among these techniques are: The random telephone survey, which can be used to measure whether the hospital's awareness level among the public has increased as the result of a particular ad; The focus group, which assists the hospital in evaluating how it is perceived in relation to other hospitals in its market; The pretest, to determine which ads to eliminate from a campaign and which ones to refine; Educational seminars and direct-response ads; Reliable baseline data on patients and services for use in comparing figures before and after an ad has been used. Above all, careful planning is required to enable the marketing staff to determine what it wishes to accomplish through advertising and to set measurable goals that reflect its expectations for each component of a campaign. PMID:10283482

  13. Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.

    Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads or soft liquor ads…

  14. High-Dimensional Medial Lobe Morphometry: An Automated MRI Biomarker for the New AD Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medial temporal lobe atrophy assessment via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed in recent criteria as an in vivo diagnostic biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, practical application of these criteria in a clinical setting will require automated MRI analysis techniques. To this end, we wished to validate our automated, high-dimensional morphometry technique to the hypothetical prediction of future clinical status from baseline data in a cohort of subjects in a large, multicentric setting, compared to currently known clinical status for these subjects. Materials and Methods. The study group consisted of 214 controls, 371 mild cognitive impairment (147 having progressed to probable AD and 224 stable), and 181 probable AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, with data acquired on 58 different 1.5 T scanners. We measured the sensitivity and specificity of our technique in a hierarchical fashion, first testing the effect of intensity standardization, then between different volumes of interest, and finally its generalizability for a large, multicentric cohort. Results. We obtained 73.2% prediction accuracy with 79.5% sensitivity for the prediction of MCI progression to clinically probable AD. The positive predictive value was 81.6% for MCI progressing on average within 1.5 (0.3 s.d.) year. Conclusion. With high accuracy, the technique's ability to identify discriminant medial temporal lobe atrophy has been demonstrated in a large, multicentric environment. It is suitable as an aid for clinical diagnostic of AD. PMID:25254139

  15. Nasal high–flow oxygen therapy in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure: effect on functional and subjective respiratory parameters compared to conventional oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation (NIV)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask. Methods Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO2 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO2 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6–8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO2 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included objective respiratory and circulatory parameters as well as a subjective rating of dyspnea and discomfort by the patients on a 10-point scale. In a final interview, all three methods were comparatively evaluated by each patient using a scale from 1 (=very good) to 6 (=failed) and the patients were asked to choose one method for further treatment. Results PaO2 was highest under NIV (129 ± 38 mmHg) compared to HFNC (101 ± 34 mmHg, p <0.01 vs. NIV) and VM (85 ± 21 mmHg, p <0.001 vs. NIV, p <0.01 vs. HFNC, ANOVA). All other functional parameters showed no relevant differences. In contrast, dyspnea was significantly better using a HFNC (2.9 ± 2.1, 10-point Borg scale) compared to NIV (5.0 ± 3.3, p <0.05), whereas dyspnea rating under HFNC and VM (3.3 ± 2.3) was not significantly different. A similar pattern was found when patients rated their overall discomfort on the 10 point scale: HFNC 2.7 ± 1.8, VM 3.1 ± 2.8 (ns vs. HFNC), NIV 5.4 ± 3.1 (p <0.05 vs. HFNC). In the final evaluation patients gave the best ratings to HFNC 2.3 ± 1.4, followed by VM 3.2 ± 1.7 (ns vs. HFNC) and NIV 4.5 ± 1.7 (p <0.01 vs. HFNC and p <0.05 vs. VM). For further treatment 10 patients chose HFNC, three VM and one NIV. Conclusions In hypoxic respiratory failure HFNC offers a good balance between oxygenation and comfort compared to NIV and Venturi mask and seems to be

  16. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  17. Per aspirin ad astra...

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

  18. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compère, Geoffrey

    2009-04-01

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS4. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdSd are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0≤|m|<1/2lAdS. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is “renormalized” accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/lAdS to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS4 supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  19. Patient-reported outcomes are superior in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide as compared with exenatide, when added to metformin, sulphonylurea or both: results from a randomized, open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W E; Christiansen, J S; Hammer, M; Zychma, M J; Buse, J B

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes 6 trial was an open-label trial comparing liraglutide with exenatide as an ‘add-on’ to metformin and/or sulphonylurea. Methods Patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomized to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily or exenatide 10 μg twice daily for 26 weeks. This was followed by a 14-week extension phase, in which all patients received liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily. Results Patient-reported outcomes were measured in 379 patients using Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status (DTSQs) and DTSQ change (DTSQc). The change in overall treatment satisfaction (DTSQs score) from baseline at week 26 with liraglutide was 4.71 and with exentaide was 1.66 [difference between groups 3.04 (95% CI 1.73–4.35), P < 0.0001]. Five of the six items on the DTSQs improved significantly more with liraglutide than with exenatide (differences: current treatment 0.37, P = 0.0093; convenience 0.68, P < 0.0001; flexibility 0.57, P = 0.0002; recommend 0.49, P = 0.0003; continue 0.66, P = 0.0001). Patients perceived a greater reduction in hypoglycaemia at week 26 with liraglutide than with exenatide [difference in DTSQc score 0.48 (0.08–0.89), P = 0.0193] and a greater reduction in perceived hyperglycaemia [difference 0.74 (0.31–1.17), P = 0.0007]. During the extension phase, when all patients received liraglutide, DTSQs scores remained stable in patients who continued on liraglutide and increased significantly (P = 0.0026) in those switching from exenatide. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant improvements in patients’ treatment satisfaction with liraglutide compared with exenatide. PMID:21388442

  20. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and…

  1. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  2. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  3. Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus

    2013-07-01

    We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.

  4. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  5. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  6. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  7. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of a combination of formoterol and ciclesonide with ciclesonide alone in asthma subjects with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Vaidya, Abhijit J; Kodgule, Rahul R; Gogtay, Jaideep A

    2016-01-01

    Context: The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) is widely used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma uncontrolled by ICS alone. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new ICS-LABA combination inhaler containing Formoterol (F) and Ciclesonide (C). Settings and Design: A double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group fashion, multi-centric study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 169 asthma patients received Ciclesonide 80 μg once daily during a 4-week run-in period, after which, they were randomized to receive either C (80 μg) or a combination of F (4.5 μg) and C (80 μg) (FC) both delivered through a hydro-fluro-alkane pressurized-metered-dose inhaler as 1 puff twice daily, for 6 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Inter-group differences were compared using t-test for independent samples at a significance level of 5%. Results: From baseline, the improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (110 ml vs. 40 ml, 140 ml vs. 20 ml, and 110 ml vs. 40 ml, respectively, all P < 0.05). From baseline, the improvements in mean morning peak expiratory flow at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (17 L/min vs.−3 L/min, 22 L/min vs. 3 L/min, and 30 ml vs. 8 L/min respectively, all P < 0.05). The changes in symptom scores were similar in both the groups. The adverse events in the FC group were not significantly different from those in the C group. Conclusions: FC provides better improvement than C alone in terms of lung function and symptoms without increased risk of adverse events in asthma patients. PMID:27185990

  8. Pharmacokinetics of the evogliptin/metformin extended-release (5/1,000 mg) fixed-dose combination formulation compared to the corresponding loose combination, and food effect in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Su-jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A new fixed-dose combination formulation of evogliptin 5 mg and metformin extended-release (XR) 1,000 mg (FDC_EVO5/MET1000) was developed to improve medication adherence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetics of FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was compared to the corresponding loose combination in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 36 healthy male subjects (Part 1), and the food effect on FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was assessed (under fasted or fed conditions) in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 28 healthy male subjects (Part 2). Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 72 hours, and pharmacokinetic parameters of evogliptin and metformin were calculated using non-compartmental methods. The geometric mean ratios (fixed-dose combination to loose combination) and 90% confidence intervals of pharmacokinetic parameters for evogliptin and metformin were all within 0.800–1.250, suggesting bioequivalent pharmacokinetic. After a single oral dose of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, food did not significantly affect evogliptin pharmacokinetic while systemic exposure of metformin was increased about 47.5% under the fed condition, which is consistent with the already established food effect on metformin XR. FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was generally well tolerated without any drug-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, FDC_EVO5/MET1000 can be substituted for the loose combination of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, providing better compliance with convenient administration. PMID:27110098

  9. Non-Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the General Population: The Incidence of Abnormal Findings in Patients 50 Years Old and Younger Compared to Older Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Maj, Edyta; Kulisiewicz, Piotr; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P.; Jakoniuk-Glodala, Karolina; Chlipala-Nitek, Irena; Kaczynski, Bartosz; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess and compare the incidence of abnormal findings detected during non-contrast-enhanced whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in the general population in two age groups: (1) 50 years old and younger; and (2) over 50 years old. Materials and Methods The analysis included 666 non-contrast-enhanced WB-MRIs performed on a 1.5-T scanner between December 2009 and June 2013 in a private hospital in 451 patients 50 years old and younger and 215 patients over 50 years old. The following images were obtained: T2-STIR (whole body-coronal plane), T2-STIR (whole spine-sagittal), T2-TSE with fat-saturation (neck and trunk-axial), T2-FLAIR (head-axial), 3D T1-GRE (thorax-coronal, axial), T2-TSE (abdomen-axial), chemical shift (abdomen-axial). Detected abnormalities were classified as: insignificant (type I), potentially significant, requiring medical attention (type II), significant, requiring treatment (type III). Results There were 3375 incidental findings depicted in 659 (98.9%) subjects: 2997 type I lesions (88.8%), 363 type II lesions (10.8%) and 15 type III lesions (0.4%), including malignant or possibly malignant lesions in seven subjects. The most differences in the prevalence of abnormalities on WB-MRI between patients 50 years old and younger and over 50 years old concerned: brain infarction (22.2%, 45.0% respectively), thyroid cysts/nodules (8.7%, 18.8%), pulmonary nodules (5.0%, 16.2%), significant degenerative disease of the spine (23.3%, 44.5%), extra-spinal degenerative disease (22.4%, 61.1%), hepatic steatosis (15.8%, 24.9%), liver cysts/hemangiomas (24%, 34.5%), renal cysts (16.9%, 40.6%), prostate enlargement (5.1% of males, 34.2% of males), uterine fibroids (16.3% of females, 37.9% of females). Conclusions Incidental findings were detected in almost all of the subjects. WB-MRI demonstrated that the prevalence of the vast majority of abnormalities increases with age. PMID:25259581

  10. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  11. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  12. A randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, comparative study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination compared to 1% azithromycin alone, 0.1% dexamethasone alone, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Kamran; Lindstrom, Richard L; Foulks, Gary; Nichols, Kelly K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination in DuraSite (“combination”) compared to 0.1% dexamethasone in DuraSite, 1% azithromycin in DuraSite, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis. Materials and methods This was a Phase III, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, four-arm study in which 907 subjects with blepharitis were randomized to combination (n=305), 0.1% dexamethasone (n=298), 1% azithromycin (n=155), or vehicle (n=149). Ten study visits were scheduled: screening visit, days 1 and 4 (dosing phase) and 15, and months 1–6 (follow-up phase). On day 1, subjects applied one drop of the study drug to the eyelid of the inflamed eye(s) twice daily, and continued with twice-daily dosing for 14 days. After completing 14 days of dosing, subjects were followed for 6 months for efficacy and safety. Results A total of 57 subjects (6.3%) had complete clinical resolution at day 15: 25 (8.2%), 17 (5.7%), 8 (5.2%), and 7 (4.7%) subjects in the combination-, 0.1% dexamethasone-, 1% azithromycin-, and vehicle-treatment groups, respectively. The combination was superior to 1% azithromycin and vehicle alone, but not to 0.1% dexamethasone alone. Mean composite (total) clinical sign and symptom scores improved in all four treatment groups during the post-treatment evaluation phase for the intent-to-treat population, but outcomes were superior when a drop containing 0.1% dexamethasone was utilized. Clinical response was noted as early as day 4, and persisted as long as 6 months. Most adverse events were considered mild in severity and not related to the study drug. Conclusion A higher percentage of subjects in the combination group achieved complete clinical resolution of the signs and symptoms of blepharitis at day 15 than with 1% azithromycin and vehicle, but outcomes were similar to treatment with 0.1% dexamethasone alone. The combination was well tolerated. PMID:27570444

  13. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  14. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  15. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  16. How Should Educators Interpret Value-Added Scores? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Jean, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    A teacher's value-added score is intended to convey how much that teacher has contributed to student learning in a particular subject in a particular year. Different school districts define and compute value-added scores in different ways. A variety of people may see value-added estimates, and each group may use them for different purposes.…

  17. Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022

  18. Minimal Intensity Physical Activity (Standing and Walking) of Longer Duration Improves Insulin Action and Plasma Lipids More than Shorter Periods of Moderate to Vigorous Exercise (Cycling) in Sedentary Subjects When Energy Expenditure Is Comparable

    PubMed Central

    Duvivier, Bernard M. F. M.; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Bremers, Michelle A.; van Crombrugge, Glenn; Menheere, Paul P. C. A.; Kars, Marleen; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that excessive sitting time is associated with increased health risk, independent of the performance of exercise. We hypothesized that a daily bout of exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity during the rest of the day on insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen healthy subjects, age 21±2 year, BMI 22.6±2.6 kgm−2 followed randomly three physical activity regimes for four days. Participants were instructed to sit 14 hr/day (sitting regime); to sit 13 hr/day and to substitute 1 hr of sitting with vigorous exercise 1 hr (exercise regime); to substitute 6 hrs sitting with 4 hr walking and 2 hr standing (minimal intensity physical activity (PA) regime). The sitting and exercise regime had comparable numbers of sitting hours; the exercise and minimal intensity PA regime had the same daily energy expenditure. PA was assessed continuously by an activity monitor (ActivPAL) and a diary. Measurements of insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) and plasma lipids were performed in the fasting state, the morning after the 4 days of each regime. In the sitting regime, daily energy expenditure was about 500 kcal lower than in both other regimes. Area under the curve for insulin during OGTT was significantly lower after the minimal intensity PA regime compared to both sitting and exercise regimes 6727.3±4329.4 vs 7752.0±3014.4 and 8320.4±5383.7 mU•min/ml, respectively. Triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B plasma levels improved significantly in the minimal intensity PA regime compared to sitting and showed non-significant trends for improvement compared to exercise. Conclusions One hour of daily physical exercise cannot compensate the negative effects of inactivity on insulin level and plasma lipids if the rest of the day is spent sitting. Reducing inactivity by increasing the time spent walking/standing is more effective than one hour of

  19. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  20. Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo

    2010-12-01

    We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.

  1. Drag cancellation by added-mass pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgio-Serchi, F.; Weymouth, G. D.

    2016-07-01

    A submerged body subject to a sudden shape-change experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. While this phenomenon has been studied for single actuation events, application to sustained propulsion requires studying \\textit{periodic} shape-change. We do so in this work by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. We develop an analytical model to investigate the relationship between added-mass variation and viscous damping and demonstrate its range of application with fully coupled fluid-solid Navier-Stokes simulations at large Stokes number. Our results demonstrate that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the viscous damping of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius $r_0$. A quasi-linear relationship is found to link the terminal amplitude of the oscillations $X$, to the extent of size change $a$, with $X/a$ peaking at values from 4 to 4.75 depending on the details of the shape-change kinematics. In addition, it is found that pumping in the frequency range of $1-\\frac{a}{2r_0}<\\omega^2/\\omega_n^2<1+\\frac{a}{2r_0}$ is required for sustained oscillations. The results of this analysis shed light on the role of added-mass recovery in the context of shape-changing bodies and biologically-inspired underwater vehicles.

  2. Warped AdS3/dipole-CFT duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    String theory contains solutions with {{SL}}( {{2},{R}} ){{R}} × {{U}}{( {1} )_L} -invariant warped AdS3 (WAdS3) factors arising as continuous deformations of ordinary AdS3 factors. We propose that some of these are holographically dual to the IR limits of nonlocal dipole-deformed 2D D-brane gauge theories, referred to as "dipole CFTs". Neither the bulk nor boundary theories are currently well-understood, and consequences of the proposed duality for both sides is investigated. The bulk entropy-area law suggests that dipole CFTs have (at large N) a high-energy density of states which does not depend on the deformation parameter. Putting the boundary theory on a spatial circle leads to closed timelike curves in the bulk, suggesting a relation of the latter to dipole-type nonlocality.

  3. New boundary conditions for AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3ℓ}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.

  4. Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2015-12-01

    The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.

  5. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  6. Alday-Maldacena Duality and AdS Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.

  7. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-01

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: `forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times t ˜ S BH , the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1 /c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify `information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.

  8. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbäck, Mikael

    2008-02-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are “bound” to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background BNS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten.

  9. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Munro, Catherine E.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. Objective To compare the three AES sub-scales—subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C)—over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Methods Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Results Fifty seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53–86) were followed for 1.4±1.2 years and 0.7±0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male sex. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the clinician-reported AES (AES-C) best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. Conclusion In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. Self-reported AES scores may be more sensitive than informant and clinician-report when subjects are CN, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the clinician-reported AES sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia. PMID:26401564

  10. Non-susy D3 brane and an interpolating solution between AdS5 black hole, AdS5 soliton and a `soft-wall' gravity solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibaji

    2015-10-01

    It is known from the work in [1] of Lu et al. that the non-supersymmetric charged D3-brane (with anisotropies in time as well as one of the spatial directions of D3-brane) of type IIB string theory is characterized by five independent parameters. By fixing one of the parameters and zooming into a particular region of space-time we construct a four parameter family of solution in AdS5, which interpolates between AdS5 black hole and AdS5 soliton (when one of the spatial directions in the Poincare coordinates is compact) by continuously changing the parameters (there is no need to take a double Wick rotation as is usual to go from one solution to the other) from one set of values to another. We consider two cases. In the first case the dilaton is constant for this transition and there are only three independent parameters, whereas in the second case the dilaton varies and there are four independent parameters. In the latter case, the solution interpolates between AdS5 black hole, AdS5 soliton as well as the so-called `soft-wall' gravity solution of AdS/QCD model. We also compare our solution to the previously obtained Constable-Myers solution which is helpful in generalizing the solution for other D p (for p ≠ 3) branes.

  11. A Comparative Study of Clinical Correlates in Schizophrenia with Onset in Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Parthasarathy; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil; Gupta, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare disorder. Comparative data on the effect of differential age of onset on clinical profile in schizophrenia are very few. Method: Subjects with COS (n = 15), adolescence onset schizophrenia (AdOS, n = 20) and adulthood onset schizophrenia (AOS, n = 20) were compared on socio-demographic,…

  12. Hexon Hypervariable Region-Modified Adenovirus Type 5 (Ad5) Vectors Display Reduced Hepatotoxicity but Induce T Lymphocyte Phenotypes Similar to Ad5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Obeng, Rebecca; Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.

    2014-01-01

    Hexon modification of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors with the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad48 has been shown to allow Ad5HVR48 vectors to circumvent the majority of the preexisting Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. However, it remains unclear whether modifying hexon HVRs impacts innate or adaptive immune responses elicited by this vector. In this study, we investigated the influence of the HVR substitution of Ad5 on innate and adaptive immune responses following vaccination. Ad5HVR48 displayed an intermediate level of innate immune cytokines and chemokines relative to those of Ad5 and Ad48, consistent with its chimeric nature. Hepatotoxicity was observed after Ad5 immunization but not after Ad5HVR48 or Ad48 immunization. However, the CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by Ad5HVR48 vectors displayed a partially exhausted phenotype, as evidenced by the sustained expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), decreased effector-to-central memory conversion, and reduced memory recall responses, similar to those elicited by Ad5 vectors and in contrast to those induced by Ad48 vectors. Taken together, these results indicate that although Ad5HVR48 largely bypasses preexisting Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and shows reduced hepatotoxicity compared to that of Ad5, it induces adaptive immune phenotypes that are functionally exhausted similar to those elicited by Ad5. PMID:24943382

  13. Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Giribet, Gaston; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

    2009-05-01

    We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1/(2l2), spacetimes with Schrödinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Spacetimes that are asymptotically AdS3, both for the Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by meff2 = m2-1/(2l2). For the critical value m2 = -1/(2l2), the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS3 space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.

  14. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  15. Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude ɛ on time-scales of order 1/ ɛ 2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive relations for the coefficients of the time-averaged theory that are likely to be useful for evaluating them more efficiently in numerical simulations.

  16. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  17. Charged and rotating AdS black holes and their CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Black hole solutions that are asymptotic to AdS5×S5 or AdS4×S7 can rotate in two different ways. If the internal sphere rotates, then one can obtain a Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole. If the asymptotically AdS space rotates, then one can obtain a Kerr-AdS hole. One might expect superradiant scattering to be possible in either of these cases. Superradiant modes reflected off the potential barrier outside the hole would be reamplified at the horizon, and a classical instability would result. We point out that the existence of a Killing vector field timelike everywhere outside the horizon prevents this from occurring for black holes with negative action. Such black holes are also thermodynamically stable in the grand canonical ensemble. The CFT duals of these black holes correspond to a theory in an Einstein universe with a chemical potential and a theory in a rotating Einstein universe. We study these CFTs in the zero coupling limit. In the first case, Bose-Einstein condensation occurs on the boundary at a critical value of the chemical potential. However, the supergravity calculation demonstrates that this is not to be expected at strong coupling. In the second case, we investigate the limit in which the angular velocity of the Einstein universe approaches the speed of light at finite temperature. This is a new limit in which to compare the CFT at strong and weak coupling. We find that the free CFT partition function and supergravity action have the same type of divergence but the usual factor of 4/3 is modified at finite temperature.

  18. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  19. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  20. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  1. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2015-07-01

    Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS = δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  2. Fake gaps in AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-11-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS3/CFT2.

  3. Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.

  4. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  5. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  6. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  7. Explanations of AD in ethnic minority participants undergoing cognitive screening.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Gibson, Sandra E; Williams, Christine L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare explanations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of African American, Afro-Caribbean, and European American older adults undergoing cognitive screening. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding what they knew about AD and if they were experiencing memory problems. Responses were coded and quantized for analysis. Forty percent reported experiencing memory problems. Afro-Caribbeans made significantly more incorrect statements about AD and were less likely to identify memory loss as a symptom. Half the participants said they would seek their physician's advice if the screening was positive; none mentioned a memory disorder center. Misconceptions about AD included the effect of aluminum, brain collapse, relaxed brain, shaking, tremors, and physical illness. More Afro-Caribbeans, all of whom were first generation, had misconceptions about AD. Campaigns to educate the public about AD need to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate information to ethnic minority populations. PMID:21697141

  8. Adding value to your work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although value can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding value to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373

  9. Autoantibodies Profile in Matching CSF and Serum from AD and aMCI patients: Potential Pathogenic Role and Link to Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Fabio; Pupo, Gilda; Giraldo, Esther; Lloret, Ana; Badia, Mari-Carmen; Schinina, Maria Eugenia; Giorgi, Alessandra; Butterfield, D Allan; Vina, Jose; Perluigi, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly and is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognition. Amyloid-ß-peptide (Aß) forms senile plaques, which, together with hyperphosphorylated tau-based neurofibrillary tangles, are the hallmarks of AD neuropathology. Evidence support the involvement of immune system in AD progression and current concepts regarding its pathogenesis include the participation of inflammatory and autoimmune components in the neurodegenerative process. Pathologically, immune system components have been detected in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in serum of AD subjects and their trend of variation correlates with disease progression. However, patients with AD present significantly lower levels of antibody immunoreactivity against Aß in serum and CSF than healthy controls suggesting that a depletion of such patrolling system is involved in the deposition of toxic aggregates in AD. Within this frame, incomplete and often controversial results are reported about CNS immune/ autoimmune responses during AD, and a better comprehension of such processes is needed. Our research will aim to shed light on the nature and potential role of autoantibodies in CSF and serum from AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients compared to healthy subjects by using an immunoproteomics approach. Our method allows recognition of natural occurring antibodies by the identification of brain antigen targeted by human IgGs. Overall our data reveal that the alterations of autoantibodies profile both in CSF and serum follow disease staging and progression. However, we demonstrate a fair overlap between CSF and serum suggesting the existence of different immunogenic events. Interestingly, CSF autoantibodies recognized, among others, key players of energy metabolic pathway, including glycolysis and TCA cycle, found oxidatively modified in AD brain studies. These data suggest a potential casual sequence

  10. 3D τ RR -minimization in AdS4 gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Gnecchi, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose the identification in AdS4 N = 2 gauged supergravity of the coefficient τRR of 3D N = 2 SCFTs. We constrain the structure of this function in supergravity by combining the results from unitarity, holography and localization. We show that our conjectured function is minimized by the exact R-charge, corresponding to a gravitational attractor for the scalars of special geometry. We identify this mechanism with the supergravity dual of τ RR -minimization. We check this proposal in ABJM model, comparing with expectations from localization and AdS/CFT duality. We comment also on possible relations with black hole microstates counting, recently obtained from application of localization techniques.

  11. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

  12. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  13. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  14. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  15. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  16. Vortex hair on AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Gustainis, Peter C.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Wills, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.

  17. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  18. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high “sensation value” ads

    PubMed Central

    Langleben, Daniel D.; Loughead, James W.; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G.; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Strasser, Andrew; Holloway, Matthew B.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Lerman, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. “Message sensation value” (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the “dual processing” and “limited capacity” theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers’ cognitive resources and suggest that the “attention-grabbing” high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in

  19. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    PubMed

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  20. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  1. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  2. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O( N 0) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large- N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  3. Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Maillard, Antoine; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.

    2015-10-01

    We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS—including both collapsing and noncollapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasiperiodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this paper we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic noncollapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.

  4. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  5. TeLPI performance in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina; Freitas, Sandra; Santana, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    APA guidelines for the evaluation of age-related cognitive decline and dementia emphasize the need for baseline (premorbid) data against which current performance can be compared. As this information rarely exists, clinicians must rely on instruments especially designed for estimation of premorbid abilities. No such instrument was available in Portugal until the development of the TeLPI, an irregular words oral reading test. This study aims to examine TeLPI's validity as a measure of premorbid ability in the spectrum of aging cognitive decline, from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD), by the analysis of its stability in normal versus impaired samples. A total of 104 patients, classified into 2 clinical groups, MCI (n=53) and probable mild to moderate AD (n=51), were compared with a group of cognitively healthy controls (C_MCI: n=53; C_AD: n=51) and matched for sex, age, education, and residence. As expected, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment results were significantly different between the groups (ADAD patients were comparable after correcting for years of education, revealing no significant effect of cognitive impairment on TeLPI performance, and suggesting its validity for estimating premorbid intelligence in subjects with cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:23314065

  6. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  7. MR enterography: how to deliver added value.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Trout, Andrew T; Smith, Ethan A

    2016-05-01

    MR enterography (MRE) is increasingly vital to the diagnosis and follow-up of children with Crohn disease. This diagnostic test, which can provide valuable information regarding the presence of intestinal inflammation, intestinal and intra-abdominal complications, and extra-intestinal disease-related manifestations, has the potential to directly impact both medical and surgical decision-making. Consequently, it is imperative that the interpretation and reporting of these examinations provide as much clinical information as possible. This article reviews specific ways radiologists can provide added value when interpreting MRE examinations in the setting of pediatric Crohn disease by (1) establishing the true extent of disease involvement, (2) subjectively and objectively assessing response to medical treatment and (3) accurately characterizing disease-related complications. PMID:26939974

  8. The forecaster's added value in QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2010-03-01

    : - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance for the period +24 h/+48 h (i.e. the warning period in the Piemonte system); - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterization and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  9. The forecaster's added value in QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-04-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: · despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; · in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; · the QPFs verification is one of the most important activities of a Centro Funzionale because it allows a better understanding of the model behaviour in the different meteorological configurations, highlights the systematic characteristics, and helps in evaluating the reliability, in average or extreme values, over long term or in current situations; · eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical tecniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  10. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  11. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  12. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  13. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  14. Does habituation differ in chronic low back pain subjects compared to pain-free controls? A cross-sectional pain rating ERP study reanalyzed with the ERFIA multilevel method.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Catherine J; Vossen, Helen G M; Joosten, Engelbert A; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate cortical differences between chronic low back pain (CLBP) subjects and pain-free controls with respect to habituation and processing of stimulus intensity. The use of a novel event-related fixed-interval areas (ERFIA) multilevel technique enables the analysis of event-related electroencephalogram (EEG) of the whole post stimulus range at a single trial level. This technique makes it possible to disentangle the cortical processes of habituation and stimulus intensity.In a cross-sectional study, 78 individuals with CLBP and 85 pain-free controls underwent a rating paradigm of 150 nonpainful and painful somatosensory electrical stimuli. For each trial, the entire epoch was partitioned into 20-ms ERFIAs, which acted as dependent variables in a multilevel analysis. The variability of each consecutive ERFIA period was modeled with a set of predictor variables, including 3 forms of habituation and stimulus intensity.Seventy-six pain-free controls and 65 CLBP subjects were eligible for analysis. CLBP subjects showed a significantly decreased linear habituation at 340 to 460 ms in the midline electrodes and C3 (Ps < .05) and had a significantly more pronounced dishabituation for the regions of 400 to 460 ms and 800 to 820 ms for all electrodes, except for T3 and T4 (Ps < .05). No significant group differences for stimulus intensity processing were observed.In this study, group differences with respect to linear habituation and dishabituation were demonstrated. By means of the ERFIA multilevel technique, habituation effects were found in a broad post stimulus range and were not solely limited to peaks. This study suggests that habituation may be a key mechanism involved in the transition process to chronic pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design are required to solve this issue. PMID:25984683

  15. Effects of added resistance to breathing in obstructed lung disease. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petsonk, L.; Boyles, C.; Hodous, T.; Hankinson, J.

    1981-12-01

    Regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration mandate that workers exposed to hazardous substances be provided with respiratory protective devices when engineering and administrative controls cannot adequately protect the worker. These regulations also provide that the workers who are unable to wear these devices for reasons of health be exempted from doing so. Although there is considerable experimental evidence in the literature concerning the effects of added resistance and deadspace on the breathing of normal individuals, there are few studies which address these effects in subjects with obstructive lung disease. Since most working populations include subjects with mild to moderate airways obstruction (due either to occupational or non-occupational causes) it is important to know if these individuals can safely tolerate respiratory protective devices. In order to address this problem, the authors examined the response to exercise with and without added resistance to breathing of subjects with obstructive lung disease and compared those responses to a group of normals. The results are discussed in this report and recommendations for further study are made.

  16. Missing top of the AdS resonance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, I.-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ϕN and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.

  17. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  18. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  19. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD. PMID:27255810

  20. There are no differences in IL-6, CRP and homocystein concentrations between women whose mothers had AD and women whose mothers did not have AD.

    PubMed

    Devčić, Sanja; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Ruljancic, Nedjeljka; Mihanovic, Mate

    2014-12-30

    A wide range of recent studies have detected inflammation as one of the most influent factors in the appearance and spreading of neurodegenerative brain diseases. We aimed to understand the influence of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) on patients suffering from Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and on their descendants. Three groups of subjects were analyzed: 55 patients suffering from AD, 51 middle-aged daughters of the patients of the first group, and 53 subjects without positive family history of AD. The results of the conducted research are in accordance with the present scientific knowledge, namely a statistically significant difference for examined parameters has been determined between women suffering from AD and their daughters and control group examinees. No difference was found in serum concentrations of IL-6, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hcy between the groups of the middle-aged descendants of patients with AD and healthy controls without family history of AD. This finding supports the hypothesis that these markers may not play causal role in the development of AD. This is supported by the obtained positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP and IL-6 and Hcy in AD patients while there is no such correlation between female subjects with or without a family history of AD. PMID:25240941

  1. Greater medial temporal hypometabolism and lower cortical amyloid burden in ApoE4-positive AD patients

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Manja; Ghosh, Pia M.; Madison, Cindee; Karydas, Anna; Coppola, Giovanni; O’Neil, James P.; Huang, Yadong; Miller, Bruce L.; Jagust, William J.; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2013-01-01

    Background ApoE4 has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid deposition and hypometabolism. ApoE4 is less prevalent in non-amnestic AD variants suggesting a direct effect on the clinical phenotype. However, the impact of ApoE4 on amyloid burden and glucose metabolism across different clinical AD syndromes is not well understood. We aimed to assess the relationship between amyloid deposition, glucose metabolism and ApoE4 genotype in a clinically heterogeneous population of AD patients. Methods Fifty-two patients with probable AD (NIA-AA) underwent [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans. All patients had positive PIB-PET scans. 23 were ApoE4+ (14 heterozygous, 9 homozygous) and 29 were ApoE4−. Groups consisted of language-variant AD, visual-variant AD, and AD patients with amnestic and dysexecutive deficits. 52 healthy controls were included for comparison. FDG and PIB uptake was compared between groups on a voxel-wise basis and in regions-of-interest. Results Whilst PIB patterns were diffuse in both patient groups, ApoE4− patients showed higher PIB uptake than ApoE4+ patients across the cortex. Higher PIB uptake in ApoE4− patients was particularly significant in right lateral frontotemporal regions. In contrast, similar patterns of hypometabolism relative to controls were found in both patient groups, mainly involving lateral temporoparietal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and middle frontal gyrus. Comparing patient groups, ApoE4+ subjects showed greater hypometabolism in bilateral medial temporal and right lateral temporal regions, and ApoE4− patients showed greater hypometabolism in cortical areas including supplementary motor cortex and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions ApoE4+ AD patients showed lower global amyloid burden and greater medial temporal hypometabolism compared to matched ApoE4− patients. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may increase susceptibility

  2. Alzheimer Disease and Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Automatic Classification Based on Cortical Atrophy for Single-Subject Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Christiane; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Versteeg, Adriaan; Tijms, Betty; de Munck, Jan C; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Swieten, John; Dopper, Elise; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an image-based classifier to distinguish between Alzheimer disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in individual patients by using gray matter (GM) density maps computed from standard T1-weighted structural images obtained with multiple imagers and with independent training and prediction data. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved the study. Eighty-four patients with AD, 51 patients with bvFTD, and 94 control subjects were divided into independent training (n = 115) and prediction (n = 114) sets with identical diagnosis and imager type distributions. Training of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier used diagnostic status and GM density maps and produced voxelwise discrimination maps. Discriminant function analysis was used to estimate suitability of the extracted weights for single-subject classification in the prediction set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated for image-based classifiers and neuropsychological z scores. Results Training accuracy of the SVM was 85% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 72% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 79% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD (P ≤ .029). Single-subject diagnosis in the prediction set when using the discrimination maps yielded accuracies of 88% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 85% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 82% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD, with a good to excellent AUC (range, 0.81-0.95; P ≤ .001). Machine learning-based categorization of AD versus bvFTD based on GM density maps outperforms classification based on neuropsychological test results. Conclusion The SVM can be used in single-subject discrimination and can help the clinician arrive at a diagnosis. The SVM can be used to distinguish disease-specific GM patterns in patients with AD

  3. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  4. Metabolic rate of carrying added mass: a function of walking speed, carried mass and mass location.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Eliran; Riemer, Raziel

    2014-11-01

    The effort of carrying additional mass at different body locations is important in ergonomics and in designing wearable robotics. We investigate the metabolic rate of carrying a load as a function of its mass, its location on the body and the subject's walking speed. Novel metabolic rate prediction equations for walking while carrying loads at the ankle, knees and back were developed based on experiments where subjects walked on a treadmill at 4, 5 or 6km/h bearing different amounts of added mass (up to 2kg per leg and 22kg for back). Compared to previously reported equations, ours are 7-69% more accurate. Results also show that relative cost for carrying a mass at a distal versus a proximal location changes with speed and mass. Contrary to mass carried on the back, mass attached to the leg cannot be modeled as an increase in body mass. PMID:24793822

  5. Secure ADS-B authentication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viggiano, Marc J (Inventor); Valovage, Edward M (Inventor); Samuelson, Kenneth B (Inventor); Hall, Dana L (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A secure system for authenticating the identity of ADS-B systems, including: an authenticator, including a unique id generator and a transmitter transmitting the unique id to one or more ADS-B transmitters; one or more ADS-B transmitters, including a receiver receiving the unique id, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id with the ADS-B transmitter's identification, data and secret key and generating a secure code identification and a transmitter transmitting a response containing the secure code and ADSB transmitter's data to the authenticator; the authenticator including means for independently determining each ADS-B transmitter's secret key, a receiver receiving each ADS-B transmitter's response, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id, ADS-B transmitter's identification and data and generating a secure code, and comparison processing comparing the authenticator-generated secure code and the ADS-B transmitter-generated secure code and providing an authentication signal based on the comparison result.

  6. Gendered Subjectivities of Spacetimematter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelskjaer, Malou

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates enactments of human subjectivities with a focus on how subjectivities may be studied if spatiality and temporality are taken up as constituting forces in the production of subjectivities. By reading poststructuralist feminist theorising, agential realism and empirical material diffractively through each other I re-situate…

  7. The Subject of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I work selectively with poststructuralist theories in order to give an account of the subject of policy as a constitutive relationship between social policy and the embodied human subject. Drawing on theories of subjectivity, narrative and governmentality, I articulate possibilities for analysing narrated accounts of experience as a mode of…

  8. CFT dual of charged AdS black hole in the large dimension limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Er-Dong; Li, Miao; Sun, Jia-Rui

    2016-05-01

    We study the dual CFT description of the d + 1-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-Anti de Sitter (RN-AdSd+1) black hole in the large dimension (large d) limit, both for the extremal and nonextremal cases. The central charge of the dual CFT2 (or chiral CFT1) is calculated for the near-horizon near extremal geometry which possesses an AdS2 structure. Besides, the Q-picture hidden conformal symmetry in the nonextremal background can be naturally obtained by a probe charged scalar field in the large d limit, without the need to input the usual limits to probe the hidden conformal symmetry. Furthermore, a new dual CFT description of the nonextremal RN-AdSd+1 black hole is found in the large d limit and the duality is analyzed by comparing the entropies, the absorption cross-sections and the retarded Green’s functions obtained both from the gravity and the dual CFT sides.

  9. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  10. Baldcypress tree ring elemental concentrations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee from AD 1795 to AD 1820

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdale, R.; Hall, G.

    1995-11-01

    Many two hundred year old baldcypress trees in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, lived through the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811--1812. This study was undertaken to determine if the elemental composition of baldcypress tree rings showed any systematic variation through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820. Multiple cores were collected from two Reelfoot Lake baldcypress trees and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Individual yearly rings and five-year ring segments were analyzed to determine their elemental compositions. The cores were analyzed for Li through U but only Ba, Ce, Cs, Cu, I, La, Mg, Mn, Nd, Rb, Sm, Sr, and Zn were found to be in appropriate concentrations for this study. Of these elements only Ce, I, La, Nd, Rb, and Sm showed any systematic changes within individual cores. Comparison of three cores taken from one tree reveal that tree-ring elemental concentrations and changes in tree-ring elemental concentration through time are very different among the cores. When comparing the elemental concentrations of tree rings for the same years in the two different trees neither elemental concentrations nor changes in elemental concentration through time were similar. We conclude that the elemental concentrations in the tree rings of the two baldcypress trees analyzed in this study show no systematic change through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820.

  11. Supersymmetric partition functions in the AdS/CFT conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Suvrat

    We study supersymmetric partition functions in several versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We present an Index for superconformal field theories in d = 3, 4, 5, 6. This captures all information about the spectrum that is protected, under continuous deformations of the theory, purely by group theory. We compute our Index in N = 4 SYM at weak coupling using gauge theory and at strong coupling using supergravity and find perfect agreement at large N. We also compute this Index for supergravity on AdS4 x S7 and AdS7 x S4 and for the recently constructed Chern Simons matter theories. We count 1/16 BPS states in the free gauge theory and find qualitative agreement with the entropy of big black holes in AdS5. We note that the near horizon geometry of some small supersymmetric black holes is an extremal BTZ black holes fibered on a compact base and propose a possible explanation for this, based on giant gravitons. We also find the partition function of the chiral ring of the N = 4 SYM theory at finite coupling and finite N. Turning to AdS3, we study the low energy 1/4 and 1/2 BPS partition functions by finding all classical supersymmetric probe brane solutions of string theory on this background. If the background BNS field and theta angle vanish, AdS3 x S 3 x T4/K3 supports supersymmetric probes: D1 branes, D5 branes and bound states of D5 and D1 branes. In global AdS, upon quantization, these solutions give rise to states in discrete representations of the SL(2,R) WZW model on AdS 3. We conclude that (a) the 1/4 BPS partition function jumps if we turn on a theta angle or NS-NS field (b) generic 1/2 BPS states are protected. We successfully compare our 1/2 BPS partition function with that of the symmetric product. We also discuss puzzles, and their possible resolutions, in reproducing the elliptic genus of the symmetric product. Finally, we comment on the spectrum of particles in the theory of gravity dual to non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on S3 x time.

  12. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  13. Added Value of Assessing Adnexal Masses with Advanced MRI Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Thomassin-Naggara, I.; Balvay, D.; Rockall, A.; Carette, M. F.; Ballester, M.; Darai, E.; Bazot, M.

    2015-01-01

    This review will present the added value of perfusion and diffusion MR sequences to characterize adnexal masses. These two functional MR techniques are readily available in routine clinical practice. We will describe the acquisition parameters and a method of analysis to optimize their added value compared with conventional images. We will then propose a model of interpretation that combines the anatomical and morphological information from conventional MRI sequences with the functional information provided by perfusion and diffusion weighted sequences. PMID:26413542

  14. Research with Diagnostic Drawings for Normal and Alzheimer's Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Nancy M.

    1994-01-01

    Designed and tested battery of drawing techniques with scoring methodology appropriate for investigation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Variables as a whole and most hypothesized drawing features provided significant discrimination between age-matched controls and AD subjects. Capability to discriminate was also provided by objective measures of use…

  15. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  16. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

  17. A Multicenter, Open-Label, Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of MVA Smallpox Vaccine (IMVAMUNE) in 18–40 Year Old Subjects with Diagnosed Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Richard N; Hurley, Yadira; Dinh, Dinh V.; Mraz, Serena; Vera, Javier Gomez; von Bredow, Dorothea; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Roesch, Siegfried; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Meyer, Thomas Peter; Schmidt, Darja; Nichols, Richard; Young, Philip; Chaplin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Replicating smallpox vaccines can cause severe complications in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD). Prior studies evaluating Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA), a non-replicating vaccine in humans, showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy volunteers. Objective This Phase II study compared the safety and immunogenicity of MVA enrolling groups of 350 subjects with AD (SCORAD ≤ 30) and 282 healthy subjects. Methods Subjects were vaccinated twice with MVA, each dose given subcutaneously 4 weeks apart. Adverse events, cardiac parameters, and the development of vaccinia virus humoral immune responses were monitored. Results The overall safety of the vaccine was similar in both groups. Adverse events affecting skin were experienced significantly more often in subjects with AD, but the majority of these events were mild to moderate in intensity. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers for total and neutralizing vaccinia-specific antibodies in the AD group were non-inferior compared to the healthy subjects. Limitations The size of the study population limited the detection of serious adverse events occurring at a frequency less than 1%. Conclusion MVA has a favorable safety profile and the ability to elicit vaccinia-specific immune responses in subjects with AD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316602 PMID:26439129

  18. Kinematic activity of gray wolf (Canis lupus) sperm in different extenders, added before or after centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Wang, Chong; Bauman, Karen; Agnew, Mary K; Lorton, Steven P; Callahan, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated two approaches to improving in vitro wolf sperm survival. Both approaches aimed to reduce the exposure of sperm to prostatic fluid resulting from electroejaculation: (1) use of extender formulations recently developed for the domestic dog (the most closely related domestic species); and (2) dilution of ejaculate shortly after semen collection. Three commercial extenders were compared with the TRIS-based extender we had previously used. We also compared the effects on motility of adding extender immediately after collection to our previous protocol in which extender was added after centrifugation. Both subjective and objective (computer-assisted semen analysis program) kinematic measurements were made. Relatively minor differences were noted (and not in total or progressive motility) between the centrifugation protocols. Two of the commercial extenders resulted in significant improvement in motility over the TRIS-based extender and one of the other commercial extenders at 8 hours after collection (mean ± SEM; total motility was 68.3 ± 4.0% and 70.0 ± 4.0% compared with 53.3 ± 4.0% and 55.0 ± 4.0%, respectively; progressive motility 58.6 ± 5.4% and 57.1 ± 5.4% compared with 32.8 ± 5.4% and 39.3 ± 5.4%; P < 0.05). We inferred that components in two of the commercial dog extenders might provide more protection for wolf sperm, prolonging their motility. PMID:23427939

  19. Effect of divided attention on gait in subjects with and without cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Anna F; Olsson, Elisabeth; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cognition on motor function using 2 simple everyday tasks, talking and walking, in younger subjects with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. A second aim was to evaluate reliability for the dual-task test Talking While Walking. Walking speed during single and dual task and time change between single and dual task were compared between groups. The test procedure was repeated after 1 week. Subjects with AD had lower walking speed and greater time change between single and dual task compared with healthy controls. Reliability for Talking While Walking was very good. The results show that motor function in combination with a cognitive task, as well as motor function alone, influences subjects with Alzheimer's disease in a negative way and that decreased walking speed during single- and dual-task performance may be an early symptom in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17341772

  20. Differences in cortical thickness in healthy controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease patients: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Julkunen, Valtteri; Niskanen, Eini; Koikkalainen, Juha; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Pihlajamäki, Maija; Hallikainen, Merja; Kivipelto, Miia; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Evans, Alan C; Vanninen, Ritva; Hilkka Soininen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed differences in cortical thickness (CTH) between healthy controls (HC), subjects with stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), progressive MCI (P-MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and assessed correlations between CHT and clinical disease severity, education, and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE) genotype. Automated CTH analysis was applied to baseline high-resolution structural MR images of 145 subjects with a maximum followup time of 7.4 years pooled from population-based study databases held in the University of Kuopio. Statistical differences in CTH between study groups and significant correlations between CTH and clinical and demographic factors were assessed and displayed on a cortical surface model. Compared to HC group (n = 26), the AD (n = 21) group displayed significantly reduced CTH in several areas of frontal and temporal cortices of the right hemisphere. Higher education and lower MMSE scores were correlated with reduced CTH in the AD group, whereas no significant correlation was found between CDR-SB scores or APOE genotype and CTH. The P-MCI group demonstrated significantly reduced CTH compared to S-MCI in frontal, temporal and parietal cortices even after statistically adjusting for all confounding variables. Ultimately, analysis of CTH can be used to detect cortical thinning in subjects with progressive MCI several years before conversion and clinical diagnosis of AD dementia, irrespective of their cognitive performance, education level, or APOE genotype. PMID:21504134

  1. Wake potential in a strong coupling plasma from the AdS /CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lian; Liu, Hui

    2016-04-01

    With the dielectric function computed from the AdS /CFT correspondence, we studied the wake potential induced by a fast moving charge in a strong-coupling plasma and compared it with the weak-coupling wake potential for different particle velocities as v =0.55 c and v =0.99 c . The most prominent difference between strong and weak wake potential is that, when v =0.99 c , the remarkable oscillation due to Cerenkov-like radiation and the Mach cone in weak coupling disappears in strong coupling, which implies that the plasmon mode with phase velocity lower than the speed of light dose not exist in the strong-coupling plasma.

  2. Teaching of subject matter.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Psychology of subject matter refers to the scientific study of learning and instruction within school subjects. The growing research literature on teaching and learning of school subjects represents one of educational psychology's most productive accomplishments of the past two decades. The purpose of this chapter is to examine representative advances in the psychology of subject matter, including how people learn to read words, comprehend printed passages, write compositions, solve arithmetic word problems, and understand how scientific systems work. The introduction provides a historical overview of how to promote transfer and is followed by reviews of representative research in learning and teaching of reading fluency, reading comprehension, writing, mathematics, and science. PMID:14744232

  3. Just a Spoonful of Sugar Will Land You Six Feet Underground: Should the Food and Drug Administration Revoke Added Sugar's GRAS Status?

    PubMed

    Card, Melissa Marie; Abela, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses whether added sugar meets FDA's standard to be generally recognized as safe ("GRAS"). If added sugar is not GRAS, then manufacturers are subject to premarket approval prior to using added sugar in their products. This article advocates that FDA should issue a Federal Register notice determining that added sugar is not GRAS, allowing FDA to regulate the amount of added sugar used in processed foods, decreasing the health adversities that stem from added sugar consumption. PMID:26630822

  4. Comparing Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV test and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman HIV test, v2.0 in treated HIV-1 B and non-B subjects with low viraemia.

    PubMed

    Margariti, Apostolia; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Metallidis, Simeon; Pilalas, Dimitrios; Kourelis, Andreas; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Malisiovas, Nicolaos; Skoura, Lemonia

    2016-04-01

    Viral load testing is a valuable tool in HIV clinical care and research. Discrepancies among diverse viral load assays, especially with regard to non-B HIV-1 subtypes have been reported. Our study aimed to explore the impact of HIV subtype (B versus non-B) on the agreement between CAP/CTM, v2.0 and m2000 RealTime in treated HIV patients, focusing on low viral loads (<200 copies/ml). Our findings indicate that there is a significant difference in the performance of the compared assays in the low-viremic range and non-B subtypes, suggesting that a single assay should be used for follow-up. PMID:26331699

  5. Value Added as an Indicator of Educational Effectiveness in Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; de Wolf, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the possibilities of estimating value added as a performance indicator in senior secondary vocational education. Value added is interesting in this context because it is considered as a reliable tool for comparing the effectiveness of educational institutions. Although value added indicators have been developed since the…

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  7. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  8. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  9. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  10. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  11. 42 CFR 137.70 - Are the reporting requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? 137.70 Section 137.70 Public Health PUBLIC... requirements different for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement? Yes, the reporting requirements for a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement are subject...

  12. Psychoanalysis and politics: historicising subjectivity.

    PubMed

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  13. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  14. The Eppelsheimer Subject Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gordon

    1971-01-01

    Since 1945, a method of catalog classification, originally devised by H.W. Eppelsheimer for the Mainz City Library, has found wide acceptance. It is a complex of catalogs which combines features of both subject classification and alphabetical subject indexing. (25 references) (Author/NH)

  15. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  16. Old Words, New Meanings: A Study of Trends in Science Librarian Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bychowski, Brenna K. H.; Caffrey, Carolyn M.; Costa, Mia C.; Moore, Angela D.; Sudhakaran, Jessamyn; Zhang, Yuening

    2010-01-01

    Job ads are supposed to provide careful descriptions of the positions being advertised. Based on this premise, an analysis of job ads over time should reveal emerging trends and changes in a profession. The existing literature on science librarianship emphasizes that there are fluctuations in the demand for subject expertise and technology skills…

  17. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  18. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  19. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  20. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  1. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  2. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...

  3. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  4. Global Coverage from Ad-Hoc Constellations in Rideshare Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Armin; Mercury, Michael; Brown, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A promising area of small satellite development is in providing higher temporal resolution than larger satellites. Traditional constellations have required specific orbits and dedicated launch vehicles. In this paper we discuss an alternative architecture in which the individual elements of the constellation are launched as rideshare opportunities. We compare the coverage of such an ad-hoc constellation with more traditional constellations. Coverage analysis is based on actual historical data from rideshare opportunities. Our analysis includes ground coverage and temporal revisits for Polar, Tropics, Temperate, and Global regions, comparing ad-hoc and Walker constellation.

  5. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  6. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  7. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  8. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  9. Gifted Children with AD/HD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovecky, Deirdre V.

    This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…

  10. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  11. Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.

  12. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  13. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  14. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa e; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. Subjects/Methods The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18–65 years old, BMI: 18.5–49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. Results For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p < 0.0001. In the ROC analysis, compared with the HOMA1-IR, the HOMA-AD showed higher values of the AUC for the identification of IR based on the clamp test (AUC: 0.844 vs. AUC: 0.804) and on the metabolic syndrome (AUC: 0.703 vs. AUC: 0.689), respectively; p < 0.001 for all. However, the pairwise comparison did not show evidence of superiority for the HOMA-AD in comparison with the HOMA1-IR in the diagnosis of IR and metabolic syndrome (p > 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. Conclusions The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities. PMID:27490249

  15. The User-Subjective Approach to Personal Information Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ofer; Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Nachmias, Rafi

    2003-01-01

    Explains personal information management (PIM) systems and suggests a user-subjective approach to PIM system design. Advocates that PIM systems relate to the subjective value-added attributes that the user gives the stored data so that the user can find information again, recall it when needed, and use it effectively in the next interaction.…

  16. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  17. Modification of Ad5 Hexon Hypervariable Regions Circumvents Pre-Existing Ad5 Neutralizing Antibodies and Induces Protective Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Joseph T.; Semenova, Elena; Chen, Ping; Limbach, Keith; Patterson, Noelle B.; Stefaniak, Maureen E.; Konovalova, Svetlana; Thomas, Charlie; Hamilton, Melissa; King, C. Richter; Richie, Thomas L.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an effective malaria vaccine is a high global health priority. Vaccine vectors based on adenovirus type 5 are capable of generating robust and protective T cell and antibody responses in animal models and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for HIV and malaria. They appear to be more effective in terms of inducing antigen-specific immune responses as compared with non-Ad5 serotype vectors. However, the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to Ad5 in the human population, particularly in the developing world, has the potential to limit the effectiveness of Ad5-based vaccines. We have generated novel Ad5-based vectors that precisely replace the hexon hypervariable regions with those derived from Ad43, a subgroup D serotype with low prevalence of neutralizing antibody in humans. We have demonstrated that these hexon-modified adenovectors are not neutralized efficiently by Ad5 neutralizing antibodies in vitro using sera from mice, rabbits and human volunteers. We have also generated hexon-modified adenovectors that express a rodent malaria parasite antigen, PyCSP, and demonstrated that they are as immunogenic as an unmodified vector. Furthermore, in contrast to the unmodified vector, the hexon-modified adenovectors induced robust T cell responses in mice with high levels of Ad5 neutralizing antibody. We also show that the hexon-modified vector can be combined with unmodified Ad5 vector in prime-boost regimens to induce protective responses in mice. Our data establish that these hexon-modified vectors are highly immunogenic even in the presence of pre-existing anti-adenovirus antibodies. These hexon-modified adenovectors may have advantages in sub-Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of Ad5 neutralizing antibody in the population. PMID:22496772

  18. Historical Literature in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  19. Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    With the advent of supergravity and superstring theory, it is of great importance to study higher-dimensional solutions to the Einstein equations. In this dissertation, we study the higher dimensional Kerr-AdS metrics, and show how they admit further generalisations in which additional NUT-type parameters are introduced. The choice of coordinates in four dimensions that leads to the natural inclusion of a NUT parameter in the Kerr-AdS solution is rather well known. An important feature of this coordinate system is that the radial variable and the latitude variable are placed on a very symmetrical footing. The NUT generalisations of the high-dimensional Kerr-AdS metrics obtained in this dissertation work in a very similar way. We first consider the Kerr-AdS metrics specialised to cohomogeneity 2 by appropriate restrictions on their rotation parameters. A latitude coordinate is introduced in such a way that it, and the radial variable, appeared in a very symmetrical way. The inclusion of a NUT charge is a natural result of this parametrisation. This procedure is then applied to the general D dimensional Kerr-AdS metrics with cohomogeneity [D/2]. The metrics depend on the radial coordinate r and [D/2] latitude variables mu i that are subject to the constraint Sigmai m2i = 1. We find a coordinate reparameterisation in which the mu i variables are replaced by [D/2]-1 unconstrained coordinates gammaalpha, and put the coordinates r and gammaalpha on a parallel footing in the metrics, leading to an immediate introduction of ([D/2]-1) NUT parameters. This gives the most general Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics in D dimensions. We discuss some remarkable properties of the new Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics. We show that the Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations are separable in Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics with cohomogeneity 2. We also demonstrate that the general cohomogeneity-n Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics can be written in multi-Kerr-Schild form. Lastly, We study the BPS limits of the Kerr-NUT-Ad

  20. Deep Ecology and Subjectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Grover

    1988-01-01

    Describes Deep Ecology and criticizes its limitations. Discusses mysticism, the bomb, freedom, subjectivity and power as they are addressed by Deep Ecology. Stresses the need to teach ecological balance. (CW)

  1. Different phases of hairy black holes in AdS5 space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andrés; Oliva, Julio

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of hairy black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, including backreaction. Resorting to the Euclidean path integral approach, we show that matter conformally coupled to Einstein gravity in five dimensions may exhibit a phase transition whose endpoint turns out to be a hairy black hole in AdS5 space. The scalar field configuration happens to be regular everywhere outside and on the horizon and behaves asymptotically in such a way that respects the AdS boundary conditions that are relevant for AdS/CFT. The theory presents other peculiar features in the ultraviolet, like the existence of black holes with arbitrarily low temperature in AdS5 . This provides a simple setup in which the fully backreacting problem of a hair forming in AdS at a certain critical temperature can be solved analytically.

  2. Malicious node detection in ad-hoc wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Richard L.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2003-07-01

    Advances in wireless communications and the proliferation of mobile computing devices has led to the rise of a new type of computer network: the ad-hoc wireless network. Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of fixed infrastructure, which give ad-hoc networks a great deal of flexibility, but also increases the risk of security problems. In wired networks, key pieces of network infrastructure are secured to prevent unauthorized physical access and tampering. Network administrators ensure that everything is properly configured and are on-hand to fix problems and deal with intrusions. In contrast, the nodes in an ad-hoc network are responsible for routing and forwarding data in the network, and there are no network administrators to handle potential problems. This makes an ad-hoc network more vulnerable to a misconfigured, faulty, or compromised node. We propose a means for a node in an ad-hoc network to detect and handle these malicious nodes by comparing data available to the routing protocol, such as cached routes in Dynamic Source Routing, ICMP messages, and transport layer information, such as TCP timeouts. This data can then be used along with network probes to isolate the malicious node.

  3. ADS Labs: Supporting Information Discovery in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an open access digital library portal for researchers in astronomy and physics, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) under a NASA grant, successfully serving the professional science community for two decades. Currently there are about 55,000 frequent users (100+ queries per year), and up to 10 million infrequent users per year. Access by the general public now accounts for about half of all ADS use, demonstrating the vast reach of the content in our databases. The visibility and use of content in the ADS can be measured by the fact that there are over 17,000 links from Wikipedia pages to ADS content, a figure comparable to the number of links that Wikipedia has to OCLC's WorldCat catalog. The ADS, through its holdings and innovative techniques available in ADS Labs, offers an environment for information discovery that is unlike any other service currently available to the astrophysics community. Literature discovery and review are important components of science education, aiding the process of preparing for a class, project, or presentation. The ADS has been recognized as a rich source of information for the science education community in astronomy, thanks to its collaborations within the astronomy community, publishers and projects like ComPADRE. One element that makes the ADS uniquely relevant for the science education community is the availability of powerful tools to explore aspects of the astronomy literature as well as the relationship between topics, people, observations and scientific papers. The other element is the extensive repository of scanned literature, a significant fraction of which consists of historical literature.

  4. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat. PMID:21426952

  5. The Student Mathematics Portfolio: Value Added to Student Preparation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article describes key elements for educators to successfully implement a student mathematics portfolio in an undergraduate mathematics course. This article offers practical advice for implementing a student mathematics portfolio in a freshman precalculus course. We look at the potential value added to student class preparation and compare our…

  6. Impact of adding foreign genomic information on Mexican Holstein imputation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adding US and Canada genomic information to the imputation of Mexican Holstein genotypes was measured by comparing 3 scenarios: 1) 2,018 Mexican genotyped animals; 2) animals from scenario 1 plus 886 related North American animals; and 3) animals from scenario 1 and all North American ...

  7. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565

  8. Testing subject comprehension of utility questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Dobrez, Deborah G; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Utility questionnaires are often considered difficult for subjects to understand. Our study reports pilot testing of two subject comprehension tests to determine whether comprehension can be directly measured. Current health utilities were assessed using the standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale. Subjects were randomized to one of two tests: (1) Logical consistency was tested by comparing rankings of two health states with an investigator-assigned a priori ranking; (2) Utility responses for two hypothetical respondents were presented; the subject was asked who had the better health. Thirty-one subjects completed the SG and TTO for two health states: being blind and wearing glasses. No subjects had inconsistent rankings. Post hoc analyses found that subjects reporting utilities below the first decile for the state, wearing glasses, had significantly lower current health utility than remaining subjects. Of the thirty subjects who evaluated the hypothetical respondents' utilities, five incorrectly judged the respondent with worse utility to have better health. Those subjects also reported current health utilities significantly lower than the remaining subjects. Our study findings suggest that a minority should be expected to have difficulty completing utility questionnaires. Comprehension checks may improve the reliability of utility data by enhancing training and by identifying subjects who may have misunderstood the utility questions. PMID:15085909

  9. AdS perturbations, isometries, selection rules and the Higgs oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Nivesvivat, Rongvoram

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of small-amplitude perturbations in the global anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is restricted by selection rules that forbid effective energy transfer between certain sets of normal modes. The selection rules arise algebraically because some integrals of products of AdS mode functions vanish. Here, we reveal the relation of these selection rules to AdS isometries. The formulation we discover through this systematic approach is both simpler and stronger than what has been reported previously. In addition to the selection rule considerations, we develop a number of useful representations for the global AdS mode functions, with connections to algebraic structures of the Higgs oscillator, a superintegrable system describing a particle on a sphere in an inverse cosine-squared potential, where the AdS isometries play the role of a spectrum-generating algebra.

  10. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  11. The Impact of AD Drug Treatments on Event-Related Potentials as Markers of Disease Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Mapstone, Mark; McCrary, John W.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how commonly prescribed pharmacologic treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affect Event-Related Potential (ERP) biomarkers as tools for predicting AD conversion in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We gathered baseline ERP data from two MCI groups (those taking AD medications and those not) and later determined which subjects developed AD (Convert->AD) and which subjects remained cognitively stable (Stable). We utilized a previously developed and validated multivariate system of ERP components to measure medication effects among these four subgroups. Discriminant analysis produced classification scores for each individual as a measure of similarity to each clinical group (Convert->AD, Stable), and we found a large significant main Group effect but no main AD Medications effect and no Group by Medications interaction. This suggested AD medications have negligible influence on this set of ERP components as weighted markers of disease progression. These results provide practical information to those using ERP measures as a biomarker to identify and track AD in individuals in a clinical or research setting. PMID:23905997

  12. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  13. Classical subjective expected utility.

    PubMed

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-04-23

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  14. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  15. Energy-Saving Topology Control for Heterogeneous Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xuehui

    Topology control with per-node transmission power adjustment in wireless ad hoc networks has been shown to be effective with respect to prolonging network lifetime and increasing network capacity. In this paper, we propose a fully distributed, asynchronous and localized energy-saving topology control algorithm for heterogeneous ad hoc networks with non-uniform transmission ranges. We prove the topology derived from the algorithm preserves the network connectivity and bi-directionality. It need not the position system support and dramatically reduces the communication overhead compared to other topology control algorithms. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

  16. Routing Protocol of Sparse Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huxiong

    Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an application of mobile ad hoc technology in transportation systems, it has become an important part of ITS. Since multi-hop link is hard to set up in sparse VANET, a traffic-aware routing (TAR) protocol is proposed which estimates vehicle average neighbors (VAN) of roads by exchanging beacon messages between encounter vehicles. Road with high VAN is preferred to be selected as part of forwarding path at intersection. Packets are forwarded to the next intersection in road in a greedy manner. Simulations show that TAR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of both packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay.

  17. Adding run history to CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  18. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: An ADNI study of 515 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D.; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J.; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7 ± 7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3 ± 1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0 ± 7.2 years; 27.0 ± 1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9 ± 5.1 years; 29.1 ± 1.0), as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at α = 0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD. PMID:19615450

  19. Database Subject Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; Teitelbaum, Henry H.

    1978-01-01

    Broad subject headings which have been assigned to each of the 86 data bases available or announced on the five major on-line search systems--Lockheed, SDC, BRS, NIM, and New York Times Information Bank--are arranged alphabetically followed by the name(s) of the appropriate data base(s). (JPF)

  20. Introducing Behavioral Subjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A true elaboration of educational goals will include a set of both more and less well-structured aims, corresponding to behavioral objectives and subjectives, which can be tested respectively by direct methods and by less direct methods such as the native speaker or Turing tests. (Author/LS)

  1. Curriculum Costs: Vocational Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, C. E.

    To establish a definition of costs in education, a "concept map" is established to which inevitable questions of inclusion and exclusion can be addressed. A specific case, namely the costs of practical/vocational subjects, is then presented. It also includes a profile of benefits, since with regard to vocational education, much more than with…

  2. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  3. AdS/CFT and Light-Front QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2008-02-04

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently nonperturbative aspects of QCD such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection leads to AdS/CFT predictions for the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties. The LFWFs in turn predict decay constants and spin correlations, as well as dynamical quantities such as form factors, structure functions, generalized parton distributions, and exclusive scattering amplitudes. Relativistic light-front equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the fifth-dimensional theory and have remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. As specific examples we describe the behavior of the pion form factor in the space and time-like regions and determine the Dirac nucleon form factors in the space-like region. An extension to nonzero quark mass is used to determine hadronic distribution amplitudes of all mesons, heavy and light. We compare our results with the moments of the distribution amplitudes which have recently been computed from lattice gauge theory.

  4. AdS/CFT and Light-Front QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2010-12-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently nonperturbative aspects of QCD such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection leads to AdS/CFT predictions for the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions (LFWFs) of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties. The LFWFs in turn predict decay constants and spin correlations, as well as dynamical quantities such as form factors, structure functions, generalized parton distributions, and exclusive scattering amplitudes. Relativistic light-front equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the fifth-dimensional theory and have remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. As specific examples we describe the behavior of the pion form factor in the space and time-like regions and determine the Dirac nucleon form factors in the space-like region. An extension to nonzero quark mass is used to determine hadronic distribution amplitudes of all mesons, heavy and light. We compare our results with the moments of the distribution amplitudes which have recently been computed from lattice gauge theory.

  5. On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter κ and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, κ → ∞, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, κ → i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The κ = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.

  6. Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Harikumar, E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M.

    2010-08-01

    We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.

  7. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  8. Want Ads and the Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam

    1974-01-01

    The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)

  9. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  10. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  11. Synthesis of a Potent Vinblastine: Rationally Designed Added Benign Complexity.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Oliver; Brutsch, Manuela; Lukesh, John C; Brody, Daniel M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-07-13

    Many natural products, including vinblastine, have not been easily subjected to simplifications in their structures by synthetic means or modifications by late-stage semisynthetic derivatization in ways that enhance their biological potency. Herein, we detail a synthetic vinblastine that incorporates added benign complexity (ABC), which improves activity 10-fold, and is now accessible as a result of advances in the total synthesis of the natural product. The compound incorporates designed added molecular complexity but no new functional groups and maintains all existing structural and conformational features of the natural product. It constitutes a member of an analogue class presently inaccessible by semisynthetic derivatization of the natural product, by its late-stage functionalization, or by biosynthetic means. Rather, it was accessed by synthetic means, using an appropriately modified powerful penultimate single-step vindoline-catharanthine coupling strategy that proceeds with a higher diastereoselectivity than found for the natural product itself. PMID:27356080

  12. Adding Words to the Brain's Visual Dictionary: Novel Word Learning Selectively Sharpens Orthographic Representations in the VWFA

    PubMed Central

    Glezer, Laurie S.; Kim, Judy; Rule, Josh; Jiang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    The nature of orthographic representations in the human brain is still subject of much debate. Recent reports have claimed that the visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipitotemporal cortex contains an orthographic lexicon based on neuronal representations highly selective for individual written real words (RWs). This theory predicts that learning novel words should selectively increase neural specificity for these words in the VWFA. We trained subjects to recognize novel pseudowords (PWs) and used fMRI rapid adaptation to compare neural selectivity with RWs, untrained PWs (UTPWs), and trained PWs (TPWs). Before training, PWs elicited broadly tuned responses, whereas responses to RWs indicated tight tuning. After training, TPW responses resembled those of RWs, whereas UTPWs continued to show broad tuning. This change in selectivity was specific to the VWFA. Therefore, word learning appears to selectively increase neuronal specificity for the new words in the VWFA, thereby adding these words to the brain's visual dictionary. PMID:25810526

  13. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  14. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  15. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  16. The BEHAVE-AD Assessment System: A Perspective, A Commentary on New Findings, and A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Barry; Monteiro, Isabel; Torossian, Carol; Auer, Stefanie; Shulman, Melanie B.; Ghimire, Santosh; Boksay, Istvan; BenArous, Francoise Guillo; Osorio, Ricardo; Vengassery, Aninditha; Imran, Sheema; Shaker, Hussam; Noor, Sadaf; Naqvi, Shazia; Kenowsky, Sunnie; Xu, Jinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and associated disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a source of distress and burden for spouses, professional caregivers, and others with responsibilities for the care of individuals with AD. BPSD with behavioral disturbances are also associated with more rapid institutionalization and increased morbidity and mortality for persons with AD. Objectives In this review and commentary, we discuss the history of the development of BPSD and behavioral disturbance assessments, which are distinct from those evaluating cognitive and functional symptoms of AD. In particular, we review the informant-based Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the related, potentially more sensitive, BEHAVE-AD Frequency-Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW), and the direct subject evaluation-based Empirical BEHAVE-AD Rating Scale (E-BEHAVE-AD). The kinds of medications that alleviate behavioral symptoms on these measures as well as the problems and possibilities for further advances with these medications are discussed. Finally, the importance of distinguishing BPSD and behavioral disturbance remediation in AD from the treatment of cognitive decline and other aspects of AD is emphasized in the context of appropriate assessment methodology. The objective of this paper is to provide a framework for further advances in the treatment of BPSD and associated behavioral disturbances in AD and, consequently, a framework for continuing improvements in the lives of individuals with AD and those who share the burden of the disease with the AD person. PMID:24714384

  17. The effect of 3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase isoenzymes on the transformation of AD to 9α-OH-AD by Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM43269.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Shen, Yanbing; Qiao, Yuqian; Su, Liqiu; Li, Can; Wang, Min

    2016-09-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM43269 is well known for its 3-ketosteroid-9α-hydroxylases. However, the function of its 3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenases (KSDD) remains unknown. This study compared the involvement of ksdds in the strain's androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) transformation via gene deletion. The conversion was performed using AD as substrate or directly with 9α-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (9α-OH-AD). The single deletion of ksdd1 or ksdd3 did not appear to result in the accumulation of 9α-OH-AD, whereas the single mutant △ksdd2 could preserve this compound to some extent. To further compare the role of ksdds in this strain, double mutants were constructed. All ksdd2 mutants combined with ksdd1 and/or ksdd3 resulted in the accumulation of 9α-OH-AD, among which the double mutant △ksdd2,3 behaved similarly to the single mutant △ksdd2 in this process. The mutant that lacked both ksdd1 and ksdd3 was still displayed, with no effect on the degradation of 9α-OH-AD. The triple mutant △ksdd1,2,3 was then constructed and exhibited the same capability as △ksdd1,2, accumulating more 9α-OH-AD than △ksdd2,3 and △ksdd2. The transcription of KSDD1 and KSDD2 increased, whereas that of KSDD3 seemed to exhibit no change, despite the use of the inducer AD or 9α-OH-AD. Thus, only ksdd1 and ksdd2 were involved in the transformation of AD to 9α-OH-AD. ksdd2 had the main role, ksdd1 had a minor effect on 9α-OH-AD degradation, and ksdd3 did not exhibit any action in this course. PMID:27377798

  18. Adding Memantine to Rivastigmine Therapy in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a 12-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riepe, Matthias W.; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Objective: At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Method: Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6–12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5–20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Conclusion: Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:17235381

  19. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  20. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  1. Mapping AdS to dS spaces and back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Adriana; Fröb, Markus B.

    2015-03-01

    We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature, including scalar matter. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane. The map can also be used as a solution generator, and we obtain a Kerr/AdS solution with hyperbolic horizon from a known Kerr/dS one.

  2. A high speed CMOS A/D converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Don R.; Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The converter is a 7 bit flash converter with one half LSB accuracy. Typical parts will function at approximately 200 MHz. The converter uses a novel comparator circuit that is shown to out perform more traditional comparators, and thus increases the speed of the converter. The comparator is a clocked, precharged circuit that offers very fast operation with a minimal offset voltage (2 mv). The converter was designed using a standard 1 micron digital CMOS process and is 2,244 microns by 3,972 microns.

  3. Removing inter-subject technical variability in magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Muschelli, John; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensities are acquired in arbitrary units, making scans non-comparable across sites and between subjects. Intensity normalization is a first step for the improvement of comparability of the images across subjects. However, we show that unwanted inter-scan variability associated with imaging site, scanner effect, and other technical artifacts is still present after standard intensity normalization in large multi-site neuroimaging studies. We propose RAVEL (Removal of Artificial Voxel Effect by Linear regression), a tool to remove residual technical variability after intensity normalization. As proposed by SVA and RUV [Leek and Storey, 2007, 2008, Gagnon-Bartsch and Speed, 2012], two batch effect correction tools largely used in genomics, we decompose the voxel intensities of images registered to a template into a biological component and an unwanted variation component. The unwanted variation component is estimated from a control region obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where intensities are known to be unassociated with disease status and other clinical covariates. We perform a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the control voxels to estimate factors of unwanted variation. We then estimate the unwanted factors using linear regression for every voxel of the brain and take the residuals as the RAVEL-corrected intensities. We assess the performance of RAVEL using T1-weighted (T1-w) images from more than 900 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as healthy controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We compare RAVEL to two intensity-normalization-only methods: histogram matching and White Stripe. We show that RAVEL performs best at improving the replicability of the brain regions that are empirically found to be most associated with AD, and that these regions are significantly more present in structures impacted by AD (hippocampus, amygdala

  4. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-02-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7-18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  5. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  6. Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day: Study Researchers say billboards, signs and TV ads ... kids typically saw two to four ads a day. Hispanic and black kids saw more ads, an ...

  7. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  8. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  9. Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ma

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.

  10. Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun

    2016-02-01

    Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches. PMID:26716360

  11. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...

  12. FDA Launches Ad Campaign Against Chewing Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158385.html FDA Launches Ad Campaign Against Chewing Tobacco Health officials targeting rural teens with messages about health risks of smokeless tobacco products To use the sharing features on this ...

  13. Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...

  14. Hadrons in AdS/QCD correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-03-01

    We present a holographical soft wall model that is able to reproduce not only Regge spectra for hadrons with arbitrary integer spin, but also with spin 1/2 and 3/2, and with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators that create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein equations and the AdS metric used.

  15. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  16. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of massive arbitrary spin fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Poincaré parametrization of AdS space, we study massive totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by using Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the mass parameter, curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS massive fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Three representations for the Lagrangian are discussed. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of the Bessel function. New simple representation for gauge invariant Lagrangian of massive (A)dS field in arbitrary coordinates is obtained. Light-cone gauge Lagrangian of massive AdS field is also presented.

  17. Sex differences in the subjective and reinforcing effects of visual and olfactory cigarette smoke stimuli.

    PubMed

    Perkins, K A; Gerlach, D; Vender, J; Grobe, J; Meeker, J; Hutchison, S

    2001-05-01

    Although nicotine intake clearly reinforces cigarette smoking behavior, non-nicotine smoke stimuli may become conditioned reinforcers of smoking. In Study 1, we compared the acute subjective and reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in men and women under two conditions: blockade of visual and olfactory/taste smoke stimuli vs. no blockade. Subjective hedonic ratings of 'like puffs' and 'satisfying', but not 'strength', 'high in nicotine', or CO boost, were significantly reduced under the blockade vs. no blockade conditions. During subsequent ad lib puffing, significantly fewer puffs were self-administered under the blockade condition, particularly among women. In Study 2, we examined the influences of these stimuli separately and found that olfactory/taste stimuli, but not visual stimuli, reduced hedonic ratings and puff self-administration in women but not in men. In Study 3, procedures similar to those in Study 1 were used to examine whether this sex difference in responses to conditioned stimuli generalizes to a non-drug consummatory behavior, eating (pizza). However, hedonic ratings and ad lib consumption of pizza were substantially reduced in both men and women following blockade of visual and olfactory/taste food stimuli. These results indicate that the presumably conditioned stimuli of olfactory/taste from cigarette smoke may influence subjective hedonic ratings and reinforcement from smoking more in women than in men. However, this sex difference may not generalize beyond smoking or other drug reinforcement. PMID:11403728

  18. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally. PMID:25615306

  19. Subjective evaluation of higher dynamic range video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-09-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is able to capture a wide range of luminance values, closer to what the human eye can perceive. However, for capture and display technologies, it is important to answer the question on the significance of higher dynamic range for user preference. This paper answers this question by investigating the added value of higher dynamic range via a rigorous set of subjective experiments using paired comparison methodology. Video sequences at four different peak luminance levels were displayed side-by-side on a Dolby Research HDR RGB backlight dual modulation display (aka `Pulsar'), which is capable of reliably displaying video content at 4000 cd=m2 peak luminance. The results of the subjective experiment demonstrate that the preference of an average viewer increases logarithmically with the increase in the maximum luminance level at which HDR content is displayed, with 4000 cd=m2 being the most attractive option.

  20. Subjective experiences in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Luca; Kalyvoka, Artemis; Stratta, Paolo; Gianfelice, Daniela; Rinaldi, Osvaldo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    Studies comparing 'subjective experiences' in schizophrenic and affective disorders have reached inconclusive results. We investigated the pattern of 'subjective perceived cognitive disturbances' in a group of 55 schizophrenic patients and 39 bipolar patients hospitalized for an index psychotic episode. The assessment of the subjective experiences was made using the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). Comparing the two groups on the four FBF factors, schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher scores in the areas of 'central cognitive disturbances', 'perception and motility' other than a significantly higher FBF total score. Our results suggest that cognitive, perception and motility disturbances are the most characteristic subjective experiences of schizophrenic patients in comparison with bipolar patients. This finding need to be further explored in light of the issue of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:12056578

  1. Incorporation of Inter-Subject Information to Improve the Accuracy of Subject-Specific P300 Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minpeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Long; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Although the inter-subject information has been demonstrated to be effective for a rapid calibration of the P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it has never been comprehensively tested to find if the incorporation of heterogeneous data could enhance the accuracy. This study aims to improve the subject-specific P300 classifier by adding other subject's data. A classifier calibration strategy, weighted ensemble learning generic information (WELGI), was developed, in which elementary classifiers were constructed by using both the intra- and inter-subject information and then integrated into a strong classifier with a weight assessment. 55 subjects were recruited to spell 20 characters offline using the conventional P300-based BCI, i.e. the P300-speller. Four different metrics, the P300 accuracy and precision, the round accuracy, and the character accuracy, were performed for a comprehensive investigation. The results revealed that the classifier constructed on the training dataset in combination with adding other subject's data was significantly superior to that without the inter-subject information. Therefore, the WELGI is an effective classifier calibration strategy which uses the inter-subject information to improve the accuracy of subject-specific P300 classifiers, and could also be applied to other BCI paradigms. PMID:27005002

  2. Subjective Evaluations of Motion Area and Velocity Characteristics of Dual Manipulator in Young and Elderly People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Mitsumasa; Yoda, Asako; Shiota, Yasuhito

    In this study, we conducted a subjective evaluation experiment of a dual manipulator, which exhibits different motion characteristics. There are three motion characteristics: two of which are age-related, and the third is a robot motion characteristic and is newly added to these two motions. The motions are evaluated from motion areas and motion velocities. Subjects are elderly and young people, and the impressions of the motions are compared in two of the different age groups by the Semantic Differential (SD) method. The obtained results indicate that there are age differences in the evaluation of three manipulator motion areas. The elderly people show a higher reliability and a higher familiarity in a robot motion area than in the other two motions. The elderly people seem to be more affected by the manipulator motion than the young people. Therefore, a careful consideration is required when planning the motion of a manipulator for elderly people.

  3. Value-Added Workers Earn Less, Have Less Education Than Other Rural Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…

  4. The Value-Added of Primary Schools: What Is It Really Measuring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the official value-added scores in 2005 for all primary schools in three adjacent Local Educational Authorities (LEAs) in England with the raw-score Key Stage 2 (KS2) results for the same schools. The correlation coefficient for the raw- and value-added scores of these 457 schools is around +0.75. Scatterplots show that there…

  5. Subjective Evaluation Of A Perceptual Quality Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Charles F.

    1981-12-01

    A major problem which has plagued image processing has been the lack of an effective image quality measure. It is well known that common measures which are mathematical and analytically tractable do not correlate with human subjective evaluation. This paper presents the results of a subjective evaluation on twelve versions of a black and white image (the SPIE GIRL) and the rank ordering obtained with three computational measures. It was found that a measure based on a model of the human visual system compared to the subjective evaluation with a correlation of .92.

  6. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CA...

  7. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  8. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  9. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  10. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  11. Amyloid precursor protein expression is enhanced in human platelets from subjects with Alzheimer's disease and Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A Real-time PCR study.

    PubMed

    Vignini, Arianna; Morganti, Stefano; Salvolini, Eleonora; Sartini, Davide; Luzzi, Simona; Fiorini, Rosamaria; Provinciali, Leandro; Di Primio, Roberto; Mazzanti, Laura; Emanuelli, Monica

    2013-10-26

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) represent the most frequent causes of early-onset and late-onset degenerative dementia, respectively. A correct diagnosis entails the choice of appropriate therapies. In this view the present study aimed to identify biomarkers that could improve the differential diagnosis. We recently found an overexpression of platelet amyloid precursor protein (APP) in AD; furthermore, recent studies have suggested the presence of changes in APP processing in FTLD. In this context, we analyzed the mRNA expression level of Total APP (TOT) and APP containing a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor domain (KPI) in platelets obtained from AD patients, subjects with FTLD, and healthy subjects. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between platelet APP mRNA expression levels and cognitive impairment. Differential gene expression measurements revealed a significant up-regulation of APP TOT and APP KPI in both AD and FTLD patients compared to the controls (being AD/Controls: 1.67 for APP TOT and 1.47 for APP KPI; FTLD/Controls: 1.62 for APP TOT and 1.51 for APP KPI; p<0.05) , although it is interesting to note that in FTLD patients this expression did not correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. This could be related to a reduced beta-amyloid (Aβ) formation, caused by an alteration of secretase enzymatic activity, even though a post-transcriptional regulation of APP mRNAs in FTLD cannot be excluded. PMID:24513653

  12. Black hole microstates in AdS4 from supersymmetric localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Francesco; Hristov, Kiril; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses a long standing problem, the counting of the microstates of supersymmetric asymptotically AdS black holes in terms of a holographically dual field theory. We focus on a class of asymptotically AdS4 static black holes preserving two real supercharges which are dual to a topologically twisted deformation of the ABJM theory. We evaluate in the large N limit the topologically twisted index of the ABJM theory and we show that it correctly reproduces the entropy of the AdS4 black holes. An extremization of the index with respect to a set of chemical potentials is required. We interpret it as the selection of the exact R-symmetry of the superconformal quantum mechanics describing the horizon of the black hole.

  13. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  14. Solutions in bosonic string field theory and higher spin algebras in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    We find a class of analytic solutions in open bosonic string field theory, parametrized by the chiral copy of higher spin algebra in AdS3. The solutions are expressed in terms of the generating function for the products of Bell polynomials in derivatives of bosonic space-time coordinates Xm(z ) of the open string, the form of which is determined in this work. The products of these polynomials form a natural operator algebra realizations of w∞ (area-preserving diffeomorphisms), enveloping algebra of SU(2) and higher spin algebra in AdS3. The class of string field theory solutions found can, in turn, be interpreted as the "enveloping of enveloping," or the enveloping of AdS3 higher spin algebra. We also discuss the extensions of this class of solutions to superstring theory and their relations to higher spin algebras in higher space-time dimensions.

  15. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  16. Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu

    2016-06-01

    We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.

  17. Short-term memory binding is impaired in AD but not in non-AD dementias.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Abrahams, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Binding is a cognitive function responsible for integrating features within complex stimuli (e.g., shape-colour conjunctions) or events within complex memories (e.g., face-name associations). This function operates both in short-term memory (STM) and in long-term memory (LTM) and is severely affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, forming conjunctions in STM is the only binding function which is not affected by healthy ageing or chronic depression. Whether this specificity holds true across other non-AD dementias is as yet unknown. The present study investigated STM conjunctive binding in a sample of AD patients and patients with other non-AD dementias using a task which has proved sensitive to the effects of AD. The STM task assesses the free recall of objects, colours, and the bindings of objects and colours. Patients with AD, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, lewy body dementia and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease showed memory, visuo-spatial, executive and attentional deficits on standard neuropsychological assessment. However, only AD patients showed STM binding deficits. This deficit was observed even when memory for single features was at a similar level across patient groups. Regression and discriminant analyses confirmed that the STM binding task accounted for the largest proportion of variance between AD and non-AD groups and held the greatest classification power to identify patients with AD. STM conjunctive binding places little demands on executive functions and appears to be subserved by components of the memory network which are targeted by AD, but not by non-AD dementias. PMID:22289292

  18. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  19. Warped AdS3 , dS3 , and flows from N =(0 ,2 ) SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Colgáin, Eoin

    2015-05-01

    We present the general form of all timelike supersymmetric solutions to three-dimensional U (1 )3 gauged supergravity, a known consistent truncation of string theory. We uncover a rich vacuum structure, including an infinite class of new timelike-warped AdS3 (Gödel) and timelike-warped dS3 critical points. We outline the construction of supersymmetric flows, driven by irrelevant scalar operators in the SCFT, which interpolate between critical points. For flows from AdS3 to Gödel, the natural candidate for the central charge decreases along the flow. Flows to timelike-warped dS3 exhibit topology change.

  20. Early alterations in blood and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression and the effect of exercise frequency in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Morgan; Jones, Terry E; Lu, Qun; Bareiss, Sonja K

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to protect against cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression, however the dose of exercise required to protect against AD is unknown. Recent studies show that the pathological processes leading to AD cause characteristic alterations in blood and brain inflammatory proteins that are associated with the progression of AD, suggesting that these markers could be used to diagnosis and monitor disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of exercise frequency on AD blood chemokine profiles, and correlate these findings with chemokine brain expression changes in the triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mouse model. Three month old 3xTg-AD mice were subjected to 12 weeks of moderate intensity wheel running at a frequency of either 1×/week or 3×/week. Blood and cortical tissue were analyzed for expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Alterations in blood RANTES and MCP-1 expression were evident at 3 and 6 month old animals compared to WT animals. Three times per week exercise but not 1×/week exercise was effective at reversing serum and brain RANTES and MCP-1 expression to the levels of WT controls, revealing a dose dependent response to exercise. Analysis of these chemokines showed a strong negative correlation between blood and brain expression of RANTES. The results indicate that alterations in serum and brain inflammatory chemokines are evident as early signs of Alzheimer's disease pathology and that higher frequency exercise was necessary to restore blood and brain inflammatory expression levels in this AD mouse model. PMID:26547034

  1. MAC protocol for ad hoc networks using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L; Reyna, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  2. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  3. Value-Added Chemicals from Animal Manure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Wen, Zhiyou; Kincaid, R L.; Harrison, J H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Solana, Amy E.; Stevens, Don J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of the project proposed by Washington State University (WSU) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to develop technology for the utilization of animal manures as feedstocks to produce value-added products. These included medium-volume commodity chemicals such as glycols or diols and protein-based products such as chemicals or feed supplements. The research focused on two aspects of this approach including the analysis and treatment of the feedstock to produce intermediate chemical precursors and the aqueous phase conversion of these intermediates to chemicals and other value-added products.

  4. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness. PMID:22323237

  5. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    PubMed

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  6. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  7. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  8. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Truffa, Márcio A. M.; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. Objective To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure Methods The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. Results A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm2, while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times. PMID:26351982

  9. Serum cholesterol reduction efficacy of biscuits with added plant stanol ester.

    PubMed

    Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Wangtong, Ajima; Komindr, Surat

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c-) lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study's end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05). A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9%) and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4%) was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet. PMID:25861469

  10. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester

    PubMed Central

    Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Wangtong, Ajima; Komindr, Surat

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c-) lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study's end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05). A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9%) and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4%) was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet. PMID:25861469

  11. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  12. Decreased Effective Connectivity from Cortices to the Right Parahippocampal Gyrus in Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangyu; Ward, B. Douglas; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to detect effective connectivity (EC) changes in the default mode network and hippocampus network in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 cognitively normal (CN) subjects, using multivariate Granger causality. The authors used the maximum coefficients in the multivariate autoregression model to quantitatively measure the different EC strength levels between the CN and AD groups. It was demonstrated that the EC strength difference can classify AD from CN subjects. Further, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHP_R) showed imbalanced bidirectional EC connections. The PHP_R received weaker input connections from the neocortices, but its output connections were significantly increased in AD. These findings may provide neural physiological mechanisms for interpreting AD subjects' memory deficits during the encoding processes. PMID:25132215

  13. Drag force in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2006-12-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  14. The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.

    1977-01-01

    It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)

  15. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…

  16. "Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…

  17. AdS/CFT and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2001-04-15

    The radiation-dominated k=0 FRW cosmology emerges as the induced metric on a codimension one hypersurface of constant extrinsic curvature in the five-dimensional AdS-Schwarzschild solution. That we should get FRW cosmology in this way is an expected result from AdS/CFT in light of recent comments regarding the coupling of gravity to ''boundary'' conformal field theories. I remark on how this calculation bears on the understanding of the Randall-Sundrum ''alternative to compactification.'' A generalization of the AdS/CFT prescription for computing Green's functions is suggested, and it is shown how gravity emerges from it with a strength G{sub 4}=2G{sub 5}/L. Some upper bounds are set on the radius of curvature L of AdS{sub 5}. One of them comes from estimating the rate of leakage of visible sector energy into the CFT. That rate is connected via a unitarity relation to deviations from Newton's force law at short distances. The best bound on L obtained in this paper comes from a match to the parameters of string theory. It is L{approx}<1nm if the string scale is 1GeV. Higher string scales imply a tighter bound on L.

  18. Fitting Value-Added Models in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Harold C.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Value-added models of student achievement have received widespread attention in light of the current test-based accountability movement. These models use longitudinal growth modeling techniques to identify effective schools or teachers based upon the results of changes in student achievement test scores. Given their increasing popularity, this…

  19. Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessoff, H.

    1969-01-01

    Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.

  20. Agency Presidents Rank Ad Courses, Job Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    Relates results of a survey of 118 advertising agency presidents: most think college training is useful in an ad agency, job opportunities in advertising are good, internship programs would be helpful to students, and courses in advertising principles and management are especially helpful. (TJ)

  1. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  2. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  3. Y-system for form factors at strong coupling in AdS5 and with multi-operator insertions in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yang, Gang

    2013-06-01

    We study form factors in {N}=4 SYM at strong coupling in general kinematics and with multi-operator insertions by using gauge/string duality and integrability techniques. This generalizes the AdS3 results of Maldacena and Zhiboedov in two non-trivial aspects. The first generalization to AdS5 space was motivated by its potential connection to strong coupling Higgs-to-three-gluons amplitudes in QCD which was observed recently at weak coupling. The second generalization to multi-operator insertions was motivated as a step towards applying on-shell techniques to compute correlation functions at strong coupling. In this picture, each operator is associated to a monodromy condition on the cusp solutions. We construct Y-systems for both cases. The Y -functions are related to the spacetime (cross) ratios. Their WKB approximations based on a rational function P ( z) are also studied. We focus on the short operators, while the prescription is hopefully also applicable for more general operators.

  4. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

  5. Double relaxation via AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.

    2016-08-01

    We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.

  6. Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)

  7. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  8. "Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as good…

  9. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

  10. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Gregg, Edward W; Flanders, W Dana; Merritt, Robert; Hu, Frank B

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher intake of added sugar is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Few prospective studies have examined the association of added sugar intake with CVD mortality. OBJECTIVE To examine time trends of added sugar consumption as percentage of daily calories in the United States and investigate the association of this consumption with CVD mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1988-1994 [III], 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 [n = 31,147]) for the time trend analysis and NHANES III Linked Mortality cohort (1988-2006 [n = 11 733]), a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of US adults for the association study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS Among US adults, the adjusted mean percentage of daily calories from added sugar increased from 15.7% (95% CI, 15.0%-16.4%) in 1988-1994 to 16.8% (16.0%-17.7%; P = .02) in 1999-2004 and decreased to 14.9% (14.2%-15.5%; P < .001) in 2005-2010. Most adults consumed 10% or more of calories from added sugar (71.4%) and approximately 10% consumed 25% or more in 2005-2010. During a median follow-up period of 14.6 years, we documented 831 CVD deaths during 163,039 person-years. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality across quintiles of the percentage of daily calories consumed from added sugar were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.13), 1.23 (1.12-1.34), 1.49 (1.24-1.78), and 2.43 (1.63-3.62; P < .001), respectively. After additional adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, HRs were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (1.02-1.12), 1.18 (1.06-1.31), 1.38 (1.11-1.70), and 2.03 (1.26-3.27; P = .004), respectively. Adjusted HRs were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.09-1.55) and 2.75 (1.40-5.42; P = .004), respectively, comparing participants who consumed 10.0% to 24.9% or 25.0% or

  11. Is Piaget's Epistemic Subject Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the Piaget's epistemic subject is not supported by evidence and contains weaknesses. Concludes that the epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive. (PR)

  12. Value Added to What? How a Ceiling in the Testing Instrument Influences Value-Added Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher quality may be sensitive to the quantitative properties of the student tests upon which they are based. This article focuses on the sensitivity of value added to test score ceiling effects. Test score ceilings are increasingly common in testing instruments across the country as education policy continues to…

  13. String in AdS black hole: A thermo field dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2012-10-01

    Based on Maldacena’s description of an eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole, we reassess the thermo field dynamics (TFD) formalism in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The model studied here involves the maximally extended AdS-Schwarschild solution and two (noninteracting) copies of the conformal field theory (CFT) associated to the global AdS spacetime, along with an extension of the string by imposing natural gluing conditions in the horizon. We show that the gluing conditions in the horizon define a string boundary state which is identified with the TFD thermal vacuum, globally defined in the Kruskal extension of the AdS black hole. We emphasize the connection of this picture with unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, and we show that information about the bulk and the conformal boundary is present in the SU(1,1) parameters. Using the unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, a canonical prescription for calculating the world sheet real time thermal Green’s function is made, and the entropy associated with the entanglement of the two CFT’s is calculated.

  14. Auditory-pupillary responses in deaf subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Naoharu; Otsuka, Koji; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Shigetaka; Hayashi, Mami; Ichimura, Akihide; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    Pupillary dilation in response to sound stimuli is well established and is generally considered to represent a startle reflex to sound. We believe that the auditory-pupillary response represents not only a simple startle reflex to sound stimuli but also represents a reaction to stimulation of other sense organs, such as otolith organs. Eight young healthy volunteers without a history of hearing and equilibrium problems and 12 subjects with bilateral deafness participated in this study. Computer pupillography was used to analyze the auditory-pupillary responses of both eyes in all subjects. We found that auditory-pupillary responses occurred even in subjects with bilateral deafness and that this response was comparable to those of normal subjects. We propose that the auditory-pupillary response also relates to vestibular function. Thus, assessing the auditory-pupillary response may be useful for evaluating the vestibulo-autonomic response in patients with peripheral disequilibrium. PMID:20826936

  15. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  16. Hairy black holes in AdS5 × S 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markeviciute, Julija; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We use numerical methods to exhaustively study a novel family of hairy black hole solutions in AdS5. These solutions can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity with AdS5 × S 5 asymptotics and are thus expected to play an important role in our understanding of AdS/CFT. We find an intricate phase diagram, with the aforementioned family of hairy black hole solutions branching from the Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of the superradiance instability. We analyse black holes with spherical and planar horizon topology and explain how they connect in the phase diagram. Finally, we detail their global and local thermodynamic stability across several ensembles.

  17. Sneak in Some Core Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Even if students don't have an aversion to core subjects, they may not see the relationship between the core subjects and their career path. In this article, the author outlines a career path project that can be adapted to work in any career and technical education (CTE) class to highlight the relationship between core subjects and the real world.…

  18. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  19. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  20. Comparison of Autonomic Reactions during Urodynamic Examination in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries and Able-Bodied Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Sung-Lang; Lin, Yu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose This study compares heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during urodynamic study (UDS) with able-bodied controls. Methods Twenty four complete suprasacral SCI patients (12 tetraplegia and 12 paraplegia) and 12 age-matched able-bodied volunteers received BP and HRV evaluation throughout urodynamic examination. We chose seven time points during the examinations: resting, Foley catheter insertion, start of infusion, and infused volume reaching 1/4, 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 of maximal capacity. At each time point, electrocardiogram with a duration of 5 min was used for power spectral density analysis of HRV. Results Only control subjects displayed significant elevation of SBP during Foley catheter insertion compared to resting values. Both control and tetraplegic groups experienced significant elevation of SBP at maximal bladder capacity compared to resting values. Tetraplegic values were also significantly greater than the other two groups. Control subjects displayed significant elevation of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratios during Foley catheter insertion and when approaching maximum bladder capacity. These findings were not seen in the paraplegic and tetraplegic groups. However, subgroup analysis of tetraplegic subjects with SBP elevation >50 mmHg demonstrated a similar LF/HF response to the able-bodied controls. Conclusion Tetraplegic patients experienced BP elevation but did not experience significant changes in HRV during bladder distension. This finding may imply that different neurological pathways contribute to AD reaction and HRV changes during bladder distension. However, profound AD during UDS in tetraplegic patients was associated with corresponding changes in HRV. Whether HRV monitoring would be beneficial in SCI patients presenting with significant AD, it needs further studies to elucidate. PMID:27575616

  1. Objective versus subjective assessment of methylphenidate response.

    PubMed

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-09-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio 67%:33%) aged 5-18 (11.09 +/- 3.43) years. TOVA was administered before and after MPH challenge (0.3 mg/kg). Self-perception CGI-C scores were compared to the TOVA scores. An inverse correlation was found only between CGI-C and the TOVA-Commission-scores (r = -0.326, p < 0.001). We thus conclude that subjective reports are too unreliable to be used in order to assess MPH benefit in ADHD pediatric populations. PMID:18058019

  2. Forearm vasoreactivity in type 1diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Allen, J D; Welsch, M; Aucoin, N; Wood, R; Lee, M; LeBlanc, K E

    2001-02-01

    This study compared forearm vasoreactivity in 15 Type I diabetic subjects with 15 healthy controls. The groups were matched for age, exercise capacity, and the absence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Vasoreactivity was measured using strain gauge plethysmography, at rest, after arterial occlusion (OCC), and following OCC coupled with handgrip exercise (ROCC). Forearm blood flows were significantly elevated between conditions 2.58 +/- 0.37ml/100mltissue at rest to 26.80 +/- 6.56 after OCC and 32.80 +/- 8.26ml/100mltissue following ROCC in Type I diabetic subjects. There were no differences in forearm blood flow between groups for any of the conditions. These data indicate the degree of forearm blood flow is directly related to the intensity of the vasodilatory stimulus. However, our study did not reveal evidence of impaired vasodilatory capacity in Type I diabetic subjects compared to controls in the absence of other risk factors. PMID:11173668

  3. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  4. Assessing the relationship between ad volume and awareness of a tobacco education media campaign

    PubMed Central

    Modayil, Mary V; Stevens, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Background The relation between aided ad recall and level of television ad placement in a public health setting is not well established. We examine this association by looking back at 8 years of the California's Tobacco Control Program's (CTCP) media campaign. Methods Starting in July 2001, California's campaign was continuously monitored using five telephone series of surveys and six web-based series of surveys immediately following a media flight. We used population-based statewide surveys to measure aided recall for advertisements that were placed in each of these media flights. Targeted rating points (TRPs) were used to measure ad placement intensity throughout the state. Results Cumulative TRPs exhibited a stronger relation with aided ad recall than flight TRPs or TRP density. This association increased after log-transforming cumulative TRP values. We found that a one-unit increase in log-cumulative TRPs led to a 13.6% increase in aided ad recall using web-based survey data, compared to a 5.3% increase in aided ad recall using telephone survey data. Conclusions In California, the relation between aided ad recall and cumulative TRPs showed a diminishing return after a large volume of ad placements These findings may be useful in planning future ad placement for CTCP's media campaign. PMID:20382649

  5. Difficulties Regarding Subject Difficulties: Developing Reasonable Explanations for Observable Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol Taylor; Vincent, Luke

    1997-01-01

    Responds to an article that questioned the authors' previous attempts to define "subject difficulty" and compare subjects based on their level of difficulty. Argues that "subject difficulty" is a reasonable term and is important to the interpretation of examination data. Questions arguments that only qualitative judgments of difficulty are…

  6. The Value Simulation-Based Learning Added to Machining Technology in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Linda; Tan, Hock Soon; Thwin, Mya Mya; Tan, Kim Cheng; Koh, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the value simulation-based learning (SBL) added to the learning of Machining Technology in a 15-week core subject course offered to university students. The research questions were: (1) How did SBL enhance classroom learning? (2) How did SBL help participants in their test? (3) How did SBL prepare participants for…

  7. Learning and Forgetting New Names and Objects in MCI and AD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronholm-Nyman, Petra; Rinne, Juha O.; Laine, Matti

    2010-01-01

    We studied how subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls learned and maintained the names of unfamiliar objects that were trained with or without semantic support (object definitions). Naming performance, phonological cueing, incidental learning of the definitions and recognition of the…

  8. Elementary School Data Issues for Value-Added Models: Implications for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Teh, Bing-ru; Walsh, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Researchers often presume that it is better to use administrative data from grades 4 and 5 than data from grades 6 through 8 for conducting research on teacher effectiveness that uses value-added models because (1) elementary school teachers teach all subjects to their students in self-contained classrooms and (2) classrooms are more homogenous at…

  9. Methods for Accounting for Co-Teaching in Value-Added Models. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Heinrich; Isenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Isolating the effect of a given teacher on student achievement (value-added modeling) is complicated when the student is taught the same subject by more than one teacher. We consider three methods, which we call the Partial Credit Method, Teacher Team Method, and Full Roster Method, for estimating teacher effects in the presence of co-teaching.…

  10. Intraduodenal Administration of Intact Pea Protein Effectively Reduces Food Intake in Both Lean and Obese Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Geraedts, Maartje C. P.; Troost, Freddy J.; Munsters, Marjet J. M.; Stegen, Jos H. C. H.; de Ridder, Rogier J.; Conchillo, Jose M.; Kruimel, Joanna W.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. Methods Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m2) and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m2) healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water) or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water), either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. Results CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02) and 20(p<0.01) minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA), in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA)(p<0.04). GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02) to 120(p<0.01) minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01) and −298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01), respectively), compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (−132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01), compared to OPA. Conclusions Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity. PMID:21931864

  11. A Measure of Subjective Burden for Dementia Care: The Caregiving Difficulty Scale Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallion, P.; McCarron, M.; Force, L. T.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested in the literature on family caregiving for persons with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) that levels of objective and subjective burden among carers often predict institutionalization of the persons with AD. There is a paucity of measures to assess whether perceived burden among formal caregivers may also predict movement to more…

  12. Short-fiber protein of ad40 confers enteric tropism and protection against acidic gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ester; Romero, Carolina; Río, Adolfo; Miralles, Marta; Raventós, Aida; Planells, Laura; Burgueño, Joan F; Hamada, Hirofumi; Perales, Jose Carlos; Bosch, Assumpció; Gassull, Miguel Angel; Fernández, Ester; Chillon, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    The lack of vectors for selective gene delivery to the intestine has hampered the development of gene therapy strategies for intestinal diseases. We hypothesized that chimeric adenoviruses of Ad5 (species C) displaying proteins of the naturally enteric Ad40 (species F) might hold the intestinal tropism of the species F and thus be useful for gene delivery to the intestine. As oral-fecal dissemination of enteric adenovirus must withstand the conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, we studied the resistance of chimeric Ad5 carrying the short-fiber protein of Ad40 to acid milieu and proteases and found that the Ad40 short fiber confers resistance to inactivation in acidic conditions and that AdF/40S was further activated upon exposure to low pH. In contrast, the chimeric AdF/40S exhibited only a slightly higher protease resistance compared with Ad5 to proteases present in simulated gastric juice. Then, the biodistribution of different chimeric adenoviruses by oral, rectal, and intravenous routes was tested. Expression of reporter β-galactosidase was measured in extracts of 15 different organs 3 days after administration. Our results indicate that among the chimeric viruses, only intrarectally given AdF/40S infected the colon (preferentially enteroendocrine cells and macrophages) and to a lesser extent, the small intestine, whereas Ad5 infectivity was very poor in all tissues. Additional in vitro experiments showed improved infectivity of AdF/40S also in different human epithelial cell lines. Therefore, our results point at the chimeric adenovirus AdF/40S as an interesting vector for selective gene delivery to treat intestinal diseases. PMID:23746215

  13. Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ptacek, S; Eriksdotter, M; Jelic, V; Porta-Etessam, J; Kåreholt, I; Manzano Palomo, S

    2013-04-16

    INTRODUCTION: Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD. METHOD: We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD. PMID:23601758

  14. Holographic Rényi entropy in AdS3/LCFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Song, Feng-yan; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2014-03-01

    The recent study in AdS3/CFT2 correspondence shows that the tree level contribution and 1-loop correction of holographic Rényi entanglement entropy (HRE) exactly match the direct CFT computation in the large central charge limit. This allows the Rényi entanglement entropy to be a new window to study the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this paper we generalize the study of Rényi entanglement entropy in pure AdS3 gravity to the massive gravity theories at the critical points. For the cosmological topological massive gravity (CTMG), the dual conformal field theory (CFT) could be a chiral conformal field theory or a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT), depending on the asymptotic boundary conditions imposed. In both cases, by studying the short interval expansion of the Rényi entanglement entropy of two disjoint intervals with small cross ratio x, we find that the classical and 1-loop HRE are in exact match with the CFT results, up to order x 6. To this order, the difference between the massless graviton and logarithmic mode can be seen clearly. Moreover, for the cosmological new massive gravity (CNMG) at critical point, which could be dual to a logarithmic CFT as well, we find the similar agreement in the CNMG/LCFT correspondence. Furthermore we read the 2-loop correction of graviton and logarithmic mode to HRE from CFT computation. It has distinct feature from the one in pure AdS3 gravity.

  15. Euclidean Wilson loops and minimal area surfaces in lorentzian AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, Andrew; Kruczenski, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in N=4 SYM theory to minimal area surfaces in AdS 5 × S 5 space. If the Wilson loop is Euclidean and confined to a plane ( t, x) then the dual surface is Euclidean and lives in Lorentzian AdS 3 ⊂ AdS 5. In this paper we study such minimal area surfaces generalizing previous results obtained in the Euclidean case. Since the surfaces we consider have the topology of a disk, the holonomy of the flat current vanishes which is equivalent to the condition that a certain boundary Schrödinger equation has all its solutions anti-periodic. If the potential for that Schrödinger equation is found then reconstructing the surface and finding the area become simpler. In particular we write a formula for the Area in terms of the Schwarzian derivative of the contour. Finally an infinite parameter family of analytical solutions using Riemann Theta functions is described. In this case, both the area and the shape of the surface are given analytically and used to check the previous results.

  16. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mellingsæter, Marte Rognstad; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD) as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°). Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV), and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF) variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF) variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:25873932

  17. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (<= 40 nm) lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  18. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  19. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  20. AdOpt@TNG control system software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffolo, Andrea; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo

    1998-09-01

    AdOptTNG is the Adaptive Optics Module for the Galileo National telescope (TNG). At first light this module will feature tip-tilt correction capabilities and a speckle interferometry facility. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the AdOptTNG Control System Software. The system is composed by a real-time part and a graphical user interface. The real-time software computes the required corrections, drives the tip-tilt mirror and function. The user interface has been written in IDL, using the IDL Widget set, taking advantage of its powerful data manipulation and analysis capabilities for data presentation and diagnostics. The integration of all these components into the TNG Control System Software, in order to allow for remote control and data archiving, is also briefly described.