Science.gov

Sample records for ad vascular dementia

  1. [Vascular dementia].

    PubMed

    Peters, N; Dichgans, M

    2010-10-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) constitutes the second most frequent cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast to AD, VaD encompasses a variety of conditions and dementia mechanisms including multiple and strategic infarcts, widespread white matter lesions and hemorrhages. The diagnosis of VaD is based on the patient history, the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging. Treatment of VaD should account for the underlying vascular condition and is directed towards the control of vascular risk factors and stroke prevention. The need for early diagnosis and preventive treatment has promoted the concept of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Harmonization standards for the description and study of VCI have recently been published. A common and distinct subtype of VaD is subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) which is related to cerebral small vessel disease. SIVD is clinically characterized by impairment of executive functions and processing speed with relatively preserved memory. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic variant of SIVD, represents an important differential diagnosis and may serve as a model of SIVD.

  2. Vascular dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... to dementia. Risk factors for VaD include: Diabetes Hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) ... Control conditions that increase the risk of hardening of the ... saturated fats and salt in the diet Treating related disorders

  3. Assessing vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Forette, F; Rigaud, A S; Morin, M; Gisselbrecht, M; Bert, P

    1995-10-01

    Vascular dementia is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer's disease. Many forms of vascular dementia have been described: multi-infarct dementia, lacunar dementia, Binswanger's subcortical encephalopathy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, white matter lesions associated with dementias, single infarct dementia, dementia linked to hypoperfusion and haemorrhagic dementia. The difficulty of diagnosing vascular dementia must not be underestimated and an international consensus is needed for epidemiological studies. The NINCDS-AIREN group has recently published diagnostic criteria. The State of California Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers also proposed some which differ from the NINCDS-AIREN criteria in considering only ischaemic vascular dementia and not other mechanisms such as haemorrhagic or hypoxic lesions. Most studies stress hypertension as the most powerful risk factor for all forms of vascular dementia. The incidence rate ranges from 7 per 1000 person-years in normal volunteers to 16 per 1000 person-years in hypertensive patients. No therapeutic attempt has influenced the course of the disease once the dementing condition is established. The only effective approach is preventive treatment. The objective of the SYST-EUR Vascular Dementia project is to confirm that the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension is able to reduce its incidence.

  4. [Vascular factors in dementia].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Cerebrovascular factors are a common cause of dementia or contribute to cognitive decline in other dementias. Studies showing that cerebrovascular factors are the risk factors for neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer's disease. Practically all neurodegenerative dementias have a vascular component that reduces cerebral perfusion and has great impact on the clinical picture. Recent data support the view that the neurodegenerative process is caused by cerebrovascular mechanisms. The results showed that patients with vascular cognitive impairment have a typical clinical picture. Various important non-cognitive features are caused by cerebrovascular factors and are associated with a more rapid course of illness. On the other hand the term vascular diseases or cerebrovascular factors include a variety of vascular pathologies. PMID:16358596

  5. Neurobiology of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Enciu, Ana-Maria; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Popescu, Laurenţiu M.; Mureşanu, Dafin F.; Popescu, Bogdan O.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular dementia is, in its current conceptual form, a distinct type of dementia with a spectrum of specific clinical and pathophysiological features. However, in a very large majority of cases, these alterations occur in an already aged brain, characterized by a milieu of cellular and molecular events common for different neurodegenerative diseases. The cell signaling defects and molecular dyshomeostasis might lead to neuronal malfunction prior to the death of neurons and the alteration of neuronal networks. In the present paper, we explore some of the molecular mechanisms underlying brain malfunction triggered by cerebrovascular disease and risk factors. We suggest that, in the age of genetic investigation and molecular diagnosis, the concept of vascular dementia needs a new approach. PMID:21876809

  6. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Counts, Scott E; Nyenhuis, David

    2016-05-01

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are receiving heightened attention as potentially modifiable factors for dementias of later life. These factors have now been linked not only to vascular cognitive disorders but also Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review 3 related topics that address vascular contributions to cognitive impairment: 1. vascular pathogenesis and mechanisms; 2. neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypic manifestations of cerebrovascular disease; and 3. prospects for prevention of cognitive impairment of later life based on cardiovascular and stroke risk modification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26704177

  7. The pathobiology of vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer’s disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that links inextricably the well being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia. PMID:24267647

  8. Vascular aspects of cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2013-11-01

    Hypertension and stroke are highly prevalent risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia, and both conditions are preceded by a stage of cognitive impairment. Stroke is a major risk factor for the development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and VaD; however, stroke may also predispose to AD. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, thus linking hypertension to VCI and VaD, but hypertension is also an important risk factor for AD. Reducing these two major, but modifiable, risk factors-hypertension and stroke-could be a successful strategy for reducing the public health burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) and the manipulation of factors involved in the renin-angiotensin system (e.g. angiotensin II or angiotensin-converting enzyme) have been shown to reduce the risk of developing hypertension and stroke, thereby reducing dementia risk. This paper will review the research conducted on the relationship between hypertension, stroke, and dementia and also on the impact of LC-n3-FA or antihypertensive treatments on risk factors for VCI, VaD, and AD. PMID:24022624

  9. Vascular aspects of cognitive impairment and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Claassen, Jurgen AHR

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and stroke are highly prevalent risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common forms of dementia, and both conditions are preceded by a stage of cognitive impairment. Stroke is a major risk factor for the development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and VaD; however, stroke may also predispose to AD. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, thus linking hypertension to VCI and VaD, but hypertension is also an important risk factor for AD. Reducing these two major, but modifiable, risk factors—hypertension and stroke—could be a successful strategy for reducing the public health burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) and the manipulation of factors involved in the renin–angiotensin system (e.g. angiotensin II or angiotensin-converting enzyme) have been shown to reduce the risk of developing hypertension and stroke, thereby reducing dementia risk. This paper will review the research conducted on the relationship between hypertension, stroke, and dementia and also on the impact of LC-n3-FA or antihypertensive treatments on risk factors for VCI, VaD, and AD. PMID:24022624

  10. Regulatory aspects of vascular dementia in the United States.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Armando; Mani, Ranjit; Katz, Russell

    2003-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of new drugs to treat vascular dementia. However, before US approval of new drugs for this entity is possible, certain issues with regulatory implications need to be addressed. Is vascular dementia a distinct clinical syndrome with valid diagnostic criteria? Can this entity be distinguished from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other causes of dementia? What design features are important for clinical trials in this disorder? The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a special meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Advisory Committee in an attempt to answer these questions. The conclusions from this meeting indicate that vascular dementia (VaD) is a pathologically heterogeneous disorder but appears to be reasonably distinguishable from AD dementia. The NINDS-AIREN diagnostic criteria are suitable as entry criteria for vascular dementia trials. Trials should be similar in duration to AD dementia trials and should employ a dual outcome strategy (cognitive + global/functional measures). For drugs that are believed to have a disease-modifying effect, clinical trials should study specific vascular dementia subtypes and would need to employ substantially different designs from those used currently. The term "vascular dementia" may not be entirely appropriate to describe this population. PMID:16191257

  11. [Vascular dementia: facts and controversies].

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Dragan; Aleksić, Vuk; Sternić, Nadezda

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five-year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors forVaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step-by-step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class Ila recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer's disease dementia. PMID:23745353

  12. The decline and resurgence of vascular dementia.

    PubMed Central

    Hachinski, V C

    1990-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic narrowing of cerebral arteries was once viewed as the key to mental decline. As Alzheimer's disease gained recognition and the concept of multi-infarct dementia achieved acceptance, vascular dementia came to be regarded as uncommon. The changing nature of cerebral vascular disease, the aging of the population and the widespread use of brain imaging techniques have brought new prominence to vascular dementia, chiefly in the form of an epidemic of "Binswanger's disease". Growing evidence suggests that not only grey matter lesions but also white matter lesions contribute to dementia, that vascular factors commonly coexist and interact with Alzheimer changes and that Alzheimer's disease has a vascular and potentially treatable component. Vascular dementia needs to be redefined, reappraised and reinvestigated. PMID:2403832

  13. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  14. The role of neurosonology in the diagnosis of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Although transcranial sonography is not yet an established diagnostic modality for dementia screening or differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from vascular dementia (VaD), intracranial hemodynamic assessment may provide crucial information about the association between cognitive deterioration and vascular risk factors. We conducted a systematic narrative review of available literature through MEDLINE and EMBASE search to identify all available data about the evaluation of VaD patients with transcranial Doppler, and to discuss further the vascular disorders of the cerebral circulation in patients with vascular cognitive impairment. According to the available literature data to date, VaD patients were found to have lower mean flow velocity values in four studies (indicating cerebral hypoperfusion), higher pulsatility indices in three studies (indicating increased downstream vascular resistance), and more severe impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity in five studies (indicating exhausted vasodilatory reserve) compared to AD patients and controls. Microembolic signals were also found to be significantly more common in patients with VaD or AD compared to their age- and gender-matched controls, suggesting that asymptomatic microembolism, apart for being only marker of VaD, could presumably be involved in the genesis of dementia, and in the overlap between VaD and AD. Further studies with larger and carefully selected groups are required to eliminate potential confounders and to set specific cut-off values for the aforementioned hemodynamic parameters in demented patients and dementia subtypes.

  15. Trichotillomania in a Case of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash; Mehta, Janki

    2013-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a complex psychiatric disorder and occurs along with a large number of comorbidity. We report a case of trichotillomania associated with vascular dementia. Trichotillomania in our case did not resolve using mirtazapine or conventional medications. Trichotillomania in dementia seems to have a neurobiological origin that needs to be elucidated. PMID:23960397

  16. CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative and vascular dementias.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Ferrer, Isidro; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, together with vascular encephalopathies, are cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Identification of reliable biomarkers in biological fluids, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is of extreme importance in optimizing the precise early clinical diagnosis of distinct entities and predicting the outcome in particular settings. In addition, the study of CSF biomarkers is useful to identify and monitor the underlying pathological processes developing in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Evidence suggests that levels of key CSF molecules correlate, in some circumstances, with prediction, disease progression, and severity of cognitive decline. Correlation of CSF markers and underlying pathological molecular substrates in brain is an exciting field for further study. However, while some dementias such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have accurate CSF biomarkers, other disease types such as dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia lack reliable biomarkers for their specific clinical diagnosis. PMID:27016008

  17. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment, clinical Alzheimer's disease, and dementia in older persons.

    PubMed

    Kapasi, A; Schneider, J A

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that vascular pathologies and dysfunction play a critical role in cognitive impairment, clinical Alzheimer's disease, and dementia. Vascular pathologies such as macroinfarcts, microinfarcts, microbleeds, small and large vessel cerebrovascular disease, and white matter disease are common especially in the brains of older persons where they contribute to cognitive impairment and lower the dementia threshold. Vascular dysfunction resulting in decreased cerebral blood flow, and abnormalities in the blood brain barrier may also contribute to the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiologic process and AD dementia. This review provides a clinical-pathological perspective on the role of vessel disease, vascular brain injury, alterations of the neurovascular unit, and mixed pathologies in the Alzheimer's disease pathophysiologic process and Alzheimer's dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26769363

  18. Global epidemiology of dementia: Alzheimer's and vascular types.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Liara; Rosset, Idiane; Roriz-Cruz, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to the combination of low average educational attainment and high vascular risk profile. Among developed countries, Japan seems to have the lowest prevalence of dementia. Studies that evaluated the immigration effect of the Japanese and blacks to USA evidenced that acculturation increases the relative proportion of AD cases compared to VaD. In the Middle East and Africa, the number of dementia cases will be expressive by 2040. In general, low educational background and other socioeconomic factors have been associated with high risk of obesity, sedentarism, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of which also raise the risk of VaD and AD. Regulating these factors is critical to generate the commitment to make dementia a public health priority. PMID:25089278

  19. Global Epidemiology of Dementia: Alzheimer's and Vascular Types

    PubMed Central

    Rosset, Idiane; Roriz-Cruz, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to the combination of low average educational attainment and high vascular risk profile. Among developed countries, Japan seems to have the lowest prevalence of dementia. Studies that evaluated the immigration effect of the Japanese and blacks to USA evidenced that acculturation increases the relative proportion of AD cases compared to VaD. In the Middle East and Africa, the number of dementia cases will be expressive by 2040. In general, low educational background and other socioeconomic factors have been associated with high risk of obesity, sedentarism, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of which also raise the risk of VaD and AD. Regulating these factors is critical to generate the commitment to make dementia a public health priority. PMID:25089278

  20. Neuroprotective effects of tetrandrine against vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yan-ling; Wu, Ze-zhi; Chen, Li-xue; Wu, Bai-xue; Chen, Lian-lian; Qin, Guang-cheng; Gui, Bei; Zhou, Ji-ying

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine is one of the major active ingredients in Menispermaceae Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and has specific therapeutic effects in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Its use in vascular dementia has not been studied fully. Here, we investigated whether tetrandrine would improve behavioral and cellular impairments in a two-vessel occlusion rat model of chronic vascular dementia. Eight weeks after model establishment, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 or 30 mg/kg tetrandrine every other day for 4 weeks. Behavioral assessment in the Morris water maze showed that model rats had longer escape latencies in training trials, and spent less time swimming in the target quadrant in probe trials, than sham-operated rats. However, rats that had received tetrandrine showed shorter escape latencies and longer target quadrant swimming time than untreated model rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining revealed less neuronal necrosis and pathological damage, and more living cells, in the hippocampus of rats treated with tetrandrine than in untreated model rats. Western blot assay showed that interleukin-1β expression, and phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B receptor at tyrosine 1472, were lower in model rats that received tetrandrine than in those that did not. The present findings suggest that tetrandrine may be neuroprotective in chronic vascular dementia by reducing interleukin-1β expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472, and neuronal necrosis. PMID:27127485

  1. Neuroprotective effects of tetrandrine against vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-Ling; Wu, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Li-Xue; Wu, Bai-Xue; Chen, Lian-Lian; Qin, Guang-Cheng; Gui, Bei; Zhou, Ji-Ying

    2016-03-01

    Tetrandrine is one of the major active ingredients in Menispermaceae Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and has specific therapeutic effects in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Its use in vascular dementia has not been studied fully. Here, we investigated whether tetrandrine would improve behavioral and cellular impairments in a two-vessel occlusion rat model of chronic vascular dementia. Eight weeks after model establishment, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 or 30 mg/kg tetrandrine every other day for 4 weeks. Behavioral assessment in the Morris water maze showed that model rats had longer escape latencies in training trials, and spent less time swimming in the target quadrant in probe trials, than sham-operated rats. However, rats that had received tetrandrine showed shorter escape latencies and longer target quadrant swimming time than untreated model rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining revealed less neuronal necrosis and pathological damage, and more living cells, in the hippocampus of rats treated with tetrandrine than in untreated model rats. Western blot assay showed that interleukin-1β expression, and phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B receptor at tyrosine 1472, were lower in model rats that received tetrandrine than in those that did not. The present findings suggest that tetrandrine may be neuroprotective in chronic vascular dementia by reducing interleukin-1β expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472, and neuronal necrosis. PMID:27127485

  2. Statins and vascular dementia: a review.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Kosmidou, Maria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The impact of statin therapy on dementia has been a hot topic of debate over the last decade and still remains highly controversial. Among all causes of dementia, vascular dementia (VaD) is the one type that is more likely to benefit from statins. To date no randomized clinical trials have been published and no systematic review has investigated a possible preventive effect of statins on the VaD subtype. In the present literature review, we tried to identify all available data on the effect of statins specifically in patients with VaD, and to further discuss this possible association. Our literature search highlighted two cross-sectional studies, two prospective cohort studies, and one retrospective cohort study. Two of the studies found a significant positive effect of statin treatment on VaD, depicted by the lower incidence of VaD in statin users, while the others reported non-significant associations. The relatively small numbers of VaD patients and statin users, as well as the presence of confounders and biases, make the interpretation of results extremely difficult. Statins may exert a benefit in the prevention of all-type dementia and VaD, through several mechanisms except for hyperlipidemia reduction. A well-designed randomized clinical trial is the ideal study design to address the effect of statin therapy in VaD and to draw final conclusions.

  3. Hippocampal volume and shape in pure subcortical vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon Ha; Lee, Jae Hong; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Jeong Hun; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Cindy W; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Hwang, Jung Won; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to explore whether hippocampal atrophy exists in pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) as defined by negative (11)C-Pittsburg compound-B (PiB(-)) positron emission tomography and to compare hippocampal volume and shape between PiB(-) SVaD and PiB positive (PiB(+)) Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Hippocampal volume and shape were compared among 40 patients with PiB(-) SVaD, 34 with PiB(+) AD, and 21 elderly with normal cognitive function (NC). The normalized hippocampal volume of PiB(-) SVaD was significantly smaller than NC but larger than that of PiB(+) AD (NC > PiB(-) SVaD > PiB(+) AD). Both PiB(-) SVaD and PiB(+) AD patients had deflated shape changes in the cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and subiculum compared with NC. However, direct comparison between PiB(-) SVaD and PiB(+) AD demonstrated more inward deformity in the subiculum of the left hippocampus in PiB(+) AD. PiB(-) SVaD patients did have smaller hippocampal volumes and inward shape change on CA 1 and subiculum compared with NC, suggesting that cumulative ischemia without amyloid pathology could lead to hippocampal atrophy and shape changes. PMID:25444608

  4. Small vascular and Alzheimer disease-related pathologic determinants of dementia in the oldest-old.

    PubMed

    Sinka, Lidia; Kövari, Enikö; Gold, Gabriel; Hof, Patrick R; Herrmann, François R; Bouras, Constantin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2010-12-01

    The relative contributions of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular lesion burden to the occurrence of cognitive decline are more difficult to define in the oldest-old than they are in younger cohorts. To address this issue, we examined 93 prospectively documented autopsy cases from 90 to 103 years with various degrees of AD lesions, lacunes, and microvascular pathology. Cognitive assessment was performed prospectively using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. Neuropathologic evaluation included the Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) and β-amyloid (Aβ) protein deposition staging and bilateral semiquantitative assessment of vascular lesions. Statistics included regression models and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Braak NFTs, Aβ deposition, and cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) predicted 30% of Clinical Dementia Rating variability and 49% of the presence of dementia. Braak NFT and CMI thresholds yielded 0.82 sensitivity, 0.91 specificity, and 0.84 correct classification rates for dementia. Using these threshold values, we could distinguish 3 groups of demented cases and propose criteria for neuropathologic definition of mixed dementia, pure vascular dementia, and AD in very old age. Braak NFT staging and severity of CMI allow for defining most of demented cases in the oldest-old. Most importantly, single cutoff scores for these variables that could be used in the future to formulate neuropathologic criteria for mixed dementia in this age group were identified.

  5. Incidence rates of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia in the Japanese American population in Seattle, WA: the Kame Project.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Wu, Yougui; Bowen, James D; McCormick, Wayne C; Uomoto, Jay; McCurry, Susan M; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Larson, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the incidence of dementia in representative minority populations in the United States; however, no population-based study has been conducted on Japanese American women. We identified 3045 individuals aged 65+ with at least 1 parent of Japanese descent living in King County, WA in the period 1992 to 1994, of whom 1836 were dementia-free and were examined every 2 years (1994 to 2001) to identify incident cases of all dementias, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and other dementias. Cox regression was used to examine associations with age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein (APOE)-ε4. Among 173 incident cases of dementia, the overall rate was 14.4/1000/y, with rates being slightly higher among women (15.9/1000) than men (12.5/1000). Rates roughly doubled every 5 years for dementia and AD; the age trend for VaD and other dementias was less consistent. Sex was not significantly related to incidence of dementia or its subtypes in adjusted models. There was a trend for an inverse association with increasing years of education. APOE-ε4 was a strong risk factor for all dementias [hazard ratio (HR)=2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.88-4.46], AD (HR=3.27; 95% CI, 2.03-5.28), and VaD (HR=3.33; 95% CI, 1.34-8.27). This study is the first to report population-based incidence rates for both Japanese American men and women.

  6. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component.

    PubMed

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da

  7. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

    PubMed Central

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M. Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da

  8. Prospective Belgian study of neurodegenerative and vascular dementia: APOE genotype effects

    PubMed Central

    Engelborghs, S; Dermaut, B; Goeman, J; Saerens, J; Marien, P; Pickut, B.; Van den Broeck, M; Serneels, S; Cruts, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; De Deyn, P P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: APOE genotyping was performed in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=504), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (n=47), vascular dementia (VaD) (n=152), mixed dementia (n=132), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=44), Parkinson's disease (PD) (n=30), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n=17), and multisystem atrophy (MSA)/progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n=12). Results: The APOE allele frequencies of this Belgian control population (ε2: 6.9%; ε3: 76.2%; ε4: 16.9%) did not differ from those reported for other white populations. AD, MCI, and mixed dementia patients had higher APOE ε4 (32.9%, 38.6%, and 28.4% respectively) and lower APOE ε3 (62.2%, 53.4%, and 66.3%) frequencies compared with controls, whereas only AD and mixed dementia patients had lower APOE ε2 frequencies (4.9% and 5.3%). Apart from a borderline significant different distribution of APOE allele frequencies in VaD patients compared with controls, no other differences were detected. The influence of APOE ε4 on clinical features of dementia was limited to lower age at onset in AD patients and a less pronounced negative correlation between age at onset and number of ε4 alleles in MCI and mixed dementia patients. Conclusions: This study confirmed the risk association between APOE ε4 and AD. The observation that APOE ε4 is associated with mixed dementia reflected the role of AD in the aetiopathogenesis of this condition. Although MCI is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, the increased APOE ε4 frequencies indicated that a large proportion of the MCI patients included in the study might be predisposed to develop AD. PMID:12876259

  9. Blood pressure, smoking and alcohol use, association with vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The success of the ageing global population brings with it a growth in the number of dementia sufferers. Older adults are at highest risk of dementia and are likely to manifest both vascular and Alzheimer's pathology. Blood pressure also changes with ageing and there is evidence linking high blood pressure in midlife to an increased risk of later dementia. Data from later life is sparser. A number of intervention trials have been carried out with antihypertensives and have shown mixed results with regard to cognitive and dementia outcomes (both dementia overall and of vascular and Alzheimer's types). Meta-analyses have in general not found an association between blood pressure lowering and reduced dementia incidence, although the number of cases reported in the placebo controlled trials is invariably lower in the actively treated group. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also been published with regard to smoking and alcohol use and incident dementia. Despite mixed reports, overall smoking was associated with an increased risk of later dementia and alcohol with a 'U' or 'J' shaped relationship. Following the systematic reviews subsequent publications tend to report similar findings. The literature in this area suffers from differing populations, lengths of follow up and assessments of both risk factor and outcome. However, at present, maintenance of cognitive function would seem to be best served by treating cardiovascular risk factors in accordance with current guidelines, controlling blood pressure, reducing smoking and if consuming alcohol doing so in moderation. This review will concentrate on the prevention of dementia and attempt to provide an overview of the evidence relating to vascular related dementia and the potential risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use and smoking behaviour.

  10. Animal Models of Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID).

    PubMed

    Gooch, Jennifer; Wilcock, Donna M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the most common etiology of dementia in the elderly. Both, vascular and Alzheimer's disease, pathologies work synergistically to create neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments. The main causes of VCID include hemorrhage/microbleed (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia), cerebral small vessel disease, multi-infarct dementia, severe hypoperfusion (i.e., bilateral common carotid artery stenosis), strategic infarct, angiopathy (i.e., cerebral angiopathy), and hereditary vasculopathy (i.e., cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). In this review, we will discuss the experimental animal models that have been developed to study these pathologies. We will discuss the limitations and strengths of these models and the important research findings that have advanced the field through the use of the models. PMID:26988696

  11. Is apolipoprotein E4 an important risk factor for vascular dementia?

    PubMed

    Rohn, Troy T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that vascular dementia (VaD) represents the seconding leading cause of dementia in the USA, behind only Alzheimer's disease (AD), there remains a lack of consensus on the pathological criteria required for diagnosis of this disease. A number of clinical diagnostic criteria exist but are poorly validated and inconsistently applied. It is clear that vascular risk factors play an important role in the etiology of VaD, including hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Vascular risk factors may increase the risk for VaD by promoting inflammation, cerebral vascular disease, white matter lesions, and hippocampal sclerosis. Because vascular risk factors seem to impart a high degree of risk for conferring VaD, it seems logical that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) status of individuals may be important. APOE plays a critical role in transporting cholesterol in and out of the CNS and in AD it is known that harboring the APOE allele increases the risk of AD perhaps due to the improper functioning of this protein. The purpose of this review is to examine the important pathological features and risk factors for VaD and to provide a critical assessment of the current literature regarding whether or not apoE4 also confers disease risk in VaD. The preponderance of data suggests that harboring one or both APOE4 alleles elevates the risk for VaD, but not to the same extent as found in AD.

  12. Hippocampal diffusion tensor imaging microstructural changes in vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Jelena; Kozic, Dusko; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; Semnic, Marija; Todorovic, Aleksandar; Petrovic, Kosta; Covickovic-Sternic, Nadezda

    2015-12-01

    To explore microstructural integrity of hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) using DTI. Twenty-five individuals with VD, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of gray matter pathology, and 25 matched healthy control (HC) individuals underwent a 3T MRI protocol including T2, FLAIR, and PD in the axial plane, 3D whole-brain T1-weighted with an isotropic resolution of 1 mm, and DTI acquired using 64 diffusion sensitizing directions, b value of 1,500 s/mm(2), 65 axial slices, isotropic resolution of 1.8 mm. Images were processed to obtain indices of microstructural variations of bilateral hippocampi. Mean diffusivity (MD) in the hippocampus of patients with VD was significantly increased (p < 0.05) bilaterally with respect to that of the group of HC examinees. In VD group left hippocampal MD (10(-6 )× mm(2)/s) was 833.4 ± 92.8; in HC group left MD was 699.8 ± 56. In VD group, right hippocampal MD was 859.1 ± 69.8; in HC group right MD was 730.4 ± 40.2. No group differences were found in hippocampal FA. DTI shows microstructural hippocampal damage in VD in patients with normal appearing gray matter structures on conventional MRI, indicating the need for further research on the link between VD and AD. PMID:25555903

  13. Senile dementia of the Binswanger type: a vascular form of dementia in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, G.C.

    1987-10-02

    Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly have demonstrated the common occurrence of deep white-matter lesions in the aging brain. These radiologic lesions (leukoaraiosis) may represent an early marker of dementia. At autopsy, an ischemic periventricular leukoencephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) has been found in most cases. The clinical spectrum of Binswanger's disease appears to range from asymptomatic radiologic lesions to dementia with focal deficits, frontal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait difficulties, and urinary incontinence. The name senile dementia of the Binswanger type (SDBT) is proposed for this poorly recognized, vascular form of subcortical dementia. The SDBT probably results from cortical disconnections most likely caused by hypoperfusion. In contrast, multi-infarct dementia is correlated with multiple large and small strokes that cause a loss of over 50 to 100 mL of brain volume. The periventricular white matter is a watershed area irrigated by long, penetrating medullary arteries. Risk factors for SDBT are small-artery diseases, such as hypertension and amyloid angiopathy, impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the elderly, and periventricular hypoperfusion due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, and hypotension. The SDBT may be a potentially preventable and treatable form of dementia.

  14. PET imaging in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla

    2012-11-15

    Aging leads to a small loss of cortical neurons, but to a significant reduction of synapses, dendrites and myelinated fibers. These age-related changes may cause some cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and frontally accentuated diffuse decrease in metabolism. In pathological disorders leading to dementia, most frequently degenerative Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease or a combination of both, the changes are more severe, affect predominantly specific regions and result in significant loss of neurons. The differential diagnosis of these disorders is based on symptoms of cognitive and memory impairment and is supported by results of neuropsychological tests and of imaging. Whereas computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are able to detect morphologic lesions, these modalities cannot determine functional consequences of the underlying pathologies. Positron emission tomography allows imaging of the localized and/or diffuse metabolic disturbances responsible for cognitive impairment and dementia, and is effective in differentiating vascular from degenerative dementia, as Alzheimer's disease. It can also detect inflammatory changes and their interaction with amyloid depositions for the development of mixed dementias after stroke. Imaging of neurotransmitters and of synaptic function additionally yields insight into disease specific pathophysiology. Despite that the broad clinical application of PET is limited, this technology has a great impact on research in dementia. PMID:23043907

  15. Cerebrolysin improves symptoms and delays progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Allegri, R F; Guekht, A

    2012-04-01

    Dementia is the result of various cerebral disorders, leading to an acquired loss of memory and impaired cognitive ability. The most common forms are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Neurotrophic factors are essential for the survival and differentiation of developing neurons and protecting them against damage under pathologic conditions. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation that mimics the pleiotropic effects of neurotrophic factors. Several clinical trials investigating the therapeutic efficacy of Cerebrolysin in AD and VaD have confirmed the proof of concept. The results of these trials have shown statistically significant and clinically relevant treatment effects of Cerebrolysin on cognitive, global and functional domains in mild to moderately severe stages of dementia. Doses of 10 and 30 mL were the most effective, but higher doses of up to 60 mL turned out to be most effective in improving neuropsychiatric symptoms, which become relevant at later stages of the disease. Combining treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and Cerebrolysin indicated long-term synergistic treatment effects in mild to moderate AD. The efficacy of Cerebrolysin persisted for up to several months after treatment suggesting Cerebrolysin has not merely symptomatic benefits, but a disease-delaying potential. This paper reviews the clinical efficacy of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of dementia. Data were obtained from international, multicenter, randomized clinical trials performed in compliance with Good Clinical Practice and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and subsequent revisions.

  16. Lokomat training in vascular dementia: motor improvement and beyond!

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; De Luca, Rosaria; Leo, Antonino; Balletta, Tina; Marra, Angela; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-12-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a general term describing problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory, and other thought processes caused by brain damage from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cognitive rehabilitation and physical therapy are the mainstays of dementia treatment, although often ineffective because of the scarce collaboration of the patients. However, emerging data suggest that physical activity may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment, mainly VaD, in older people living independently. Herein, we describe a 72-year-old male affected by VaD, in which traditional cognitive training in addition to intensive gait robotic rehabilitation (by using Lokomat device) led to a significant improvement in the motor and cognitive function. This promising finding may be related either to the intensive and repetitive aerobic exercises or to the task-oriented training with computerized visual feedback, which can be considered as a relevant tool to increase patients' motor output, involvement, and motivation during robotic training. PMID:25762160

  17. Induction of hyperhomocysteinemia models vascular dementia by induction of cerebral microhemorrhages and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Sudduth, Tiffany L; Powell, David K; Smith, Charles D; Greenstein, Abigail; Wilcock, Donna M

    2013-05-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent comorbidity with AD, estimated to occur in as many as 40% of AD patients. The causes of VaD are varied and include chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, microhemorrhages, hemorrhagic infarcts, or ischemic infarcts. We have developed a model of VaD by inducing hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in wild-type mice. By placing wild-type mice on a diet deficient in folate, B6, and B12 and supplemented with excess methionine, we induced a moderate HHcy (plasma level homocysteine 82.93 ± 3.561 μmol). After 11 weeks on the diet, the hyperhomocysteinemic mice showed a spatial memory deficit as assessed by the 2-day radial-arm water maze. Also, magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent histology revealed significant microhemorrhage occurrence. We found neuroinflammation induced in the hyperhomocysteinemic mice as determined by elevated interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and IL-6 in brain tissue. Finally, we found increased expression and increased activity of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 systems that are heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage. Overall, we have developed a dietary model of VaD that will be valuable for studying the pathophysiology of VaD and also for studying the comorbidity of VaD with other dementias and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Dementia

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, B; Herron, B; Passmore, AP

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical diagnosis requiring new functional dependence on the basis of progressive cognitive decline. It is estimated that 1.3% of the entire UK population, or 7.1% of those aged 65 or over, have dementia. Applying these to 2013 population estimates gives an estimated number of 19,765 people living with dementia in Northern Ireland. The clinical syndrome of dementia can be due to a variety of underlying pathophysiological processes. The most common of these is Alzheimer's disease (50-75%) followed by vascular dementia (20%), dementia with Lewy bodies (5%) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (5%). The clinical symptoms and pathophysiological processes of these diseases overlap significantly. Biomarkers to aid diagnosis and prognosis are emerging. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the only medications currently licensed for the treatment of dementia. The nature of symptoms mean people with dementia are more dependent and vulnerable, both socially and in terms of physical and mental health, presenting evolving challenges to society and to our healthcare systems. PMID:26170481

  19. Neuroprotective effect of selective DPP-4 inhibitor in experimental vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with a higher incidence of dementia. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Both forms of dementia are posing greater risk to the world population and are increasing at a faster rate. In the past we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the role of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. Pancreatectomy diabetes rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of vildagliptin has significantly attenuated pancreatectomy induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of pancreatectomy induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. The selective modulators of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 may further be explored for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. PMID:26382939

  20. Neuropsychological deficit in early subcortical vascular dementia: comparison to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Traykov, Latchezar; Baudic, Sophie; Thibaudet, Marie-Claude; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Smagghe, Alain; Boller, François

    2002-01-01

    To further clarify the cognitive syndrome in subcortical vascular dementia (VaD), we investigated 20 patients with early-stage VaD as compared with 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 22 normal controls using episodic memory, attention/executive function and language tests. The patient groups were closely matched in terms of age, education and severity of dementia. The VaD patients had a significantly better free recall, cued recall and recognition memory than AD patients, the recognition being within normal limits in VaD. In addition, VaD patients had a greater number of perseverative errors during the Modified Card Sorting test, while AD patients exhibited more perseverations of semantic fluency. The results of retrieval deficit syndrome and increased number of perseverations during tasks sensitive to frontal lobe function are in agreement with the studies emphasizing the importance of frontal dysfunction in subcortical VaD. These findings are relevant for the early diagnosis of VaD and might be useful in the differential diagnosis with AD. PMID:12053129

  1. Neuropathological diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia with implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is recognised as a neurocognitive disorder, which is explained by numerous vascular causes in the general absence of other pathologies. The heterogeneity of cerebrovascular disease makes it challenging to elucidate the neuropathological substrates and mechanisms of VaD as well as vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Consensus and accurate diagnosis of VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychometric and neuroimaging measures with subsequent pathological confirmation. Pathological diagnosis of suspected clinical VaD requires adequate postmortem brain sampling and rigorous assessment methods to identify important substrates. Factors that define the subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases appear the most common substrates of vascular brain injury or infarction. Small vessel disease characterised by arteriolosclerosis and lacunar infarcts also causes cortical and subcortical microinfarcts, which appear to be the most robust substrates of cognitive impairment. Diffuse WM changes with loss of myelin and axonal abnormalities are common to almost all subtypes of VaD. Medial temporal lobe and hippocampal atrophy accompanied by variable hippocampal sclerosis are also features of VaD as they are of Alzheimer's disease. Recent observations suggest that there is a vascular basis for neuronal atrophy in both the temporal and frontal lobes in VaD that is entirely independent of any Alzheimer pathology. Further knowledge on specific neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes in key regions resulting in executive dysfunction and other cognitive deficits, which define VCI and VaD, needs to be gathered. Hereditary arteriopathies such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL have provided insights into the mechanisms of

  2. Stroke, Vascular Dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease: Molecular Links.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Murali; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a brain disease that occurs when blood flow stops, resulting in reduced oxygen supply to neurons. Stroke occurs at any time and at any age, but increases after the age of 55. It is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted, life-years. The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is complex and recent molecular, cellular, and animal models and postmortem brain studies have revealed that multiple cellular changes have been implicated, including oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory responses, micro RNA alterations, and marked changes in brain proteins. These cellular changes provide new information for developing therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke treatment. Research also revealed that stroke increases with a number of modifiable factors and most strokes can be prevented and/or controlled through pharmacological or surgical interventions and lifestyle changes. Ischemic stroke is the major risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the latest research findings on stroke, including causal factors and molecular links between stroke and vascular disease/Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27567871

  3. The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DenBesten, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

  4. A historical review of the concept of vascular dementia: lessons from the past for the future.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1999-01-01

    The history of senile dementia begins in the Greco-Roman period with basic concepts of senility by Pythagoras and Hippocrates. During the Middle Ages, the main contribution was by Roger Bacon in 1290. The first textbook of neurology, De cerebri morbis, by Jaso de Pratis (1549), included a chapter on dementia ("De memoriae detrimento"). In the 17th century, Thomas Willis recognized intellectual loss with aging. In the 19th century, Philippe Pinel removed chains from the mentally ill; his student Esquirol wrote the first modern classification of mental disease, including senile dementia. In 1860, Morel recognized brain atrophy with aging. The modern history of vascular dementia began in 1896, when Emil Kraepelin in his textbook Psychiatrie included "arteriosclerotic dementia" among the senile dementias, following the ideas of Otto Binswanger and Alois Alzheimer, who had differentiated clinically and pathologically arteriosclerotic brain lesions from senile dementia and from neurosyphilitic general paresis of the insane. Binswanger's and Alzheimer's contributions are reviewed in detail.

  5. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction of Individual Polygenic Susceptibility to Sporadic Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaeyoung

    2016-05-31

    Genetic factors of sporadic vascular dementia have been quite limitedly understood. Many underlying polygenes are suspected to contribute to susceptibility to sporadic vascular dementia as a typical complex disease although they have not been identified from genome-wide association studies. This study suggests a stochastic prediction of individual polygenetic susceptibility to sporadic vascular dementia using best linear unbiased prediction in a mixed model framework. The prediction shows a relative degree of individual genetic susceptibility to the disease that reflects its integrative polygenetic factors across the genome. The estimate should take into account heritability and the prevalence of sporadic vascular dementia to cope with the disease. This offers a model for application of a genetic blueprint for a complex disease to personalized preventive medicine. PMID:27258425

  6. Correlation of polymorphism of APOE and LRP genes to cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Chengzhi; Han, Tao; Wang, Min; Jiang, Meng; Liu, Bin; Hu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the correlation of polymorphism of APOE and LRP genes to cognitive impairment and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). Method: AD cases, VD cases and healthy control cases totaling 237, 255 and 234 were recruited, respectively. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was performed to evaluate cognitive impairment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were adopted to evaluate BPSD. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein gene (LRP) genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: (1) Frequencies of APOEε4 allele in AD group and VD group were significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.05); (2) MMSE scores of APOEε4 carriers in AD group and VD group were lower than that of non-APOEε4 carriers in the same group (P<0.05); (3) The proportion of APOEε4 carriers presenting with BPSD in AD group was considerably higher that of non-APOEε4 carriers (P<0.05). Conclusion: APOEε4 may be the common risk factor for cognitive impairment in AD and VD and the risk factor for BPSD in AD. PMID:26885125

  7. The Science of Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): A Framework for Advancing Research Priorities in the Cerebrovascular Biology of Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Roderick A; Bosetti, Francesca; Emr, Marian; Gladman, Jordan T; Koenig, James I; Moy, Claudia S; Pahigiannis, Katherine; Waddy, Salina P; Koroshetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization reports that 47.5 million people are affected by dementia worldwide. With aging populations and 7.7 million new cases each year, the burden of illness due to dementia approaches crisis proportions. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading dementia diagnosis, the actual causes of dementia in affected individuals are unknown except for rare fully penetrant genetic forms. Evidence from epidemiology and pathology studies indicates that damage to the vascular system is associated with an increased risk of many types of dementia. Both Alzheimer's pathology and cerebrovascular disease increase with age. How AD affects small blood vessel function and how vascular dysfunction contributes to the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's are areas of intense research. The science of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) integrates diverse aspects of biology and incorporates the roles of multiple cell types that support the function of neural tissue. Because of the proven ability to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and hypertension with population benefits for heart and stroke outcomes, it is proposed that understanding and targeting the biological mechanisms of VCID can have a similarly positive impact on public health. PMID:27095366

  8. The Science of Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): A Framework for Advancing Research Priorities in the Cerebrovascular Biology of Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Roderick A; Bosetti, Francesca; Emr, Marian; Gladman, Jordan T; Koenig, James I; Moy, Claudia S; Pahigiannis, Katherine; Waddy, Salina P; Koroshetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization reports that 47.5 million people are affected by dementia worldwide. With aging populations and 7.7 million new cases each year, the burden of illness due to dementia approaches crisis proportions. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading dementia diagnosis, the actual causes of dementia in affected individuals are unknown except for rare fully penetrant genetic forms. Evidence from epidemiology and pathology studies indicates that damage to the vascular system is associated with an increased risk of many types of dementia. Both Alzheimer's pathology and cerebrovascular disease increase with age. How AD affects small blood vessel function and how vascular dysfunction contributes to the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's are areas of intense research. The science of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) integrates diverse aspects of biology and incorporates the roles of multiple cell types that support the function of neural tissue. Because of the proven ability to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and hypertension with population benefits for heart and stroke outcomes, it is proposed that understanding and targeting the biological mechanisms of VCID can have a similarly positive impact on public health.

  9. Establishment of an animal model of vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a mouse model of vascular dementia (VaD) in order to overcome the shortcomings of rat models of VaD, which include high production costs, difficult surgery, surgical trauma and high mortality. In this study, repeated ischemia-reperfusion of the total bilateral carotid artery in mice, combined with a reduction of blood pressure, was used to establish an animal model of VaD. A total of 40 Kunming mice (clean grade) were randomly divided into a sham group and a model group. Behavioral tests were performed for each group following the surgery, and the morphology of the hippocampus was analyzed. The results of the step-down avoidance test, water maze test and microscopy examinations confirmed that following surgery, learning and memory dysfunction was significantly increased in the model group. The results of the morphological observations showed that the number of hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly decreased in the model group compared with that in the sham surgery group (P<0.01). In the present study, a mouse model of VaD was successfully established, which was simple, effective and reliable, and may be used in the future to investigate VaD. PMID:25289066

  10. The serial position effect in mild and moderately severe vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Moser, David J; Zawacki, Tricia M; Gordon, Norman

    2002-05-01

    The present study examined the serial position effect in 2 subgroups of individuals with vascular dementia (VaD). Nineteen individuals with mild VaD and 17 individuals with moderate VaD were administered the California Verbal Learning Test. Both groups were impaired on a general memory measure, and the moderately impaired group demonstrated significantly poorer recall than the mildly impaired group on the first learning trial and on total learning across trials. In addition, individuals with mild dementia demonstrated an intact primacy and recency effect, whereas individuals with moderate dementia demonstrated neither primacy nor recency effects. The latter findings are consistent with studies examining the serial position effect in other dementia populations, and suggests that the absence of primacy and recency effects in more advanced dementia may occur regardless of dementia type.

  11. MTHFR and ACE Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Vascular and Degenerative Dementias in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj

    2009-01-01

    Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…

  12. Alzheimer's disease--subcortical vascular disease spectrum in a hospital-based setting: Overview of results from the Gothenburg MCI and dementia studies.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Anders; Nordlund, Arto; Jonsson, Michael; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Öhrfelt, Annika; Stålhammar, Jacob; Eckerström, Marie; Carlsson, Mårten; Olsson, Erik; Göthlin, Mattias; Svensson, Johan; Rolstad, Sindre; Eckerström, Carl; Bjerke, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), subcortical vascular disease, and other cognitive disorders is crucial for diagnostic purposes and clinical trial outcomes. Patients with primarily subcortical vascular disease are unlikely to benefit from treatments targeting the AD pathogenic mechanisms and vice versa. The Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia studies are prospective, observational, single-center cohort studies suitable for both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis that outline the cognitive profiles and biomarker characteristics of patients with AD, subcortical vascular disease, and other cognitive disorders. The studies, the first of which started in 1987, comprise inpatients with manifest dementia and patients seeking care for cognitive disorders at an outpatient memory clinic. This article gives an overview of the major published papers (neuropsychological, imaging/physiology, and neurochemical) of the studies including the ongoing Gothenburg MCI study. The main findings suggest that subcortical vascular disease with or without dementia exhibit a characteristic neuropsychological pattern of mental slowness and executive dysfunction and neurochemical deviations typical of white matter changes and disturbed blood-brain barrier function. Our findings may contribute to better healthcare for this underrecognized group of patients. The Gothenburg MCI study has also published papers on multimodal prediction of dementia, and cognitive reserve. PMID:26219595

  13. Alzheimer’s disease—subcortical vascular disease spectrum in a hospital-based setting: Overview of results from the Gothenburg MCI and dementia studies

    PubMed Central

    Nordlund, Arto; Jonsson, Michael; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Öhrfelt, Annika; Stålhammar, Jacob; Eckerström, Marie; Carlsson, Mårten; Olsson, Erik; Göthlin, Mattias; Svensson, Johan; Rolstad, Sindre; Eckerström, Carl; Bjerke, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The ability to discriminate between Alzheimer’s disease (AD), subcortical vascular disease, and other cognitive disorders is crucial for diagnostic purposes and clinical trial outcomes. Patients with primarily subcortical vascular disease are unlikely to benefit from treatments targeting the AD pathogenic mechanisms and vice versa. The Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia studies are prospective, observational, single-center cohort studies suitable for both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis that outline the cognitive profiles and biomarker characteristics of patients with AD, subcortical vascular disease, and other cognitive disorders. The studies, the first of which started in 1987, comprise inpatients with manifest dementia and patients seeking care for cognitive disorders at an outpatient memory clinic. This article gives an overview of the major published papers (neuropsychological, imaging/physiology, and neurochemical) of the studies including the ongoing Gothenburg MCI study. The main findings suggest that subcortical vascular disease with or without dementia exhibit a characteristic neuropsychological pattern of mental slowness and executive dysfunction and neurochemical deviations typical of white matter changes and disturbed blood–brain barrier function. Our findings may contribute to better healthcare for this underrecognized group of patients. The Gothenburg MCI study has also published papers on multimodal prediction of dementia, and cognitive reserve. PMID:26219595

  14. EEG Spectral Features Discriminate between Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Emanuel; Allen, Elena A.; Aurlien, Harald; Nordby, Helge; Eichele, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) present with similar clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms differ. To determine whether clinical electroencephalography (EEG) can provide information relevant to discriminate between these diagnoses, we used quantitative EEG analysis to compare the spectra between non-medicated patients with AD (n = 77) and VaD (n = 77) and healthy elderly normal controls (NC) (n = 77). We use curve-fitting with a combination of a power loss and Gaussian function to model the averaged resting-state spectra of each EEG channel extracting six parameters. We assessed the performance of our model and tested the extracted parameters for group differentiation. We performed regression analysis in a multivariate analysis of covariance with group, age, gender, and number of epochs as predictors and further explored the topographical group differences with pair-wise contrasts. Significant topographical differences between the groups were found in several of the extracted features. Both AD and VaD groups showed increased delta power when compared to NC, whereas the AD patients showed a decrease in alpha power for occipital and temporal regions when compared with NC. The VaD patients had higher alpha power than NC and AD. The AD and VaD groups showed slowing of the alpha rhythm. Variability of the alpha frequency was wider for both AD and VaD groups. There was a general decrease in beta power for both AD and VaD. The proposed model is useful to parameterize spectra, which allowed extracting relevant clinical EEG key features that move toward simple and interpretable diagnostic criteria. PMID:25762978

  15. Neuropsychological correlates of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, frontal variant of frontotemporal, subcortical vascular, and lewy body dementias: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological correlates of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in patients affected by various forms of dementia, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontal-variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). 21 fvFTD, 21 LBD, 22 AD, and 22 SIVD patients matched for dementia severity received a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI). The possible association between performance on neuropsychological tests and severity of BPSD was assessed by correlational analysis and multivariate regression. BPSD were present in 99% of patients. Most behavioral symptoms were not related to a particular dementia group or to a specific cognitive deficit. Euphoria and disinhibition were predicted by fvFTD diagnosis. Hallucinations correlated with the severity of visuospatial deficits in the whole sample of patients and were predicted by LBD diagnosis. Apathy, which was found in all dementia groups, correlated with executive functions and was predicted by both reduced set-shifting aptitude and fvFTD diagnosis. The results confirm the high prevalence of BPSD in the mild to moderate stages of dementia and show that most BPSD are equally distributed across dementia groups. Most of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms are independent dimensions of the dementia syndromes. Nevertheless, hallucinations in LBD and euphoria and disinhibition in fvFTD are related to the structural brain alterations that are responsible for cognitive decline in these dementia groups. Finally, apathy arises from damage in the frontal cortical areas that are also involved in executive functions. PMID:24254701

  16. Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments on cognitive symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? What are the effects of treatments on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 33 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine), antidepressants (clomipramine, fluoxetine, imipramine, sertraline), antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone), aromatherapy, benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive stimulation, exercise, ginkgo biloba, memantine, mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, sodium valproate/valproic acid), music therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omega 3 (fish oil), reminiscence therapy, and statins. PMID:21726471

  17. Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Dementia is characterised by chronic, global, non-reversible deterioration in memory, executive function, and personality. Speech and motor function may also be impaired. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments on cognitive symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? What are the effects of treatments on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer's, Lewy body, or vascular)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine), antidepressants (clomipramine, fluoxetine, imipramine, sertraline), antipsychotics (haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone), aromatherapy, benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam), cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), cognitive stimulation, exercise, ginkgo biloba, memantine, mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, sodium valproate/valproic acid), music therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), omega 3 (fish oil), reminiscence therapy, and statins. PMID:23870856

  18. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xiu-juan; Zhang, Zhe-cheng; Xue, Rong; Li, Ping; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24), Tianzhu (BL10), Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra), Renzhong (DU26), Neiguan (PC6), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12) and Baihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia. PMID:27127486

  19. Neuronal changes after chronic high blood pressure in animal models and its implication for vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gonzalo; Flores-Gómez, Gabriel D; de Jesús Gomez-Villalobos, Ma

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia is a devastating disorder not only for the patient, but also for the family because this neurocognitive disorder breaks the patient's independence, and leads to family care of the patient with a high cost for the family. This complex disorder alters memory, learning, judgment, emotional control and social behavior and affects 4% of the elderly world population. The high blood pressure or arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, which in most cases leads to vascular dementia. Interestingly, this neurocognitive disorder starts after long lasting hypertension, which is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow or hypoperfusion, and complete or incomplete ischemia with cortical thickness. Animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is known that dendritic complexity determines the receptive synaptic contacts, and the loss of dendritic spine and arbor stability are strongly associated with dementia in humans. This review evaluates relevant data of human and animal models that have investigated the link between long-lasting arterial hypertension and neural morphological changes in the context of vascular dementia. We examined the effect of chronic arterial hypertension and aged in vascular dementia. Neural dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens after chronic hypertension was diskussed in the animal models of hypertension. Chronic hypertension reduced the dendritic length and spine density in aged rats.

  20. Regional MRI Diffusion, White-Matter Hyperintensities, and Cognitive Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Scrascia, Federica; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Errante, Yuri; Gangemi, Emma; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ursini, Francesca; Silvestrini, Mauro; Maggio, Paola; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose An increase in brain water diffusivity as measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been recently reported in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients affected by cognitive impairment. However, it remains to be clarified if this reflects an overt neuronal tissue disruption that leads to degenerative or microvascular lesions. This question was addressed by comparing the regional MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of NAWM in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). The relationships of ADCs with the white-matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden, carotid atherosclerosis, and cognitive performance were also investigated. Methods Forty-nine AD and 31 VaD patients underwent brain MRI to assess the WMH volume and regional NAWM ADCs, neuropsychological evaluations, and carotid ultrasound to assess the plaque severity and intima-media thickness (IMT). Results Regional ADCs in NAWM did not differ between VaD and AD patients, while the WMH volume was greater in VaD than in AD patients. The ADC in the anterior corpus callosum was related to the WMH volume, while a greater carotid IMT was positively correlated with the temporal ADC and WMH volume. The memory performance was worse in patients with higher temporal ADCs. Constructional praxis scores were related to ADCs in the frontal, and occipital lobes, in the anterior and posterior corpus callosum as well as to the WMH volume. Abstract reasoning was related to frontal, parietal, and temporal ADCs. Conclusions Our data show that higher regional ADCs in NAWM are associated with microcirculatory impairment, as depicted by the WMH volume. Moreover, regional ADCs in NAWM are differently associated with the neuropsychological performances in memory, constructional praxia, and abstract reasoning domains. PMID:27074295

  1. Multidimensional measures of person knowledge and spatial associative learning: can these be applied to the differentiation of Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal and vascular dementia?

    PubMed

    Clague, F; Dudas, R B; Thompson, S A; Graham, K S; Hodges, J R

    2005-01-01

    Patients with early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits in person knowledge and spatial associative memory. The current investigation examined the ability of impairment in these domains to differentiate AD from other overlapping conditions. In experiment 1, 14 AD patients, 21 vascular dementia (VaD) patients, 11 frontal variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD) patients and 41 controls were administered a graded faces test. VaD patients demonstrated a level of impairment comparable to the AD group on both the naming and person identification elements of the task. A mild naming deficit was revealed in the fvFTD group. In experiment 2, 22 AD patients, 23 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 11 fvFTD patients, 13 semantic dementia (SD) patients, and 23 elderly controls were administered the face-place test, a newly developed task that combines naming of famous faces, item recognition and spatial location. The naming component of the face-place test clearly differentiated SD patients from all dementia groups. All patient groups, except those with fvFTD, showed substantial deficits in the item recognition and spatial components. Consistency analyses indicated a fairly robust association between the two episodic components (item recognition and placing), but not between semantic and episodic elements of the FPT. Person knowledge deficits are, therefore, not specific to AD and the employment of face stimuli may influence the performance of SD patients on tasks of episodic memory.

  2. Effects of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on neurogenesis in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Kim, Min Kyeong; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Jung Nam; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Kim, Soo Young; Cho, Kyu Suk; Han, Jung-Soo; Kim, Hahn Young; Shin, Chan Young; Han, Seol-Heui

    2014-12-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease. Several recent reports demonstrated that cholinergic deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD and that cholinergic therapies have shown improvement of cognitive function in patients with VaD. However, the precise mechanisms by which donepezil achieves its effects on VaD are not fully understood. Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) currently used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that AChEIs such as donepezil promote neurogenesis in the central nervous system. We investigated whether donepezil regulated hippocampal neurogenesis after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in rats, a commonly used animal model of VaD. To evaluate the effect of donepezil on neurogenesis, we orally treated rats with donepezil (10mg/kg) once a day for 3weeks, and injected BrdU over the same 3-week period to label newborn cells. The doses of donepezil that we used have been reported to activate cholinergic activity in rats. After 3weeks, a water maze task was performed on these rats to test spatial learning, and a subsequent histopathological evaluation was conducted. Donepezil improved memory impairment and increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of BCCAO animals. These results indicated that donepezil improves cognitive function and enhances the survival of newborn neurons in the DG in our animal model of VaD, possibly by enhancing the expression of choline acetyltransferase and brain-derived neurotropic factor.

  3. [Use of memantine for elderly patients in the mild stage of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia].

    PubMed

    Bachyns'ka, N Iu; Rozheliuk, I F; Polietaieva, K M; Kholin, V O

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency menantine (antagonist of NMDA-type glutamate receptor) for treatment of the mild stage of Alzheimer and vascular dementia, we conducted a comprehensive neurological, experimental psychological, neurophysiological examination of 33 patients. It was found that the treatment course with memantine, 5-10 mg daily during 3 months resulted in reducing the severity of cognitive impairment, improved bioelectric activity of the brain in patients with dementia, and also helped to improve the patients' behavior, which resulted in stress loads on the surrounding people. It is shown that the treatment was well tolerated, and memantine may be recommended as one of the drugs for treatment of cognitive impairment accompanying aging in the mild stage of dementia of different genesis.

  4. Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Foster, Vincent; Oakley, Arthur E; Slade, Janet Y; Hall, Roslyn; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Burke, Matthew; Thomas, Alan J; Khundakar, Ahmad; Allan, Louise M; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-09-01

    Dementia associated with cerebrovascular disease is common. It has been reported that ∼30% of elderly patients who survive stroke develop delayed dementia (post-stroke dementia), with most cases being diagnosed as vascular dementia. The pathological substrates associated with post-stroke or vascular dementia are poorly understood, particularly those associated with executive dysfunction. Three separate yet interconnecting circuits control executive function within the frontal lobe involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. We used stereological methods, along with immunohistological and related cell morphometric analysis, to examine densities and volumes of pyramidal neurons of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in the frontal lobe from a total of 90 elderly subjects (age range 71-98 years). Post-mortem brain tissues from post-stroke dementia and post-stroke patients with no dementia were derived from our prospective Cognitive Function After Stroke study. We also examined, in parallel, samples from ageing controls and similar age subjects pathologically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, mixed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, and vascular dementia. We found pyramidal cell volumes in layers III and V in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of post-stroke and vascular dementia and, of mixed and Alzheimer's disease subjects to be reduced by 30-40% compared to post-stroke patients with no dementia and controls. There were no significant changes in neuronal volumes in either the anterior cingulate or orbitofrontal cortices. Remarkably, pyramidal neurons within the orbitofrontal cortex were also found to be smaller in size when compared to those in the other two neocortical regions. To relate the cell changes to cognitive function, we noted significant correlations between neuronal volumes and total CAMCOG, orientation and memory scores and clinical

  5. [Is 'attention' important for the results of dementia screening? Relation among Digit Span Test, CST amd ADS in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Mol, B A; de Jonghe, J F; Lindeboom, J

    2000-02-01

    This study focused on the relationship between attention and dementia screening test performance, using the adapted Wechsler's Digit Span test for elderly patients, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST) and the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADS6). Participants were dementia patients and psychiatric patients (n = 147). In both groups no floor-effect was found on the Digit Span test. Principal components analysis showed that CST and ADS6-scores had relatively high loadings on one factor, in contrast to digit span scores that loaded on a second factor. On average, psychiatric patients did hardly worse than normal controls. Attention deficits were more apparent in dementia patients. Considering a maximum of r = .41, these more or less subtle deficits were only moderately related to dementia screening test performance. It is concluded that the adapted Digit Span test is suitable for measuring attention deficits in elderly patients. However, Digit Span predicts performance on dementia screening test only to a modest degree.

  6. Effect of ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of ruthenium red and pioglitazone has significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist may be considered as potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. Ryanodine receptor may be explored further for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. PMID:27262216

  7. Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dementia may also cause changes in mood and personality. Early on, lapses in memory and clear thinking ... to tears to anger in a few minutes. Personality changes. People who have dementia may have drastic ...

  8. Acupuncture for Vascular Dementia: A Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Yang, Bo-Feng; Liu, Yan; Guan, Li-Ping; Wu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Lin-Peng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    In this trial, patients who agreed to random assignment were allocated to a randomized acupuncture group (R-acupuncture group) or control group. Those who declined randomization were assigned to a nonrandomized acupuncture group (NR-acupuncture group). Patients in the R-acupuncture group and NR-acupuncture group received up to 21 acupuncture sessions during a period of 6 weeks plus routine care, while the control group received routine care alone. Cognitive function, activities of daily living, and quality of life were assessed by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and dementia quality of life questionnaire (DEMQOL), respectively. All the data were collected at baseline, after 6-week treatment, and after 4-week follow-up. No significant differences of MMSE scores were observed among the three groups but pooled-acupuncture group had significant higher score than control group. Compared to control group, ADL score significantly decreased in NR-acupuncture group and pooled-acupuncture group. For DEMQOL scores, no significant differences were observed among the three groups, as well as between pooled-acupuncture group and control group. Additional acupuncture to routine care may have beneficial effects on the improvements of cognitive status and activities of daily living but have limited efficacy on health-related quality of life in VaD patients. PMID:26495416

  9. Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ljubenkov, Peter A; Geschwind, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    Dementia often is defined as a progressive cognitive disturbance leading to a loss of independent function. Most clinicians are familiar with the typical pattern of amnestic Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative presentation of dementia. Atypical dementia presentations, including atypical Alzheimer's variants, however, may pose a diagnostic challenge for even experienced clinicians. In this article the authors discuss clinical "pearls" for the diagnosis of various neurodegenerative dementia syndromes. When considering the causes of dementia, the mnemonic VITAMINS can be helpful in considering various etiologies. PMID:27643909

  10. Dementias.

    PubMed

    Sacuiu, S F

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the descriptive, analytic, and intervention-oriented epidemiology of dementia and its most frequent etiologic type due to Alzheimer's disease. The chapter opens with a brief presentation of the concept of dementia, followed by the presentation of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), including natural history, clinical manifestation, neuropathology, medical prognosis, and management. Further, the chapter presents the prevalence and incidence of dementia, with special consideration of secular trends in prevalence and incidence of DAT, and prognosis of the socioeconomic impact of dementia. Thereafter the main risk factors for DAT are covered. The chapter also addresses the results of ongoing therapeutic and preventive intervention trials for DAT. Finally, the future challenges of the epidemiology of dementia with a focus on the impact of the new diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders, as well as the development of biomarkers for DAT and other types of dementia, will be briefly discussed. PMID:27637956

  11. [Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a rare cause of vascular dementia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamouda, Ibtissem; Tougourti, Mohamed Néjib; Hamza, Mohsen

    2002-07-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 51 year old man who experienced three ischemic cerebral infarcts in a time of few months. The patient consulted after the third accident. Neurological presentation included pseudobulbar syndrome with a mild cognitive deficit, aphasia, left hemiparesia, hemiasomatognosia and homonymous lateral hemianopsia. Cerebral tomodensitometry and magnetic resonance imaging evidenced large infarcts images involving right middle cerebral artery territory and bilateral borderline zones in the junction of the territories of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Ambulatory 24 hours ECG recording (Holter) revealed two hits of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Transoesophageal echocardiography conveyed to the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and displayed the presence of a left auricular thrombus. Anticoagulant therapy and rehabilitation allowed a substantial recovering of the patient's cognitive functions and wasting of the intracardiac thrombus. The clinical features observed in our patient meet the recommended DSM IV diagnosis criteria of vascular dementia, an exceptional complication of HCM. The clinical findings, neuroimagery investigation results, and the chronological link between cerebral attacks and cognitive function deterioration argue for a demential syndrome of vascular origin resulting from multiple embolic infarcts involving medium sized arteries (multi-infarct dementia). The authors emphasize the rarity of such observation. HCM must be considered as a potential cause of embolic stroke and likewise a multi-infarct dementia. PMID:12611354

  12. Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Marie-Hélène; Poulin, Stéphane; Fortin, Marie-Pierre; Houde, Michèle; Verret, Louis; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Laforce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the rate of cognitive decline and caregiver burden within the context of a specialized memory clinic. When this was done, the focus was largely on functional decline related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our goal was to compare the longitudinal decline of AD patients to those with Vascular Dementia (VaD) on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We further explored the differential impact on caregiver burden. We retrospectively studied 237 charts from patients seen at our Memory Clinic between 2006 and 2012. The data was collected over 17 years. Cohorts were formed by excluding conditions other than AD and VaD, and including patients who had been assessed at least twice with the MMSE (AD: n = 83; mean age: 67.7 yo; VaD: n = 32; mean age: 73.3yo). A small group of 36 caregivers was surveyed by phone to explore caregiver burden. Results indicated that the natural history of MMSE changes in AD patients differed significantly from that of patients with VaD (F = 10.41, p<0.0014), with AD patients showing more cognitive decline over time. Sadness, stress/anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disorders were reported as the main preoccupations by caregivers and its impact was rated as ‘severe’ in 50% of cases. Altogether, this study provides further insight into the natural history of cognitive decline in AD and VaD. Future studies should explore the progression of dementing disorders in larger cohorts using prospective methodological designs. PMID:27747317

  13. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  14. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  15. Caspase-Cleaved Tau Co-Localizes with Early Tangle Markers in the Human Vascular Dementia Brain

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan J.; Mason, Maria J.; Thomas, Chloe; Poon, Wayne W.; Rohn, Troy T.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia in the United States and is characterized as a cerebral vessel vascular disease that leads to ischemic episodes. Whereas the relationship between caspase-cleaved tau and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been previously described, whether caspase activation and cleavage of tau occurs in VaD is presently unknown. To investigate a potential role for caspase-cleaved tau in VaD, we analyzed seven confirmed cases of VaD by immunohistochemistry utilizing a well-characterized antibody that specifically detects caspase-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421. Application of this antibody (TauC3) revealed consistent labeling within NFTs, dystrophic neurites within plaque-rich regions and corpora amylacea (CA) in the human VaD brain. Labeling of CA by the TauC3 antibody was widespread throughout the hippocampus proper, was significantly higher compared to age matched controls, and co-localized with ubiquitin. Staining of the TauC3 antibody co-localized with MC-1, AT8, and PHF-1 within NFTs. Quantitative analysis indicated that roughly 90% of PHF-1-labeled NFTs contained caspase-cleaved tau. In addition, we documented the presence of active caspase-3 within plaques, blood vessels and pretangle neurons that co-localized with TauC3. Collectively, these data support a role for the activation of caspase-3 and proteolytic cleavage of TauC3 in VaD providing further support for the involvement of this family of proteases in NFT pathology. PMID:26161867

  16. Reduced number of caudate nucleus dopamine uptake sites in vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Allard, P; Englund, E; Marcusson, J

    1999-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) uptake sites in the caudate nucleus were studied in patients with vascular dementia (VAD) and in a control group using the presynaptic DA uptake site marker [3H][2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane] as radioligand. There was a significant decrease in the number of DA uptake sites in the VAD group, while the binding affinity was unchanged. The present results indicate that in the patients investigated, the cerebrovascular disease process involves dopaminergic neuron terminals in the caudate nucleus. Our findings are discussed in relation to the reductions in number of DA uptake sites that have previously been revealed in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  17. Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... agitated or see things that are not there. Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by itself does not mean you have ... with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language. Although dementia is common in very ...

  18. Agonistic autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic receptor and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Karczewski, P; Hempel, P; Kunze, R; Bimmler, M

    2012-05-01

    Although primary causes of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia are unknown, the importance of preceding vascular lesions is widely accepted. Furthermore, there is strong evidence for the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms. Here, we report the presence of agonistic autoantibodies directed at adrenergic receptors in the circulation of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. In 59% of these patients, agonistic autoantibodies against the α(1) -adrenergic receptor and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor were identified. The majority of positive patients (66%) contained both types of autoantibodies in combination. In a control group of patients with neurological impairments others than Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, only 17% were found to harbour these autoantibodies. The autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic receptor interacted preferably with the extracellular loop1 of the receptor. They were further studied in IgG preparations from the column regenerate of a patient who underwent immunoadsorption. The α(1) -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies specifically bound to the extracellular loop1 peptide of the receptor with an apparent EC(50) value of 30 nm. They mobilized intracellular calcium in a clonal cell line expressing the human form of the α(1) -adrenergic receptor. Our data support the notion that autoimmune mechanisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. We suggest that agonistic autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor may contribute to vascular lesions and increased plaque formation.

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Agomelatine and Vinpocetine Against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Induced Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Prabhat; Sharma, Brij Mohan; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been considered as a critical cause for the development of cognitive decline and dementia of vascular origin. Melatonin receptors have been reported to be beneficial in improving memory deterioration. Phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) enzyme offers protection against cognitive impairments and cerebrovascular disorders. Aim of this study is to explore the role of agomelatine (a dual MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist) and vinpocetine (selective PDE1 inhibitor) in CCH induced vascular dementia (VaD). Two vessel occlusion (2VO) or bilateral common carotid arteries ligation method was performed to initiate a phase of chronic hypoperfusion in mice. 2VO animals have shown significant cognitive deficits (Morris water maze), cholinergic dysfunction (increased acetyl cholinesterase -AChE) activity alongwith increased brain oxidative stress (decreased brain catalase, glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase with an increase in malondialdehyde levels), and significant increase in brain infarct size (2,3,5- triphenylterazolium chloride-TTC staining). Treatment of agomelatine and vinpocetine reduced CCH induced learning and memory deficits and limited cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and tissue damage, suggesting that agomelatine and vinpocetine may provide benefits in CCH induced VaD. PMID:26036976

  20. Rannasangpei Is a Therapeutic Agent in the Treatment of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Luo, Yuandai; Zhen, Lifang; Hu, Xianda; Shang, Ying; Liao, Yinuo; Xue, Huiyuan; Huang, Fukai; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Rannasangpei (RSNP) is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and neurodegeneration in China; however, its potential use in the treatment of vascular dementia (VD) was unclear. In this study, our aim was to examine the neuroprotective effect of RSNP in a VD rat model, which was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). Four-week administration with two doses of RSNP was investigated in our study. Severe cognitive deficit in the VD model, which was confirmed in Morris water maze (MWM) test, was significantly restored by the administration of RSNP. ELISA revealed that the treatments with both doses of RSNP could reinstate the cholinergic activity in the VD animals by elevating the production of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and reducing the acetylcholinesterase (AChE); the treatment of RSNP could also reboot the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, Western blot and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) results indicated that the RSNP could suppress the apoptosis in the hippocampus of the VD animals by increasing the expression ratio of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). These results suggested that RSNP might be a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular dementia in the future. PMID:27293454

  1. Mulberry Fruit Extract Protects against Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kaewkaen, Pratchaya; Tong-un, Terdthai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Kaewrueng, Wiroje; Wongcharoenwanakit, Sathaporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the preventive strategy of vascular dementia, one of the challenge problems of elderly, has received attention due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of mulberry fruit extract on memory impairment and brain damage in animal model of vascular dementia. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300–350 g, were orally given mulberry extract at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). It was found that rats subjected to mulberry fruits plus Rt.MCAO showed the enhanced memory, the increased densities of neuron, cholinergic neuron, Bcl-2-immunopositive neuron together with the decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus. Taken all data together, the cognitive enhancing effect of mulberry fruit extract observed in this study might be partly associated with the increased cholinergic function and its neuroprotective effect in turn occurs partly via the decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, mulberry fruit is the potential natural cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredient. PMID:22952555

  2. Homocysteine, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID).

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Atticus H; Yeo, Natalie E; Weekman, Erica M; Wilcock, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    Homocysteine is produced physiologically in all cells, and is present in plasma of healthy individuals (plasma [HCy]: 3-10μM). While rare genetic mutations (CBS, MTHFR) cause severe hyperhomocysteinemia ([HCy]: 100-200μM), mild-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia ([HCy]: 10-100μM) is common in older people, and is an independent risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. As B-vitamin supplementation (B6, B12 and folate) has well-validated homocysteine-lowering efficacy, this may be a readily-modifiable risk factor in vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Here we review the biochemical and cellular actions of HCy related to VCID. Neuronal actions of HCy were at concentrations above the clinically-relevant range. Effects of HCy <100μM were primarily vascular, including myocyte proliferation, vessel wall fibrosis, impaired nitric oxide signalling, superoxide generation and pro-coagulant actions. HCy-lowering clinical trials relevant to VCID are discussed. Extensive clinical and preclinical data support HCy as a mediator for VCID. In our view further trials of combined B-vitamin supplementation are called for, incorporating lessons from previous trials and from recent experimental work. To maximise likelihood of treatment effect, a future trial should: supply a high-dose, combination supplement (B6, B12 and folate); target the at-risk age range; and target cohorts with low baseline B-vitamin status. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26689889

  3. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and memantine treatment for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Olivares, David; Deshpande, Varun K; Shi, Ying; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Greig, Nigel H; Rogers, Jack T; Huang, Xudong

    2012-07-01

    Memantine, a partial antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment within the U.S. and Europe under brand name Namenda (Forest), Axura and Akatinol (Merz), and Ebixa and Abixa (Lundbeck), may have potential in alleviating additional neurological conditions, such as vascular dementia (VD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In various animal models, memantine has been reported to be a neuroprotective agent that positively impacts both neurodegenerative and vascular processes. While excessive levels of glutamate result in neurotoxicity, in part through the over-activation of NMDARs, memantine-as a partial NMDAR antagonist, blocks the NMDA glutamate receptors to normalize the glutamatergic system and ameliorate cognitive and memory deficits. The key to memantine's therapeutic action lies in its uncompetitive binding to the NMDAR through which low affinity and rapid off-rate kinetics of memantine at the level of the NMDAR-channel preserves the physiological function of the receptor, underpinning memantine's tolerability and low adverse event profile. As the biochemical pathways evoked by NMDAR antagonism also play a role in PD and since no other drug is sufficiently effective to substitute for the first-line treatment of L-dopa despite its side effects, memantine may be useful in PD treatment with possibly fewer side effects. In spite of the relative modest nature of its adverse effects, memantine has been shown to provide only a moderate decrease in clinical deterioration in AD and VD, and hence efforts are being undertaken in the design of new and more potent memantine-based drugs to hopefully provide greater efficacy.

  4. The Feasibility of a Structured Cognitive Training Protocol to Address Progressive Cognitive Decline in Individuals with Vascular Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Bishop, Lilli A.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, better known as CADASIL, is a rare, genetic form of early-onset vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to use a modified version of Attention Process Training--II (APT-II; Sohlberg, Johnson, Paule, Raskin, & Mateer, 2001) with an…

  5. Gastrodin improves cognitive dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the potential protective effects of gastrodin on reducing tissue oxidative stress and attenuating cognitive deficits in vascular dementia induced by cerebral chronic hyperfusion. To explore the detailed molecular mechanisms. Methods: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (sham group with no occlusion), Group 2 (control group with 2VO procedure), Group 3 (sham group with gastrodin administration), Group 4 (2VO group with gastrodin administration). Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats within different groups. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and rescued by gastrodin treatments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to detect the molecular mechanisms related to the anti-apoptosis and ROS scavenging effects of gastrodin. Results: Our results indicated an obvious protective effect of gastrodin on vascular dementia induced brain ischemia. Administration of gastrodin could improve the impaired learning and memory function induced by 2VO procedure in rats. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by the administration of gastrodin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored by the administration of gastrodin. Cell viability was improved by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis rate was reduced by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Gastrodin could scavenge ROS generation induced by pre

  6. Acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment and hippocampus neuronal loss in experimental vascular dementia through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. PMID:26546103

  7. Computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensities related to subcortical vascular dementia in brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kawata, Yasuo; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a computerized evaluation method of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) regions for the diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) based on magnetic resonance (MR) images, and implemented the proposed method as a graphical interface program. The WMH regions were segmented using either a region growing technique or a level set method, one of which was selected by using a support vector machine. We applied the proposed method to MR images acquired from 10 patients with a diagnosis of VaD. The mean similarity index between WMH regions determined by a manual method and the proposed method was 78.2+/-11.0%. The proposed method could effectively assist neuroradiologists in evaluating WMH regions.

  8. Puerarin attenuates cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Wenshi; Tian, Buxian; Sun, Menghan; Li, Hui; Zhou, Lina; Liu, Xueping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explored the effects of puerarin on cognitive deficits and tissue oxidative stress and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to test the molecular function mechanisms of puerarin. Results: Our results indicated a protective effect of puerarin on vascular dementia. Administration of puerarin could improve the impaired learning and memory function. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by puerarin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored. Cell viability was improved in a dose-dependent pattern (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis rate was reduced in a dose-dependent pattern (P < 0.05). Puerarin could scavenge ROS generation induced by pre-treatment of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed up-regulated levels of Nrf2, FoxO1, FoxO3 and FoxO4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Puerarin is protective on the vascular dementia by reducing oxidative stress and improving learning and memory functions. On the molecular level, Nrf2, FoxO1, FoxO3 and FoxO4 were up regulated by puerarin. PMID:26191159

  9. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. PMID:27130820

  10. Cognitive variations among vascular dementia subtypes caused by small-, large-, or mixed-vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Jianping, Chen; Jianqing, Yuan; Shanquan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vascular dementia (VaD) is a heterogeneous disease that can vary in clinical presentation and cognitive profile. The cognitive profiles of different VaD subtypes depend on the anatomical distribution of the vascular insults that have been documented. Material and methods We reviewed demographic, cognitive, and imaging data in 402 patients who were clinically diagnosed with VaD between January 2002 and June 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Gan Nan Medical College in Ganzhou, China. Results Based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, patients were classified as having large- (24.1%), small- (70.4%), or mixed-vessel VaD (5.5%). Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor (81%), followed by smoking (37%), hyperlipidemia (35%), and diabetes (27%). Hyperlipidemia, cardiac risk factors (history of cardiovascular disease, heart valve disorder) and carotid stenosis were more frequent in patients with large-vessel disease compared to those with small-vessel or mixed-vessel disease (p < 0.001). A median of 4 (maximum 11) cognitive domains were impaired in each VaD patient. After memory dysfunction, executive defects were the most prevalent (68.9%), and neurobehavioral dysfunction was the most rare (13.2%). Patients with small-vessel VaD showed more executive dysfunction than patients with large-vessel and mixed-vessel VaD (p < 0.05), whereas patients with large-vessel VaD had a higher prevalence of visuospatial or language dysfunction (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results indicate that specific subtypes and underlying vascular mechanisms will help predict clinical courses and produce more focused treatment and prevention of VaD. PMID:27478455

  11. Meta-analysis of plasma homocysteine content and cognitive function in elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beiyun; Zhong, Yuan; Yan, Hong; Cui, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between homocysteine and cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and vascular dementia (VD) patients. Methods: By Cochrane system evaluation we retrieved relevant publications from MEDLINE, Embase, OVID, controlled clinical trial database of the Cochrane library and others. Two evaluators jointly assessed the research quality of the retrieved publications and carried out meta-analysis on the homogeneous study. Results: MMSE score in the AD group was lower than that in normal control group (MD = -11.98, 95% CI (-13.30, -10.65)), and the homocysteine content was higher than that in the normal control group (MD = 2.72, 95% CI (1.79, 3.64)), with a statistical difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The homocysteine content in the AD group was higher than that in the VD group (MD = -4.76, 95% CI (-7.59, -1.93), P < 0.05). Conclusions: MSE score and homocysteine content can be used as useful indicators to distinguish AD and normal subjects; homocysteine content can be used as an indicator to differentiate AD from VD. Clinically, more randomized controlled trials are needed to test and verify the relationship in cognitive function between homocysteine and AD and VD. PMID:25664013

  12. Pittsburgh compound B-negative dementia: a possibility of misdiagnosis of patients with non-alzheimer disease-type dementia as having AD.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Suzuka; Takeuchi, Jun; Mori, Hiroshi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Miki, Takami

    2011-09-01

    Amyloid imaging has been used to detect amyloid deposition in the brain. We performed Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography on 63 patients with dementia having cognitive decline or memory disturbance. In addition, we measured the patients' apolipoprotein E4 (apo E4) status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-42, tau, and P-tau. Finally, the patients were diagnosed as having probable Alzheimer disease (AD) on the basis of their neuropsychological findings and because they met the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Among the patients diagnosed with probable AD, 10 patients were PiB negative. The CSF levels of P-tau and tau in PiB-negative patients were significantly lower than those in the PiB-positive patients. In addition, the CSF levels of Aβ1-42 in the PiB-negative patients were significantly higher than those in the PiB-positive patients. None of the PiB-negative patients were apo E4 carriers. These results suggest that the PiB-negative patient group included not only AD patients but also non-AD-type dementia patients. However, our finding is based on a relatively small number of patients and therefore should be replicated in a larger cohort. In addition, it will be necessary to categorize these participants by longitudinal follow-up and postmortem pathological examinations.

  13. Chinese herbal medicine for patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mei; Lu, Jingmin; May, Brian H; Liu, Shaonan; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of patients with vascular cognitive impairment but no dementia. Methods and analysis We will perform a comprehensive retrieval in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wan-fang database and other sources. After screening the studies, the methodological quality of all included trials will be assessed according to the risk of bias instrument provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials will be conducted using RevMan V.5.3 software. Funnel plot analysis and Egger's test will be used to assess publication bias, if possible. The quality of evidence will be assessed by the GRADE system. Dissemination This systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and a relevant conference presentation. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD 42015023682. PMID:27016244

  14. Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Man, Sui Cheung; Chan, Kam Wa; Lu, Jia-Hong; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM), as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM), mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD). We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese). were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made. PMID:22235231

  15. Discovery of Acupoints and Combinations with Potential to Treat Vascular Dementia: A Data Mining Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuwei; Ren, Yulan; Fan, Shilin; Wang, Minyu; Sun, Tianxiao; Zeng, Fang; Li, Ping; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vascular dementia (VaD) is high among the elderly. Acupuncture, a popular therapeutic method in China, can improve memory, orientation, calculation, and self-managing ability in VaD patients. However, in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research, the selection of acupoints to treat VaD remains challenging. This study aimed to discover acupoints and acupoint combinations with potential for VaD based on data mining. After database searching and screening for articles on clinical trials evaluating the effects of acupuncture on VaD, 238 acupuncture prescriptions were included for further analysis. Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Shuigou (GV 26), and Shenting (GV 24) appeared most frequently in the modern literature and are potential acupoints for VaD. Combinations between Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Shenting (GV 24), Shuigou (GV 26), and Zusanli (ST 36) were most frequent and represent potential combinations for VaD treatment. These results provide a reference for the selection and combination of acupoints to treat VaD in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research. PMID:26294922

  16. The Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Neurotoxicity and the Pathogenesis of Vascular Type Senile Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Dai; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is abundantly present in the brain. Despite its importance in normal brain functions, excess Zn is neurotoxic and causes neurodegeneration following transient global ischemia and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular-type dementia (VD). We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity using immortalized hypothalamic neurons (GT1–7 cells) and found that carnosine (β-alanyl histidine) and histidine (His) inhibited Zn2+-induced neuronal death. A DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several genes, including metal-related genes (metallothionein and Zn transporter 1), endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress related genes (GADD34, GADD45, and p8), and the calcium (Ca)-related gene Arc (activity-related cytoskeleton protein), were affected after Zn exposure. The co-existence of carnosine or His inhibited the expression of GADD34, p8, and Arc, although they did not influence the expression of the metal-related genes. Therefore, ER-stress and the disruption of Ca homeostasis may underlie the mechanisms of Zn-induced neurotoxicity, and carnosine might be a possible drug candidate for the treatment of VD. PMID:24213606

  17. Study on active ingredient and mechanism in preventing vascular dementia of Tianzhusan coming from Tujia medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-bin; Lin, Li; Li, Zhi-yong; Bi, Tian; Ye, Tian-yuan; Ma, Cui-qiang; Bao Hong-juan; Wang, Hong-ping; Zhang, Bai-xia; Song, Kuo-kui; Li, Yan-wen; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    To make clear of the absorbed components of Tianzhusan (TZS) and its possible mechanism in preventing vascular dementia (VD), the rats' models of VD were prepared by a permanent ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries. After 60 days, rats were administrated with TZS for 0.1 g x kg(-1), and the volume is 0.02 mL x g(-1). After 3 days, the medicated serum was prepared and detected by UPLC, and then we predicted the possible chemical structure of the absorbed components of TZS. According to the absorbed components, the potential targets of TZS were found by ligand profiling of Discovery Studio 3.5. All of these target genes were submitted to DAVID onine for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The 5 absorbed components of TZS have been predicted, and four of them have been identified as parishin B, parishin C, parishin, pennogenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosy-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucoside. Through reverse finding targets, we got 861 pharmacophore models and 9 pathways from KEGG, BIOCARTA after document verification. These results showed that the efficacy mechanism of TZS on VD perhaps were be related with these absorbed components and pathways. If the traditional herbs could be proved effective by efficacy tests, the serum pharmacochemistry, computer-aided drug design, system biology and other technologies can be used in the next experiments, which will be beneficial to fast discovery of material basis and mechanisms of traditional medicine coming form ethnic minorities. PMID:26697697

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Clostridium butyricum against Vascular Dementia in Mice via Metabolic Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaming; Sun, Jing; Wang, Fangyan; Yu, Xichong; Ling, Zongxin; Li, Haixiao; Zhang, Huiqing; Jin, Jiangtao; Chen, Wenqian; Pang, Mengqi; Yu, Junjie; He, Yiwen; Xu, Jiru

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (VaD) remains unclear. We used a mouse model of VaD induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO) to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of Clostridium butyricum. Following rUCCAO, C. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. Cognitive function was estimated. Morphological examination was performed by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The BDNF-PI3K/Akt pathway-related proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The diversity of gut microbiota and the levels of butyrate in the feces and the brains were determined. The results showed that C. butyricum significantly attenuated the cognitive dysfunction and histopathological changes in VaD mice. C. butyricum not only increased the levels of BDNF and Bcl-2 and decreased level of Bax but also induced Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt) and ultimately reduced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, C. butyricum could regulate the gut microbiota and restore the butyrate content in the feces and the brains. These results suggest that C. butyricum might be effective in the treatment of VaD by regulating the gut-brain axis and that it can be considered a new therapeutic strategy against VaD. PMID:26523278

  19. Comparison of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy on vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia.

    PubMed

    Wang, L P; Zhang, X Y; Liu, N; Ma, Z Z; Fang, D S

    2015-05-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of western medicine therapy assisted by Ginkgo biloba tablets (GBT) in patients with vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND). Eighty patients with VCIND were randomly divided into two groups: the conventional treatment group (control group) and the combined treatment group. The conventional treatment group was provided with anti-platelet aggregation conventional treatment. In this group, 75 mg aspirin was given three times a day for 3 months, whereas the combined treatment group was given 19.2 mg GBT three times a day for 3 months along with conventional anti-platelet aggregation treatment. Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were used to observe changes in cognitive ability and cerebral blood flow in patients with VCIND before and after treatment in the two groups. After 3 months of treatment, the MoCA scores of execution, attention, abstraction, delayed memory, and orientation were significantly increased in the combined treatment group compared with those before treatment and those in the control group after treatment. In addition, the blood flow velocity of the anterior cerebral artery was significantly increased in the combined treatment group. GBT can improve the therapeutic efficacy, cognitive ability, and cerebral blood flow supply of patients with VCIND.

  20. Discovery of Acupoints and Combinations with Potential to Treat Vascular Dementia: A Data Mining Analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuwei; Ren, Yulan; Fan, Shilin; Wang, Minyu; Sun, Tianxiao; Zeng, Fang; Li, Ping; Liang, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vascular dementia (VaD) is high among the elderly. Acupuncture, a popular therapeutic method in China, can improve memory, orientation, calculation, and self-managing ability in VaD patients. However, in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research, the selection of acupoints to treat VaD remains challenging. This study aimed to discover acupoints and acupoint combinations with potential for VaD based on data mining. After database searching and screening for articles on clinical trials evaluating the effects of acupuncture on VaD, 238 acupuncture prescriptions were included for further analysis. Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Shuigou (GV 26), and Shenting (GV 24) appeared most frequently in the modern literature and are potential acupoints for VaD. Combinations between Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Shenting (GV 24), Shuigou (GV 26), and Zusanli (ST 36) were most frequent and represent potential combinations for VaD treatment. These results provide a reference for the selection and combination of acupoints to treat VaD in clinical acupuncture and acupuncture research. PMID:26294922

  1. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of Donepezil in Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Román, Gustavo C.; Salloway, Stephen; Black, Sandra E.; Royall, Donald R.; DeCarli, Charles; Weiner, Michael W.; Moline, Margaret; Kumar, Dinesh; Schindler, Rachel; Posner, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) fulfilling National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria. Methods This international, multicenter, 24-week trial was conducted from March 2003 to August 2005. Patients (N=974; mean age, 73.0 years) with probable or possible VaD were randomized 2:1 to receive donepezil 5 mg/d or placebo. Coprimary outcome measures were scores on the Vascular-Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale and Clinician’s Interview–Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview. Analyses were performed for the intent-to-treat population with the last-observation-carried-forward method. Results Compared with placebo, donepezil-treated patients showed significant improvement from baseline to end point on the Vascular-Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale (least-squares mean difference, −1.156; 95% CI, −1.98 to −0.33; P<0.01) but not on the Clinician’s Interview–Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview. Patients with hippocampal atrophy who were treated with donepezil demonstrated stable cognition versus a decline in the placebo-treated group; in those without atrophy, cognition improved with donepezil versus relative stability with placebo. Results on secondary efficacy measures were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events was similar across groups. Eleven deaths occurred in the donepezil group (1.7%), similar to rates previously reported for donepezil trials in VaD, whereas no deaths occurred in the placebo group. Conclusions Patients treated with donepezil 5 mg/d demonstrated significant improvement in cognitive, but not global, function. Donepezil was relatively well tolerated; adverse events were consistent with current labeling. Mortality in the placebo group was unexpectedly low. The differential

  2. Excess Costs Associated with Possible Misdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Among Patients with Vascular Dementia in a UK CPRD Population

    PubMed Central

    Happich, Michael; Kirson, Noam Y.; Desai, Urvi; King, Sarah; Birnbaum, Howard G.; Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark; Lenox-Smith, Alan; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) among patients later diagnosed with vascular dementia (VaD) has been associated with excess costs, suggesting potential benefits of earlier rule-out of AD diagnosis. Objective: To investigate whether prior diagnosis with AD among patients with VaD is associated with excess costs in the UK. Methods: Patients with a final VaD diagnosis, continuous data visibility for≥6 months prior to index date, and linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics data were retrospectively selected from de-identified Clinical Practice Research Datalink data. Patients with AD diagnosis before a final VaD diagnosis were matched to similar patients with no prior AD diagnosis using propensity score methods. Annual excess healthcare costs were calculated for 5 years post-index, stratified by time to final diagnosis. Results: Of 9,311 patients with VaD, 508 (6%) had prior AD diagnosis with a median time to VaD diagnosis exceeding 2 years from index date. Over the entire follow-up period, patients with prior AD diagnosis had accumulated healthcare costs that were approximately GBP2,000 higher than those for matched counterparts (mostly due to higher hospitalization costs). Cost differentials peaked particularly in the period including the final VaD diagnosis, with excess costs quickly declining thereafter. Conclusion: Potential misdiagnosis of AD among UK patients with VaD resulted in substantial excess costs. The decline in excess costs following a final VaD diagnosis suggests potential benefits from earlier rule-out of AD. PMID:27163798

  3. [The other dementias: the neuropathology of the non-Alzheimer's disease dementias].

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R L

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia, but requires neuropathological verification for a definitive diagnosis because there are a number of other neurodegenerative diseases that may present with dementia. Some of these disorders have considerable overlap both clinically and pathologically with AD, while others have distinct clinical and pathological profiles. Vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have the greatest overlap with AD and considerable controversy still surrounds the exact contribution of the non AD pathology to the dementia syndrome. The frontotemporal dementias are loosely united by clinical presentation, but are pathologically heterogeneous and include Pick's disease, dementia lacking distinctive histopathology, motor neuron disease inclusion dementia and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). CBD can be difficult to distinguish from progressive supranuclear palsy, especially when the latter lacks the distinctive gaze palsy. Finally, Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJD) may be difficult to distinguish from AD when the symptoms progress at an atypically slow pace. Recently, a new variant of CJD (vCJD) that has been linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy ('mad cow' disease) has heightened awareness of these prion protein disorders. The neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of these non AD dementia disorders will be reviewed. PMID:12938072

  4. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Curiati, Pedro K.; Magaldi, Regina M.; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Bottino, Cassio M.C.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females) with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09), better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06) and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = −0.012, p = 0.07) at baseline. Conclusion Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings. PMID:25493090

  5. Synergistic epistasis of paraoxonase 1 (rs662 and rs85460) and apolipoprotein E4 genes in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Alam, Rizwan; Tripathi, Manjari; Mansoori, Nasim; Parveen, Shama; Luthra, Kalpana; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Sharma, Subhadra; Arulselvi, Subramanian; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2014-12-01

    Genetic polymorphism and epistasis play a role in etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). In this case-control study, a total of 241 patients were included in the study to see the effect of paraoxonase 1 (PON1; rs662 and rs85460) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes in altering the odds of having AD and VaD along with serum PON and lipid profile. The presence of at least 1 variant allele of rs662, but not rs85460, increased the risk of having AD by 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-3.40) and VaD by 3.09-fold (95% CI: 1.4-6.9). The interaction between PON1 genes (rs662 and rs85460) and ApoE genes showed synergistic epistasis in altering the odds of significantly having both AD and VaD. On the other hand, low serum level of high-density lipoprotein and low level of serum PON activity were found associated significantly (P ≤ .001 in both cases) only in patients with VaD as compared to healthy control.

  6. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD. PMID:26887382

  7. Effects of equol on deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension and associated vascular dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te-Hua; Tsai, Tsung-Yu

    2016-08-10

    Oxidative stress is the major cause of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases including vascular dementia (VaD), and hypertension has been found to increase the probability of VaD. Here, we investigated the effects of equol in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertensive rats (DHRs) and the associated VaD. The systolic blood pressure of rats treated with low- (10 mg per kg body weight) and high-dose (20 mg per kg body weight) equol for 4 weeks was lower than that of the control group by 12.18 and 17.48% in a dose-dependent manner, respectively (p < 0.05), which was regulated by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and increasing the nitric oxide (NO) production. Equol-treated DHRs showed a significant decrease in both the swimming distance and time required to reach the escape platform (78.20 to 82.56%, p < 0.05). In addition, the probe trial session and working memory test indicated that equol improved the long- and short-term memory of the rats. Moreover, the brain antioxidant activity was increased by elevating the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were decreased, indicating that equol suppressed oxidative stress. In conclusion, we demonstrated that equol exhibited comparable blood pressure (BP)-lowering and VaD-improving effects with the clinically used drug, lisinopril in DHRs while there was a positive correlation between the doses. Therefore, this bioactive compound may be useful for developing functional foods, thereby extending the application of equol-containing crops. PMID:27435368

  8. Study of visuospatial skill in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Asutosh; Biswas, Atanu; Pandit, Alak; Roy, Arijit; Guin, Debsankar; Gangopadhyay, Goutam; Senapati, Asit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the visuospatial function in different types of dementia with the visual object and space perception (VOSP) battery and to relate the degree of visuospatial dysfunction with different types and stages of dementia. Materials and Methods: A sample of 53 participants with dementia and equal number of age-, sex-, and education-matched controls were recruited for the study. Participants were evaluated for visuospatial skill using VOSP test battery. The scores of dementia patients were compared with controls and within dementia cohort scores were compared based on stage of dementia. Results: The dementia group scored low in all of the subtests of the VOSP battery in comparison to controls. Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia of Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients performed more poorly than controls in all subtests examining object perception and space perception. The three semantic variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients scored low in all four subtests of object perception, whereas behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) patients performed normally. The scores deteriorated with the advancement of dementia in all patients from the dementia groups. Conclusions: Visuospatial function is significantly impaired in dementia patients particularly in AD, DLB, and VaD patients from the beginning, and the impairment is severe in advanced disease stages. PMID:27011635

  9. Trends in the prevalence of dementia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Hiroko H; Buracchio, Teresa J; Fisher, Gwenith G; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1) summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2) compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3) assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus vascular dementia (VaD) over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  10. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in the Chinese populations: a meta-analysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaodong; Xu, Yong; Nie, Hongwei; Lei, Ting; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Minjie

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dementia and its major subtypes in China. Forty-eight eligible studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence for the population aged 60 years and older of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was 1.9%, vascular dementia (VaD) was 0.9%, and total dementia was 3.0%. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in Northern China than in Southern China. The prevalence of VaD was significantly higher in urban compared to rural areas. The prevalence of dementia and prevalence of AD increased with age in both males and females, and a higher prevalence of AD than VaD was observed in all age groups. AD has become more common than VaD in China since 1990. The current prevalence of dementia in China may be similar to that of developed countries.

  11. Astroglial NF-kB contributes to white matter damage and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Saggu, Raman; Schumacher, Toni; Gerich, Florian; Rakers, Cordula; Tai, Khalid; Delekate, Andrea; Petzold, Gabor C

    2016-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common form of dementia. The pathogenic pathways leading to vascular cognitive impairment remain unclear but clinical and experimental data have shown that chronic reactive astrogliosis occurs within white matter lesions, indicating that a sustained pro-inflammatory environment affecting the white matter may contribute towards disease progression. To model vascular cognitive impairment, we induced prolonged mild cerebral hypoperfusion in mice by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. This chronic hypoperfusion resulted in reactive gliosis of astrocytes and microglia within white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, consecutive spatial memory deficits, and loss of white matter integrity, as measured by ultra high-field magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. White matter astrogliosis was accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kB in reactive astrocytes. Using mice expressing a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kB under the control of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-IkBα-dn), we found that transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kB signaling ameliorated gliosis and axonal loss, maintained white matter structural integrity, and preserved memory function. Collectively, our results imply that pro-inflammatory changes in white matter astrocytes may represent an important detrimental component in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment, and that targeting these pathways may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27487766

  12. Astroglial NF-kB contributes to white matter damage and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Saggu, Raman; Schumacher, Toni; Gerich, Florian; Rakers, Cordula; Tai, Khalid; Delekate, Andrea; Petzold, Gabor C

    2016-08-04

    Vascular cognitive impairment is the second most common form of dementia. The pathogenic pathways leading to vascular cognitive impairment remain unclear but clinical and experimental data have shown that chronic reactive astrogliosis occurs within white matter lesions, indicating that a sustained pro-inflammatory environment affecting the white matter may contribute towards disease progression. To model vascular cognitive impairment, we induced prolonged mild cerebral hypoperfusion in mice by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis. This chronic hypoperfusion resulted in reactive gliosis of astrocytes and microglia within white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, consecutive spatial memory deficits, and loss of white matter integrity, as measured by ultra high-field magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. White matter astrogliosis was accompanied by activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kB in reactive astrocytes. Using mice expressing a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kB under the control of the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-IkBα-dn), we found that transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-kB signaling ameliorated gliosis and axonal loss, maintained white matter structural integrity, and preserved memory function. Collectively, our results imply that pro-inflammatory changes in white matter astrocytes may represent an important detrimental component in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment, and that targeting these pathways may lead to novel therapeutic strategies.

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF MCI and DEMENTIA TREATMENTS IN A COMMUNITY-BASED DEMENTIA PRACTICE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-04

    Mild Cognitive Impairment; Dementia; Hypoxia; Hyperhomocysteinemia; Vitamin B 12 Deficiency; Iron Deficiency; Anemia; TBI; Neurodegenerative Disorders; Alzheimer's Disease; Vascular Dementia; Brain Injuries; Tauopathies; Parkinson's Disease; Lewy Body Dementia; Frontotemporal Dementia; TDP-43 Proteinopathies

  14. Genetics and underlying pathology of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Beata; Gerritsen, Lotte

    2015-03-01

    As the population steadily ages, dementia, in all its forms, remains a great societal challenge. Yet, our knowledge of their etiology remains rather limited. To this end, genetic studies can give us insight into the underlying mechanisms that lead to the development of dementia, potentially facilitating treatments in the future. In this review we cover the most recent genetic risk factors associated with the onset of the four most common dementia types today, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) and Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). Moreover, we discuss the overlap in major underlying pathologies of dementia derived from their genetic associations. While all four dementia types appear to involve genes associated with tau-pathology and neuroinflammation only LBD, AD and VaD appear to involve amyloid genes while LBD and FTLD share alpha synuclein genes. Together these findings suggest that some of the dementias may exist along a spectrum and demonstrates the necessity to conduct large-scale studies pinpointing the etiology of the dementias and potential gene and environment interactions that may influence their development.

  15. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors) in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v), and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days)] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  16. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds.

  17. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. PMID:17258132

  18. [Does education influence the results of the Amsterdam Dementia-Screening Test (ADS)?].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between education and the results of five dementia screening tests. In a study of 551 consecutively enrolled psychogeriatric day care attendants individual differences in education explained only very small portions of variance (< or = 0.63%) in four tests (visual recognition memory, orientation, category fluency and alternating sequences) of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test, a standard neuropsychological battery. The only exception was graphical copying of two- or three-dimensional geometric designs, where education explained 6.25% of the variance in copying accuracy. The more education participants had (from incomplete or complete primary education, through extended primary education, lower technical and vocational training, and secondary to higher education), the better their copying performance was. There was however one exception, in that participants with secondary education copied designs significantly less accurately than participants with lower technical and vocational training. Differences in copying accuracy of subjects with higher versus lower educational attainment were largest for participants matched for high levels of cognitive function. More severe cognitive impairment attenuated education effects. Higher education did not protect against decline of copying performance as a consequence of increasing cognitive impairment. For each of three educational levels, premorbid copying performance was estimated by constructing a regression equation using an independent measure of cognitive functioning (in terms of visual recognition memory, orientation and category fluency) as the predictor variable. The results support the clinical utility of controlling for educational level when interpreting individual copying performance. PMID:12611290

  19. An Updated Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture Treatment for Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Min, Deng; Xu-Feng, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND) refers to a transitional state and will progress to dementia. Currently, effective medicines to control VCIND are surprisingly scarce. Acupuncture intervention is frequently advocated as an adjunct treatment for VCIND in recent studies. So the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture for VCIND. The literature search was conducted in English and Chinese databases from inception until July 2015, and 15 study populations were included in the meta-analysis. Mean differences with their 95% confidence interval for continuous data were calculated with fixed effect model or random effect model using Rev Man 5.3 software. This review included 1148 subjects. The methodological qualities of the included studies were judged to be generally poor because plenty of trials had high or unclear risk of bias. The results of meta-analysis showed that acupuncture therapy was more effective in treating VCIND when compared with conventional therapy or pharmacological treatment. Two trials showed minor adverse events and two other trails mentioned no adverse events had existed. Current evidences cautiously suggest that acupuncture therapy can improve the clinical efficacy for VCIND. More rigorously designed studies are needed to further confirm effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy in patients with VCIND. PMID:27237931

  20. Involuntary, Forced and Voluntary Exercises Equally Attenuate Neurocognitive Deficits in Vascular Dementia by the BDNF-pCREB Mediated Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yangyang; Lu, Xiao; Dong, Juntao; He, Xiaokuo; Yan, Tiebin; Liang, Huiying; Sui, Minghong; Zheng, Xiuyuan; Liu, Huihua; Zhao, Jingpu; Lu, Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    A rat model of vascular dementia was used to compare the effects of involuntary exercise induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES), forced exercise and voluntary exercise on the recovery of cognitive function recovery and its underlying mechanisms. In an involuntary exercise (I-EX) group, FES was used to induce involuntary gait-like running on ladder at 12 m/min. A forced exercise group (F-EX) and a voluntary exercise group (V-EX) exercised by wheel running. The Barnes maze was used for behavioral assessment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) positive cells in hippocampal CA1, CA2/3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were evaluated using immunohistochemical methods. Western blotting was used to assess the levels of BDNF, phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), ERK1/2 and CREB in BDNF-pCREB signaling in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Involuntary, forced and voluntary exercises were all found to reverse the cognitive deficits of vascular dementia with about equal effectiveness. The number of BDNF, pCREB and pERK1/2 immunopositive cells was significantly increased in the hippocampal CA1, CA2/3 and DG regions in all three exercise groups. In addition, involuntary exercise activated BDNF and the phosphorylation of Akt, TrkB, MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and CREB in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex equally as well as voluntary or forced exercise. These results suggest that involuntary exercise induced by FES may be as beneficial for alleviating cognitive deficits after cerebral ischemia. PMID:26240057

  1. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for persons with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's or vascular type: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments, and particularly memory deficits, are a defining feature of the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Interventions that target these cognitive deficits and the associated difficulties with activities of daily living are the subject of ever-growing interest. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation are specific forms of non-pharmacological intervention to address cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. The present review is an abridged version of a Cochrane Review and aims to systematically evaluate the evidence for these forms of intervention in people with mild Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in English, comparing cognitive rehabilitation or cognitive training interventions with control conditions and reporting relevant outcomes for the person with dementia or the family caregiver (or both), were considered for inclusion. Eleven RCTs reporting cognitive training interventions were included in the review. A large number of measures were used in the different studies, and meta-analysis could be conducted for several primary and secondary outcomes of interest. Several outcomes were not measured in any of the studies. Overall estimates of the treatment effect were calculated by using a fixed-effects model, and statistical heterogeneity was measured by using a standard chi-squared statistic. One RCT of cognitive rehabilitation was identified, allowing the examination of effect sizes, but no meta-analysis could be conducted. Cognitive training was not associated with positive or negative effects in relation to any of the reported outcomes. The overall quality of the trials was low to moderate. The single RCT of cognitive rehabilitation found promising results in relation to some patient and caregiver outcomes and was generally of high quality. The available evidence regarding cognitive training remains limited, and the quality of the evidence needs to improve

  2. Mediterranean diet in predementia and dementia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, V; Frisardi, V; Seripa, D; Logroscino, G; Imbimbo, B P; D'Onofrio, G; Addante, F; Sancarlo, D; Cascavilla, L; Pilotto, A; Panza, F

    2011-08-01

    There is a critical need to potentially individualize new strategies able to prevent and to slow down the progression of predementia and dementia syndromes. Only recently higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet was associated with decreased cognitive decline although the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macronutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes. In fact, elevated saturated fatty acids could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Furthermore, at present, epidemiological evidence suggested a possible association among fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (particularly, n-3 PUFA) and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Light to moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), while for vascular dementia, cognitive decline, and predementia syndromes the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect. Finally, the limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally supported a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia, and AD. Moreover, recent prospective studies provided evidence that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet could be associated with slower cognitive decline, reduced risk of progression from MCI to AD, reduced risk of AD, and decreased all-causes mortality in AD patients. These findings suggested that adherence to the MeDi may affect not only the risk for AD, but also for predementia syndromes and their progression to overt dementia. Nonetheless, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations are possible. However, high levels of consumption of fats from fish, vegetable oils, non-starchy vegetables, low glycemic fruits, and diet low in foods with added sugars and with

  3. What contributes to a good quality of life in early dementia? awareness and the QoL-AD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-report quality of life (QoL) measures for people with dementia are widely used as outcome measures in trials of dementia care interventions. Depressed mood, relationship quality and neuropsychiatric symptoms predict scores on these measures, whereas cognitive impairment and functional abilities typically do not. This study examines whether these self-reports are influenced by personality and by the person’s awareness of his/her impairments. A strong negative association between QoL and awareness of deficits would have implications for the validity of self-report in this context and for therapeutic interventions aiming to increase adjustment and coping. Methods Participants were 101 individuals with early‒stage dementia and their family carers participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study. QoL was assessed using the QoL-AD scale, and awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning. Self-concept, conscientiousness, quality of relationship and mood were assessed and a brief neuropsychological battery administered. Carers rated their own stress and well-being and reported on neuropsychiatric symptoms. A series of regression analyses predicting QoL-AD were carried out, identifying key variables in each domain of assessment to take forward to an overall model. Results Cognitive impairment was not related to QoL. The final model accounted for 57% of the variance in QoL-AD scores, with significant contributions from depressed mood, severity of irritability shown by the person with dementia, self-concept, quality of relationship (rated by the person with dementia) and male gender. The bivariate relationships of QoL-AD with awareness of memory function, awareness of functional abilities and conscientiousness were mediated by both depressed mood and self-concept. Conclusions This study reports the most comprehensive approach to evaluation of awareness to date. Most of the indices

  4. Parkinson's disease dementia: a diminished role for the Lewy body.

    PubMed

    Libow, Leslie S; Frisina, Pasquale G; Haroutunian, Vahram; Perl, Daniel P; Purohit, Dushyant P

    2009-09-01

    The literature currently views Lewy bodies as central in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) when Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular pathology is not present. Because the neuropathology of PDD is not well understood, the pathological features of PDD were characterized in eighteen PD brain specimens using published criteria for AD, Diffuse Lewy Body Disease (DLBD), and Vascular Disease as a framework. Among the PD dementia (n=16) subjects, 3 (19%) did not have LBs outside of the brain stem, nor AD or vascular pathology. In two additional cases, one did have rare LBs in the neocortex and cingulate gyrus. However, these two cases did not meet the diagnostic criteria for DLBD. Beyond these 5 cases, the remaining PD dementia subjects fitted a classical pathological profile consistent with AD (38%), vascular disease (12.5%), DLBD (6%), or a combination of these pathologies (12.5%). The findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that LBs are the main substrate for dementia in PD. More research with a larger sample size is needed to determine whether the LB may be a secondary phenomenon and/or an "innocent-bystander". The entire role of the LB in PD dementia is again brought into question.

  5. Differences of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Disease Severity in Four Major Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Kazui, Hiroaki; Yoshiyama, Kenji; Kanemoto, Hideki; Suzuki, Yukiko; Sato, Shunsuke; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Tanaka, Hibiki; Hatada, Yutaka; Matsushita, Masateru; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Etsuro; Tanimukai, Satoshi; Komori, Kenjiro; Yoshida, Taku; Shimizu, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Mori, Takaaki; Kashibayashi, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Kabeshita, Yasunobu; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) negatively impact the prognosis of dementia patients and increase caregiver distress. The aims of this study were to clarify the differences of trajectories of 12 kinds of BPSDs by disease severity in four major dementias and to develop charts showing the frequency, severity, and associated caregiver distress (ACD) of BPSDs using the data of a Japan multicenter study (J-BIRD). Methods We gathered Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) data of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 1091), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 249), vascular dementia (VaD; n = 156), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD; n = 102) collected during a 5-year period up to July 31, 2013 in seven centers for dementia in Japan. The NPI composite scores (frequency × severity) of 12 kinds of items were analyzed using a principal component analysis (PCA) in each dementia. The factor scores of the PCA were compared in each dementia by disease severity, which was determined with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Results Significant increases with higher CDR scores were observed in 1) two of the three factor scores which were loaded for all items except euphoria in AD, 2) two of the four factor scores for apathy, aberrant motor behavior (AMB), sleep disturbances, agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and euphoria in DLB, and 3) one of the four factor scores for apathy, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in VaD. However, no increases were observed in any of the five factor scores in FTLD. Conclusions As dementia progresses, several BPSDs become more severe, including 1) apathy and sleep disturbances in AD, DLB, and VaD, 2) all of the BPSDs except euphoria in AD, 3) AMB, agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and euphoria in DLB, and 4) depression and anxiety in VaD. Trajectories of BPSDs in FTLD were unclear. PMID:27536962

  6. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on spatial learning and memory, oxidative stress, and central cholinergic system in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran-Ran; Xu, Fei; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Tan, Guo-Jun; Liu, Liang-Min; Wu, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong; Liu, Ji-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Brain oxidative stress due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was considered to be the major risk factor in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, against vascular dementia in rats, as well as the potential mechanism. Bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) induced severe cognitive deficits tested by Morris water maze (MWM), along with oxidative stress and disturbance of central cholinergic system. However, administration of alpha-lipoic acid (50mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days significantly restored cognitive deficits induced by BCCAO. Biochemical determination revealed that alpha-lipoic acid markedly decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS), and increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the hippocampal tissue. Additionally, alpha-lipoic acid raised the level of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and decreased the activity of acetycholinesterase (AChE) in the hippocampus. These results indicated that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid significantly improved behavioral alterations, protected against oxidative stress, and restored central cholinergic system in the rat model of vascular dementia induced by BCCAO.

  7. Differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias using metabolic phenotypes on F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Damle, Nishikant; Kushwaha, Suman; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M; Sharma, Rajnish; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam

    2014-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can be used as a downstream marker of neuronal injury, a hallmark of neurodegenerative dementias. Characteristic patterns of regional glucose metabolism have been used to classify the dementia subtypes, namely Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), diffuse Lewy body (DLBD) and vascular dementia (VD). We undertook this study to assess the utility of FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. One hundred and twenty-five patients diagnosed with dementia were referred from cognitive disorders and memory clinics of speciality neurology centres for the FDG-PET study. Imaging-based diagnosis of dementia type was established in 101 patients by visual assessment of individual scans by a PET physician blinded to the clinical diagnosis. The results were compared with an 18-month follow-up clinical assessment made by the specialist neurologist. Concordance of visual evaluation of FDG-PET scans with clinical diagnosis of the dementia type was achieved in 90% of patients scanned. This concordance was 93.4% for AD, 88.8% for FTD, 66.6% for DLBD and 92.3% for the other dementia syndromes. FDG-PET performed after the initial work-up of dementias is useful for supporting the clinical diagnosis of dementia subtype. PMID:24571830

  8. Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multidomain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Xu, Chuan-Xiao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the value of hydrogen proton magnet resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the differential diagnosis of multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (M-aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND); (1)H-MRS was performed in patients with M-aMCI and VCIND. The level was determined for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr). Compared with the normal control group, the NAA-Cr ratio in all regions studied was significantly lower in the M-aMCI and VCIND groups. The Glu-Cr ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus of the M-aMCI group was significantly lower than in the VCIND. The mI-Cr ratio in the frontal white matter of the VCIND was significantly higher than in the M-aMCI group. In the white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles, the Cho-Cr ratio was significantly higher in the VCIND than the M-aMCI. Our results suggested (1)H-MRS is an effective method in the differential diagnosis of M-aMCI and VCIND. PMID:26980718

  9. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12-13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham‑surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD. PMID:26934837

  10. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, DONG-HEE; LEE, KYOUNG-HEE; LEE, JONGMIN

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12–13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham-surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD. PMID:26934837

  11. NGF and TERT Co-Transfected BMSCs Improve the Restoration of Cognitive Impairment in Vascular Dementia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Chang, Guangming; Geng, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a mental disorder caused by brain damage due to cerebrovascular disease, and incidence of VaD is rising. To date, there is no known effective cure for VaD, so effort in developing an effective treatment for VaD is of great importance. The differentiation plasticity of BMSCs, in conjunction with its weak immunogenicity, makes manipulated BMSCs an attractive strategy for disease treatment. However, BMSCs often display disabled differentiation, premature aging, and unstable proliferation, reducing their neuroprotective function. These problems may be caused by the lack of telomerase activity in BMSCs. Our results show that NGF-TERT co-transfected BMSCs have a better therapeutic effect than BMSCs lacking NGF and TERT expression, demonstrated by significant improvements in learning and memory in VaD rats. The underlying mechanism might be increased expression of NGF, TrkA and SYN in the hippocampal CA1 area, which has potential implication in advancing therapeutics for VaD. PMID:24887495

  12. Effect of exercise-induced neurogenesis on cognitive function deficit in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is strongly correlated with progressive cognitive decline in neurological diseases, such as vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease. Exercise can enhance learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. However, exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals submitted to CCH has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis induced by exercise can improve cognitive deficit in a rat model of VaD. Male Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 292±3.05 g; n=12-13/group) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) or sham‑surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into no exercise and treadmill exercise groups. Exercise groups performed treadmill exercise daily at 15 m/min for 30 min for 4 weeks from the third to the seventh week after 2VO. It was demonstrated that the number of neural progenitor cells and mature neurons in the subgranular zone of 2VO rats was increased by exercise, and cognitive impairment in 2VO rats was attenuated by treadmill exercise. In addition, mature brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus were increased in the exercise groups. Thus the present study suggests that exercise delays cognitive decline by the enhancing neurogenesis and increasing BDNF expression in the context of VaD.

  13. H-1 MR Spectroscopic Imaging of White Matter Signal Hyperintensities: Alzheimer Disease and Ischemic Vascular Dementia1

    PubMed Central

    Constans, Jeanmarc M.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Gerson, Jack; MacKay, Shane; Norman, David; Fein, George; Weiner, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of white matter signal hyperintensities (WMSHs) with changes in hydrogen-1 metabolites. Materials and Methods T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging were performed in 21 elderly control subjects without or with minimal WMSHs, eight elderly subjects with substantial WMSHs, 11 probable Alzheimer disease patients with WMSHs, and eight ischemic vascular dementia (IVD) patients with WMSHs. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing metabolites (Cho), and creatine-containing metabolites (Cr) were analyzed. Results Differences in regional metabolite levels were found within the supraventricular brain of elderly control subjects. In Alzheimer disease patients, extensive WMSHs showed a lower percentage of NAA and a higher percentage of Cho compared with contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM); in IVD patients, extensive and large WMSHs were associated with a higher percentage of Cho and a lower percentage of Cr compared with contralateral NAWM. Conclusion Regional metabolite variation and the presence of WMSHs are important covariants that must be accounted for in analysis of MR spectroscopic data. PMID:7480705

  14. [Relationship between educational level and dementia: social factor and age-related chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Dartigues, J-F; Foubert-Samier, A; Helmer, C

    2013-08-01

    Dementia is an age-related chronic syndrome, whose the first cause is a neurodegenerative disease: Alzheimer's disease (AD). In spite of some controversies, educational level is now considered as a major risk factor for dementia and AD. The protective effect of a high level of education could be related to a preservation of cognitive reserve and a reinforcement of brain reserve. Moreover, subjects with a high level of education have a better access to health care and a better management of vascular risk factors. With the general improvement of the educational level, the age-related incidence of AD and dementia should decrease in the future.

  15. Impaired attention function based on the Montréal Cognitive Assessment in vascular dementia patients with frontal hypoperfusion: The Osaki-Tajiri project.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Kato, Yuriko; Takahashi, Yumi; Nakamura, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that the Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was effective in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. We also demonstrated that the test was effective for screening for very mild vascular dementia (VaD) in the community. Herein, we examined the effectiveness of MoCA in the assessment of patients with VaD in an outpatient clinic. Forty-four patients with VaD (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences [NINDS-AIREN] criteria) and 58 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association [NINCDS-ADRDA] criteria) were compared with 67 non-demented control subjects. All were outpatients at the Tajiri Memory Clinic, Osaki-Tajiri, northern Japan. All underwent 1.5 Tesla MRI and ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) examinations. The SPECT images were used to classify the VaD patients into two subgroups, those with frontal hypoperfusion (F-VaD) and those without frontal hypoperfusion. The frontal hypoperfusion pattern was defined as the "P2" pattern of the Sliverman classification, with or without focal hypometabolism in other areas, based on the agreement of three neurologists who were blinded to the results of the neuropsychological examinations. Total scores and attention subscores on the MoCA were lower in the F-VaD group compared with other groups. Our results suggest that the MoCA attention subscale can detect VaD participants, particularly those with frontal hypoperfusion. PMID:26778514

  16. [Vascular factors and progression of cognitive decline in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of vascular factors on the rate of progression of cognitive impairment. The study included 291 subjects without dementia. Cognitive function were assessed with the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale--cognitive subscale (ADAS--cog) which were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Statistical analysis included 215 persons. During the observation AD developed in 19 subjects and 11 vascular and mix dementia (according to DSM-IIIR and DSM-IV criteria). Subjects were categorized by the baseline Modified Hachinski Ischemic Score as having vascular factors 0-1 point (n = 140) or vascular factors > 1 point (n = 75). Statistical analyses were based on the patients' Modified Hachinski Ischemic Score dichotomization. The results show that vascular factors were risk factors for Alzheimer type dementia but the study does not prove the impact of vascular factors on progression of cognitive impairment. PMID:16358597

  17. Serial position effect in a free recall task: differences between probable dementia of Alzheimer type (PDAT), vascular (VaD) and mixed etiology dementia (MED).

    PubMed

    Orru, G; Sampietro, S; Catanzaro, S; Girardi, A; Najjar, M; Giantin, V; Sergi, G; Manzato, E; Enzi, G; Inelmen, E M; Coin, A

    2009-01-01

    Here we report an investigation on the serial position effect (SPE) in elderly patients with early dementia due to different etiologies. The Rey's 15 words test has been used to evaluate whether different types of dementia show different patterns of immediate and delayed recall and of learning process. Ninety-four patients were recruited from the Geriatric Clinic of Padua. We evaluated the primacy effect (PE), the recency effect (RE) and the learning process within the sample. Our results indicate that different etiologies have different patterns of anterograde memory impairment.

  18. [Depression and dementia: perspectives from clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Shoko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    In this review, we present an overview of clinical studies that addressed the relationship between depression and dementia or cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses have repeatedly shown an association between late-life depression (LLD) and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia; however, the findings of cohort studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies on the association between depression with a younger age of onset and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Regarding cognitive decline associated with LLD, several studies have reported an association between LLD and mild cognitive impairment, suggesting that depression itself can cause persistent cognitive impairment. Other studies have compared the cognitive profile between LLD and depression with a younger age of onset, but their results have been inconclusive, especially regarding the association between memory impairment and the age of onset of depression. LLD is associated with vascular change and white matter degeneration of the brain, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, several studies reported an association between gray matter change and LLD. Studies currently in progress employ functional brain imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography. Clinically, it is important to understand how subtypes of depression can be defined in terms of risk of developing dementia, and to devise effective treatments. One paper explored the possibility of detecting depression associated with AD by measuring the blood Aβ40/Aβ42 levels, and other studies have suggested that symptoms of apathy and loss of interest are associated with conversion of depression to AD. Unfortunately, current antidepressants may have limited efficacy on depression with dementia; therefore, further investigation for devising methods of predicting conversion of depression to dementia and

  19. Recommendations of the Alzheimer's Disease–Related Dementias Conference

    PubMed Central

    Montine, Thomas J.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Babcock, Debra; Dickson, Dennis W.; Galpern, Wendy R.; Glymour, M. Maria; Greenberg, Steven M.; Hutton, Michael L.; Knopman, David S.; Kuzmichev, Andrey N.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Marder, Karen S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Phelps, Creighton H.; Seeley, William W.; Sieber, Beth-Anne; Silverberg, Nina B.; Sutherland, Margaret; Torborg, Christine L.; Waddy, Salina P.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2014-01-01

    The National Alzheimer's Project Act, signed into law in 2011, mandates a National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease that is updated annually. In the Plan, the term Alzheimer disease includes not only Alzheimer disease (AD) proper, but also several specified related dementias, namely, frontotemporal, Lewy body, vascular, and mixed dementia. In response to a specific action item in the 2012 National Plan, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, in collaboration with the National Institute on Aging, convened panels of experts and conducted a 2-day public conference to develop research priorities and timelines for addressing Alzheimer disease–related dementias (ADRD) in 5 topic areas: multiple etiology dementias, health disparities, Lewy body dementias including dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia and related tauopathies, and vascular contributions to ADRD. By design, the product was up to 8 prioritized research recommendations in each topic area including estimated timelines from when work on a recommendation is started to completion or to full implementation of an ongoing activity, and recognition of shared research themes across recommendations. These included increased education and training of both researchers and health care professionals, addressing health disparities, fundamental neurobiology research, advanced diagnostics, collaborative biosample repositories, and a focus on developing effective interventions to prevent or treat ADRD by the year 2025 as targeted by the National Plan. PMID:25080517

  20. [Cognitive Function and Calcium. Vitamin D and calcium for the prevention of falls and fractures in patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Hanyu, Haruo

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of dementia and fractures has been increasing with age. There is strong evidence that dementia or cognitive impairment in older people has an established fall risk factor. Subjects with dementia have a doubled to threefold risk of falls. In addition to motor impairments (impaired gait, reduced muscular strength and impaired balance) , executive functional impairment is also associated with an increased risk of falls. Falls are more likely found in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia and those who had advanced dementia. Patients with AD are at higher risk for fractures and have a lower bone mineral density than healthy controls. Vitamin D decreases vertebral fractures, and moreover, appears to reduce the risk of falls in older subjects. A recent meta-analysis showed that vitamin D concentrations are associated with poor cognitive function and a higher risk of AD. However, treatment with vitamin D alone shows no significant effect on cognition in patients with AD. PMID:25634053

  1. [Neuropathology of frontotemporal dementia].

    PubMed

    Murayama, Shigeo

    2008-11-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical phenotype of dementia, characterized by complex of clinical symptoms, including disinhibition, character change, increased appetite, sexual misconduct and language problems. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a pathological classification of neurodegenerative disorder and its core consists of Pick's disease (PiD). Historically, PiD was morphologically subclassified into three types, but recent immunocytochemical investigations defined type I as PiD with Pick bodies (three repeat tauopathy), type II as corticobasal degeneration (CBD, four repeat tauopathy) and type III as FTLD with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U). The recent progress provided an evidence that the majority of FTLD-U represented primary TDP 43 proteionopathy. Three major clinical phenotypes of FTLD consist of FTD, semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA). Clinical and pathological correlative studies demonstrated that majority of the background pathology of FTD is PiD with Pick bodies, that of SD is FTLD-U and that of PNFA is CBD, although there are too many exceptions. Although FTD is one of the major clinical manifestations of FTLD, the most frequent pathological background of FTD is Alzheimer disease (AD). The degenerative processes causing FTD symptoms include dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and argyrophilic grain disease. Moreover, vascular process such as Binswanger disease and inflammatory process such as neurosyphilis could also present with FTD symptoms. Since FTD requires special clinical care distinct from AD, clinical diagnosis of FTD is quite important. But for the fundamental treatment based on background pathological processes, surrogate biomarkers, including structural and functional neuroimages and findings of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine, should be pursued for future progress in FTD research.

  2. [Vascular parkinsonism].

    PubMed

    Marxreiter, F; Winkler, J

    2016-07-01

    Parkinsonism may result from cerebral vascular disorders that feature white matter lesions and small vessel pathology. Vascular Parkinsonism typically presents as lower body Parkinsonism with predominant gait impairment. Urinary incontinence and cognitive decline are additional features of the disease. There is a considerable overlap between vascular Parkinsonism and vascular dementia. We review the clinical characteristics of vascular Parkinsonism and discuss the current treatment approaches, as well as the role of brain imaging for the diagnostic workup. . PMID:27299942

  3. Involvement of dopamine D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Wan, P; Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Lv, J; Jin, Q H

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) and its D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD) established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion. Spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze, and extracellular concentrations of DA in the DG were determined by in vivo microdialysis. The DA concentrations in the DG decreased in the VD rats compared with sham-operated group. Microinjection of SFK38393 (D1 receptor agonist) into the DG attenuates spatial learning and memory deficits in the VD rats. PMID:25272945

  4. Trajectory of Mobility Decline by Type of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Morris, John C; Galvin, James E

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and physical aspects of functionality are closely related. However, whether physical decline differs by dementia type and progression rate is debatable. To address these issues, we conducted a longitudinal study of 766 older adults whose physical performance and cognitive status were assessed annually with standard assessment tools [eg, Physical Performance Test, Clinical Dementia Rate (CDR)] for 8 years. Compared with participants who remained cognitively normal, those progressing to later-stage dementia (CDR=1) declined in their mobility by a factor of 2.82 (P<0.001), followed by those who maintained a later-stage diagnosis (slope=-1.84, P<0.001), those progressing from early-stage to later-stage (CDR=0.5 to CDR=1) dementia (slope=-1.20, P<0.001), and those who progressed to early-stage dementia (slope=-0.39, P=0.038) suggesting a steeper physical decline with dementia progression, particularly in those with the fastest disease progression. Although all types of dementia experienced mobility decline, those progressing to non-Alzheimer disease (AD) dementias, especially vascular dementia declined faster than those who remained normal (slope=-2.70, P<0.001) or progressed to AD (slope=-2.18, P<0.001). These associations were better captured by the gait/balance component of physical functionality. Our findings suggest that rapidly progressing dementia patients particularly those with non-AD subtypes should be targeted for interventions to maintain or improve gait/balance and prevent functional decline and disability although AD patients may also benefit.

  5. Trajectory of Mobility Decline by Type of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Morris, John C; Galvin, James E

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and physical aspects of functionality are closely related. However, whether physical decline differs by dementia type and progression rate is debatable. To address these issues, we conducted a longitudinal study of 766 older adults whose physical performance and cognitive status were assessed annually with standard assessment tools [eg, Physical Performance Test, Clinical Dementia Rate (CDR)] for 8 years. Compared with participants who remained cognitively normal, those progressing to later-stage dementia (CDR=1) declined in their mobility by a factor of 2.82 (P<0.001), followed by those who maintained a later-stage diagnosis (slope=-1.84, P<0.001), those progressing from early-stage to later-stage (CDR=0.5 to CDR=1) dementia (slope=-1.20, P<0.001), and those who progressed to early-stage dementia (slope=-0.39, P=0.038) suggesting a steeper physical decline with dementia progression, particularly in those with the fastest disease progression. Although all types of dementia experienced mobility decline, those progressing to non-Alzheimer disease (AD) dementias, especially vascular dementia declined faster than those who remained normal (slope=-2.70, P<0.001) or progressed to AD (slope=-2.18, P<0.001). These associations were better captured by the gait/balance component of physical functionality. Our findings suggest that rapidly progressing dementia patients particularly those with non-AD subtypes should be targeted for interventions to maintain or improve gait/balance and prevent functional decline and disability although AD patients may also benefit. PMID:25886717

  6. [Pharmacological treatment of vascular cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Vascular dementia is second most common cause of dementia. The paper highlights the most important trends in pharmacological treatment of vascular dementia. Result of a clinical trial of some agents appears to be promising. Pentoxifyline appears to be useful in multi-infarct vascular dementia. Nimodipine produced improvement in subcortical dementia. Some other agents like ginkgo biloba, acetylocholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and other also have shown mild benefit or at least were associated with some stabilization of dementia. PMID:16969897

  7. Memantine: an antiglutamatergic option for dementia.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, José L; Garcia-Gil, Vicente; Villar, Amparo

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in occidental countries. Currently approved treatments for AD provide mainly symptomatic benefits without clear evidence of neuroprotection. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in several central nervous system disorders, including neuroprotective treatment in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and symptomatic treatment in other neurologic diseases. Memantine, an NMDA antagonist, has been recently approved for the treatment of advanced AD. Due to its mechanism of action, memantine is considered a neuroprotective drug, whose utility has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. In addition, memantine is a useful symptomatic treatment for AD and vascular dementia. This paper reviews both aspects of memantine as well as some basic mechanisms mediating cognition and glutamatergic neurodegeneration.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction in mild dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Melanie D; Sagare, Abhay P; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementias. In addition to genetics, environment, and lifestyle, growing evidence supports vascular contributions to dementias including dementia because of AD. Alzheimer's disease affects multiple cell types within the neurovascular unit (NVU), including brain vascular cells (endothelial cells, pericytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells), glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), and neurons. Thus, identifying and integrating biomarkers of the NVU cell-specific responses and injury with established AD biomarkers, amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, has a potential to contribute to better understanding of the disease process in dementias including AD. Here, we discuss the existing literature on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of the NVU cell-specific responses during early stages of dementia and AD. We suggest that the clinical usefulness of established AD biomarkers, Aβ and tau, could be further improved by developing an algorithm that will incorporate biomarkers of the NVU cell-specific responses and injury. Such biomarker algorithm could aid in early detection and intervention as well as identify novel treatment targets to delay disease onset, slow progression, and/or prevent AD.

  9. Risk and Determinants of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Subcortical Vascular Changes: A Study of Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Biological Markers—The VMCI-Tuscany Study: Rationale, Design, and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Poggesi, Anna; Salvadori, Emilia; Pantoni, Leonardo; Pracucci, Giovanni; Cesari, Francesca; Chiti, Alberto; Ciolli, Laura; Cosottini, Mirco; Del Bene, Alessandra; De Stefano, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Ginestroni, Andrea; Giusti, Betti; Gori, Anna Maria; Nannucci, Serena; Orlandi, Giovanni; Pescini, Francesca; Valenti, Raffaella; Abbate, Rosanna; Federico, Antonio; Mascalchi, Mario; Murri, Luigi; Inzitari, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most disabling conditions. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most frequent causes. Subcortical VaD is consequent to deep-brain small vessel disease (SVD) and is the most frequent form of VaD. Its pathological hallmarks are ischemic white matter changes and lacunar infarcts. Degenerative and vascular changes often coexist, but mechanisms of interaction are incompletely understood. The term mild cognitive impairment defines a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. Pre-dementia stages of VaD are also acknowledged (vascular mild cognitive impairment, VMCI). Progression relates mostly to the subcortical VaD type, but determinants of such transition are unknown. Variability of phenotypic expression is not fully explained by severity grade of lesions, as depicted by conventional MRI that is not sensitive to microstructural and metabolic alterations. Advanced neuroimaging techniques seem able to achieve this. Beside hypoperfusion, blood-brain-barrier dysfunction has been also demonstrated in subcortical VaD. The aim of the Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Tuscany Study is to expand knowledge about determinants of transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia in patients with cerebral SVD. This paper summarizes the main aims and methodological aspects of this multicenter, ongoing, observational study enrolling patients affected by VMCI with SVD. PMID:22550606

  10. Cerebrolysin in vascular dementia: improvement of clinical outcome in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Guekht, Alla B; Moessler, Herbert; Novak, Philipp H; Gusev, Evgenyi I

    2011-01-01

    No drug to treat vascular dementia (VaD) has yet been approved by the American or European authorities, leaving a large population of patients without effective therapy. Cerebrolysin has a long record of safety and might be efficacious in this condition. We conducted a large, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 242 patients meeting the criteria for VaD. The primary endpoint was the combined outcome of cognition (based on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subpart, Extended Version [ADAS-cog+] score) and overall clinical functioning (based on Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change plus Caregiver Input [CIBIC+] score) assessed after 24 weeks of treatment. Intravenous Cerebrolysin 20 mL was administered once daily over the course of 2 treatment cycles as add-on therapy to basic treatment with acetylsalicylic acid. The addition of Cerebrolysin was associated with significant improvement in both primary parameters. At week 24, ADAS-cog+ score improved by 10.6 points in the Cerebrolysin group, compared with 4.4 points in the placebo group (least squares mean difference, -6.17; P < .0001 vs placebo). CIBIC+ showed a mean improvement of 2.84 in the treatment arm and 3.68 in the placebo arm, a treatment difference of 0.84 (P < .0001 vs placebo). These findings were confirmed by responder analyses demonstrating higher rates in the Cerebrolysin group (ADAS-cog+ improvement of ≥4 points from baseline, 82.1% vs 52.2%; CIBIC+ score of <4 at week 24, 75.3% vs 37.4%; combined response in ADAS-cog+ and CIBIC+, 67.5% vs 27.0%). For Cerebrolysin, the odds ratio for achieving a favorable CIBIC+ response was 5.08 (P < .05), and that for achieving a favorable combined response was 5.63 (P < .05). Our data indicate that the addition of Cerebrolysin significantly improved clinical outcome, and that the benefits persisted for at least 24 weeks. Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated.

  11. Genomics of Dementia: APOE- and CYP2D6-Related Pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Martínez, Rocío; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Carril, Juan C.; Lombardi, Valter; Carrera, Iván; Corzo, Lola; Tellado, Iván; Leszek, Jerzy; McKay, Adam; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Dementia is a major problem of health in developed societies. Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia, and mixed dementia account for over 90% of the most prevalent forms of dementia. Both genetic and environmental factors are determinant for the phenotypic expression of dementia. AD is a complex disorder in which many different gene clusters may be involved. Most genes screened to date belong to different proteomic and metabolomic pathways potentially affecting AD pathogenesis. The ε4 variant of the APOE gene seems to be a major risk factor for both degenerative and vascular dementia. Metabolic factors, cerebrovascular disorders, and epigenetic phenomena also contribute to neurodegeneration. Five categories of genes are mainly involved in pharmacogenomics: genes associated with disease pathogenesis, genes associated with the mechanism of action of a particular drug, genes associated with phase I and phase II metabolic reactions, genes associated with transporters, and pleiotropic genes and/or genes associated with concomitant pathologies. The APOE and CYP2D6 genes have been extensively studied in AD. The therapeutic response to conventional drugs in patients with AD is genotype specific, with CYP2D6-PMs, CYP2D6-UMs, and APOE-4/4 carriers acting as the worst responders. APOE and CYP2D6 may cooperate, as pleiotropic genes, in the metabolism of drugs and hepatic function. The introduction of pharmacogenetic procedures into AD pharmacological treatment may help to optimize therapeutics. PMID:22482072

  12. ACR-ASNR Practice Parameter for Brain PET/CT Imaging Dementia.

    PubMed

    Frey, Kirk A; Lodge, Martin A; Meltzer, Carolyn Cidis; Peller, Patrick J; Wong, Terence Z; Hess, Christopher P; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Sair, Haris I; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2016-02-01

    This practice parameter is for both FDG and amyloid brain PET or PET/computed tomography (CT) for patients with cognitive decline, and has been developed collaboratively by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Society for Neuroradiology (ASNR). It is estimated that the number of people with dementia, 36.5 million worldwide in 2010, will increase to 65.7 million in 2030 and to 115 million in 2050. Four primary neurodegenerative etiologies of dementia have been defined: Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 60%-80% of all cases. Indications for FDG and amyloid brain PET and qualifications for personnel are discussed in this practice parameter.

  13. Inter-Dependent Mechanisms Behind Cognitive Dysfunction, Vascular Biology and Alzheimer's Dementia in Down Syndrome: Multi-Faceted Roles of APP.

    PubMed

    Nizetic, Dean; Chen, Christopher L; Hong, Wanjin; Koo, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) virtually all develop intellectual disability (ID) of varying degree of severity, and also have a high risk of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). ID prior to the onset of dementia, and its relationship to the onset of dementia in DS is a complex phenomenon influenced by many factors, and scarcely understood. Unraveling the causative factors and modulators of these processes remains a challenge, with potential to be informative for both ID and AD, for the development of early biomarkers and/or therapeutic approaches. We review the potential relative and inter-connected roles of the chromosome 21 gene for amyloid precursor protein (APP), in both pathological conditions. Rare non-DS people with duplication of APP (dupAPP) get familial early onset AD (FEOAD) with virtually 100% penetrance and prominent cerebrovascular pathology, but don't suffer from ID before dementia onset. All of these features appear to be radically different in DS. On the other hand, rare individuals with partial trisomy 21 (T21) (with APP, but not DS-critical region in trisomy) have been described having ID. Likewise, partial T21 DS (without APP trisomy) show a range of ID, but no AD pathology. We review the multi-faceted roles of APP that might affect cognitive functioning. Given the fact that both Aβ secretion and synaptic maturation/plasticity are dependent on neuronal activity, we explore how this conflicting inter-dependency might affect cognitive pathogenesis in a dynamic way in DS, throughout the lifespan of an individual. PMID:26648852

  14. Inter-Dependent Mechanisms Behind Cognitive Dysfunction, Vascular Biology and Alzheimer's Dementia in Down Syndrome: Multi-Faceted Roles of APP

    PubMed Central

    Nizetic, Dean; Chen, Christopher L.; Hong, Wanjin; Koo, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) virtually all develop intellectual disability (ID) of varying degree of severity, and also have a high risk of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). ID prior to the onset of dementia, and its relationship to the onset of dementia in DS is a complex phenomenon influenced by many factors, and scarcely understood. Unraveling the causative factors and modulators of these processes remains a challenge, with potential to be informative for both ID and AD, for the development of early biomarkers and/or therapeutic approaches. We review the potential relative and inter-connected roles of the chromosome 21 gene for amyloid precursor protein (APP), in both pathological conditions. Rare non-DS people with duplication of APP (dupAPP) get familial early onset AD (FEOAD) with virtually 100% penetrance and prominent cerebrovascular pathology, but don't suffer from ID before dementia onset. All of these features appear to be radically different in DS. On the other hand, rare individuals with partial trisomy 21 (T21) (with APP, but not DS-critical region in trisomy) have been described having ID. Likewise, partial T21 DS (without APP trisomy) show a range of ID, but no AD pathology. We review the multi-faceted roles of APP that might affect cognitive functioning. Given the fact that both Aβ secretion and synaptic maturation/plasticity are dependent on neuronal activity, we explore how this conflicting inter-dependency might affect cognitive pathogenesis in a dynamic way in DS, throughout the lifespan of an individual. PMID:26648852

  15. Head size may modify the impact of white matter lesions on dementia.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Ingmar; Olesen, Pernille J; Blennow, Kaj; Palmertz, Bo; Johnson, Sterling C; Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to examine whether total intracranial volume (TICV), a marker of premorbid brain size, modified the impact of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) e4 phenotype and ischemic white matter lesions (WMLs) on odds for dementia. The study comprised a population-based sample of 104 demented and 135 nondemented 85-year-olds, and included physical and neuropsychiatric examinations, and head computerized tomography (CT). Dementia disorders were defined according to standard criteria. TICV and WMLs were rated on computerized tomography. Using the highest group as reference, the risk for dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) was increased in those with the smallest half, tertile, and quartile of TICV. Smaller TICV increased the odds of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in participants with WMLs. WMLs were not associated with increased odds of dementia in those with the largest TICV. The interaction term WMLs*TICV was also significant. TICV did not modify the odds of dementia in those with the apolipoprotein e4 phenotype. Our results suggest that the impact of brain pathology on the risk of dementia is modified by premorbid brain size.

  16. Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in elders of nursing homes and a senior center of Durango City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Alvarado, Ana Berthina; Tapia-Rodríguez, Rosa Oralia; Guerrero-Iturbe, Ángel; Rodríguez-Corral, Karina; Martínez, Sergio Estrada

    2004-01-01

    Background Epidemiological reports about dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of dementia and AD in a population of nursing home residents and senior center attendees of Durango City, Mexico, and to determine whether any socio-demographic characteristics from the subjects associated with dementia or AD exist. Methods One hundred and fifty-five residents of two nursing homes and 125 attendees of a senior center were examined for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. All subjects were tested by the mini-mental state examination, and those who scored twenty-four or less underwent psychiatric and neurological evaluations. Diagnosis of dementia, AD and vascular dementia (VaD) was based on the DSM-IV criteria. Socio-demographic characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Residents of nursing homes found to suffer from dementia were 25 out of 155 (16.1%). Eighteen of them (11.6%) had AD, and seven (4.5%) had VaD. None of the attendees of the senior center suffered from dementia. Dementia (pooled AD and VaD cases) correlated with white ethnicity (OR = 3.2; 95%CI = 1.28–8.31), and a history of unemployment (OR = 6.46; 95%CI = 1.42–25.97), while AD correlated with journeymen occupations (OR = 4.55; 95%CI = 1.00–19.29). Conclusion Prevalence of dementia in residents of nursing homes found in this study is much lower than reported from more industrialized countries. AD was more frequent than VaD. Ethnicity and occupation showed effects on the prevalence figures. The prevalence of dementia found has implications for the optimum kind of health care that nursing homes should provide to their residents. PMID:15070420

  17. Decreased levels of serum nitric oxide in different forms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Lola; Zas, Raquel; Rodríguez, Susana; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2007-06-15

    Nitric oxide is involved in normal physiological functions and also in pathological processes leading to tissue damage due, in part, to its free radical nature (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction have been recognized as contributing factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). In order to study the possible links between these processes and dementia, we have analysed plasma amyloid-beta(1-42) levels (Abeta) and total nitric oxide (NOx), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), lipids, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations in the serum of 99 patients with dementia and 55 age-matched non-demented controls. Both nitrate and nitrite levels were measured by a colorimetric method using Griess Reagent and plasma Abeta levels were analysed by a hypersensitive ELISA method. Our data showed a significant decrease of serum NOx levels in dementia, especially in probable AD and VD patients, as compared with controls. We observed a weak correlation between serum NOx levels and cognitive deterioration in dementia; however, NOx levels were not associated with ApoE and Abeta levels. In dementia and controls, a similar correlation pattern between HDL-cholesterol versus NOx was found. No apparent association between NOx, Abeta and AD-related genes [APOE (apolipoprotein E), PSEN1 (Presenilin 1)] was observed. Our data suggest that NOx may contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia through a process mediated by HDL-cholesterol.

  18. Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation promotes therapeutic angiogenesis via upregulation of the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathway in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Fu, Xiaojie; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Lie; Wang, Menghan; Han, Wei; Liu, Liu; Wang, Jian

    2014-05-15

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) are important for angiogenesis after stroke. We investigated the effects of BMMNCs on cognitive function, angiogenesis, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling pathway in a rat model of vascular dementia. We transplanted BMMNCs into rats that had undergone permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) and observed their migration in vivo. On day 28, we assessed cognitive function with the Morris Water Maze test and examined vascular density and white matter damage within the corpus striatum by staining with fluorescein lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin or Luxol fast blue. We evaluated expression of VEGF, rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma 1 (Raf1), and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the ischemic hemisphere by Western blot analysis on day 7 after cell transplantation. Contribution of the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathway was confirmed by using VEGFR2 inhibitor SU5416. BMMNCs penetrated the blood-brain barrier and reached the ischemic cortex and white matter or incorporated into vascular walls of 2VO rats. BMMNC-treated 2VO rats had better learning and memory, higher vascular density, and less white matter damage than did vehicle-treated rats. The beneficial effects of BMMNCs were abolished by pretreatment of rats with SU5416. Protein expression of VEGF and phosphorylated Raf1 and ERK1/2 was also significantly increased by BMMNC treatment, but this upregulation was reversed by SU5416. BMMNCs can enhance angiogenesis, reduce white matter damage, and promote cognitive recovery in 2VO rats. The angiogenic effect may result from upregulation of the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathway. PMID:24589546

  19. Cardiovascular medication burden in dementia disorders: a nationwide study of 19,743 dementia patients in the Swedish Dementia Registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Administration of several cardiovascular drugs has an effect on dementia. We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in the use of cardiovascular medication between different dementia disorders. Methods We obtained information about dementia patients from the Swedish Dementia Registry. Patients were diagnosed with one of these dementia disorders: Alzheimer’s disease (n = 8,139), mixed dementia (n = 5,203), vascular dementia (n = 4,982), Lewy body dementia (n = 605), frontotemporal dementia (n = 409) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (n = 405). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between use of cardiovascular medication and dementia disorders, after adjustment for age, gender, living alone, cognitive status and total number of drugs (a proxy for overall co-morbidity). Results Seventy percent of all the dementia patients used cardiovascular medication. Use of cardiovascular drugs is common in patients with vascular and mixed dementia. Male gender, higher age, slightly better cognitive status and living with another person was associated with use of cardiovascular medication. Conclusions Cardiovascular medication is used extensively across dementia disorders and particularly in vascular and mixed dementia. Future research should investigate the tolerability and effectiveness of these drugs in the different dementia disorders. PMID:25024749

  20. [Post Stroke Dementia].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is a clinical entity that encompasses all types of dementia following an index stroke. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. The type of stroke can be either ischemic, hemorrhagic or hypoperfusive. There are multiple risk factors for PSD including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Pre-stroke dementia refers to the occurrence of cognitive impairment before the index stroke, which may be caused by a vascular burden as well as insidious neurodegenerative changes. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke include silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Published clinical trials have not been promising and there is little information on whether PSD can be prevented using pharmacological agents. Control of vascular disease risk and prevention of recurrent strokes are key to reducing the burden of cognitive decline and post-stroke dementia. Modern imaging and analysis techniques will help to elucidate the mechanism of PSD and establish better treatment. PMID:27395459

  1. Adenosine Type A2A Receptor in Peripheral Cell from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A New/Old Potential Target.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Beatrice; Casati, Martina; Gussago, Cristina; Ferri, Evelyn; Abbate, Carlo; Scortichini, Valeria; Colombo, Elena; Rossi, Paolo Dionigi; Mari, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    As the European population gets older, the incidence of neurological disorders increases with significant impact on social costs. Despite differences in disease etiology, several brain disorders in the elderly (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus) share dementia as a common clinical feature. The current treatment for the majority of these diseases is merely symptomatic and does not modify the course of the illness. Symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus are the only ones that can be modified if they are recognized in time and treated appropriately. Therefore, an important clinical strategy may be disclosed by pathogenic pathways that can be modified and to find drugs that can slow down or even arrest disease progression. Possibly a way to answer this question could be by re-examining all the molecules which have so far succeeded in improving many aspects of cognitive deterioration in some neurodegenerative conditions, that were not considered because of controversial opinions. The main purpose of this summary is to further substantiate the hypothesis that the pathway of adenosine type A2A receptor could be used as a potential target to develop new/old therapeutic strategies.

  2. Neuron volumes in hippocampal subfields in delayed poststroke and aging-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Elizabeth; Tam, Edward; Allan, Louise; Hall, Roslyn; Khundakar, Ahmad; Oakley, Arthur E; Thomas, Alan; Deramecourt, Vincent; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-04-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is widely recognized in Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether neurons within hippocampal subfields are similarly affected in other aging-related dementias, particularly after stroke, remains an open question. We investigated hippocampal CA3 and CA4 pyramidal neuron volumes and densities using 3-dimensional stereologic techniques in postmortem samples from a total of 67 subjects: poststoke demented (PSD; n = 11), nondemented stroke survivors (PSND) and PSD patients from the CogFAST (Cognitive Function After Stroke) cohort (n = 13), elderly controls (n = 12), and subjects diagnosed as having vascular dementia (n = 11), AD (n = 10), and mixed AD and vascular dementia (n = 10). We found that CA3 and CA4 neuron volumes were reduced in PSD samples compared with those in PSND samples. The CA3 and CA4 neuron volumes were positively correlated with poststroke global cognitive function but were not associated with the burden of AD pathology. There were no differences in total neuron densities in either subfield in any of the groups studied. Our results indicate that selective reductions in CA4 and to a lesser extent CA3 neuron volumes may be related to post stroke cognitive impairment and aging-related dementias. These data suggest that CA4 neurons are vulnerable to disease processes and support our previous finding that a reduction in hippocampal neuron volume predominantly reflects vascular mechanisms as contributing to dementia after stroke.

  3. Brief Screening of Vascular Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hollocks, Matthew J.; Tan, Rhea Y.Y.; Morris, Robin G.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic form of cerebral small vessel disease leading to early-onset stroke and dementia, with younger patients frequently showing subclinical deficits in cognition. At present, there are no targeted cognitive screening measures for this population. However, the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have shown utility in detecting cognitive impairment in sporadic small vessel disease. This study assesses the BMET and the MoCA as clinical tools for detecting mild cognitive deficits in CADASIL. Methods— Sixty-six prospectively recruited patients with CADASIL, and 66 matched controls completed the BMET, with a subset of these also completing the MoCA. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to examine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical cutoffs for the detection of vascular cognitive impairment and reduced activities of daily living. Results— Patients with CADASIL showed more cognitive impairment overall and were poorer on both executive/processing and memory indices of the BMET relative to controls. The BMET showed good accuracy in predicting vascular cognitive impairment (85% sensitivity and 84% specificity) and impaired instrumental activities of daily living (92% sensitivity and 77% specificity). The MoCA also showed good predictive validity for vascular cognitive impairment (80% sensitivity and 78% specificity) and instrumental activities of daily living (75% sensitivity and 76% specificity). The most important background predictor of vascular cognitive impairment was a history of stroke. Conclusions— The results indicate that the BMET and the MoCA are clinically useful and sensitive screening measures for early cognitive impairment in patients with CADASIL. PMID:27625375

  4. Protective Effects of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu Decoction on Memory Impairment and Hippocampal Damage in Animal Model of Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lan; Ji, Zhaojie; Chen, Weidong; Yin, Dengke; Xu, Fan; Li, Shanshan; Chen, Fangfang; Zhu, Guangyu; Peng, Daiyin

    2015-01-01

    Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction (TSD) as a traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed to treat thrombotic diseases for hundreds of years, and vascular dementia (VD) is a cognitive dysfunction syndrome caused by cerebral embolism. In this study, the protective effect of TSD on memory impairment and brain damage in rat model of VD induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. The study showed that rats in MCAO treatment with TSD for 14 days significantly improved behavioral function, increased densities of neuron, and induced angiogenesis in the brain compared with model rats. TSD also adjusted the neurotransmitter levels, reduced the content of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and induced the activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hippocampus. Moreover, the immunohistochemical staining and western blotting results also revealed that TSD decreased apoptosis via upregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) ratio. These results demonstrated TSD possesses neuroprotective and antidementia properties by preventing the loss of neural cells, adjusting brain neurotransmitter, promoting cerebral blood circulation, and decreasing apoptosis. These results suggested that TSD might be developed as an effective drug for the prevention of VD. PMID:25821478

  5. [A modern concept of mixed dementia].

    PubMed

    Bogolepova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is currently one of the most urgent problems. A number of newly registered cases of dementia in the world approaches to 7,7 millions that means that a new case of dementia arises every four seconds. According to WHO data, Western Europe is in the first place (appr. 7,0 millions of patients). In 2010, Russia was among 9 countries with the highest number of patients with dementia. Mixed dementia is characterized by the presence of one or several pathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Its prevalence is about 45%. Neurodegenerative and vascular processes underlying dementia are mutually potentiated. An analysis of the majority of characteristics demonstrates that mixed dementia has characteristics of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Disturbances of neurotransmitter systems are caused by cholinergic deficit. Galantamine (reminil) is the drug that has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of dementia of Alzheimer's type including dementia with chronic disturbances of cerebral blood circulation.

  6. [A modern concept of mixed dementia].

    PubMed

    Bogolepova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is currently one of the most urgent problems. A number of newly registered cases of dementia in the world approaches to 7,7 millions that means that a new case of dementia arises every four seconds. According to WHO data, Western Europe is in the first place (appr. 7,0 millions of patients). In 2010, Russia was among 9 countries with the highest number of patients with dementia. Mixed dementia is characterized by the presence of one or several pathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive impairment. Its prevalence is about 45%. Neurodegenerative and vascular processes underlying dementia are mutually potentiated. An analysis of the majority of characteristics demonstrates that mixed dementia has characteristics of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Disturbances of neurotransmitter systems are caused by cholinergic deficit. Galantamine (reminil) is the drug that has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of dementia of Alzheimer's type including dementia with chronic disturbances of cerebral blood circulation. PMID:26356171

  7. Natural Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Libro, Rosaliana; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Soundara Rajan, Thangavelu; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The word dementia describes a class of heterogeneous diseases which etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well understood. There are different types of dementia, among which, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the more common. Currently approved pharmacological treatments for most forms of dementia seem to act only on symptoms without having profound disease-modifying effects. Thus, alternative strategies capable of preventing the progressive loss of specific neuronal populations are urgently required. In particular, the attention of researchers has been focused on phytochemical compounds that have shown antioxidative, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and that could represent important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against dementia. In this review, we summarize the neuroprotective effects of the main phytochemicals belonging to the polyphenol, isothiocyanate, alkaloid and cannabinoid families in the prevention and treatment of the most common kinds of dementia. We believe that natural phytochemicals may represent a promising sources of alternative medicine, at least in association with therapies approved to date for dementia. PMID:27110749

  8. Natural Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Libro, Rosaliana; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Soundara Rajan, Thangavelu; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-04-21

    The word dementia describes a class of heterogeneous diseases which etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well understood. There are different types of dementia, among which, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the more common. Currently approved pharmacological treatments for most forms of dementia seem to act only on symptoms without having profound disease-modifying effects. Thus, alternative strategies capable of preventing the progressive loss of specific neuronal populations are urgently required. In particular, the attention of researchers has been focused on phytochemical compounds that have shown antioxidative, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and that could represent important resources in the discovery of drug candidates against dementia. In this review, we summarize the neuroprotective effects of the main phytochemicals belonging to the polyphenol, isothiocyanate, alkaloid and cannabinoid families in the prevention and treatment of the most common kinds of dementia. We believe that natural phytochemicals may represent a promising sources of alternative medicine, at least in association with therapies approved to date for dementia.

  9. Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Capurso, Cristiano; D'Introno, Alessia; Colacicco, Anna Maria; Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Fiore, Pietro; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia have a deep impact on the health and quality of life of older subjects and their caregivers. Since the therapeutic options currently available have demonstrated limited efficacy, the search for preventive strategies for cognitive decline and dementia are mandatory. A possible role of lifestyle-related factors was recently proposed for age-related changes of cognitive function, predementia syndromes and the cognitive decline of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease [AD]) or vascular origin. At present, cumulative evidence suggests that vascular risk factors may be important in the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and AD. Moderate alcohol drinking has been proposed as a protective factor against MCI and dementia in several longitudinal studies, but contrasting findings also exist. The Mediterranean diet could therefore be an interesting model with which to further study the association between dietary patterns and cognitive functioning, given the suggested role of many components of this diet (monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cereals and red wine) in contrasting cognitive impairment and dementia. The association between low education and predementia and dementia syndromes is supported by the majority of studies, but very few studies have investigated whether this association may be attributed with lifestyle factors that covary with education. Studies in the literature seem to identify in physical exercise one promising strategy in decreasing cognitive decline, but some of the limitations of these studies do not allow us to draw definite conclusions. At present, in older subjects, healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, the prevention of nutritional deficiencies, and moderate physical activity could be considered the first line of defense against the development and progression of predementia and dementia syndromes. However, in most cases, these were only observational studies, and results are

  10. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  11. Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Adjunctive Therapy Improve Outcomes of Senile Vascular Dementia? Systematic Review with Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingfeng; Zou, Yuanping; Kong, Lingshuo; Wang, Ningsheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; Cao, Ye; Wang, Kezhu; Chen, Yunbo; Mi, Suiqing; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Cheng, Shuyi; Xu, Weihua; Liang, Weixiong

    2015-12-01

    Many publications have reported the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for senile vascular dementia (SVD), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM adjunctive therapy (CHMAT), which is CHM combined with RP, in the treatment of SVD. Publications in seven electronic databases were searched extensively, and 27 trials with a total of 1961 patients were included for analysis. Compared with RP alone, CHMAT significantly increased the effective rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30, 3.86]. In addition, CHMAT showed benefits in detailed subgroups of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD 3.01, 95% CI 2.15, 3.87), 8 weeks (weighted mean difference (WMD) 2.30, 95% CI 1.28, 3.32), 12 weeks (WMD 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.69), and 24 weeks (WMD 3.25, 95% CI 2.61, 3.88), and in the activity of daily living scale score from time of onset to 4 weeks (WMD -4.64, 95% CI -6.12, -3.17), 8 weeks (WMD -4.30, 95% CI -6.04, -2.56), 12 weeks (WMD -3.89, 95% CI -4.68, -3.09), and 24 weeks (WMD -4.04, 95% CI -6.51, -1.57). Moreover, CHMAT had positive effects on changes in the Hasegawa dementia scale, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, as well as blood fat levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E), platelet aggregation rate (1-min platelet aggregation rate, 5-min platelet aggregation rate, and maximal platelet aggregation rate), and blood rheology (whole-blood viscosity and hematocrit). No serious or frequently occurring adverse effects were reported. Weaknesses of methodological quality in most trials were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, while

  12. Serum uric acid level and association with cognitive impairment and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aamir A; Quinn, Terence J; Hewitt, Jonathan; Fan, Yuhua; Dawson, Jesse

    2016-02-01

    Serum uric acid (sUA) level may be associated with cognitive impairment/dementia. It is possible this relationship varies with dementia subtype, particularly between vascular dementias (VaD) and Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PDD)-related dementia. We aimed to present a synthesis of all published data on sUA and relationship with dementia/cognition through systematic review and meta-analysis. We included studies that assessed the association between sUA and any measure of cognitive function or a clinical diagnosis of dementia. We pre-defined subgroup analyses for patients with AD, VaD, PDD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mixed or undifferentiated. We assessed risk of bias/generalizability, and where data allowed, we performed meta-analysis to describe pooled measures of association across studies. From 4811 titles, 46 papers (n = 16,688 participants) met our selection criteria. Compared to controls, sUA was lower in dementia (SDM -0.33 (95%CI)). There were differences in association by dementia type with apparent association for AD (SDM -0.33 (95%CI)) and PDD (SDM -0.67 (95%CI)) but not in cases of mixed dementia (SDM 0.19 (95%CI)) or VaD (SDM -0.05 (95%CI)). There was no correlation between scores on Mini-Mental State Examination and sUA level (summary r 0.08, p = 0.27), except in patients with PDD (r 0.16, p = 0.003). Our conclusions are limited by clinical heterogeneity and risk of bias in studies. Accepting this caveat, the relationship between sUA and dementia/cognitive impairment is not consistent across all dementia groups and in particular may differ in patients with VaD compared to other dementia subtypes.

  13. Pharmacogenomics and therapeutic prospects in dementia.

    PubMed

    Cacabelos, Ramón

    2008-03-01

    Dementia is a major problem of health in developed countries. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia, accounting for 50-70% of the cases, followed by vascular dementia (30-40%) and mixed dementia (15-20%). Approximately 10-15% of direct costs in dementia are attributed to pharmacological treatment, and only 10-20% of the patients are moderate responders to conventional anti-dementia drugs, with questionable cost-effectiveness. Primary pathogenic events underlying the dementia process include genetic factors in which more than 200 different genes distributed across the human genome are involved, accompanied by progressive cerebrovascular dysfunction and diverse environmental factors. Mutations in genes directly associated with the amyloid cascade (APP, PS1, PS2) are only present in less than 5% of the AD population; however, the presence of the APOE-4 allele in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene represents a major risk factor for more than 40% of patients with dementia. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies and functional genomics studies have revealed the association of specific mutations in primary loci (APP, PS1, PS2) and/or APOE-related polymorphic variants with the phenotypic expression of biological traits. It is estimated that genetics accounts for 20-95% of variability in drug disposition and pharmacodynamics. Recent studies indicate that the therapeutic response in AD is genotype-specific depending upon genes associated with AD pathogenesis and/or genes responsible for drug metabolism (CYPs). In monogenic-related studies, APOE-4/4 carriers are the worst responders. In trigenic (APOE-PS1-PS2 clusters)-related studies the best responders are those patients carrying the 331222-, 341122-, 341222-, and 441112- genomic profiles. The worst responders in all genomic clusters are patients with the 441122+ genotype, indicating the powerful, deleterious effect of the APOE-4/4 genotype on therapeutics in networking activity with other AD-related genes

  14. Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late-life dementia: a population-based CAIDE study.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Marjo H; Ngandu, Tiia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2009-01-01

    Caffeine stimulates central nervous system on a short term. However, the long-term impact of caffeine on cognition remains unclear. We aimed to study the association between coffee and/or tea consumption at midlife and dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in late-life. Participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study were randomly selected from the survivors of a population-based cohorts previously surveyed within the North Karelia Project and the FINMONICA study in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987 (midlife visit). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1409 individuals (71%) aged 65 to 79 completed the re-examination in 1998. A total of 61 cases were identified as demented (48 with AD). Coffee drinkers at midlife had lower risk of dementia and AD later in life compared with those drinking no or only little coffee adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and vascular factors, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and depressive symptoms. The lowest risk (65% decreased) was found in people who drank 3-5 cups per day. Tea drinking was relatively uncommon and was not associated with dementia/AD. Coffee drinking at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD later in life. This finding might open possibilities for prevention of dementia/AD.

  15. Young-Onset Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R

    2014-01-01

    Young-onset dementia (YOD) is an neurological syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of detailed medical history, collateral history from an informant, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of YOD is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as YOD and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in YOD. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of YOD with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference. PMID:24234358

  16. Diagnosis of Dementia in the Specialist Setting: A Comparison Between the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) and the Registry of Dementias of Girona (ReDeGi).

    PubMed

    Garre-Olmo, Josep; Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; López-Pousa, Secundino; Eriksdotter, Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of dementia diagnoses from two dementia registries in Europe. Patients registered between 2007 and 2013 in the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem; Sweden) and in the Registry of Dementias of Girona (ReDeGi; North-East of Spain) were selected. We compared sociodemographic data, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, dementia subtype, and medication consumption of 22,384 cases from SveDem and 5,032 cases from ReDeGi. The average age (78.1 years SveDem versus 79.7 years ReDeGi) and the gender (female 58.2% SveDem versus 61.5% ReDeGi) did not greatly differ. MMSE score at diagnosis was higher for SveDem cases (22.1 versus 17.8). Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounted for the main dementia subtype (36.6% SveDem versus 55.6% ReDeGi). The proportion of vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed dementia was higher in SveDem (18.8% versus 6.4% and 24.9 versus 13.4%), with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for SveDem relative to the ReDeGi of 3.41 (3.03-3.84) for VaD, and 2.15 (1.97-2.35) for mixed dementia. This was at the expense of a lower frequency of AD in SveDem (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.39-0.44). Other dementia diagnoses such as frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies did not significantly differ between registries (2.3% versus 2.9%; 1.9 versus 3.1%). Large differences in medication consumption at the time of dementia diagnosis were detected (4.7 treatments SveDem versus 6.8 ReDeGi). Northern and southern European dementia cohorts differ in demographic characteristics, MMSE score at diagnosis, and drug treatment profile. PMID:27392854

  17. [Diabetes mellitus and dementia].

    PubMed

    Kopf, D

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2 diabetes, is a risk factor for dementia and this holds true for incident vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Cerebrovascular complications of diabetes and chronic mild inflammation in insulin resistant states partly account for this increased risk. In addition, cellular resistance to the trophic effects of insulin on neurons and glial cells favor the accumulation of toxic metabolic products, such as amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau protein (pTau). Weight loss frequently precedes overt cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. This results in an increased risk of hypoglycemic episodes in stable diabetic patients who are on suitably adjusted doses of oral insulin or insulinotropic antidiabetic drugs. In turn, hypoglycemic episodes may induce further damage in the vulnerable brains of type 2 diabetes patients. Patients with unexplained weight loss, hypoglycemic episodes and subjective memory complaints must be screened for dementia. Once dementia has been diagnosed the goals of diabetes management must be reevaluated as prevention of hypoglycemia becomes more important than tight metabolic control. As weight loss accelerates the rate of cognitive decline, nutritional goals must aim at stabilizing body weight. There is no available evidence on whether drug treatment of diabetes in middle-aged persons can help to prevent dementia; however, physical exercise, mental activity and higher education have preventive effects on the risk of dementia in later life. In addition, nutritional recommendations that are effective in preventing cardiovascular events have also been shown to reduce the risk of dementia.

  18. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease and other disorders associated with dementia: EFNS guideline.

    PubMed

    Waldemar, G; Dubois, B; Emre, M; Georges, J; McKeith, I G; Rossor, M; Scheltens, P; Tariska, P; Winblad, B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this international guideline on dementia was to present a peer-reviewed evidence-based statement for the guidance of practice for clinical neurologists, geriatricians, psychiatrists, and other specialist physicians responsible for the care of patients with dementia. It covers major aspects of diagnostic evaluation and treatment, with particular emphasis on the type of patient often referred to the specialist physician. The main focus is Alzheimer's disease, but many of the recommendations apply to dementia disorders in general. The task force working group considered and classified evidence from original research reports, meta-analysis, and systematic reviews, published before January 2006. The evidence was classified and consensus recommendations graded according to the EFNS guidance. Where there was a lack of evidence, but clear consensus, good practice points were provided. The recommendations for clinical diagnosis, blood tests, neuroimaging, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, genetic testing, tissue biopsy, disclosure of diagnosis, treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and counselling and support for caregivers were all revised when compared with the previous EFNS guideline. New recommendations were added for the treatment of vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, for monitoring treatment, for treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia, and for legal issues. The specialist physician plays an important role together with primary care physicians in the multidisciplinary dementia teams, which have been established throughout Europe. This guideline may contribute to the definition of the role of the specialist physician in providing dementia health care.

  19. A nationwide survey on the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Shin-Kyum; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Woo, Jong Inn; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chang, Sung Man; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the factors associate with risk of dementia from a representative nationwide sample of Korean elders. 8,199 randomly-sampled Koreans aged 65 years or older were invited to participate in the Phase I screening assessment using Mini-Mental State Examination by door-to-door home visit, and 6,141 subjects (response rate = 74.9%) responded. Among them, 2,336 subjects were invited to participate in the Phase II diagnostic assessment for dementia and MCI, and 1,673 subjects responded (response rate = 71.6%). Diagnostic assessments were administered using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery. The CERAD-K Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was used for diagnosing MCI. Age-, gender-, education-, and urbanicity-standardized prevalence of dementia was estimated to be 8.1% (95% CI = 6.9-9.2) for overall dementia and 24.1% (95% CI = 21.0-27.2) for MCI. Alzheimer's disease (AD) was the most prevalent type (5.7%) followed by vascular dementia (2.0%). Amnestic subtype (20.1%) was much more prevalent than nonamnestic subtype in MCI (4.0%). Older age, being male, lower education level, illiteracy, smoking, and histories of head trauma or depression were associated with increased dementia risk, and alcohol use and moderately intense exercise were associated with decreased dementia risk. We expect numbers of dementia patients to double every 20 years until 2050 in Korea and expect AD to account for progressively more dementia cases in the future.

  20. Cross-talk between Aβ and endothelial SSAO/VAP-1 accelerates vascular damage and Aβ aggregation related to CAA-AD.

    PubMed

    Solé, Montse; Miñano-Molina, Alfredo J; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-02-01

    An association between semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been largely postulated. Increased SSAO activity and expression have been detected in cerebrovascular tissue and plasma of AD patients, colocalizing with cerebrovascular amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposits. As an enzyme, SSAO metabolizes primary amines generating hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and aldehydes. The ability of these products to generate oxidative stress, to enhance the advanced glycation end-product generation, to promote the Aβ aggregation in vitro, and to induce apoptosis supports its role in CAA-related vascular pathology. However, whether the SSAO increase constitutes a cause or it is a consequence of the pathologic process has not been elucidated so far. To set up the nature of this relationship, vascular cell models expressing SSAO were treated with different Aβ forms, simulating the CAA conditions in vitro. It was found that the presence of the vasculotropic Dutch-mutated Aβ1-40 increases (Aβ1-40 D) the SSAO-dependent toxicity, which is accompanied by an increase of SSAO protein availability in endothelial cell membranes. In addition, SSAO enhances Aβ1-40 D and Aβ1-42 deposition on vascular cells by both activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Thus, we provide evidences indicating that Aβ itself could be one of the factors inducing SSAO increase in AD, enhancing its toxic effect, and inducing the vascular dysfunction and, in turn, that SSAO stimulates Aβ deposition on the vascular walls, thereby contributing to the CAA-AD progression. Therefore, molecules inhibiting SSAO could provide an alternative treatment for preventing/delaying the progress of CAA-AD-associated vasculopathy.

  1. [Dementia and diabetes: casual or causal relationship?].

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Reñe, Ramón; Pérez-Maraver, Manuel

    2015-02-20

    Several studies have reported the existence of an epidemiological association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia. Although this association is more evident for vascular dementia, it is also described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review we evaluate the different hypotheses that may explain the association between DM and dementia. We can consider the existence of a diabetes type 3 as the situation that occurs when hyperinsulinemia in response to insulin resistance leads to a decrease of the brain insulin and a poor regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme; thus, beta-amyloid accumulates, among other mechanisms, by the decline of its degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme. Consequently, AD may be related, at least in part, to a brain insulin resistance. There are several studies that prove the concept that a better metabolic control, especially in not very old people, is associated with an increased cognitive performance. It is not known whether the use of any specific drug for the treatment of DM is better than any other. It is important for physicians responsible for the metabolic control of diabetic patients to know this possible association, and to explore cognition in the control visits of patients with DM.

  2. Persistence of the effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG slowing in vascular dementia patients: results of a 3-month extension study.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Novak, Philipp H; Stan, Adina; Buzoianu, Anca; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O

    2010-12-15

    The maintenance of the effects of Cerebrolysin, a peptidergic compound with neurotrophic activity, on cognitive performance and qEEG activity was investigated through a 12-week, open-label extension of a 4-week, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study. Thirty-three out of 41 patients with mild-to-moderate severe probable vascular dementia (VaD) according to NINDS-AIREN participating in the double-blind phase of the study were also assessed at the follow-up visit at week 16. Patients received i.v. infusions of Cerebrolysin (10 or 30 mL) or placebo (saline) 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Neuropsychological evaluations and qEEG recordings were done at baseline, week 4 and week 16. The mean change in score from baseline in the ADAS-cog+ and the slow-to-fast qEEG power ratio (PR), used as an index of qEEG slowing, were the two primary endpoints. Correlations between changes in cognition and qEEG induced by the treatment were also assessed. At the week 16 follow-up visit, Cerebrolysin improved (p<0.05) cognitive performance at the 10-mL and 30-mL doses and reduced qEEG slowing significantly (p<0.05) at the 30-mL dose with respect to the placebo. In addition, a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation between the change from the baseline qEEG PR and ADAS-cog+ variables was observed at week 16. These results indicate a persistence of the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG activity in VaD patients for at least 12 weeks after treatment cessation, and they suggest the potential utility of qEEG parameters as biomarkers for VaD clinical trials.

  3. Prevalence of Dementia and Subtypes in Valladolid, Northwestern Spain: The DEMINVALL Study

    PubMed Central

    Tola-Arribas, Miguel Angel; Yugueros, María Isabel; Garea, María José; Ortega-Valín, Fernando; Cerón-Fernández, Ana; Fernández-Malvido, Beatriz; San José-Gallegos, Antonio; González-Touya, Marta; Botrán-Velicia, Ana; Iglesias-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Díaz-Gómez, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of dementia and subtypes in a general elderly population in northwestern Spain and to analyze the influence of socio-demographic factors. Methods Cross-sectional, two-phase, door-to-door, population-based study. A total of 870 individuals from a rural region and 2,119 individuals from an urban region of Valladolid, Spain, were involved. The seven-minute screen neurocognitive battery was used in the screening phase. A control group was included. Results A total of 2,170 individuals aged 65 to 104 years (57% women) were assessed. There were 184 subjects diagnosed with dementia. The crude prevalence was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.3-9.7). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 5.5 (95% CI: 4.5-6.5). Main subtypes of dementia were: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 77.7%, Lewy Body disease, 7.6% and vascular dementia (VD) 5.9%. Crude prevalences were 6.6% (AD), 0.6% (Lewy Body disease), and 0.5% (VD). Dementia was associated with age (OR 1.14 for 1-year increase in age), female sex (OR 1.79) and the absence of formal education (OR 2.53 compared to subjects with primary education or more). Conclusion The prevalence of dementia in the study population was lower than the most recent estimates for Western Europe. There was a high proportion of AD among all dementia cases and very low prevalence of VD. Old age, female sex, and low education level were independent risk factors for dementia and AD. PMID:24147055

  4. Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To perform a systematic review of reported HRs of all cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) for late-life depression and depressive symptomatology on specific screening instruments at specific thresholds. Design Meta-analysis with meta-regression. Setting and participants PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through 28 February 2014. Articles reporting HRs for incident all-cause dementia, AD and VaD based on published clinical criteria using validated measures of clinical depression or symptomatology from prospective studies of general population of adults were selected by consensus among multiple reviewers. Studies that did not use clinical dementia diagnoses or validated instruments for the assessment of depression were excluded. Data were extracted by two reviewers and reviewed by two other independent reviewers. The most specific analyses possible using continuous symptomatology ratings and categorical measures of clinical depression focusing on single instruments with defined reported cut-offs were conducted. Primary outcome measures HRs for all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD were computed where possible for continuous depression scores, or for major depression assessed with single or comparable validated instruments. Results Searches yielded 121 301 articles, of which 36 (0.03%) were eligible. Included studies provided a combined sample size of 66 532 individuals including 6593 cases of dementia, 2797 cases of AD and 585 cases of VaD. The increased risk associated with depression did not significantly differ by type of dementia and ranged from 83% to 104% for diagnostic thresholds consistent with major depression. Risk associated with continuous depression symptomatology measures were consistent with those for clinical thresholds. Conclusions Late-life depression is consistently and similarly associated with a twofold increased risk of dementia. The precise risk estimates produced in this study for

  5. Pharmacological recommendations for the symptomatic treatment of dementia: the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While there have been no new medications approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementias in Canada since 2004, the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD) reviewed and updated the clinical practice guidelines on the pharmacological management of dementia that were published previously. Methods This review focused on the literature for the pharmacological treatment of dementia based on studies published since the third CCCDTD in 2006. A literature search of English-language medical databases was preformed for studies pertaining to the pharmacological treatment of AD and other dementias that examined the management of cognitive and functional impairment, as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms. All previous recommendations were reviewed, and only those that required updating based on new published studies were revised. Several new recommendations were also added. Recommendations were rated for quality of evidence and were approved by consensus. Results There were 15 revised or new recommendations approved by consensus. The revised recommendations included acknowledging that cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) possess a class effect and any of the agents can be used for AD across the spectrum of severity and with co-existing cerebrovascular disease. There was insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of ChEIs in combination with memantine for the primary indication of treating neuropsychiatric symptoms, or for the treatment of vascular dementia. Recommendations for the discontinuation of cognitive enhancers were revised and clarified, as well as the risks associated with discontinuing these drugs. ChEIs were recommended as a treatment option for dementia with Parkinson's disease. Risks associated with use of antipsychotics for neuropsychiatric symptoms were strengthened, and guidelines regarding the use of antidepressants for affective disturbances in dementia were weakened, and

  6. Update on Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitakis, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    Background Frontotemporal dementia has recently been recognized as a common cause of young-onset dementia. Objective To review the current approach to the clinical evaluation, understanding of pathophysiology, and management of frontotemporal dementia. Results Two main clinical presentations are: 1) behavioral, with impulsive behaviors and disinhibition, change in personality such as apathy and indifference, and poor judgment, and 2) language, with a non-fluent aphasia with anomia (primary progressive aphasia), or a fluent aphasia with early loss of word meaning (semantic dementia). The differential diagnosis includes other neurodegenerative dementias, vascular and other conditions affecting the brain, and psychiatric diseases. Investigations, including neuropsychological testing, and structural and functional brain imaging, may help support the diagnosis. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology have suggested that most cases have underlying ubiquitin-positive inclusions, while some have tau-positive inclusions. Genetic mutations, particularly on chromosome 17 in the tau or progranulin genes, have been identified. Management includes a trial of symptomatic medications and a multi-faceted approach, including environmental modification and long-term care planning. Conclusion Medical researchers studying frontotemporal dementia aim to identify disease-modifying drugs and, ultimately, a cure for this devastating disease. PMID:20065792

  7. An Update on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor for Dementia.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Huang, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    With the rapidly expanding evidence on brain structural and functional changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, there is an increasing need to update our understanding on how T2DM associates with dementia as well as the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. A literature search of T2DM and dementia or cognition impairments was carried out in electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. In this review, the chosen evidence was limited to human subject studies only, and data on either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or non-classified diabetes were excluded. T2DM is a risk factor for both vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), although AD pathological marker studies have not provided sufficient evidence. T2DM interacts additively or synergistically with many factors, including old age, hypertension, total cholesterol, and APOEɛ4 carrier status for impaired cognition functions seen in patients with T2DM. In addition, comorbid T2DM can worsen the clinical presentations of patients with either AD or VaD. In summary, T2DM increases the risk for AD through different mechanisms for VaD although some mechanisms may overlap. Tau-related neurofibrillary tangles instead of amyloid-β plaques are more likely to be the pathological biomarkers for T2DM-related dementia. Degeneration of neurons in the brain, impaired regional blood supply/metabolism, and genetic predisposition are all involved in T2DM-associated dementia or cognitive impairments.

  8. Psychotic symptoms in a population-based sample of 85-year-old individuals with dementia.

    PubMed

    Ostling, Svante; Gustafson, Deborah; Blennow, Kaj; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Waern, Margda

    2011-03-01

    Psychotic symptoms are common in elderly persons with dementia. These symptoms affect a person's ability to function in daily life and put strain on the caregiver. Most studies focus on psychotic symptoms in clinical samples with Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, their prevalence and relation with dementia subtype and severity in very old populations is unclear. We assessed a representative sample of 85-year-old individuals living in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 494) using neuropsychiatric examinations, key informant interviews, and medical record reviews; 147 had dementia. Dementia and its severity were diagnosed in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition, Revision [DSM-III-R]) criteria. Alzheimer disease according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria was diagnosed in 64 persons and vascular dementia (VaD) according to Erkinjuntti criteria was observed in 69. Fourteen had dementia due to other causes. Psychotic symptoms were classified according to DSM-III-R. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms in this very old population was 36% among AD cases compared to 54% in VaD cases (P = .04). Proportions with psychotic symptoms increased with increasing dementia severity in individuals with AD. No such association could be shown in those with VaD. This finding of a high proportion of psychotic symptoms also in individuals with mild severity of VaD should alert health professionals to evaluate dementia in very old patients who present with hallucinations or delusions.

  9. Managing dysphagia in older people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    In the UK there is an increasing ageing population, bringing with it a host of degenerative conditions such as dementia. Dementia is a common condition among older people. In the UK there are estimated to be over 750 000 people with dementia and numbers are expected to double in the next 30 years (Comas-Herrera et al, 2007). The term 'dementia' is used to describe a syndrome which may be caused by a number of illnesses and is associated with ongoing decline of the brain and its abilities. There are many types of dementia, the most common are Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's which accounts for 62% of all cases. Vascular dementia either alone or co-existent with Alzheimer's, is the second most common subtype of dementia (Knapp et al, 2007). Dementia is associated with complex needs especially in the later stages, and can have a devastating effect on the individual, their family and friends. The care needs often challenge the skills and capacity of carers especially when normal every-day activities decline. Food and drink are fundamental to living. Consequently observing individuals struggling with eating and drinking not only poses difficulties for professionals but also raises emotional issues for the individual and their family.

  10. [Epidemiology of dementia: the Hisayama study].

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    A prospective cohort study has been conducted in the elderly of the town of Hisayama in Japan since 1985 to elucidate the trends in the prevalence of dementia and examine risk and protective factors for dementia in the general Japanese population. We revealed that the prevalence of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease significantly increased from 1985 to 2005. In our prospective study, diabetes was associated with significantly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, while midlife and late-life hypertensions were significant risk factors for vascular dementia but not for Alzheimer's disease. Meanwhile, physical activity and a dietary pattern which was roughly correspondent to a customary Japanese diet were associated with lower risk of dementia in our population.

  11. Influence of socio-demographic features and apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 expression on the prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment in a population of 70-74-year olds: the InveCe.Ab study.

    PubMed

    Guaita, Antonio; Vaccaro, Roberta; Davin, Annalisa; Colombo, Mauro; Vitali, Silvia Francesca; Polito, Letizia; Abbondanza, Simona; Valle, Eleonora; Forloni, Gianluigi; Ferretti, Virginia Valeria; Villani, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The age-specific prevalence rates of dementia vary widely. Studies focusing on specific age groups are needed to provide reliable estimates for healthcare providers and policy makers. We estimated the prevalence of dementia, dementia subtypes and cognitive impairment in "InveCe.Ab" (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01345110), a single-step multidimensional population-based study of 70-74-year olds living in Abbiategrasso (Milan, Italy). We also looked for associations with socio-demographic factors and the presence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele. The overall dementia prevalence was 3% (95%CI: 2.1-4.1%) [Alzheimer's disease (AD): 1.2% (95%CI 0.6-1.9%); vascular dementia (VD): 1.4% (95%CI: 0.8-2.2%)]. Being single was found to be a risk factor for vascular dementia; subjects born in southern Italy were shown to be at greater risk both of overall dementia and of vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment, with or without subjective cognitive complaints (cognitive impairment, no dementia, CIND) was 7.8% (95%CI: 6.4-9.4%). As regards the CIND subgroups, the prevalence of subjects with subjective cognitive complaints (mild cognitive impairment, MCI) was 5.0% (95%CI 3.9-6.3%), while the prevalence of those without MCI (CIND-other) was 2.8% (95%CI: 1.9-3.8). The males had a higher risk of MCI and CIND-other; the older subjects were more likely to have MCI, and those born in north-eastern Italy to have CIND-other. The prevalence of AD was higher among the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 carriers. Our data highlight the importance of dementia and cognitive impairment in the transitional period from adulthood to old age, and reveal the presence of different associations with socio-demographic and genetic factors.

  12. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  13. Multiplex analyte assays to characterize different dementias: brain inflammatory cytokines in poststroke and other dementias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Oakley, Arthur E; Monteiro, Maria; Tuomela, Katri; Allan, Louise M; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta B; O'Brien, John T; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-02-01

    Both the inflammatory potential and cognitive function decline during aging. The association between the repertoire of inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. Inflammatory cytokines have been reported to be increased, decreased, or unchanged in the cerebrospinal fluid and sera of subjects with dementia. We assessed 112 postmortem brains from subjects diagnosed with poststroke dementia (PSD), vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), comparing those to poststroke nondemented (PSND) subjects and age-matched controls. We analyzed 5 brain regions including the gray and white matter from the frontal and temporal lobes for a panel of cytokine and/or chemokine analytes using multiplex-array assays. Of the 37 analytes, 14 were under or near the detection limits, 7 were close to the lowest detection level, and 16 cytokines were within the linear range of the assay. We observed widely variable concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A at the high end (1-150 ng/mg protein), whereas several of the interleukins (IL, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor) at the low end (1-10 pg/mg). There were also regional variations; most notable being high concentrations of some cytokines (e.g., CRP and angiogenesis panel) in the frontal white matter. Overall, we found decreased concentrations of several cytokines, including IL-1 beta (p = 0.000), IL-6 (p = 0.000), IL-7 (p = 0.000), IL-8 (p = 0.000), IL-16 (p = 0.001), interferon-inducible protein-10 (0.044), serum amyloid A (p = 0.011), and a trend in IL-1 alpha (p = 0.084) across all dementia groups compared to nondemented controls. IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in dementia subjects than in nondemented subjects in every region. In particular, lower levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were notable in the PSD compared to PSND subjects. Because these 2 stroke groups had comparable degree of vascular pathology, the lower production of IL-6 and IL-8 in PSD reaffirms a

  14. Vascular and metabolic reserve in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagata, K; Kondoh, Y; Atchison, R; Sato, M; Satoh, Y; Watahiki, Y; Hirata, Y; Yokoyama, E

    2000-01-01

    Vascular and metabolic reserve were analyzed in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). Vascular reactivity (VR) was also calculated by comparing the CBF during 5% CO(2) inhalation with the CBF during normal breathing. Vascular transit time (VTT) that was calculated as a ratio of CBV/CBF and VR reflect vasodilating capacity of the small resistance vessels, whereas OEF designates metabolic (oxygen-extraction) reserve in threatening brain ischemia. Significant increase in OEF was seen in the parieto-temporal cortex and both VTT and VR were preserved in AD patients. By constrast, there was no significant increase in OEF whereas VTT was prolonged and VR was markedly depressed in VaD patients. The increase of OEF and preserved VTT and VR seen in AD patients indicate the possible participation of vascular factors in the pathogenesis of AD perhaps at the capillary level.

  15. Autophagy in dementias.

    PubMed

    Kragh, Christine Lund; Ubhi, Kiren; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Wyss-Corey, Tony; Masliah, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Dementias are a varied group of disorders typically associated with memory loss, impaired judgment and/or language and by symptoms affecting other cognitive and social abilities to a degree that interferes with daily functioning. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of a progressive dementia, followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (VaD) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The pathogenesis of this group of disorders has been linked to the abnormal accumulation of proteins in the brains of affected individuals, which in turn has been related to deficits in protein clearance. Autophagy is a key cellular protein clearance pathway with proteolytic cleavage and degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway representing another important clearance mechanism. Alterations in the levels of autophagy and the proteins associated with the autophagocytic pathway have been reported in various types of dementias. This review will examine recent literature across these disorders and highlight a common theme of altered autophagy across the spectrum of the dementias. PMID:22150925

  16. Mild behavioral impairment and risk of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Taragano, FE; Allegri, RF; Krupitzki, H; Sarasola, D; Serrano, CM; Loñ, L; Lyketsos, CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia, at least for some patients. Behavioral symptoms in MCI are associated with a higher risk of dementia, but their association with dementia risk in patients without MCI is unknown. Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) refers to a late life syndrome with prominent psychiatric and related behavioral symptoms in the absence of prominent cognitive symptoms, which may also be a dementia prodrome. Objective To compare MCI and MBI patients and to estimate the risk of dementia development in these two groups. Method A consecutive series of 358 patients (239 with MCI; and 119 with MBI) presenting to an outpatient general hospital specialty clinic were followed for up to 5 years until conversion to dementia or censoring. Results 34% of MCI patients and over 70% of patients with MBI developed dementia (Logrank p=0.011). MBI patients without cognitive symptoms were more likely to develop dementia (Logrank p<0.001). MBI patients were more likely to develop dementia due to frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) as opposed to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Conclusion MBI appears to be a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. MBI (specifically those without cognitive symptoms) may confer a higher risk for dementia than MCI and is likely an FTD prodrome in many cases. These findings have implications for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of patients with dementia in late life, by focusing on the emergence of new behavioral symptoms. PMID:19323967

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

  18. Treating vascular risk factors and maintaining vascular health: Is this the way towards successful cognitive ageing and preventing cognitive decline?

    PubMed Central

    Alagiakrishnan, K; McCracken, P; Feldman, H

    2006-01-01

    Dementia is a progressive disorder that typically worsens with time and from which recovery is unlikely. The incidence of dementia increases exponentially with ageing and is an important public health challenge. There is now growing evidence for the role of vascular factors in Alzheimer's disease, mixed dementia (Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease), and of course vascular dementia. With the rising prevalence of vascular disease, there are increasing numbers of people who are identified to be at risk of cognitive impairment. By changing modifiable vascular risk factors, there is emerging evidence that it may be possible to prevent or delay the expression and progression of dementia. PMID:16461472

  19. Dementia associated with periventricular and deep white matter alterations: a subtype of subcortical dementia.

    PubMed

    Libon, D J; Bogdanoff, B; Bonavita, J; Skalina, S; Cloud, B S; Resh, R; Cass, P; Ball, S K

    1997-01-01

    This research examined the neuropsychological functioning of demented patients with periventricular and deep white matter alterations. Thirty-three outpatients with NINCDS-ADRDA probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 27 outpatients with probable/ possible ischaemic vascular dementia (IVD, Chui et al., 1992) associated with periventricular and deep white matter alterations matched for age, education, level of dementia, and functional disability were studied. White matter alterations were measured using a 40-point scale previously described by Junque et al. (1990). Subjects with cortical CVAs were excluded. On executive control tests, IVD subjects made more preservations on tests of mental control and response set, and produced fewer responses on phonemic controlled oral word association tests (letters: F,A,S). IVD subjects also made more preservations and graphomotor errors on clock drawings. On the California Verbal Learning Test the IVD group performed better than AD subjects on the short delay free recall test condition, the recognition discriminability index, and made fewer intrusion errors on both free and cued recall conditions. We conclude that neuropsychological assessment can differentiate AD from IVD associated with white matter alterations, and that the neuropsychological profile of demented subjects with significant periventricular and deep white matter alterations is similar to other subcortical dementing illnesses. PMID:14588416

  20. Study Finds Fault with ICU Treatment of Dementia Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Study Finds Fault With ICU Treatment of Dementia Patients Hospitals put too many on ventilators, adding ... red flags about the use of ventilators among dementia patients in intensive care units. Researchers analyzed data ...

  1. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  2. Reversible dementias

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Manjari; Vibha, Deepti

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the early diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia which is essential to identify patients with cognitive symptoms who may have treatable conditions. Guidelines suggest that all patients presenting with dementia or cognitive symptoms should be evaluated with a range of laboratory tests, and with structural brain imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While many of the disorders reported as ‘reversible dementias’ are conditions that may well be associated with cognitive or behavioral symptoms, these symptoms are not always sufficiently severe to fulfill the clinical criteria for dementia. Thus, while the etiology of a condition may be treatable it should not be assumed that the associated dementia is fully reversible. Potentially reversible dementias should be identified and treatment considered, even if the symptoms are not sufficiently severe to meet the clinical criteria for dementia, and even if partial or full reversal of the cognitive symptoms cannot be guaranteed. In the literature, the most frequently observed potentially reversible conditions identified in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia are depression, adverse effects of drugs, drug or alcohol abuse, space-occupying lesions, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and metabolic conditions land endocrinal conditions like hypothyroidism and nutritional conditions like vitamin B-12 deficiency. Depression is by far the most common of the potentially reversible conditions. The review, hence addresses the common causes of reversible dementia and the studies published so far. PMID:21416018

  3. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation.

  4. Diagnosing young onset dementia can be challenging.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Although the risk of developing dementia increases with age, onset can be as early as the third or fourth decade of life. Genetic influences play a more important role in younger than in older people with dementia, so young onset dementia may cluster in families. Diagnosing young onset dementia is challenging. The range of possible presenting features is broad, encompassing behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and neurological domains, and symptoms are often subtle initially. Frequently the complaints are misattributed to stress or depression, and the patient is falsely reassured that they are too young to have dementia. The most common causes of young onset dementia are early onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions and alcohol. Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of young onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Conventional vascular risk factors may be absent and diagnosis relies on imaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Obtaining a detailed history remains the most important part of the workup and usually requires corroboration by a third party. Undertaking a basic neurological examination is also important. Those with suspected young onset dementia should be referred to a neurology-led cognitive disorders clinic where available as the differenti diagnosis is considerably broader tha in older adults and requires specialist investigation. PMID:27382914

  5. A therapeutic approach for senile dementias: neuroangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related senile dementias (SDs) represent a growing medical and economic crisis in this country. Apart from cautioning persons about risk factors, no practical, effective therapy is currently available. Much of the recent research in AD has been based on the amyloid cascade theory. Another approach assumes a vascular basis for SDs. This paper presents evidence from a score of studies that cerebral capillary density (CCD) declines during old age in animals and people as well as in AD. Neuroangiogenic (NAG) factors initiate and maintain capillaries in the brain. Thus a waning level of these factors and the ensuing declining CCD would lead to local areas of reduced oxygen and glucose and result in impaired synaptic and neuronal function. The NAG hypothesis developed here proposes that the age-linked decline in CCD is a terminal condition in SDs, including many cases of AD. This age-linked decline is independent of any other of the various pathologies proposed as causing AD and listed in Table 1. Waning NAG factors would render the SDs a deficiency condition, somewhat like falling androgen levels in aging males. A logical corollary of this hypothesis is that chronic replacement therapy with recombinant forms of NAG factors may arrest the age-linked decline in CCD and prevent further loss of memory and mental deterioration. A transnasal route of therapy seems the most practical one for general use in the large aging populations. PMID:25061056

  6. NMR analysis of the human saliva metabolome distinguishes dementia patients from matched controls.

    PubMed

    Figueira, João; Jonsson, Pär; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nyberg, Lars; Öhman, Anders

    2016-07-19

    Saliva is a biofluid that is sensitive to metabolic changes and is straightforward to collect in a non-invasive manner, but it is seldom used for metabolite analysis when studying neurodegenerative disorders. We present a procedure for both an untargeted and targeted analysis of the saliva metabolome in which nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used in combination with multivariate data analysis. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated on saliva samples selected from the 25 year prospective Betula study, including samples from dementia subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia at the time of sampling or who developed it by the next sampling/assessment occasion five years later, and age-, gender-, and education-matched control individuals without dementia. Statistically significant multivariate models were obtained that separated patients with dementia from controls and revealed seven discriminatory metabolites. Dementia patients showed significantly increased concentrations of acetic acid (fold change (fc) = 1.25, p = 2 × 10(-5)), histamine (fc = 1.26, p = 0.019), and propionate (fc = 1.35, p = 0.002), while significantly decreased levels were observed for dimethyl sulfone (fc = 0.81, p = 0.005), glycerol (fc = 0.79, p = 0.04), taurine (fc = 0.70, p = 0.007), and succinate (fc = 0.62, p = 0.008). Histamine, succinate, and taurine are known to be important in AD, and acetic acid and glycerol are involved in related pathways. Dimethyl sulfone and propionate originate from the diet and bacterial flora and might reflect poorer periodontal status in the dementia patients. For these seven metabolites, a weak but statistically significant pre-diagnostic value was observed. Taken together, we present a robust and general NMR analysis approach for studying the saliva metabolome that has potential use for screening and early detection of dementia. PMID:27265744

  7. Dementia, Advance Directives, and Discontinuity of Personality.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Joseph P; Lipuma, Samuel H

    2016-10-01

    We argue that an advance directive (AD) is not invalidated by personality changes in dementia, as is claimed by Rebecca Dresser. The claim is that a new person results under such personality changes, and that the former person cannot write an AD for the new person. After stating the argument against ADs in cases of dementia, we provide a detailed examination of empirical studies of personality changes in dementia. This evidence, though not strong due mainly to low sample sizes and different notions of personal identity, does not support Dresser's position. Given the weakness in the empirical evidence, we turn to a philosophical defense of ADs based on a social contract view supporting the current interests of those writing ADs. Additionally, we argue that personality change is not equivalent to change in personal identity, as would be required by the argument against ADs in cases of dementia. PMID:27634718

  8. The neuropathology and cerebrovascular mechanisms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Raz, Limor; Knoefel, Janice; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in our aging population at an alarming rate. Because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentation and complexity of disease neuropathology, dementia classifications remain controversial. Recently, the National Plan to address Alzheimer’s Disease prioritized Alzheimer’s disease-related dementias to include: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementias. While each of these dementing conditions has their unique pathologic signature, one common etiology shared among all these conditions is cerebrovascular dysfunction at some point during the disease process. The goal of this comprehensive review is to summarize the current findings in the field and address the important contributions of cerebrovascular, physiologic, and cellular alterations to cognitive impairment in these human dementias. Specifically, evidence will be presented in support of small-vessel disease as an underlying neuropathologic hallmark of various dementias, while controversial findings will also be highlighted. Finally, the molecular mechanisms shared among all dementia types including hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial bioenergetics, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and blood–brain barrier permeability responsible for disease etiology and progression will be discussed.

  9. [Dementia with Lewy bodies].

    PubMed

    Orimo, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    It is important to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), because the medical treatment, management, and the prognosis of these diseases are different. In regard to clinical features, DLB patients have relatively mild memory disturbance, fluctuating cognition, more severe disturbances of attention, executive function, visuospacial function, visual hallucination, depression, autonomic symptoms, REM sleep behavior disorder, and idiopathic parkinsonism compared to AD patients. In regard to imaging tools, DLB patients have milder atrophy of medial temporal lobe by brain MRI, reduced occipital activity by SPECT or PET, reduced MIBG uptake by MIBG cardiac scintigraphy, and low dopamine transporter activity in the basal ganglia by SPECT or PET. PMID:27025091

  10. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from the first ... disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive assessments followed by ...

  11. Targets for the prevention of dementia.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Laura E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase dramatically over the upcoming decades due to the aging population. Since treatment is still short of a cure, preventative strategies are of the utmost importance. Stimulating activity (cognitive, physical, and social), vascular risk factors, and diet may be important in preventative strategies. Dementia risk may be modified by participation in stimulating activities. One study suggested that the cognitive, physical, and social components of activity were of equal importance to cognitive outcomes. However, while exercise interventions appear to benefit global cognition, the benefits from cognitive training appear to be domain specific. People with vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity) appear to be at higher risk for dementia than those without in observational and clinical trials. Controlled trials suggest that vascular risk management via some pharmaceutical interventions may benefit cognition, though results are inconsistent. Finally, people who adhere to a Mediterranean diet or who have high intake of antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids have reduced likelihood of dementia in observational studies. However, supplementation in controlled trials has not generally proved successful at improving cognitive outcomes. A single supplement may be insufficient to prevent dementia; it may be that the overall diet is more important. Future large randomized controlled studies should examine whether interventions can reduce the risk of dementia and whether combining cognitive, physical, and social activity, vascular risk reduction, and dietary interventions might have additive or multiplicative effects.

  12. Dementia with Lewy bodies

    PubMed Central

    Ferman, Tanis J.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The advent of new immunostains have improved our ability to detect limbic and cortical Lewy bodies, and it is now evident that Dementa with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia, after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Distinguishing DLB from AD has important implications for treatment, in terms of substances that may worsen symptoms (i.e., anticholinergic and certain neuroleptic medications) and those that may improve them (i.e., cholinesterase inhibitors, carbidopa-levodopa). Neurocognitive patterns, psychiatric features, extrapyramidal signs and sleep disturbance are helpful in differentiating DLB from AD early in the disease course. Differences in the severity of cholinergic depletion as well as type and distribution of neuropathology contribute to these clinical differences, though DLB patients with a high density of co-occuring AD pathology are less clinical distinguishable from AD. PMID:17659188

  13. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and prevention of late-life cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Panza, F; Solfrizzi, V; Barulli, M R; Bonfiglio, C; Guerra, V; Osella, A; Seripa, D; Sabbà, C; Pilotto, A; Logroscino, G

    2015-03-01

    A prolonged preclinical phase of more than two decades before the onset of dementia suggested that initial brain changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the symptoms of advanced AD may represent a unique continuum. Given the very limited therapeutic value of drugs currently used in the treatment of AD and dementia, preventing or postponing the onset of AD and delaying or slowing its progression are becoming mandatory. Among possible reversible risk factors of dementia and AD, vascular, metabolic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the development of dementia and late-life cognitive disorders, opening new avenues for the prevention of these diseases. Among diet-associated factors, coffee is regularly consumed by millions of people around the world and owing to its caffeine content, it is the best known psychoactive stimulant resulting in heightened alertness and arousal and improvement of cognitive performance. Besides its short-term effect, some case-control and cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies evaluated the long-term effects on brain function and provided some evidence that coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or higher plasma caffeine levels may be protective against cognitive impairment/decline and dementia. In particular, several cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based studies suggested a protective effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine use against late-life cognitive impairment/decline, although the association was not found in all cognitive domains investigated and there was a lack of a distinct dose-response association, with a stronger effect among women than men. The findings on the association of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption or plasma caffeine levels with incident mild cognitive impairment and its progression to dementia were too limited to draw any conclusion. Furthermore, for dementia and AD prevention, some studies with baseline examination in midlife pointed to a lack of association, although

  14. Screening dementia in the outpatient department: patients at risk for dementia.

    PubMed

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Huang, Shu-Wan; Hsu, Chia-Ling; Yang, Chiu-Hsien; Chou, Mei-Chuan; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2014-01-01

    The targeted screening for individuals at the risks of having dementia would be crucial to the further public health issues for dementia. This study aimed to conduct a screening study in an outpatient department of a regional hospital to screen people who were at risk of developing comorbid dementia. Patients who visited Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital (KMTTH) clinics during the period from June 1, 2013, to May 31, 2014, were invited to participate in this screening voluntarily. The trained interviewer collected all participants' demographic characteristics and used the instrument of ascertainment of dementia 8 (AD8) to find out suspected dementia ones. The result showed a higher ratio (24.1%) of suspected dementia in the outpatient department of a hospital, 500 out of 2017 subjects, than that in the general population. The median (interquartile range) age was significantly higher in the suspected dementia participants (70, (62, 77)) compared to that in nonsuspected dementia ones (65, (60, 73)), and the probability of suspected dementia was significantly increasing with age (P<0.001). Instead of screening dementia in general population, screening people at the risk of dementia could be the practicable and important issues in the care of dementia. PMID:25548776

  15. N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) antibodies in mild cognitive impairment and dementias.

    PubMed

    Busse, Stefan; Brix, Britta; Kunschmann, Ralf; Bogerts, Bernhard; Stoecker, Winfried; Busse, Mandy

    2014-08-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) plays a central role in learning and memory and has therefore a potential role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, we detected NMDA-R autoantibodies in aged healthy volunteers without neuropsychiatric disorders. Since studies showing the involvement of NMDA-R antibodies in mild cognitive impairment and different forms of dementia are rare, we examined NMDA-R antibodies (Abs) in serum of 46 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 26 patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD), 18 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 11 patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) and 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in 21 healthy aged, gender-matched volunteers. While IgM and/or IgA NMDA-R Abs were present in all groups, IgG was only detected in one AD sample. Seropositivity could be correlated with the presence of co-symptoms: MCI and AD patients suffering from depression and AD and SIVD patients with a psychosis were almost all NMDA-R Ab positive. We conclude that the presence of NMDA-R Abs in dementia could influence the incidence of comorbid depressive and/or psychotic states.

  16. Memantine: a review of studies into its safety and efficacy in treating Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stuart J; Grossberg, George T

    2009-01-01

    Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist with moderate affinity. Its mechanism of action is neuroprotective and potentially therapeutic in several neuropsychiatric diseases. It has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) either as a monotherapy or in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors. This review covers key studies of memantine's safety and efficacy in treating moderate to severe AD. It also covers current research into other dementias including but not exclusively mild AD and vascular dementia. Other studies on the efficacy of memantine for other neuropsychiatric diseases are discussed. Memantine is a safe and effective drug that merits further research on several topics. Clinicians should be aware of new studies and potential uses of memantine because of its safety and efficacy.

  17. Free and cued selective reminding identifies very mild dementia in primary care.

    PubMed

    Grober, Ellen; Sanders, Amy E; Hall, Charles; Lipton, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is used widely to identify very mild dementia; 3 alternative scoring procedures have been proposed based on free recall, total recall, and cue efficiency. We compared the predictive validity of these scoring procedures for the identification of very mild prevalent dementia (CDR=0.5), of incident dementia, and for distinguishing Alzheimer Disease (AD) and nonAD dementias. We tested 244 elderly African American and White primary care patients at 18 month intervals using a screening neuropsychologic battery that included the FCSRT and a comprehensive diagnostic neuropsychologic battery. Median follow-up was 2.6 years. Dementia diagnoses were assigned using standard criteria without access to the results of the screening battery. There were 50 prevalent and 28 incident dementia cases. At scores selected to provide specificities of 90%, free recall was more sensitive to incident and prevalent dementia than the other 2 measures. Patients with impaired free recall were 15 times more likely to have a prevalent dementia and their risk of future dementia was 4 times higher than patients with intact free recall. Neither race nor education affected prediction although older patients were at increased risk of future dementia. Total recall was more impaired in AD dementia than in nonAD dementias. The results indicate that using the FCSRT, free recall is the best measure for detecting prevalent dementia and predicting future dementia. Total recall impairment supports the diagnosis of AD rather than nonAD dementia. PMID:20683186

  18. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bhupesh Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  19. A link between vascular damage and cognitive deficits after whole-brain radiation therapy for cancer: A clue to other types of dementia?

    PubMed

    Yamada, Maki K

    2016-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy for the treatment of tumors can sometimes cause cognitive impairment. Memory deficits were noted in up to 50% of treated patients over a short period of several months. In addition, an increased rate of dementia in young patients has been noted over the longer term, i.e. years. A deficit in neurogenesis after irradiation has been postulated to be the main cause of cognitive decline in patients, but recent data on irradiation therapy for limited parts of the brain appear to indicate other possibilities. Irradiation can directly damage various types of cells other than neuronal stem cells. However, this paper will focus on injury to brain vasculature leading to cognitive decline since vessels represent a better therapeutic target for drug development than other cells in the brain because of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:27087553

  20. The Impact of Admission Diagnosis on Recurrent or Frequent Hospitalizations in 3 Dementia Subtypes: A Hospital-Based Cohort in Taiwan with 4 Years Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lui, Chun-Chung; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Chen-Chang; Lai, Wei-An

    2015-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with different types of dementia have resulted in the increasing medical care loads. It is not known whether explanatory factors for recurrent or prolong hospitalization were driven by the subtypes of dementia. We analyzed 203 dementia patients aged >65-year-old with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or Parkinsonism-related dementia (PRD). With a 4-year follow-up period, logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of dementia diagnosis, cerebrovascular risk factors, chronic systemic diseases, and the etiology for admission for recurrent (>4 times/4 years) or prolonged hospitalization stay (>14 days per hospitalization). There were 48 AD, 96 VaD, and 59 PRD patients that completed the 4-year study. The average length of hospital stay was significant, the shortest in AD and the longest in PRD (P = 0.01), whereas the frequency of hospitalization was not different among 3 dementia subtypes. Although delirium is the most common etiology for admission in the patients, diabetes mellitus (Odds ratio, OR = 2.79, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 11.21, P < 0.001), and fall-related hip fracture (OR = 4.762, P = 0.029) were significantly associated with prolong hospitalization. Patients with coronary artery disease (OR = 9.87, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 84.48, P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR = 55.09, P < 0.001), and fall-related fracture (OR = 141.7, P < 0.001) predict recurrent hospitalization. Dementia subtypes did not influence directly on the hospitalization courses. The etiologies for admission carried higher clinical significance, compared with the coexisted systemic diseases. PMID:26579820

  1. Vascular risk factors: a ticking time bomb to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jack C

    2013-09-01

    Evidence is growing that vascular risk factors (VRFs) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect cerebral hemodynamics to launch a cascade of cellular and molecular changes that initiate cognitive deficits and eventual progression of AD. Neuroimaging studies have reported VRFs for AD to be accurate predictors of cognitive decline and dementia. In regions that participate in higher cognitive function, middle temporal, posterior cingulate, inferior parietal and precuneus regions, and neuroimaging studies indicate an association involving VRFs, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cognitive decline in elderly individuals who develop AD. The VRF can be present in cognitively intact individuals for decades before mild cognitive deficits or neuropathological signs are manifested. In that sense, they may be "ticking time bombs" before cognitive function is demolished. Preventive intervention of modifiable VRF may delay or block progression of AD. Intervention could target cerebral blood flow (CBF), since most VRFs act to lower CBF in aging individuals by promoting cerebrovascular dysfunction. PMID:23813612

  2. Quantitative EEG Neurometric Analysis-Guided Neurofeedback Treatment in Dementia: 20 Cases. How Neurometric Analysis Is Important for the Treatment of Dementia and as a Biomarker?

    PubMed

    Surmeli, Tanju; Eralp, Emin; Mustafazade, Ilhan; Kos, Hadi; Özer, Gül Elif; Surmeli, Orkun H

    2016-04-01

    Dementia is a debilitating degenerative disorder where the sufferer's cognitive abilities decline over time, depending on the type of dementia. The more common types of dementia include Alzheimer's disease and vascular or multi-infarct dementia. In this study, 20 subjects with dementia (9 of Alzheimer's type, and 11 with vascular dementia) were treated using qEEG-guided neurofeedback training. The Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used as the primary outcome measure. The results showed an increase of the MMSE scores for all subjects regardless of dementia type with an average MMSE score increase of 6 points, which was found to be significant. To our knowledge this is the first time the same modality was shown to be beneficial in both dementia groups.

  3. Quantitative EEG Neurometric Analysis-Guided Neurofeedback Treatment in Dementia: 20 Cases. How Neurometric Analysis Is Important for the Treatment of Dementia and as a Biomarker?

    PubMed

    Surmeli, Tanju; Eralp, Emin; Mustafazade, Ilhan; Kos, Hadi; Özer, Gül Elif; Surmeli, Orkun H

    2016-04-01

    Dementia is a debilitating degenerative disorder where the sufferer's cognitive abilities decline over time, depending on the type of dementia. The more common types of dementia include Alzheimer's disease and vascular or multi-infarct dementia. In this study, 20 subjects with dementia (9 of Alzheimer's type, and 11 with vascular dementia) were treated using qEEG-guided neurofeedback training. The Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used as the primary outcome measure. The results showed an increase of the MMSE scores for all subjects regardless of dementia type with an average MMSE score increase of 6 points, which was found to be significant. To our knowledge this is the first time the same modality was shown to be beneficial in both dementia groups. PMID:26099949

  4. Adipokines: a link between obesity and dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Kiliaan, Amanda J; Arnoldussen, Ilse AC; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2014-01-01

    Being overweight or obese, as measured with body mass index (BMI) or central adiposity (waist circumference), and evolving trajectory of BMI over the life course, have been associated with brain atrophy, white matter changes, blood brain barrier integrity and risk of all-cause late-onset dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This observation leads us to question what it is about BMI that is associated with health of the brain and dementia risk. If high BMI and central adiposity represent an increase in adipose tissue, then the endocrine aspect of adipose tissue, mediated by adipose tissue hormones and adipokines, may be a clue to understanding the association with dementia and AD. Hundreds of adipokines have been identified, creating a complexity that is challenging to simplify. Nonetheless, adipokines are being investigated in association with clinical dementia outcomes, as well as imaging-based measures of brain volume, structure and function in preclinical and human models of clinical dementia. PMID:25142458

  5. Qualitative Assessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Persons with Very Mild Dementia: The Kurihara Project

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Yoshitaka; Kasai, Mari; Nakamura, Kei; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Meguro, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated quantitative/qualitative changes of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in people with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5. Methods IADLs were evaluated in older residents: CDR of 0 (healthy) and CDR 0.5 (questionable/very mild dementia). The subjects with CDR 0.5 were divided into 2 types: the very mild Alzheimer's disease (vmAD) type and the other type including very mild subcortical vascular dementia. IADLs were evaluated quantitatively using the Lawton and the original qualitative IADL scales. Results CDR 0.5/vmAD type subjects had impairment of only one Lawton item (Shopping) compared to CDR 0 subjects. However, the CDR 0.5/vmAD type group and the CDR 0.5/other type group showed impairment of 3 items in the qualitative assessment (Shopping, Food preparation, and Mode of transportation). Conclusion We suggest using both quantitative/qualitative IADL scales for assessing older adults with very mild dementia. PMID:27703470

  6. [A study using positron emission tomography of a case of vascular dementia due to left thalamic haematoma, an example of the diaschisis phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Martin, E; Del Mazo-Sanchez, S; Molano-Salazar, A; Bereincua-Gandarias, R; Llorens-Abando, V; Fernandez-Martinez, M

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. Las lesiones vasculares talamicas que se comportan como ictus estrategicos pueden causar amnesia, disfunciones ejecutivas o disfasia, asi como sintomas comportamentales o psicologicos, y causar una demencia vascular. Caso clinico. Mujer de 58 años, hipertensa y dislipidemica, que, tras una hemorragia talamica izquierda que evoluciono radiologicamente de manera favorable, presento un sindrome amnesico grave y otras alteraciones sutiles en la orientacion y el lenguaje, dificultades en el manejo del dinero y sintomas depresivos que precisaron tratamiento ansiolitico y antidepresivo, todo lo cual fue causa de limitaciones para el normal desempeño de su trabajo. Seguida en la consulta de neurologia, se le practico una tomografia por emision de positrones/tomografia axial computarizada con 18F-2-fluoro-2-desoxi-D-glucosa, donde se aprecio un hipometabolismo en el talamo izquierdo y, ademas, en la region frontal inferior ipsilateral, que se explicaria mediante el fenomeno de diasquisis. Conclusiones. El fenomeno de diasquisis es un hallazgo de neuroimagen y fisiopatologico por el cual los ictus talamicos o de los ganglios basales causan hipoperfusion/hipometabolismo en la corteza ipsilateral o contralateral, y que puede explicar sintomas a distancia corticales. El presente caso evidencia la presencia de conexiones talamocorticales, lo cual ayuda a comprender los circuitos de la memoria y a explicar la asociacion en el de otros sintomas corticales, como la disfasia o las alteraciones ejecutivas.

  7. Alzheimer's disease dementia guidelines for diagnostic testing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Pedraza, Olga L; Rodríguez, Andrea; Sánchez, Erick; Gich, Ignasi; Solà, Ivan; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD dementia) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide, with a growing incidence during the last decades. Clinical diagnosis of cognitive impairment and presence of AD biomarkers have become important issues for early and adequate treatment. We performed a systematic literature search and quality appraisal of AD dementia guidelines, published between 2005 and 2011, which contained diagnostic recommendations on AD dementia. We also analyzed diagnostic recommendations related to the use of brief cognitive tests, neuropsychological evaluation, and AD biomarkers. Of the 537 retrieved references, 15 met the selection criteria. We found that Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE)-II domains such as applicability and editorial independence had the lowest scores. The wide variability on assessment of quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were the main concerns identified regarding diagnostic testing. Although the appropriate methodology for clinical practice guideline development is well known, the quality of diagnostic AD dementia guidelines can be significantly improved. PMID:23288575

  8. The prevalence of dementia in Girona.

    PubMed

    López Pousa, S; Llinás Regla, J; Vilalta Franch, J; Lozano Fernández de Pinedo, L

    1995-05-01

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in a rural area. From a total of 2,469 people over 65 who were not committed to any institution, 273 were randomly chosen and stratified by age and sex. Of these 273 individuals, 244 (89.4%) took part in the study. Family doctors administered the miniexamen cognoscitivo (MEC), a Spanish version of the Mini Mental State Exam to screen all individuals taking part in the first phase. Enrolled in the second phase were all those whose scores on the MEC were below the cut-off point, plus a similar number of individuals whose scores were above this level and who were used as controls. The CAMDEX was the instrument used for diagnosis by clinical psychologists. The overall prevalence of dementia in the area under study was 13.93 +/- 4.34%. This prevalence includes the three levels of diagnosis certainty for CAMDEX (definitive, probable and possible) and the three levels of severity (minimum, mild, moderate, and severe) defined by the instrument. The number of individuals with dementia increased with age. Females showed more dementia than males in all age groups. The distribution of dementia by subtypes was 41.18% for both Alzheimer's type senile and presenile forms, and for vascular dementia, and 17.64% for mixed dementia. Our results show a prevalence of dementia that is higher than rates observed in other studies using similar materials and methods.

  9. The vascular contribution to Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Robin; Rutledge, John C.

    2010-01-01

    AD (Alzheimer’s disease) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin. Despite questions as to the underlying cause(s) of this disease, shared risk factors for both AD and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease indicate that vascular mechanisms may critically contribute to the development and progression of both AD and atherosclerosis. An increased risk of developing AD is linked to the presence of the apoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) allele, which is also strongly associated with increased risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Recent studies also indicate that cardiovascular risk factors, including elevated blood cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride), increase the likelihood of AD and vascular dementia. Lipids and lipoproteins in the circulation interact intimately with the cerebrovasculature, and may have important effects on its constituent brain microvascular endothelial cells and the adjoining astrocytes, which are components of the neurovascular unit. The present review will examine the potential mechanisms for understanding the contributions of vascular factors, including lipids, lipoproteins and cerebrovascular Aβ (amyloid β), to AD, and suggest therapeutic strategies for the attenuation of this devastating disease process. Specifically, we will focus on the actions of apoE, TGRLs (triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins) and TGRL lipolysis products on injury of the neurovascular unit and increases in blood–brain barrier permeability. PMID:20684749

  10. Clinical features and multidisciplinary approaches to dementia care

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Jacob HG; Caspar, Sienna; MacDonald, Stuart WS

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome of widespread progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities and normal daily functioning. These cognitive and behavioral impairments pose considerable challenges to individuals with dementia, along with their family members and caregivers. Four primary dementia classifications have been defined according to clinical and research criteria: 1) Alzheimer’s disease; 2) vascular dementias; 3) frontotemporal dementias; and 4) dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease dementia. The cumulative efforts of multidisciplinary healthcare teams have advanced our understanding of dementia beyond basic descriptions, towards a more complete elucidation of risk factors, clinical symptoms, and neuropathological correlates. The characterization of disease subtypes has facilitated targeted management strategies, advanced treatments, and symptomatic care for individuals affected by dementia. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge and directions of dementia research and clinical practice. We provide a description of the risk factors, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis of dementia. A summary of multidisciplinary team approaches to dementia care is outlined, including management strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairments, functional deficits, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The needs of individuals with dementia are extensive, often requiring care beyond traditional bounds of medical practice, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management interventions. Finally, advanced research on the early prodromal phase of dementia is reviewed, with a focus on change-point models, trajectories of cognitive change, and threshold models of pathological burden. Future research goals are outlined, with a call to action for social policy initiatives that promote preventive lifestyle behaviors, and healthcare programs that will support the growing number of individuals affected by

  11. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Dementia Types of Dementia Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Dementia with Lewy Bodies Down ... Research Traumatic Brain Injury and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Awardees Year Researcher Study Name 2015 Jesse Mez ...

  12. Types of Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Dementia Types of Dementia Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Dementia with Lewy Bodies Down ... Research Traumatic Brain Injury and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Awardees Year Researcher Study Name 2015 Jesse Mez ...

  13. What to Ask: Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... What to Ask: Dementia Tools and Tips The memory loss and other changes seen in dementia can ... can ask your healthcare proffesional about dementia. Is memory loss a normal part of aging? If so, ...

  14. Cerebral Perfusion Enhancing Interventions: A New Strategy for the Prevention of Alzheimer Dementia.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jack C

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are major risk factors in the development of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These cardio-cerebral disorders promote a variety of vascular risk factors which in the presence of advancing age are prone to markedly reduce cerebral perfusion and create a neuronal energy crisis. Long-term hypoperfusion of the brain evolves mainly from cardiac structural pathology and brain vascular insufficiency. Brain hypoperfusion in the elderly is strongly associated with the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and both conditions are presumed to be precursors of Alzheimer dementia. A therapeutic target to prevent or treat MCI and consequently reduce the incidence of AD aims to elevate cerebral perfusion using novel pharmacological agents. As reviewed here, the experimental pharmaca include the use of Rho kinase inhibitors, neurometabolic energy boosters, sirtuins and vascular growth factors. In addition, a compelling new technique in laser medicine called photobiomodulation is reviewed. Photobiomodulation is based on the use of low level laser therapy to stimulate mitochondrial energy production non-invasively in nerve cells. The use of novel pharmaca and photobiomodulation may become important tools in the treatment or prevention of cognitive decline that can lead to dementia. PMID:27324946

  15. Imaging of neurodegenerative cognitive and behavioral disorders: practical considerations for dementia clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Atri, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI). Best clinical practices dictate that structural imaging, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when possible and computed tomography when not, be obtained as a first-tier approach during the course of a thorough clinical evaluation to improve diagnostic confidence and assess for nonneurodegenerative treatable conditions that may cause or substantially contribute to cognitive/behavioral symptoms or which may dictate a substantial change in management. These conditions include less common structural (e.g., mass lesions such as tumors and hematomas; normal-pressure hydrocephalus), inflammatory, autoimmune and infectious conditions, and more common comorbid contributing conditions (e.g., vascular cerebral injury causing leukoaraiosis, infarcts, or microhemorrhages) that can produce a mixed dementia syndrome. When, after appropriate clinical, cognitive/neuropsychologic, and structural neuroimaging assessment, a dementia specialist remains in doubt regarding etiology and appropriate management, second-tier imaging with molecular methods, preferably with fluorodexoyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) (or single-photon emission computed tomography if PET is unavailable) can provide more diagnostic specificity (e.g., help differentiate between atypical AD and FTD as

  16. Impact of Adult Day Services on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Greene, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether adult day service (ADS) use was associated with reductions in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in individuals with dementia. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design to compare a group of 133 persons with dementia (PWDs) who initially enrolled in an ADS program to a…

  17. Promising strategies for the prevention of dementia.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Laura E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2009-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of dementia are expected to increase several-fold in the coming decades. Given that the current pharmaceutical treatment of dementia can only modestly improve symptoms, risk factor modification remains the cornerstone for dementia prevention. Some of the most promising strategies for the prevention of dementia include vascular risk factor control, cognitive activity, physical activity, social engagement, diet, and recognition of depression. In observational studies, vascular risk factors-including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity-are fairly consistently associated with increased risk of dementia. In addition, people with depression are at high risk for cognitive impairment. Population studies have reported that intake of antioxidants or polyunsaturated fatty acids may be associated with a reduced incidence of dementia, and it has been reported that people who are cognitively, socially, and physically active have a reduced risk of cognitive impairment. However, results from randomized trials of risk factor modification have been mixed. Most promising, interventions of cognitive and physical activity improve cognitive performance and slow cognitive decline. Future studies should continue to examine the implication of risk factor modification in controlled trials, with particular focus on whether several simultaneous interventions may have additive or multiplicative effects.

  18. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era.

  19. [Mini mental state as a method of diagnosing early dementia].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L; Ussorowska, D

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the validity of the Mini Mental State as a screening instrument for the diagnosis of dementia in comparison with the DSWM III R criteria for dementing syndromes. We conducted a case-control study of 335 person--89 had a diagnosis of primary progressive dementia, 76 had a diagnosis of vascular dementia. The data show that the Mini Mental State is useful clinical instrument for the preliminary screening for the diagnosis of dementia. PMID:8650033

  20. Vascular cognitive impairment in diabetes mellitus: are prevention and treatment effective?

    PubMed

    Zavoreo, Iris; Madžar, Zrinko; Demarin, Vida; Kes, Vanja Bašić

    2014-09-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by progressive atherosclerosis leading to multiple small strokes and subsequent brain damage. Approximately 10%-20% of all cases of dementia are attributed to vascular dementia. The 5-year survival rate is 39% for patients with vascular dementia compared with 75% for age-matched controls. It is a growing public health concern because of the lack of effective curative treatment options and rising global prevalence. Duration of diabetes mellitus of 10 years or longer, onset of diabetes before age 65, treatment with insulin and oral antidiabetic medications, and presence of diabetes complications have an impact on the incidence of vascular dementia. On the other hand, patients who suffered stroke either had or are later diagnosed with diabetes (16%-24%). Treatment of vascular dementia in diabetes patients rests on a two-pronged approach: modification of the underlying disease and prevention and treatment of dementia symptoms.

  1. Spotlight on cerebrolysin in dementia.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L; Gauthier, Serge

    2010-03-01

    Cerebrolysin is a parenterally administered, porcine brain-derived peptide preparation that has pharmacodynamic properties similar to those of endogenous neurotrophic factors. In several randomized, double-blind trials of up to 28 weeks' duration in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Cerebrolysin was superior to placebo in improving global outcome measures and cognitive ability. A large, randomized comparison of Cerebrolysin, donepezil or combination therapy showed beneficial effects on global measures and cognition for all three treatment groups compared with baseline. Although not as extensively studied in patients with vascular dementia, Cerebrolysin has also shown beneficial effects on global measures and cognition in this patient population. Cerebrolysin was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with dizziness (or vertigo) being the most frequently reported adverse event. Although further studies with Cerebrolysin, including longer term trials and further exploration of its use in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors, are needed to more clearly determine its place in the management of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, available data suggest that Cerebrolysin is a useful addition to the treatment options available for dementia.

  2. The Gothenburg MCI study: Design and distribution of Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular disease diagnoses from baseline to 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Anders; Nordlund, Arto; Jonsson, Michael; Lind, Karin; Edman, Åke; Göthlin, Mattias; Stålhammar, Jacob; Eckerström, Marie; Kern, Silke; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Carlsson, Mårten; Olsson, Erik; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Svensson, Johan; Öhrfelt, Annika; Bjerke, Maria; Rolstad, Sindre; Eckerström, Carl

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for increased nosological knowledge to enable rational trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders. The ongoing Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment (MCI) study is an attempt to conduct longitudinal in-depth phenotyping of patients with different forms and degrees of cognitive impairment using neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurochemical tools. Particular attention is paid to the interplay between AD and subcortical vascular disease, the latter representing a disease entity that may cause or contribute to cognitive impairment with an effect size that may be comparable to AD. Of 664 patients enrolled between 1999 and 2013, 195 were diagnosed with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 274 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 195 with dementia, at baseline. Of the 195 (29%) patients with dementia at baseline, 81 (42%) had AD, 27 (14%) SVD, 41 (21%) mixed type dementia (=AD + SVD = MixD), and 46 (23%) other etiologies. After 6 years, 292 SCI/MCI patients were eligible for follow-up. Of these 292, 69 (24%) had converted to dementia (29 (42%) AD, 16 (23%) SVD, 15 (22%) MixD, 9 (13%) other etiologies). The study has shown that it is possible to identify not only AD but also incipient and manifest MixD/SVD in a memory clinic setting. These conditions should be taken into account in clinical trials. PMID:26174331

  3. Occupational exposure to low frequency magnetic fields and dementia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Andreas; Geller, Petra; Nienhaus, Albert; Bernhardt, Tanja; Ruppe, Ingeburg; Eggert, Siegfried; Hietanen, Maila; Kauppinen, Timo; Frölich, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    Background Several studies point to a potential aetiological relevance to dementia of exposure to low‐frequency magnetic fields, but the evidence is inconclusive. Objective To further examine the relationship between low frequency magnetic fields and dementia. Methods From 23 general practices, 195 patients with dementia were recruited. Of these, 108 had possible Alzheimer's disease, 59 had possible vascular dementia and 28 had secondary or unclassified dementia. A total of 229 controls were recruited: 122 population controls and 107 ambulatory patients free from dementia. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview; in cases, the interview was administered to the next of kin. Exposure to low‐frequency electromagnetic fields was assessed by expert rating. To identify occupations suspected to be associated with dementia, major occupations were a priori formed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression, to control for age, region, sex, dementia in parents and smoking. Results Exposure to magnetic fields was not significantly associated with dementia; restriction of the analysis to cases with possible Alzheimer's disease or possible vascular dementia did not lead to statistically significant results. We found an increased risk of dementia in blue‐collar occupations (electrical and electronics workers, metal workers, construction workers, food and beverage processors and labourers). Conclusions Our study does not support a strong association between occupational exposure to low‐frequency magnetic fields and dementia. Further studies should consider the relationship between blue‐collar work and the late development of dementia. PMID:17043077

  4. [Dementia study using induced pluripotent stem cells].

    PubMed

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Abe, Koji; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology have facilitated, and have contributed to overcome the difficulty of modeling dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), etc. The following models using iPSCs were reported: the pathophysiology caused by gene mutations such as presenilin or amyloid β precursor protein in AD, α-synuclein in DLB, and microtubule-associated protein tau, fused in sarcoma, progranulin, or chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 in FTLD, anti-AD drug screening, sortilin-related receptor L 1 haplotype influence in sporadic AD, and amyloid β secretion in Down syndrome. Patient-specific iPSC could be expected to reveal the disease pathology and lead to drug discoveries for dementia patients.

  5. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Virués-Ortega, Javier; Vega, Saturio; Seijo-Martínez, Manuel; Saz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Fernanda; Rodríguez-Laso, Angel; Reñé, Ramón; de las Heras, Susana Pérez; Mateos, Raimundo; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Manubens, José María; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; López-Pousa, Secundino; Lobo, Antonio; Reglà, Jordi Llinàs; Gascón, Jordi; García, Francisco José; Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; Boix, Raquel; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Bergareche, Alberto; Benito-León, Julián; de Arce, Ana; del Barrio, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008). Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above) was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia). Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted. PMID:19840375

  6. Stereotypic behaviors in degenerative dementias.

    PubMed

    Prioni, S; Fetoni, V; Barocco, F; Redaelli, V; Falcone, C; Soliveri, P; Tagliavini, F; Scaglioni, A; Caffarra, P; Concari, L; Gardini, S; Girotti, F

    2012-11-01

    Stereotypies are simple or complex involuntary/unvoluntary behaviors, common in fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), but not studied in other types of degenerative dementias. The aim was to investigate stereotypy frequency and type in patients with FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) in a multicenter observational study; and to investigate the relation of stereotypies to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairment. One hundred fifty-five consecutive outpatients (45 AD, 40 FTD, 35 PSP and 35 PDD) were studied in four hospitals in northern Italy. Stereotypies were examined by the five-domain Stereotypy Rating Inventory. Cognition was examined by the Mini Mental State and Frontal Assessment Battery, neuropsychiatric symptoms by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and motor impairment and invalidity by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, and activities of daily living. Stereotypies were present in all groups. FTD and PDD had the greatest frequency of one-domain stereotypies; FTD also had the greatest frequency of two-or-more domain stereotypies; movement stereotypies were the most common stereotypies in all groups. AD patients had fewer stereotypies than the other groups. Stereotypies are not exclusive to FTD, but are also fairly common in PSP and PDD, though less so in AD. Stereotypies may be underpinned by dysfunctional striato-frontal circuits, known to be damaged in PSP and PDD, as well as FTD.

  7. Dementia beyond 2025: Knowledge and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Paul-Ariel; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Alain; Gzil, Fabrice; Andrieu, Sandrine; Banerjee, Sube; Brémond, François; Buée, Luc; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Mangialasche, Francesca; Platel, Hervé; Salmon, Eric; Robert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Given that there may well be no significant advances in drug development before 2025, prevention of dementia-Alzheimer's disease through the management of vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors may be a more realistic goal than treatment. Level of education and cognitive reserve assessment in neuropsychological testing deserve attention, as well as cultural, social, and economic aspects of caregiving. Assistive technologies for dementia care remain complex. Serious games are emerging as virtual educational and pleasurable tools, designed for individual and cooperative skill building. Public policies are likely to pursue improving awareness and understanding of dementia; providing good quality early diagnosis and intervention for all; improving quality of care from diagnosis to the end of life, using clinical and economic end points; delivering dementia strategies quicker, with an impact on more people. Dementia should remain presented as a stand-alone concept, distinct from frailty or loss of autonomy. The basic science of sensory impairment and social engagement in people with dementia needs to be developed. E-learning and serious games programs may enhance public and professional education. Faced with funding shortage, new professional dynamics and economic models may emerge through coordinated, flexible research networks. Psychosocial research could be viewed as an investment in quality of care, rather than an academic achievement in a few centers of excellence. This would help provide a competitive advantage to the best operators. Stemming from care needs, a logical, systems approach to dementia care environment through organizational, architectural, and psychosocial interventions may be developed, to help reduce symptoms in people with dementia and enhance quality of life. Dementia-friendly environments, culture, and domesticity are key factors for such interventions. PMID:25740575

  8. Dementia beyond 2025: Knowledge and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Paul-Ariel; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Bérard, Alain; Gzil, Fabrice; Andrieu, Sandrine; Banerjee, Sube; Brémond, François; Buée, Luc; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Mangialasche, Francesca; Platel, Hervé; Salmon, Eric; Robert, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Given that there may well be no significant advances in drug development before 2025, prevention of dementia-Alzheimer's disease through the management of vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors may be a more realistic goal than treatment. Level of education and cognitive reserve assessment in neuropsychological testing deserve attention, as well as cultural, social, and economic aspects of caregiving. Assistive technologies for dementia care remain complex. Serious games are emerging as virtual educational and pleasurable tools, designed for individual and cooperative skill building. Public policies are likely to pursue improving awareness and understanding of dementia; providing good quality early diagnosis and intervention for all; improving quality of care from diagnosis to the end of life, using clinical and economic end points; delivering dementia strategies quicker, with an impact on more people. Dementia should remain presented as a stand-alone concept, distinct from frailty or loss of autonomy. The basic science of sensory impairment and social engagement in people with dementia needs to be developed. E-learning and serious games programs may enhance public and professional education. Faced with funding shortage, new professional dynamics and economic models may emerge through coordinated, flexible research networks. Psychosocial research could be viewed as an investment in quality of care, rather than an academic achievement in a few centers of excellence. This would help provide a competitive advantage to the best operators. Stemming from care needs, a logical, systems approach to dementia care environment through organizational, architectural, and psychosocial interventions may be developed, to help reduce symptoms in people with dementia and enhance quality of life. Dementia-friendly environments, culture, and domesticity are key factors for such interventions.

  9. Hearing and music in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julene K; Chow, Maggie L

    2016-01-01

    Music is a complex acoustic signal that relies on a number of different brain and cognitive processes to create the sensation of hearing. Changes in hearing function are generally not a major focus of concern for persons with a majority of neurodegenerative diseases associated with dementia, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, changes in the processing of sounds may be an early, and possibly preclinical, feature of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of knowledge concerning hearing and music perception in persons who have a dementia as a result of a neurodegenerative disease. The review focuses on both peripheral and central auditory processing in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on the processing of music and other non-verbal sounds. The chapter also reviews music interventions used for persons with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25726296

  10. Hearing and music in dementia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Chow, Maggie L

    2015-01-01

    Music is a complex acoustic signal that relies on a number of different brain and cognitive processes to create the sensation of hearing. Changes in hearing function are generally not a major focus of concern for persons with a majority of neurodegenerative diseases associated with dementia, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). However, changes in the processing of sounds may be an early, and possibly preclinical, feature of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of knowledge concerning hearing and music perception in persons who have a dementia as a result of a neurodegenerative disease. The review focuses on both peripheral and central auditory processing in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on the processing of music and other non-verbal sounds. The chapter also reviews music interventions used for persons with neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. How many biomarkers to discriminate neurodegenerative dementia?

    PubMed

    Sancesario, Giulia M; Bernardini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A number of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are currently used for the diagnosis of dementia. Opposite changes in the level of amyloid-β(1-42) versus total tau and phosphorylated-tau181 in the CSF reflect the specific pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the brain. This panel of biomarkers has proven to be effective to differentiate AD from controls and from the major types of neurodegenerative dementia, and to evaluate the progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD. In the absence of specific biomarkers reflecting the pathologies of the other most common forms of dementia, such as Lewy Body disease, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, etc., the evaluation of biomarkers of AD pathology is used, attempting to exclude rather than to confirm AD. Other biomarkers included in the common clinical practice do not clearly relate to the underlying pathology: progranulin (PGRN) is a selective marker of frontotemporal dementia with mutations in the PGRN gene; the 14-3-3 protein is a highly sensitive and specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but has to be used carefully in differentiating rapid progressive dementia; and α-synuclein is an emerging candidate biomarker of the different forms of synucleinopathy. This review summarizes several biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementia validated based on the neuropathological processes occurring in brain tissue. Notwithstanding the paucity of pathologically validated biomarkers and their high analytical variability, the combinations of these biomarkers may well represent a key and more precise analytical and diagnostic tool in the complex plethora of degenerative dementia. PMID:26292074

  12. A possible role of atrial fibrillation as a risk factor for dementia.

    PubMed

    Ettorre, E; Cicerchia, M; De Benedetto, G; Fossati, C; Guglielmi, S; Manzon, L; Servello, A; Petrillo, A; Marigliano, V

    2009-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), which is a very common disease among the elderly, is already well known as a risk factor for arterial thromboembolism and stroke. The attention of medical research is now focused on establishing a possible role of AF in the development of cognitive impairment in order to include this arrhythmia among risk factors for dementia. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between AF and various types of dementia, such as vascular dementia (VaD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mixed dementia (MD). The study consisted of 71 VaD, AD or MD patients, 31 males and 40 females. The sample has been divided in 2 groups according to the sex, and these two groups have been analyzed separately. In females, a statistically significant association was found between mini mental state examination (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scores and AF occurrence (r=-0.32; p<0.05; r=0.33; p<0.05). On the contrary, no significant linear correlation was found between AF and a lower activities if daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities if daily living (IADL) scores. In males, AF/MMSE, AF/CDR, AF/ADL and AF/IADL variables have not been found to be linearly related to each other. Unexpectedly, AF turned to be associated to AD more often than to VAD, becoming a possible risk factor for this neurodegenerative disease. Our results are supported by many studies in literature attributing a basic role of brain hypoperfusion in sporadic AD patho-genesis. More and more scientific data suggest that the already well known risk factors for AD could be considered just the top of an iceberg, providing powerful arguments for impaired cerebral perfusion as the primary trigger in the development of this disease. Moreover, the mildly favorable treatment response in patients with AD to therapy that improves cerebral blood flow is a consistent finding; the same cannot be said of antiamyloid treatments. This opens new possibilities to find an effective way to treat

  13. Frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Describe the relationships between the clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging findings from a group of patients diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: The clinical histories, cognitive tests, and structural and perfusion brain images of 21 patients of the Psychiatric Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, were reviewed. Results: The average age was 59.8 years; the average time for the evolution of disease symptoms was 2.7 years; the most common variant was the behavioral variant; the most common alteration shown through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was frontotemporal atrophy, while the most common alteration shown through single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was frontotemporal hypoperfusion. The most significant result was the normal performance of 61.9% of patients in praxis exams, which was associated with alterations in temporoparietal perfusion in the SPECT images (p <0.02). Neither the mini-mental state evaluation nor the Clock Drawing Executive Test (CLOX) served as screening tests. PMID:25386038

  14. Midregional Proenkephalin A and N-terminal Protachykinin A are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia disorders and acute neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Andrea; Buerger, Katharina; Hartmann, Oliver; Dodel, Richard; Noelker, Carmen; Sommer, Norbert; Schwarz, Markus; Köhrle, Josef; Bergmann, Andreas; Hampel, Harald

    2010-04-15

    Midregional Proenkephalin A (MR-PENK A) and N-terminal Protachykinin A (NT-PTA) are stable fragments of the precursor peptides for enkephalins and substance P, respectively. We measured MR-PENK A and NT-PTA concentrations by sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassays in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 19 neurologically healthy controls (NHC), 28 patients with other neurologic disorders (OND), 70 patients with dementia disorders (38 Alzheimer's disease [AD], 8 dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], 12 frontotemporal dementia [FTD], and 12 patients with vascular dementia [VD]), and 16 patients with acute neuroinflammation (AN). Median concentrations of NT-PTA were decreased in all patient groups compared to NHC showing significant differences between patients with NHC and AN (p<0.001), OND and AN (p<0.001), FTD and AN (p<0.01) and pAD and AN (p<0.05). Median MR-PENK A levels were lower in patients with OND, dementia disorders (including AD, FTD, DLB and VD) and AN compared to NHC subjects, although this differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05). A maximum difference of both proneuropeptide fragments was found between NHC subjects and patients with AN, with a more than 2fold decrease in median NT-PTA and a 1.5fold decrease in median MR-PENK A levels. Concentrations of both proneuropeptide fragments were positively correlated in all patients (r=0.77, p<0.001). Our results indicate alterations of the cerebral PENK A- and PTA-system in both, dementia and acute neuroinflammatory disorders. These neuropeptide systems seem to be highly correlated in healthy and pathological status. PMID:20207019

  15. Diabetes, Dementia and Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meneilly, Graydon S; Tessier, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    We are experiencing an epidemic of both diabetes and dementia among older adults in this country. The risk for dementia appears to be increased in patients with diabetes, and patients with dementia and diabetes appear to be at greater risk for severe hypoglycemia. In addition, there may be an increased risk for developing dementia by older patients with diabetes who have had episodes of severe hypoglycemia, although this issue is controversial. In this article, we review the factors that contribute to the increased risk for dementia in older adults with diabetes and outline the complex relationships between hypoglycemia and dementia.

  16. Depression and dementias among military veterans.

    PubMed

    Byers, Amy L; Yaffe, Kristine

    2014-06-01

    Depression is very common throughout the course of veterans' lives, and dementia is common in late life. Previous studies suggest an association between depression and dementia in military veterans. The most likely biologic mechanisms that may link depression and dementia among military veterans include vascular disease, changes in glucocorticoid steroids and hippocampal atrophy, deposition of β-amyloid plaques, inflammatory changes, and alterations of nerve growth factors. In addition, military veterans often have depression comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder or traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in military veterans, these hypothesized biologic pathways going from depression to dementia are more than likely influenced by trauma-related processes. Treatment strategies for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, or traumatic brain injury could alter these pathways and as a result decrease the risk for dementia. Given the projected increase of dementia, as well as the projected increase in the older segment of the veteran population, in the future, it is critically important that we understand whether treatment for depression alone or combined with other regimens improves cognition. In this review, we summarize the principal mechanisms of this relationship and discuss treatment implications in military veterans.

  17. Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Safouris, Apostolos; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Psaltopoulou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major global health challenge, as its burden on society will increase with population aging. Given the lack of effective pharmaceutical treatment for common types of dementia including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, research interest in lifestyle modifications that could prevent, postpone the clinical syndrome or decelerate progression of dementia is growing. Among the various dietary patterns that were tested for their effects on cognition, the traditional Mediterranean diet (MeDi) has shown promising results. This review aims to summarize the epidemiological evidence on the effects of MeDi on the prevention of dementia, presenting data from cross-sectional as well as longitudinal observational studies conducted both in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries. These findings have been also reproduced in the context of one recent randomized-controlled clinical trial. Postulated mechanisms of action that may account for the potential protective effect of MeDi on cognitive impairment will be briefly discussed. Despite the fact that the link between MeDi and cognitive decline has been only explored for less than a decade, data on efficacy is rapidly increasing and allows optimism that MeDi could emerge as an alternative prophylactic treatment for dementia.

  18. Classifying late-onset dementia with MRI: Is arteriosclerotic brain degeneration the most common cause of Alzheimer’s syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Feugeas, Marie Cécile; Onen, Fannie; Claeys, Elisabeth Schouman

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to use early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the causes of cognitive decline in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Baseline structural and flow quantification MR sequences, and clinical and neuropsychological follow-up for at least two years, were performed on 62 elderly subjects with MCI. Of these subjects, 17 progressed to dementia, and 15 of these progressed to dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). Conversion to clinically diagnosed DAT was related to six distinct MR profiles, including one profile suggesting severe AD (20% of these converters) and five profiles suggesting severe cerebrovascular dysfunction. Two profiles suggested arteriosclerotic brain degeneration, one profile suggested severe venous windkessel dysfunction, and two suggested marked cerebral hypoperfusion associated with very low craniospinal compliance or marked brain atrophy. As compared with vascular MR type converters, AD MR type converters showed high executive and mobility predementia performances. Severe whole anteromesial temporal atrophy and predominantly left brain atrophy on visual MR analysis was only observed in AD MR type converters. In conclusion, these observations enhance the pathogenic complexity of the Alzheimer syndrome, and suggest that the role of arteriosclerotic brain degeneration in late life dementia is underestimated. PMID:18488889

  19. Plasma β-amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Janelidze, Shorena; Stomrud, Erik; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Zetterberg, Henrik; van Westen, Danielle; Jeromin, Andreas; Song, Linan; Hanlon, David; Tan Hehir, Cristina A.; Baker, David; Blennow, Kaj; Hansson, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of amyloid biomarkers in clinical practice would be accelerated if such biomarkers could be measured in blood. We analyzed plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 in a cohort of 719 individuals (the Swedish BioFINDER study), including patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and cognitively healthy elderly, using a ultrasensitive immunoassay (Simoa platform). There were weak positive correlations between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels for both Aβ42 and Aβ40, and negative correlations between plasma Aβ42 and neocortical amyloid deposition (measured with PET). Plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 were reduced in AD dementia compared with all other diagnostic groups. However, during the preclinical or prodromal AD stages (i.e. in amyloid positive controls, SCD and MCI) plasma concentration of Aβ42 was just moderately decreased whereas Aβ40 levels were unchanged. Higher plasma (but not CSF) levels of Aβ were associated with white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease. In summary, plasma Aβ is overtly decreased during the dementia stage of AD indicating that prominent changes in Aβ metabolism occur later in the periphery compared to the brain. Further, increased levels of Aβ in plasma are associated with vascular disease. PMID:27241045

  20. [Prevention of dementia].

    PubMed

    Urakami, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).

  1. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  2. Vascular Factors and Cognitive Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pachalska, Maria; Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola; Góral-Półrola, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of vascular factors on the degree of intensity and rate of progression of cognitive disorders in the course of Alzheimer Disease (AD). Material/Methods The research group consisted of 39 persons, all of whom were diagnosed with AD according to the NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. We divided these patients into 2 subgroups, based on the vascular factors measured by the modified Hachinski Ischemic Scale (Ha-mod): group A, without the vascular component (HA-mod score of 0–1 point), and group B, with the vascular component (a score over 1 point). Cognitive functions were evaluated at baseline and again 2 years later, using the Cognitive Part of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog). Results We found that the patients from subgroup B, with the stronger vascular component, demonstrated the highest intensity of cognitive disorders at baseline, both in terms of the overall ADAS-cog score, and in the subscores for ideational praxis, orientation, spoken language ability, comprehension of spoken language, and word-finding difficulty in spontaneous speech. Another variable which was connected with the intensity of dementia was age. After 2 years, however, the rate of progression of cognitive disorders was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions The severity of vascular factors correlates directly with the intensity of cognitive disturbances. At the 2-year follow-up examination, however, no correlation was observed in the research group between greater vascular involvement and more rapid progression of cognitive disorders, as measured by the ADAS-cog scale. PMID:26561951

  3. DIFFERENTIAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION AD GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS ON EXPOSURE TO RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) AND VANADIUM

    EPA Science Inventory


    Differential transcription factor activation and gene expression profiles in human vascular endothelial cells on exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and vanadium.
    Srikanth S. Nadadur and Daniel L. Costa, US EPA, ORD, NHEERL (ETD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch), Research ...

  4. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... promoting scientific advances. Featured LBD Stories & Tributes Dad's Dementia Journey It's been years since my father passed ... I received an email from the Lewy Body Dementia Association about a benefit... Read Story The Lewy ...

  5. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals, it may also be due to the natural course of the disease. All Rights Reserved Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. 912 Killian Hill Road S.W., Lilburn, GA 30047 © 2016 Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. Connect ...

  6. [Efficacy, safety and tolerability of a single dose of akatinol memantine in comparison to two-doses in patients with moderately expressed and moderately severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kolykhalov, I V; Gavrilova, S I; Kalyn, Ia B; Selezneva, N D; Fedorova, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    The compliance of patients with moderately expressed and moderately severe dementia, caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), to the treatment with two different dose regimes of akatinol memantine was studied. The study included 40 patients with AD and mixed Alzheimer-vascular dementia (AD/VD) aged from 53 to 84 years. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: patients of group 1 received akatinol memantine in a single dose 20 mg in the morning and patients of group 2 received the drug twice in dose 10 mg in the morning and in the afternoon. The treatment duration was 24 weeks. The single dose of drug was as effective and safety as standard treatment with two doses. Therefore, treatment with a single dose of 20 mg akatinol memantine is recommended for clinical practice.

  7. A clinical role for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in the investigation of dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, P.; Lloyd, J.; Snowden, J.; Neary, D.; Testa, H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To provide the clinician with a guide to the clinical utility of 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to the interpretation of specific test results in the differential diagnosis of dementia.
METHODS—Three hundred and sixty three patients with dementia were studied prospectively for a median three (range 1-6) years and classified into disease groups on the basis of established clinical criteria. The degree to which different patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormality found on 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging at the time of initial patient presentation modified clinical diagnoses was determined by calculating the likelihood ratios for pairwise disease group comparisons. The optimal clinical usage of 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT was determined by calculating the percentage of significant test results for each pairwise disease group comparison.
RESULTS—Bilateral posterior CBF abnormality was found to significantly increase the odds of a patient having Alzheimer's disease as opposed to vascular dementia or frontotemporal dementia. Bilateral anterior CBF abnormality significantly increased the odds of a patient having frontotemporal dementia as opposed to Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or Lewy body disease. "Patchy" CBF changes significantly increased the odds of a patient having vascular dementia as opposed to Alzheimer's disease. Unilateral anterior, unilateral anterior plus unilateral posterior, and generalised CBF abnormality failed to contribute to the differentiation of any of these forms of dementia.
CONCLUSIONS—99mTc-HMPAO SPECT was found to be most useful in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease from vascular dementia and fronto temporal dementia, and least useful in differentiating between Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease, and between vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and progressive aphasia. It is suggested that CBF SPECT should be used selectively and as an adjunct to clinical evaluation

  8. Drawing Disorders in Alzheimer's Disease and Other Forms of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Gainotti, Guido

    2016-04-21

    Drawing is a multicomponential process that can be impaired by many kinds of brain lesions. Drawing disorders are very common in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, and can provide clinical information for the distinction of the different dementing diseases. In our review we started from an overview of the neural and cognitive bases of drawing, and from a recollection of the drawing tasks more frequently used for assessing individuals with dementia. Then, we analyzed drawing disorders in dementia, paying special attention to those observed in Alzheimer's disease, from the prodromal stages of the amnesic mild cognitive impairment to the stages of full-blown dementia, both in the sporadic forms with late onset in the entorhino-hippocampal structures and in those with early onset in the posterior neocortical structures. We reviewed the drawing features that could differentiate Alzheimer's disease from vascular dementia and from the most frequent forms of degenerative dementia, namely frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body disease. Finally, we examined some peculiar aspects of drawing disorders in dementia, such as perseverations, rotations, and closing-in. We argue that a careful analysis of drawing errors helps to differentiate the different forms of dementia more than overall accuracy in drawing. PMID:27104898

  9. Effects of spaced retrieval training with errorless learning in the rehabilitation of patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong Sik; Lee, Jae Shin; Yoo, Doo Han

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Among the non-pharmacological interventions for dementia, spaced retrieval training (SRT) is a good method for rehabilitating cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of SRT with errorless learning (EL) in the rehabilitation of patients with dementia. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine participants with vascular dementia (VD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) participated in the present study. The Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) were performed to assess the changes in the neuropsychological performance and the independent activities of daily living after SRT with EL. All tests were administered both before and after SRT with EL. Each SRT with EL intervention was performed for 30 minutes per day for 5 weeks. SPSS for Windows version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. [Results] All items of the CERAD-K score of the VD group except for constructional praxis increased significantly after the SRT with EL intervention, but no significant differences from the AD group were found. The Korean version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS-K) of the VD group increased significantly after the SRT with EL intervention. The mean MBI scores of each group showed no significant difference after the intervention. [Conclusion] SRT with EL is an effective intervention for memory training of patients with dementia. Future research using sufficient sample sizes will be needed to obtain strong evidence for comparing not only the before and after intervention data but also between the groups. PMID:26504282

  10. Alzheimer's disease and CADASIL are heritable, adult-onset dementias that both involve damaged small blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2014-03-01

    This essay explores an alternative pathway to Alzheimer's dementia that focuses on damage to small blood vessels rather than late-stage toxic amyloid deposits as the primary pathogenic mechanism that leads to irreversible dementia. While the end-stage pathology of AD is well known, the pathogenic processes that lead to disease are often assumed to be due to toxic amyloid peptides that act on neurons, leading to neuronal dysfunction and eventually neuronal cell death. Speculations as to what initiates the pathogenic cascade have included toxic abeta peptide aggregates, oxidative damage, and inflammation, but none explain why neurons die. Recent high-resolution NMR studies of living patients show that lesions in white matter regions of the brain precede the appearance of amyloid deposits and are correlated with damaged small blood vessels. To appreciate the pathogenic potential of damaged small blood vessels in the brain, it is useful to consider the clinical course and the pathogenesis of CADASIL, a heritable arteriopathy that leads to damaged small blood vessels and irreversible dementia. CADASIL is strikingly similar to early onset AD in that it is caused by germ line mutations in NOTCH 3 that generate toxic protein aggregates similar to those attributed to mutant forms of the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes. Since NOTCH 3 mutants clearly damage small blood vessels of white matter regions of the brain that lead to dementia, we speculate that both forms of dementia may have a similar pathogenesis, which is to cause ischemic damage by blocking blood flow or by impeding the removal of toxic protein aggregates by retrograde vascular clearance mechanisms.

  11. Childhood Learning Disabilities and Atypical Dementia: A Retrospective Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Seifan, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To further our understanding of the association between self-reported childhood learning disabilities (LDs) and atypical dementia phenotypes (Atypical Dementia), including logopenic primary progressive aphasia (L-PPA), Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA), and Dysexecutive-type Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Methods This retrospective case series analysis of 678 comprehensive neuropsychological assessments compared rates of self-reported LD between dementia patients diagnosed with Typical AD and those diagnosed with Atypical Dementia. 105 cases with neuroimaging or CSF data available and at least one neurology follow-up were identified as having been diagnosed by the neuropsychologist with any form of neurodegenerative dementia. These cases were subject to a consensus diagnostic process among three dementia experts using validated clinical criteria for AD and PPA. LD was considered Probable if two or more statements consistent with prior LD were documented within the Social & Developmental History of the initial neuropsychological evaluation. Results 85 subjects (Typical AD n=68, Atypical AD n=17) were included in the final analysis. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, handedness, education and symptom duration, patients with Probable LD, compared to patients without Probable LD, were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with Atypical Dementia vs. Typical AD (OR 13.1, 95% CI 1.3-128.4). All three of the L-PPA cases reporting a childhood LD endorsed childhood difficulty with language. By contrast, both PCA cases reporting Probable childhood LD endorsed difficulty with attention and/or math. Conclusions In people who develop dementia, childhood LD may predispose to atypical phenotypes. Future studies are required to confirm whether atypical neurodevelopment predisposes to regional-specific neuropathology in AD and other dementias. PMID:26106899

  12. [Drug-induced dementia].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taro; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Many drugs have been reported to induce not only delirium but also cognitive impairment. Some types of drugs are reported to induce dementia, and prolonged hypotension or hypoglycemia induced by overuse of antihypertensive drugs or oral antidiabetic drugs could result in dementia. Recently, taking multiple drugs with anticholinergic activity are reported to cause cognitive decline and anticholinergic burden should be avoided especially in patients with dementia. Drug-induced dementia can be prevented by avoiding polypharmacy and adhering to the saying 'start low and go slow' . Early diagnosis of drug-induced dementia and withdrawal of the offending drug is essential to improve cognitive function. PMID:27025096

  13. Cognitive performance correlates with cerebrovascular impairments in multi-infarct dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, B.W.; Meyer, J.S.; Rogers, R.L.; Gandhi, S.; Tanahashi, N.; Mortel, K.F.; Tawaklna, T.

    1986-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method in patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N = 26), Alzheimer's dementia (AD, N = 19), and among age-matched, neurologically normal, healthy volunteers (N = 26). Cognitive performance was assessed in all subjects using the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE). Cerebral vasomotor responses were calculated from differences in values of mean hemispheric gray matter blood flow (Delta CBF) measured during inhalation of 100% oxygen (hyperoxia) compared with CBF measured while breathing room air. Significant correlations were found between CCSE performance and vasomotor responsiveness in patients with MID (P less than .01), but not in patients with AD or in neurologically normal volunteers. Loss of vasomotor responsiveness is an indicator of cerebrovascular disease with rigidity and/or loss of reactivity of cerebral vessels, which impairs cerebrovascular responses to situational demands and predisposes to cerebral ischemia. Loss of cerebral vasomotor responsiveness among MID patients, which is a biologic marker of cerebrovascular disease, provides confirmatory evidence of the vascular etiology of MID and assists in separating MID from AD patients.

  14. Brain health and shared risk factors for dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L

    2015-11-01

    Impaired brain health encompasses a range of clinical outcomes, including stroke, dementia, vascular cognitive impairment, cognitive ageing, and vascular functional impairment. Conditions associated with poor brain health represent leading causes of global morbidity and mortality, with projected increases in public health burden as the population ages. Many vascular risk factors are shared predictors for poor brain health. Moreover, subclinical brain MRI markers of vascular damage are risk factors shared between stroke and dementia, and can be used for risk stratification and early intervention. The broad concept of brain health has resulted in a conceptual shift from vascular risk factors to determinants of brain health. Global campaigns to reduce cardiovascular diseases by targeting modifiable risk factors are necessary and will have a broad impact on brain health. Research is needed on the distinct and overlapping aetiologies of brain health conditions, and to define MRI markers to help clinicians identify patients who will benefit from aggressive prevention measures.

  15. [Clinical Neuropsychology of Dementia with Lewy Bodies].

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shows lesser memory impairment and more severe visuospatial disability than Alzheimer disease (AD). Although deficits in both consolidation and retrieval underlie the memory impairment, retrieval deficit is predominant in DLB. Visuospatial dysfunctions in DLB are related to the impairments in both ventral and dorsal streams of higher visual information processing, and lower visual processing in V1/V2 may also be impaired. Attention and executive functions are more widely disturbed in DLB than in AD. Imitation of finger gestures is impaired more frequently in DLB than in other mild dementia, and provides additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Pareidolia, which lies between hallucination and visual misperception, is found frequently in DLB, but its mechanism is still under investigation.

  16. Auditory object cognition in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Kim, Lois G.; Hailstone, Julia C.; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n = 7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n = 1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n = 20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as ‘auditory objects’, we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes. PMID:21689671

  17. [Clinically validated molecular biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementia].

    PubMed

    Wiltfang, J

    2014-11-01

    As cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) has now been validated at the S3 evidence level, the German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) and the German Society for Neurology (DGN) recommend CSF-NDD in the recent joint dementia guidelines for improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The CSF-NDD also provides a predictive diagnosis of incipient AD for high-risk patients when they are still in the prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but as no (secondary) preventive therapy of AD is currently available, the use of CSF-NDD for the predictive molecular diagnosis of AD is not recommended in the neuropsychiatry guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, molecular diagnostics of preclinical AD by CSF-NDD and/or [18F]-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) has meanwhile gained high clinical relevance for therapeutic clinical research, as this novel clinical model allows systematic screening for promising (secondary) preventive therapy options. Moreover, it has now become apparent that blood-based neurochemical diagnostics of preclinical and early AD will be possible by means of various formats of multiplex assays. However, so far promising blood assays have not been consistently validated by independent research groups and in contrast to CSF-NDD a blood-based diagnosis of AD is not yet available.

  18. Altered sense of humor in dementia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L; Cohen, Miriam H; Woodward, Felix J; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications.

  19. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  20. Music and dementia.

    PubMed

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of dementia in our aging population, and consequently an urgent need to develop treatments and activities that may alleviate the symptoms of dementia. Accumulating evidence shows that persons with dementia enjoy music, and their ability to respond to music is potentially preserved even in the late or severe stages of dementia when verbal communication may have ceased. Media interest in this topic has contributed to the public perception that music abilities are an "island of preservation" in an otherwise cognitively impaired person with dementia. In this chapter, we review the current literature on music cognition in dementia and show that there has been very scarce rigorous scientific investigation of this issue, and that various types of music memory exist and are differentially impaired in the different types of dementia. Furthermore, we discuss the recent development of music activities as a nonpharmacological treatment for dementia and highlight the methodological limitations of the current literature on this topic. While it has been reported that music activities can improve behavior, (particularly agitation), mood, and cognition in persons with dementia, recent large-scale randomized control studies have questioned the specificity of the effect of music and found that it is no more beneficial than other pleasant activities. Nevertheless, music is unique in its powerful ability to elicit both memories and emotions. This can provide an important link to individual's past and a means of nonverbal communication with carers, which make it an ideal stimulus for persons with dementia. PMID:25725917

  1. Music and dementia.

    PubMed

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of dementia in our aging population, and consequently an urgent need to develop treatments and activities that may alleviate the symptoms of dementia. Accumulating evidence shows that persons with dementia enjoy music, and their ability to respond to music is potentially preserved even in the late or severe stages of dementia when verbal communication may have ceased. Media interest in this topic has contributed to the public perception that music abilities are an "island of preservation" in an otherwise cognitively impaired person with dementia. In this chapter, we review the current literature on music cognition in dementia and show that there has been very scarce rigorous scientific investigation of this issue, and that various types of music memory exist and are differentially impaired in the different types of dementia. Furthermore, we discuss the recent development of music activities as a nonpharmacological treatment for dementia and highlight the methodological limitations of the current literature on this topic. While it has been reported that music activities can improve behavior, (particularly agitation), mood, and cognition in persons with dementia, recent large-scale randomized control studies have questioned the specificity of the effect of music and found that it is no more beneficial than other pleasant activities. Nevertheless, music is unique in its powerful ability to elicit both memories and emotions. This can provide an important link to individual's past and a means of nonverbal communication with carers, which make it an ideal stimulus for persons with dementia.

  2. [The dementia patient caregiver].

    PubMed

    Bagnati, Pablo M

    2010-01-01

    Dementia results in an important economic, social and personal burden. To care for a patient with dementia can be a trascendent learning experience. At the same time, the caregiver's role can become strenuous physical and mental work. This article reviews the importance of assessing the caregiver from the moment of diagnostic work up, the stages the caregiver goes through in the disease evolution, and the "Caregiver syndrome" where the caregiver can become the "second victim" of dementia.

  3. Seroprevalence of N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) autoantibodies in aging subjects without neuropsychiatric disorders and in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Busse, Stefan; Busse, Mandy; Brix, Britta; Probst, Christian; Genz, Axel; Bogerts, Bernhard; Stoecker, Winfried; Steiner, Johann

    2014-09-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-R) play a key role in learning and memory. Therefore, they may be involved in the pathophysiology of dementia. NMDA-R autoantibodies directed against the NR1a subunit of the NMDA-R, which were first identified as a specific marker for a severe form of encephalitis, cause a decrease in NMDA-Rs, resulting in cognitive impairment and psychosis. We examined the prevalence of NR1a NMDA-R autoantibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD), and 274 volunteers without neuropsychiatric disorder. The latter cases showed an association of seropositivity with age. Notably, the overall seroprevalence was not statistically different between dementia patients and matched controls. Further analysis of the patient samples showed that four patients with AD and three patients with SIVD had positive NMDA-R IgM, IgG, and/or IgA autoantibody titers in serum. These patients suffered from psychosis (with the exception of one case). CSF samples were negative for NMDA-R autoantibodies. We conclude that the seroprevalence of NMDA-R-directed autoantibodies is age-related. It has to be clarified by larger studies whether NMDA-R autoantibodies in peripheral blood may predispose patients with AD and SIVD to susceptibility for psychotic episodes if disturbances of blood-brain-barrier integrity occur.

  4. Preventing and diagnosing dementia.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition.

  5. Sexual disinhibition and dementia.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Ulivi, Martina; Danti, Sabrina; Lucetti, Claudio; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    To describe inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) observed in patients with dementia, we conducted searches using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science to find relevant articles, chapters, and books published from 1950 to 2014. Search terms used included 'hypersexuality', 'inappropriate sexual behaviors', and 'dementia'. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Sexuality is a human's need to express intimacy, but persons with dementia may not know how to appropriately meet their needs for closeness and intimacy due to their decline in cognition. Generally, the interaction among brain, physical, psychological, and environmental factors can create what we call ISB. The most likely change in the sexual behaviour of a person with dementia is indifference. However, ISB in dementia appear to be of two types--intimacy-seeking and disinhibited--that differ in their association with dementia type, dementia severity and, possibly, other concurrent behavioural disorder. Tensions develop from uncertainties regarding which, or when, behaviours are to be considered 'inappropriate' (i.e. improper) or abnormal. While most ISB occur in the moderate to severe stages of Alzheimer's dementia, they may also be seen in early stages of frontotemporal dementia because of the lack of insight and disinhibition. ISB are often better managed by non-pharmacological means, as patients may be less responsive to psychoactive therapies, but non-pharmacological interventions do not always stop the behaviour.

  6. Vascular disease and risk factors are associated with cognitive decline in the alzheimer disease spectrum.

    PubMed

    Lorius, Natacha; Locascio, Joseph J; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects. A total of 812 participants (229 normal older control, 395 mild cognitive impairment, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 years. General linear, longitudinal mixed-effects, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Greater homocysteine level and white matter hyperintensity volume were associated with processing speed impairment (homocysteine: P=0.02; white matter hyperintensity: P<0.0001); greater Vascular Index score was associated with memory impairment (P=0.007); and greater number of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) alleles was associated with global cognitive impairment (P=0.007) at baseline. Apolipoprotein E ε4 was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (P=0.002) and processing speed impairment (P=0.001) over time, whereas higher total cholesterol was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (P=0.02) and memory impairment (P=0.06) over time. These results suggest a significant association of increased vascular disease and risk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline.

  7. Frontotemporal dementia: An updated overview.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, E; Rajmohan, V

    2009-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome occurring between 45 and 65 years. The syndrome is also called frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, FTLD refers to a larger group of disorders FTD being one of its subgroups. The other subgroups of FTLD are progressive nonfluent aphasia (PFNA), and semantic dementia (SD). FTLD is characterized by atrophy of prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices. FTD occurs in 5-15% of patients with dementia and it is the third most common degenerative dementia. FTD occurs with equal frequency in both sexes. The age of onset is usually between 45 and 65 years though it may range anywhere from 21 to 81 years. The usual course is one of progressive clinicopathological deterioration with mortality within 6-8 years. Unlike Alzheimer's disease (AD), this condition has a strong genetic basis and family history of FTD is seen in 40-50% of cases. FTD is a genetically complex disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance in majority of cases. Genetic linkage studies have revealed FTLD loci on chromosome 3p, 9, 9p, and 17q. The most prevalent genes are PGRN (progranulin) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau), both located on chromosome 17q21. More than 15 different pathologies can underlie FTD and related disorders and it has four major types of pathological features: (1) microvacuolation without neuronal inclusions, (2) microvacuolation with ubiquitinated rounded intraneuronal inclusions and dystrophic neurites FTLD-ubiquitinated (FTLD-U), (3) transcortical gliosis with tau-reactive rounded intraneuronal inclusions, (4) microvacuolation and taupositive neurofibrillary tangles. Behavior changes are the most common initial symptom of FTD (62%), whereas speech and language problems are most common in NFPA (100%) and SD (58%). There are no approved drugs for the management of FTD and trials are needed to find effective agents. Non-pharmacological treatment and caregiver

  8. Prevention of age-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, M Hasan; Leuba, Genevieve

    2009-10-28

    The advancement of medical sciences during the last century has resulted in a considerable increase in life expectancy. As more people live to old age, one of the most fundamental questions of the 21st century is whether the number of individuals suffering from dementia will also continue to increase. Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for the majority of cases of dementia in the elderly, but there is currently no curative treatment available. Several strategies have been introduced for treatment, the most recent strategy of which was the immunization of patients using antibodies against Abeta, which is a naturally occurring, even though misfolded peptide in the AD brain. Both active and passive immunization routes have been shown to reduce the pathology associated with Abeta accumulation in brains of genetically designed animal models. However, despite tremendous efforts, no unequivocal proof of therapeutic efficacy could be shown in AD patients. Particularly, the persistence of the neurofibrillary tangles in immunized brains and the issue of inducing cerebral amyloid angiopathy are major limiting factors of antibody therapy. Furthermore, physical activity, a healthy immune system and nutritional habits are suggested to protect against the onset of age-associated dementia. Thus, accumulative evidence suggests that an early integrated strategy, combining pharmacological, immunological, nutritional and life-style factors, is the most pragmatic approach to delay the onset and progression of age-associated dementia.

  9. Gene Therapy Models of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias.

    PubMed

    Combs, Benjamin; Kneynsberg, Andrew; Kanaan, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Dementias are among the most common neurological disorders, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. AD remains a looming health crisis despite great efforts to learn the mechanisms surrounding the neuron dysfunction and neurodegeneration that accompanies AD primarily in the medial temporal lobe. In addition to AD, a group of diseases known as frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) are degenerative diseases involving atrophy and degeneration in the frontal and temporal lobe regions. Importantly, AD and a number of FTDs are collectively known as tauopathies due to the abundant accumulation of pathological tau inclusions in the brain. The precise role tau plays in disease pathogenesis remains an area of strong research focus. A critical component to effectively study any human disease is the availability of models that recapitulate key features of the disease. Accordingly, a number of animal models are currently being pursued to fill the current gaps in our knowledge of the causes of dementias and to develop effective therapeutics. Recent developments in gene therapy-based approaches, particularly in recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs), have provided new tools to study AD and other related neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, gene therapy approaches have emerged as an intriguing possibility for treating these diseases in humans. This chapter explores the current state of rAAV models of AD and other dementias, discuss recent efforts to improve these models, and describe current and future possibilities in the use of rAAVs and other viruses in treatments of disease.

  10. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Torrellas, Clara; Carrera, Iván; Cacabelos, Pablo; Corzo, Lola; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Tellado, Iván; Carril, Juan C; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Dementia represents a major problem of health and disability, with a relevant economic impact on our society. Despite important advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, its primary causes still remain elusive, accurate biomarkers are not well characterized, and the available pharmacological treatments are not cost-effective. Alzheimer disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia, is a polygenic/multifactorial/complex disorder in which hundreds of defective genes distributed across the human genome may contribute to its pathogenesis. Diverse environmental factors, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and epigenetic phenomena, together with structural and functional genomic dysfunctions lead to amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation and premature neuronal death, the major neuropathological hallmarks of AD. For the past 20 years, over 1,000 different compounds have been studied as potential candidate drugs for the treatment of AD. About 50% of these substances are novel molecules obtained from natural sources. The candidate compounds can be classified according to their pharmacological properties and/or the AD-related pathogenic cascade to which they are addressed to halt disease progression. In addition to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs since 1993 (tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine), most candidate strategies fall into 6 major categories: (i) novel cholinesterase inhibitors and neurotransmitter regulators, (ii) anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) treatments (amyloid-β protein precursor (APP) regulators, Aβ breakers, active and passive immunotherapy with vaccines and antibodies, β - and γ - secretase inhibitors or modulators), (iii) anti-tau treatments, (iv) pleiotropic products (most of them of natural origin), (v) epigenetic intervention, and (vi) combination therapies. The implementation of pharmacogenomic strategies will contribute to optimize drug development and therapeutics in AD and related disorders.

  11. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Torrellas, Clara; Carrera, Iván; Cacabelos, Pablo; Corzo, Lola; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Tellado, Iván; Carril, Juan C; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Dementia represents a major problem of health and disability, with a relevant economic impact on our society. Despite important advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, its primary causes still remain elusive, accurate biomarkers are not well characterized, and the available pharmacological treatments are not cost-effective. Alzheimer disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia, is a polygenic/multifactorial/complex disorder in which hundreds of defective genes distributed across the human genome may contribute to its pathogenesis. Diverse environmental factors, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and epigenetic phenomena, together with structural and functional genomic dysfunctions lead to amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation and premature neuronal death, the major neuropathological hallmarks of AD. For the past 20 years, over 1,000 different compounds have been studied as potential candidate drugs for the treatment of AD. About 50% of these substances are novel molecules obtained from natural sources. The candidate compounds can be classified according to their pharmacological properties and/or the AD-related pathogenic cascade to which they are addressed to halt disease progression. In addition to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs since 1993 (tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine), most candidate strategies fall into 6 major categories: (i) novel cholinesterase inhibitors and neurotransmitter regulators, (ii) anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) treatments (amyloid-β protein precursor (APP) regulators, Aβ breakers, active and passive immunotherapy with vaccines and antibodies, β - and γ - secretase inhibitors or modulators), (iii) anti-tau treatments, (iv) pleiotropic products (most of them of natural origin), (v) epigenetic intervention, and (vi) combination therapies. The implementation of pharmacogenomic strategies will contribute to optimize drug development and therapeutics in AD and related disorders

  12. Cognition, Language, and Clinical Pathological Features of Non-Alzheimer’s Dementias: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy; Lamy, Martine; Neils-Strunjas, Jean

    2010-01-01

    There are many distinct forms of dementia whose pharmacological and behavioral management differ. Differential diagnosis among the dementia variants currently relies upon a weighted combination of genetic and protein biomarkers, neuroanatomical integrity, and behavior. Diagnostic specificity is complicated by a high degree of overlap in the initial presenting symptoms across dementia subtypes. For this reason, reliable markers are of considerable diagnostic value. Communication disorders have proven to be among the strongest predictors for discriminating among dementia subtypes. As such, Speech-Language Pathologists may be poised to make an increasingly visible contribution to dementia diagnosis and its ongoing management. The value and durability of this potential contribution, however, demands an improved discipline-wide knowledge base about the unique features associated with different dementia variants. To this end we provide an overview of cognition, language, and clinical pathological features of four of the most common non-Alzheimer’s dementias: Frontotemporal Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Lewy Body Disease Dementia, and Parkinson’s Disease Dementia. PMID:20493496

  13. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  14. A population study of apoE genotype at the age of 85: relation to dementia, cerebrovascular disease, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, I.; Hesse, C.; Aevarsson, O.; Landahl, S.; Wahlstrom, J.; Fredman, P.; Blennow, K.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the association of apoE genotypes with dementia and cerebrovascular disorders in a population based sample of 85year old people.
METHODS—A representative sample of 85 year old people (303 non-demented, 109 demented) were given a neuropsychiatric and a medical examination and head CT. The apoE isoforms were determined. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R.
RESULTS—At the age of 85, carriers of the apoE ε4 allele had an increased odds ratio (OR) for dementia (1.9; p<0.01) and its subtypes Alzheimer's disease (1.9; p<0.05) and vascular dementia (2.0; p<0.05). Among those categorised as having vascular dementia, the apoE ε4 allele was associated with mixed Alzheimer's disease-multi-infarct dementia (OR 6.5; p<0.05), but not with pure multi-infarct dementia (OR 1.5; NS). Only carriers of the apoE ε4 allele who also had ischaemic white matter lesions on CT of the head had an increased OR for dementia (OR 6.1; p=0.00003), and its main subtypes Alzheimer's disease (OR 6.8; p=0.002) and vascular dementia (OR 5.6; p=0.0007), whereas carriers of the apoE ε4 allele without white matter lesions had an OR for dementia of 1.0 (OR for Alzheimer's disease 1.8; NS and for vascular dementia 0.6; NS) and non-carriers of the apoE ε4 allele with white matter lesions had an OR for dementia of 2.2; NS (OR for Alzheimer's disease 2.7; NS and for vascular dementia 1.6; NS). The apoE allele variants were not related to mortality or incidence of dementia between the ages of 85 and 88. The ε2 allele was related to a higher prevalence of stroke or transient ischaemic attack at the age of 85 (OR 2.1; p<0.05) and a higher incidence of multi-infarct dementia during the follow up (OR 2.9; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—Neither the apoE ε4 allele nor white matter lesions are sufficient risk factors by themselves for dementia at very old ages, whereas possession of both these entities increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

  15. Growth differentiation factor-15 and white matter hyperintensities in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yuek Ling; Hilal, Saima; Chong, Jenny P C; Ng, Yan Xia; Liew, Oi Wah; Xu, Xin; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Richards, A Mark; Lai, Mitchell K P; Chen, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Vascular pathology plays an important role in the development of cognitive decline and dementia. In this context, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has been suggested to be a biomarker due to its regulatory roles in inflammatory and trophic responses during tissue injury. However, limited data exist on the associations of GDF-15 with either cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden or the spectrum of cognitive impairment. Therefore, we aimed to study peripheral levels of GDF-15 incognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) or Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects assessed for CeVD using a case-control cohort design, with cases recruited from memory clinics and controls from memory clinics and the community. All subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment, 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, and venous blood draw. Subjects were classified as CIND or AD based on clinical criteria, while significant CeVD was defined as the presence of cortical infarcts and/or 2 lacunes or more, and/or confluent white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in 2 or more brain regions. A total of 324 subjects were included in the study, of whom 80 had no cognitive impairment, 144 CIND and 100with AD. Higher GDF-15 levels were significantly associated with disease groups, especially in the presence of CeVD, namely, CIND with CeVD (odds ratios [OR]: 7.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.14-24.27) and AD with CeVD (OR: 21.87; 95% CI: 2.01-237.43). Among the different CeVD markers, only WMH was associated with higher GDF-15 levels (OR: 3.97; 95% CI: 1.79-8.83). The associations between GDF-15 and cognitive impairment as well as with WMH remained significant after excluding subjects with cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, we showed that increased GDF-15 may be a biomarker for CIND and AD in subjects with WMH. PMID:27537582

  16. [People's knowledge about dementia].

    PubMed

    Bogolepova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most urgent problems due to the high prevalence and disability. Timely identification and early diagnosis of dementia are the most important for successful management of patients that may be possible only if patients refer for medical care. In this connection, people's knowledge about dementia is of great importance. To study people's knowledge about problems of dementia. The survey was carried out in September 2014 in 42 regions of the Russian Federation (130 survey sites) and comprised 1600 respondents. The survey has revealed that 48% of participants are afraid to have dementia, 47% are not aware of signs and symptoms of marked cognitive impairment and 54% have concerns about age-related memory impairment. A low percent of people who refer for medical care may be explained by the widespread opinion (37% of Russians) that dementia is not curable; 42% believe that there are no drugs for treatment of dementia. Only 5% of respondents would visit a doctor if their relative has dementia. The results of this survey highlighted the necessity of using special programs to improve people's knowledge about problems of dementia.

  17. Lewy body dementias.

    PubMed

    Walker, Zuzana; Possin, Katherine L; Boeve, Bradley F; Aarsland, Dag

    2015-10-24

    The broad importance of dementia is undisputed, with Alzheimer's disease justifiably getting the most attention. However, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia, now called Lewy body dementias, are the second most common type of degenerative dementia in patients older than 65 years. Despite this, Lewy body dementias receive little attention and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal management. Over the past 10 years, considerable effort has gone into improving diagnostic accuracy by refining diagnostic criteria and using imaging and other biomarkers. Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia share the same pathophysiology, and effective treatments will depend not only on successful treatment of symptoms but also on targeting the pathological mechanisms of disease, ideally before symptoms and clinical signs develop. We summarise the most pertinent progress from the past 10 years, outlining some of the challenges for the future, which will require refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis, leading to disease-modifying treatments. PMID:26595642

  18. Dealing with Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an NIH-supported Alzheimer’s disease center at the University of Wisconsin. “Symptoms of dementia can include problems with memory, thinking, and language, along with impairments to social skills and some behavioral symptoms.” Several factors can raise your risk for developing dementia. These ...

  19. Prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Sato, Kiyoshi; Iseki, Eizo

    2015-07-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementing disorder after Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is limited information regarding the prodromal DLB state compared with that of AD. Parkinson's disease (PD) and DLB share common prodromal symptoms with Lewy body disease (LBD), allowing us to use a common strategy for identifying the individuals with an underlying pathophysiology of LBD. Dysautonomia, olfactory dysfunction, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and psychiatric symptoms antedate the onset of dementia by years or even decades in patients with DLB. Although RBD is the most potentially accurate prodromal predictor of DLB, disease progression before the onset of dementia could differ between the prodromal DLB state with and without RBD. Experts who specialize in idiopathic RBD and DLB might need communication in order to clarify the clinical relevance of RBD with the disease progression of DLB. The presence of prodromal LBD symptoms or findings of occipital hypoperfusion/hypometabolism helps us to predict the possible pathophysiological process of LBD in non-demented patients. This approach might provide the opportunity for additional neuroimaging, including cardiac (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and dopamine transporter imaging. Although limited radiological findings in patients with prodromal DLB states have been reported, there is now a need for larger clinical multisite studies with pathological verification. The long prodromal phase of DLB provides a critical opportunity for potential intervention with disease-modifying therapy, but only if we are able to clearly identify the diversity in the clinical courses of DLB. In the present article, we reviewed the limited literature regarding the clinical profiles of prodromal DLB. PMID:25690399

  20. [Pathogenetic mechanisms of dementia in the older patients with Parkinson's diseases].

    PubMed

    Chukhlovina, M L

    2014-01-01

    The review covers the current literature on the pathogenetic mechanisms of dementia in older patients with Parkinson's disease(PD). The author emphasizes that, along with the degeneration of brain structures, there are vascular changes that promote the development of mixed dementia. Neurodegenerative process and cerebrovascular pathology are in reciprocal relationship and their combination enhances the development of cognitive impairment. The cholinergic deficit is one of the key patterns of pathogenesis of dementia in PD. In this connection, the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: galantamine (reminil),neuromidin, rivastigmine in the treatment of PD patients with dementia is discussed. It is concluded, that correction of vascular risk factors should be administered to older PD patients with mixed dementia. A multidimensional approach with the close relationship between neurologists, psychiatrists and therapists is needed. PMID:25202788

  1. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  2. [Hearing impairment and dementia].

    PubMed

    Kilimann, I; Óvari, A; Hermann, A; Witt, G; Pau, H W; Teipel, S

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) burden of disease study identified dementia and hearing problems as leading causes of loss of quality of life in the industrial world. The prevalence of dementia and hearing problems increases in aging societies. Comorbidity of these two diseases causes increasing demands on healthcare systems. The similarity and possible interaction of symptoms renders diagnosis and therapy of dementia and hearing loss a challenge for neurologists, psychiatrists, ear, nose and throat (ENT) and hearing specialists. Knowledge of both diseases enables an early intervention and helps preserve participation in society and thereby reducing the risk of developing dementia. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the diagnosis and therapy of hearing problems and dementia.

  3. Associations between Dementia Outcomes and Depressive Symptoms, Leisure Activities, and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Ernst, Annette; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; Eifflaender-Gorfer, Sandra; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Eisele, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background Social relations and depressive symptoms are intertwined. They both predict subsequent dementia, but only few studies on the association between social life aspects and subsequent dementia exist. Methods The risk of subsequent dementia was estimated over 2 follow-up assessments, each 18 months apart, depending on leisure activity, social support (general scale and the 3 factors emotional support, practical support, and social integration), and depressive symptoms, using proportional hazard models in a cohort of elderly patients (n = 2,300, with a mean age of 82.45 years) recruited for the study by their general practitioners. Results Higher depressive symptoms and lower cognitive and physical activity were associated with an increased risk of subsequent all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While neither social engagement nor the general social support scale was associated with subsequent dementia, a higher level of social integration was associated with a lower dementia risk. In combined models, the results for activity variables remained similar, but the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and the subsequent risk of dementia decreased, and the association with social integration disappeared. Conclusions Depressive symptoms increased and activity variables decreased the risk of subsequent dementia; however, activity variables, namely cognitive and physical activity, partly mediated the effect of depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of all-cause dementia and AD. In many cases, social support was not associated with a risk of subsequent dementia. PMID:25685139

  4. [Prevalence of dementia in Japan: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Asada, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    As the aging society with low birth rate progresses, the burden of care for the dementia elderly increases. Thus, an increasing attention has been paid to the epidemiology of dementia in Japan. This phenomenon is also observed in many developing countries all over the world. In this paper, the author reports the prevalence of dementia among the elderly people aged 65 years and older in Japan using the data from a recent nation-wide survey. According to the results of this survey which was conducted at seven sites in Japan, the prevalence rate was estimated to be 15.75% (95% CI: 12.4-22.2%) which was much higher than that had been estimated before. Alzheimer disease is the most common illness that causes dementia, and followed by vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. As the limitation of this nation-wide survey, no study was conducted in urban area with low percentage of elderly in a population. Thus, additional studies are ongoing into the prevalence of dementia in urban areas.

  5. Case Studies Illustrating Focal Alzheimer's, Fluent Aphasia, Late-Onset Memory Loss, and Rapid Dementia.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Gamze Balci; Murray, Melissa E; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2016-08-01

    Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis). Recognizing the different syndromes can help the clinician to improve their diagnostic skills, leading to improved patient outcomes by early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and appropriate counseling and guidance. PMID:27445249

  6. Depression, Dementia, and Social Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…

  7. The Appropriate Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Work-Up of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of dementia is challenging and requires both ruling out potentially treatable underlying causes and ruling in a diagnosis of dementia subtype to manage patients and suitably plan for the future. Objectives This analysis sought to determine the appropriate use of neuroimaging during the diagnostic work-up of dementia, including indications for neuroimaging and comparative accuracy of alternative technologies. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published between 2000 and 2013. Review Methods Data on diagnostic accuracy and impact on clinical decision making were abstracted from included studies. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results The search yielded 5,374 citations and 15 studies were included. Approximately 10% of dementia cases are potentially treatable, though less than 1% reverse partially or fully. Neither prediction rules nor clinical indications reliably select the subset of patients who will likely benefit from neuroimaging. Clinical utility is highest in ambiguous cases or where dementia may be mixed, and lowest for clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease or clinically excluded vascular dementia. There is a lack of evidence that MRI is superior to CT in detecting a vascular component to dementia. Accuracy of structural imaging is moderate to high for discriminating different types of dementia. Limitations There was significant heterogeneity in estimates of diagnostic accuracy, which often prohibited a statistical summary of findings. The quality of data reported by studies prohibited calculation of likelihood ratios in the present analysis. No studies from primary care were found; thus, generalizability beyond tertiary care settings may be limited. Conclusions A diagnosis of reversible dementia is rare. Imaging has the most

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Promote Brain Hypoperfusion Leading to Cognitive Decline and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Jack C.

    2012-01-01

    Heart disease is the major leading cause of death and disability in the world. Mainly affecting the elderly population, heart disease and its main outcome, cardiovascular disease, have become an important risk factor in the development of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper examines the evidence linking chronic brain hypoperfusion induced by a variety of cardiovascular deficits in the development of cognitive impairment preceding AD. The evidence indicates a strong association between AD and cardiovascular risk factors, including ApoE4, atrial fibrillation, thrombotic events, hypertension, hypotension, heart failure, high serum markers of inflammation, coronary artery disease, low cardiac index, and valvular pathology. In elderly people whose cerebral perfusion is already diminished by their advanced age, additional reduction of cerebral blood flow stemming from abnormalities in the heart-brain vascular loop ostensibly increases the probability of developing AD. Evidence also suggests that a neuronal energy crisis brought on by relentless brain hypoperfusion may be responsible for protein synthesis abnormalities that later result in the classic neurodegenerative lesions involving the formation of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Insight into how cardiovascular risk factors can induce progressive cognitive impairment offers an enhanced understanding of the multifactorial pathophysiology characterizing AD and ways at preventing or managing the cardiovascular precursors of this dementia. PMID:23243502

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Patients With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    KRAUS, CYNTHIA A.; SEIGNOUREL, PAUL; BALASUBRAMANYAM, VALLI; SNOW, A. LYNN; WILSON, NANCY L.; KUNIK, MARK E.; SCHULZ, PAUL E.; STANLEY, MELINDA A.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is common in dementia and is associated with decreased independence and increased risk of nursing home placement. However, little is known about the treatment of anxiety in dementia. This article reports results from two patients who were treated with a modified version of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in dementia (CBT-AD). Modifications were made in the content, structure, and learning strategies of CBT to adapt skills to the cognitive limitations of these patients and include collaterals (i.e., family members, friends, or other caregivers) in the treatment process. The patients received education and awareness training and were taught the skills of diaphragmatic breathing, coping self-statements, exposure, and behavioral activation. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale was used to characterize dementia severity and determine eligibility for treatment (a CDR score of 0.5 to 2.0 was required for participation). Other measures included the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Anxiety subscale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Outcome data showed improvement in anxiety as measured by standardized rating scales. We conclude that CBT-AD is potentially useful in treating anxiety in dementia patients and that this technique merits further study. PMID:18520790

  10. Vascular Cures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular Disease Fibromuscular Dysplasia High ...

  11. Diagnosis of dementia with single photon emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Reed, B.R.

    1987-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography is a practical modality for the study of physiologic cerebral activity in vivo. We utilized single photon emission computed tomography and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine iodine 123 to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow in nine patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), five healthy elderly control subjects, and two patients with multi-infarct dementia. We found that all subjects with AD demonstrated flow deficits in temporoparietal cortex bilaterally, and that the ratio of activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex to activity in the whole slice allowed the differentiation of all patients with AD from both the controls and from the patients with multi-infarct dementia. Furthermore, this ratio showed a strong correlation with disease severity in the AD group. Single photon emission computed tomography appears to be useful in the differential diagnosis of dementia and reflects clinical features of the disease.

  12. Similarities of cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's and Parkinsonian dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.; Metter, E.J.; Benson, D.F.; Ashford, J.W.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Markham, C.H.; Maltese, A.

    1985-05-01

    In the dementia of probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD), there is a decrease in the metabolic ratio of parietal cortex/caudate-thalamus which relates measures in the most and in the least severely affected locations. Since some demented patients with Parkinson's Disease (PDD) are known to share pathological and neurochemical features with AD patients, the authors evaluated if the distribution of cerebral hypometabolism in PDD and AD were the same. Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined using the FDG method and positron tomography in subjects with AD (N=23), and PDD (N=7), multiple infarct dementia (MID)(N=6), and controls (N=10). In MID, the mean par/caudthal ratio was normal (0.79 +- 0.9, N=6). In AD and PDD patients, this ratio correlated negatively with both the severity (r=-0.624, rho=0.001) and duration (r=-0.657, rho=0.001) of dementia. The ratio was markedly decreased in subjects with mild to severe dementia (0.46 +- 0.09, N=21) and with dementia duration greater than two years (0.44 +- 0.08, N=18), but the ratio was also significantly decreased in patients with less advanced disease, i.e., when dementia was only questionable (0.64 +- 0.14, N=9) (t=2.27, rho<0.037) and when duration was two years or less (0.62 +- 0.13, N=12)(t=2.88, rho<0.009). This similarity of hypometabolism in AD and PDD is additional evidence that a common mechanism may operate in both disorders. The par/caud-thal metabolic ratio may be an index useful in the differential diagnosis of early dementia.

  13. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible VCI, summarize current treatment and prevention guidelines, and provide an overview with case examples. PMID:26124978

  14. Mononuclear cells in dementia.

    PubMed

    Mandas, Antonella; Dessì, Sandra

    2014-04-20

    According to the World Health Organization statistics, dementias are the largest contributors to disease burden in advanced market economies, and the leading cause of disability and dependence among older people worldwide. So far, several techniques have been developed to identify dementias with reasonable accuracy while the patient is still alive, however, no single of them has proven to be ideal, especially if you need to have a satisfactory early diagnosis. Studies of early onset dementia are largely limited by the inaccessibility to direct examination of the living human brain: it appears therefore that for a correct biochemical and molecular characterization of dementias, potential surrogate tissues must be identified. In this context, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) appear particularly attractive because they can be obtained in a minimally invasive manner and can be easily analyzed. This review focuses on the most representative methodologies and strategies in detecting and quantifying fluctuation in dementia that are currently being developed. In addition it provides a comprehensive evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity of PBMCs in patients with dementia. Finally, it discusses the data supporting the use of the determination of neutral lipids (NLs) in PBMCs by Oil Red O (ORO) staining, which is a minimally invasive, cheap, easy and fast procedure, as the promising method for early detection of dementia and to search for new effective treatments.

  15. Assessing the cognitive impact of Alzheimer disease pathology and vascular burden in the aging brain: the Geneva experience.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Gold, Gabriel; Kövari, Enikö; von Gunten, Armin; Imhof, Anouk; Bouras, Constantin; Hof, Patrick R

    2007-01-01

    The progressive development of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related lesions, such as neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), amyloid deposits and synaptic loss, and the occurrence of microvascular and small macrovascular pathology within the cerebral cortex are conspicuous neuropathologic features of brain aging. Recent neuropathologic studies strongly suggested that the clinical diagnosis of dementia depends more on the severity and topography of pathological changes than on the presence of a qualitative marker. However, several methodological problems, such as selection biases, case-control design, density-based measures and masking effects, of concomitant pathologies persisted. In recent years, we performed several clinicopathologic studies using stereological counting of AD lesions. In order to define the cognitive impact of lacunes and microvascular lesions, we also analyzed pure vascular cases without substantial AD pathology. Our data revealed that total NFT numbers in the CA1 field, cortical microinfarcts and subcortical gray matter lacunes were the stronger determinants of dementia. In contrast, the contribution of periventricular and subcortical white matter demyelinations had a modest cognitive effect even in rare cases with isolated microvascular pathology. Importantly, in cases with pure AD pathology, more than 50% of Clinical Dementia Rating scale variability was not explained by NFT, amyloid deposits and neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation. In cases with microvascular pathology or lacunes, this percentage was even lower. The present review summarizes our data in this field and discusses their relevance within the theoretical framework of the functional neuropathology of brain aging and with particular reference to the current efforts to develop standardized neuropathological criteria for mixed dementia. PMID:17036244

  16. Dementia-friendly neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Six research projects that will improve understanding of dementia are to receive £20 million in funding from the UK government. The projects, which will be overseen by the National Institute for Health Research and the Economic and Social Research Council, include investigations into creating dementia-friendly neighbourhoods; the lifestyle changes that can reduce the risk of developing the condition; training care home staff to support patients who become agitated; improving predictions of the future financial costs of dementia; living well with the condition; and the effects of visual aids on wellbeing and quality of life.

  17. [Dementia: management and prevention].

    PubMed

    Daher, Oscar; Nguyen, Sylvain; Smith, Cindi; Büla, Christophe; Démonet, Jean-François

    2016-04-20

    Dementia represents a great challenge for health care providers. Detection of cognitive impairment is critical for early diagnosis of dementia. Early diagnosis allows to initiate individualized management that focuses on maintaining patient's autonomy and supporting their caregivers. Proposed multimodal interventions include physical activity, cognitive training, mediterranean diet, and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Before the initiation of pro-cognitive therapy, medication review is essential to evaluate current treament and determine specific therapeutic objectives, based on patient's overall health and preferences. Overall risk reduction for dementia revolves around similar measures that target physical activity, cognition, diet and management of cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. [Esquirol and dementia].

    PubMed

    Albou, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840), after Pinel (1745-1826), stated precisely the symptoms of dementia according to the new medical definition of the word: a disease including all the states of intellectual weakness for various reasons. For example Esquirol clearly distinguished dementia from mania--that is to say our present psychoses--, and also from mental deficiency. In the same time Esquirol became more and more conscious, from 1814 (cf. his contributions to the Dictionnaire des sciences médicales, in 58 volumes, dir. Panckoucke) and 1838 (his famous work Des maladies mentales), of the very nature of senile insanity compared with other kinds of dementia.

  19. [Dementia: management and prevention].

    PubMed

    Daher, Oscar; Nguyen, Sylvain; Smith, Cindi; Büla, Christophe; Démonet, Jean-François

    2016-04-20

    Dementia represents a great challenge for health care providers. Detection of cognitive impairment is critical for early diagnosis of dementia. Early diagnosis allows to initiate individualized management that focuses on maintaining patient's autonomy and supporting their caregivers. Proposed multimodal interventions include physical activity, cognitive training, mediterranean diet, and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Before the initiation of pro-cognitive therapy, medication review is essential to evaluate current treament and determine specific therapeutic objectives, based on patient's overall health and preferences. Overall risk reduction for dementia revolves around similar measures that target physical activity, cognition, diet and management of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27276724

  20. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  1. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. Objective To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. Methods 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88–3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24–7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85–3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30–8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73–6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02–9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55–2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39–1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82–1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80–1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15–1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22–2.72). Conclusion Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival. PMID:26098910

  2. Drug Utilization Pattern in Patients with Different Types of Dementia in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mansi; Joshi, Anuradha; Suthar, Jalpa; Desai, Soaham

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia is one of the most frequent disorders among elderly patients, reaching to epidemic proportions with an estimated 4.6 million new cases globally annually. Partially effective treatments are available for dementia. Aims & Objectives. We aim to study drugs used in dementia and find out frequency of types of Dementia. Method. This was an observational study conducted at rurally based tertiary care hospital. Prospective data was collected from outpatient department, while retrospective data was collected from medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Result. Total 125 prescriptions of patients diagnosed with dementia were analyzed. Alzheimer's dementia was most common (65.6%), followed by vascular dementia (21.6%), and frontotemporal dementia (10.4%), with the rarest being Lewy body dementia in (2.4%) cases. 60.57% of patients were males. Mini Mental Score Examination mean score was 15.93 ± 1.37. Frontal Battery Assessment mean score was 4.75 ± 1.01. Prescribed drugs were Donepezil (68.49%), Rivastigmine (13.63%), Donepezil + Memantine (6.43%) and Galantamine (12.83%), Quetiapine (38.46%), Lorazepam (23.07%), Clozapine (11.53%), Escitalopram (10.25%), Haloperidol (3.84%), Zolpidem, Sertraline, Olanzepine (2.56%), Nitrazepine, Lamotrigine, Fluoxetine, Tianeptine (1.28%), Folic acid, and Vitamin B12, respectively. Conclusion. Alzheimer's is the most common type of dementia while Donepezil was the most frequent drug. PMID:25243092

  3. Prospects for delaying the rising tide of worldwide, late-life dementias.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric B

    2010-12-01

    Worldwide, lifespan is lengthening. Concomitantly, late-life dementias are increasingly common, challenging both personal and public health internationally. After age 65, rates of dementia tend to double every five years in developed countries and every seven in developing ones. The late-life dementias, particularly Alzheimer's disease, have profound effects on aging individuals and their caregivers. Multidisciplinary research has explored the potential for various approaches to prevent or delay the onset of late-life dementias. Outlining that research, including our team's Adult Changes in Thought and Kame studies, this review concludes that delaying the onset of these dementias appears feasible, although absolute prevention may not be. Today, the most promising methods appear to include controlling vascular risk factors like hypertension and engaging in physical exercise - and possibly mental exercise. If people can delay the onset of dementias, they can lead more fulfilling lives for longer, spending less time suffering from dementia and letting their families spend less time coping with the disease. It is possible that trends toward more knowledge-based societies, where cognitive health is so vital, may increasingly exert evolutionary pressure favoring larger and healthier brains - and a "compression of cognitive morbidity" - well into old age. Public health's great triumph, increased lifespan, should give more of the world's people the reward of many years of dementia-free life. Rather than the personal difficulties and public health burdens of many years of functional impairment, dependency, and suffering with dementia, some interventions may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

  4. Drug utilization pattern in patients with different types of dementia in Western India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mansi; Joshi, Anuradha; Suthar, Jalpa; Desai, Soaham

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dementia is one of the most frequent disorders among elderly patients, reaching to epidemic proportions with an estimated 4.6 million new cases globally annually. Partially effective treatments are available for dementia. Aims & Objectives. We aim to study drugs used in dementia and find out frequency of types of Dementia. Method. This was an observational study conducted at rurally based tertiary care hospital. Prospective data was collected from outpatient department, while retrospective data was collected from medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Result. Total 125 prescriptions of patients diagnosed with dementia were analyzed. Alzheimer's dementia was most common (65.6%), followed by vascular dementia (21.6%), and frontotemporal dementia (10.4%), with the rarest being Lewy body dementia in (2.4%) cases. 60.57% of patients were males. Mini Mental Score Examination mean score was 15.93 ± 1.37. Frontal Battery Assessment mean score was 4.75 ± 1.01. Prescribed drugs were Donepezil (68.49%), Rivastigmine (13.63%), Donepezil + Memantine (6.43%) and Galantamine (12.83%), Quetiapine (38.46%), Lorazepam (23.07%), Clozapine (11.53%), Escitalopram (10.25%), Haloperidol (3.84%), Zolpidem, Sertraline, Olanzepine (2.56%), Nitrazepine, Lamotrigine, Fluoxetine, Tianeptine (1.28%), Folic acid, and Vitamin B12, respectively. Conclusion. Alzheimer's is the most common type of dementia while Donepezil was the most frequent drug. PMID:25243092

  5. The concept of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bowler, J V

    2002-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is increasingly recognised to reflect an outmoded concept in that it identifies cases too late for preventive therapy to have an opportunity to prevent the development of dementia and uses a cognitive paradigm inappropriately based on Alzheimer's disease. A replacement is urgently required and a new concept, that of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), has been proposed to meet this need. It is imperative that criteria for VCI are developed on the basis of knowledge and data rather than supposition and assumption, as was the case for VaD. This review details the state of knowledge that we have now reached concerning the fundamental points of severity and cognitive paradigm and also covers a number of other imaging-related essential points embracing atrophy, leukoaraiosis, infarct volume and infarct location. Finally, the increasingly important concept of mixed dementia (co-existent Alzheimer's disease and VCI) is discussed.

  6. Neurochemical Profile of Dementia Pugilistica

    PubMed Central

    Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Maarouf, Chera L.; Daugs, Ian D.; Hunter, Jesse M.; Whiteside, Charisse M.; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Rodriguez, Emma; Kalback, Walter; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Dementia pugilistica (DP), a suite of neuropathological and cognitive function declines after chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI), is present in approximately 20% of retired boxers. Epidemiological studies indicate TBI is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). Some biochemical alterations observed in AD and PD may be recapitulated in DP and other TBI persons. In this report, we investigate long-term biochemical changes in the brains of former boxers with neuropathologically confirmed DP. Our experiments revealed biochemical and cellular alterations in DP that are complementary to and extend information already provided by histological methods. ELISA and one-dimensional and two dimensional Western blot techniques revealed differential expression of select molecules between three patients with DP and three age-matched non-demented control (NDC) persons without a history of TBI. Structural changes such as disturbances in the expression and processing of glial fibrillary acidic protein, tau, and α-synuclein were evident. The levels of the Aβ–degrading enzyme neprilysin were reduced in the patients with DP. Amyloid-β levels were elevated in the DP participant with the concomitant diagnosis of AD. In addition, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the axonal transport proteins kinesin and dynein were substantially decreased in DP relative to NDC participants. Traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for dementia development, and our findings are consistent with permanent structural and functional damage in the cerebral cortex and white matter of boxers. Understanding the precise threshold of damage needed for the induction of pathology in DP and TBI is vital. PMID:23268705

  7. [Dementia and otorhinolaryngologic practice].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, S; Hesse, G; Laubert, A

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between sensorial registration of peripheral stimuli and their central cognitive processing is not yet understood. The role of sensory deficits such as olfactory deterioration or hearing loss in the development of dementia is currently a focus of concern, with hopes of finding new diagnostic aspects and therapeutic options for multimodal treatment concepts in patients with dementia. The expertise of ENT specialists in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields of dysphagia, vestibular dysfunction and olfactory or hearing loss could make an important contribution to the development of future strategies for dealing with dementia. In this report we present up-to-date basic knowledge and ENT-specific aspects relating to the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. PMID:25103990

  8. Parkinson's disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Padovani, A; Costanzi, C; Gilberti, N; Borroni, B

    2006-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, affecting about 1% of the population over the age of 60. In addition to motor abnormalities, there are several non-motor signs and symptoms that may create a considerable burden for patients and care-givers. Dementia is common and affects approximately 40% of PD patients during the course of the disease, the risk for the development of dementia being 6 times higher than in non-PD age-matched controls. In most cases, PD patients with dementia (PDD) display a dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial deficits, while memory is relatively unaffected. The overlap between PDD and dementia with Lewy bodies suggests that they likely share similar underlying neuropathological processes.

  9. Sociopathic behavior and dementia.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Borin, Gemma; Vedovello, Marcella; Di Fiorino, Andrea; Nuti, Angelo

    2013-06-01

    The maintenance of appropriate social behavior is a very complex process with many contributing factors. Social and moral judgments rely on the proper functioning of neural circuits concerned with complex cognitive and emotional processes. Damage to these systems may lead to distinct social behavior abnormalities. When patients present with dysmoral behavior for the first time, as a change from a prior pervasive pattern of behavior, clinicians need to consider a possible, causative brain disorder. The aim is to explore sociopathy as a manifestation of dementia. We searched electronic databases and key journals for original research and review articles on sociopathy in demented patients using the search terms "sociopathy, acquired sociopathy, sociopathic behavior, dementia, and personality". In conclusion, dementia onset may be heralded by changes in personality including alteration in social interpersonal behavior, personal regulation, and empathy. The sociopathy of dementia differs from antisocial/psychopathic personality disorders. PMID:23180469

  10. Personality change in dementia.

    PubMed

    Aitken, L; Simpson, S; Burns, A

    1999-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and nature of personality change in 99 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia. Personality was assessed using an informant-rated inventory of the patient's personality before and after the onset of dementia, with the difference equating to a change in personality. Personality characteristics were related to the patients' age and sex, duration of illness, degree of cognitive impairment, the presence of a grasp reflex, and extrapyramidal signs. Personality change was found to be almost universal and negative in nature and was particularly associated with severity of cognitive impairment, longer duration of illness, and neurological signs. The findings reflect those from other studies and emphasize the biological basis of personality changes in dementia.

  11. Dementia - home care

    MedlinePlus

    ... help improve communication skills and prevent wandering. Calming music may reduce wandering and restlessness, ease anxiety, and improve sleep and behavior. People with dementia should have their eyes and ...

  12. Preventing and diagnosing dementia.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition. PMID:27544960

  13. Dementia and driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may be difficult. They may react in different ... that the person may not be able to drive safely, such as: Forgetting recent events Mood swings ...

  14. Multi-Infarct Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multi-Infarct Dementia ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  15. Dementia - daily care

    MedlinePlus

    ... recs.pdf . Accessed on June 27, 2016. Budson AE, Solomon PR. Life adjustments for memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia. In: Budson AE, Solomon PR, eds. Memory Loss, Alzheimer's Disease, and ...

  16. Vascular disease and risk factors are associated with cognitive decline in the Alzheimer’s disease spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Lorius, Natacha; Locascio, Joseph J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia subjects. 812 participants (229 NC, 395 MCI, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 years. General linear, longitudinal mixed effects, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Greater homocysteine level and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume were associated with processing speed impairment (homocysteine: p=0.02; WMH: p<0.0001); greater vascular index score was associated with memory impairment (p=0.007); and greater number of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) alleles was associated with global cognitive impairment (p=0.007) at baseline. APOE4 was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (p=0.002) and processing speed impairment (p=0.001) over time, while higher total cholesterol was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (p=0.02) and memory impairment (p=0.06) over time. These results suggest a significant association of increased vascular disease and risk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline. PMID:24787033

  17. [Apathy and Dementia].

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2016-07-01

    Apathy, which has been attracting attention since Marin's report in 1990, is ubiquitous among neuropsychiatric diseases. It has a major impact on the quality of life in both patients and their caregivers and impairs rehabilitation and outcome. Furthermore, apathy is important as a prodromal syndrome in the development of dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We reviewed the neurobiological basis, prevalence and assessment of potential benefits of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions for apathy in MCI and dementia. PMID:27395461

  18. Neuroimaging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.F.

    1986-05-01

    The tremendous increase in dementia has created a need for improved diagnostic techniques, and each of the newly established brain imaging techniques has been applied to this problem. Several, particularly computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and isotope emission tomography, have proved valuable. Each procedure has strengths--specific disorders that can be diagnosed--and weaknesses--types of dementia that cannot be demonstrated.

  19. Is complexity of work associated with risk of dementia? The Canadian Study of Health And Aging.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Edeltraut; Andel, Ross; Lindsay, Joan; Benounissa, Zohra; Verreault, René; Laurin, Danielle

    2008-04-01

    The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons aged 65 years or older. Lifetime job history allowed application of complexity scores and classification of work-related physical activity. Analyses included 3,557 subjects, of whom 400 were incident dementia cases, including 299 with Alzheimer's disease and 93 with vascular dementia. In fully adjusted Cox regression models, high complexity of work with people or things reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.98) and 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.99), respectively) but not Alzheimer's disease. For vascular dementia, hazard ratios were 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.90) for high complexity of work with people and 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 1.00) for high complexity of work with things. Subgroup analyses according to median duration (23 years) of principal occupation showed that associations with complexity varied according to duration of employment. High complexity of work appears to be associated with risk of dementia, but effects may vary according to subtype. PMID:18263600

  20. Depression associated with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered. PMID:25962363

  1. Early Dementia Screening

    PubMed Central

    Panegyres, Peter K.; Berry, Renee; Burchell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia. PMID:26838803

  2. Young onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Draper, B; Withall, A

    2016-07-01

    Young onset dementia (YOD), where symptoms of dementia have an onset before the age of 65, has become more prominent due to the population increase from the Baby Boomer generation. This clinical perspective examines key issues in the assessment, diagnosis and management of YOD. Challenges in the assessment and diagnosis of YOD are partly due to the diverse range of types of YOD, where degenerative dementias are less common and secondary dementias more common than in late onset dementia. Early symptoms are broad and include depression, behavioural change, neurological disorders, systemic disorders and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Perceived diagnostic delay may result in frustration and distress in people with YOD and their families. Chronic depression and MCI are associated with longer time to diagnosis, and in these situations, clinicians need to establish appropriate review processes and communicate clearly. A diagnosis of YOD may have marked consequences for a younger person, including early retirement, financial impacts and the psychological challenge of coming to grips with cognitive decline. Partners, children and other supporters often have unmet needs, feel burdened by care and are at high risk of physical and emotional consequences. Concerns about the heritability of dementia may add to family distress. Recent community service developments in Australia for YOD are outlined and the challenges of residential care described. PMID:27405890

  3. Assessment and Reporting of Driving Fitness in Patients with Dementia in Clinical Practice: Data from SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lovas, Joel; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Cermakova, Pavla; Lundberg, Catarina; Johansson, Björn; Johansson, Kurt; Winblad, Bengt; Eriksdotter, Maria; Religa, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Background: Driving constitutes a very important aspect of daily life and is dependent on cognitive functions such as attention, visuo-spatial skills and memory, which are often compromised in dementia. Therefore, the driving fitness of patients with dementia needs to be addressed by physicians and those that are deemed unfit should not be allowed to continue driving. Objective: We aimed at investigating to what extent physicians assess driving fitness in dementia patients and determinant factors for revoking of their licenses. Methods: This study includes 15113 patients with newly diagnosed dementia and driver’s license registered in the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem). The main outcomes were reporting to the licensing authority and making an agreement about driving eligibility with the patients. Results: Physicians had not taken any action in 16% of dementia patients, whereas 9% were reported to the authority to have their licenses revoked. Males (OR = 3.04), those with an MMSE score between 20–24 (OR = 1.35) and 10–19 (OR = 1.50), patients with frontotemporal (OR = 3.09) and vascular dementia (OR = 1.26) were more likely to be reported to the authority. Conclusion: For the majority of patients with dementia, driving fitness was assessed. Nevertheless, physicians did not address the issue in a sizeable proportion of dementia patients. Type of dementia, cognitive status, age, sex and burden of comorbidities are independent factors associated with the assessment of driving fitness in patients with dementia. Increased knowledge on how these factors relate to road safety may pave the way for more specific guidelines addressing the issue of driving in patients with dementia. PMID:27163829

  4. Multiple pathologies are common and related to dementia in the oldest-old

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ronald C.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Bullain, Szofia S.; Trieu, Thomas; Corrada, María M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of multiple pathologies in the expression of dementia in the oldest-old. Methods: A total of 183 participants of The 90+ Study with longitudinal follow-up and autopsy were included in this clinical-pathologic investigation. Eight pathologic diagnoses (Alzheimer disease [AD], microinfarcts, hippocampal sclerosis, macroinfarcts, Lewy body disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, white matter disease, and others) were dichotomized. We estimated the odds of dementia in relation to each individual pathologic diagnosis and to the total number of diagnoses. We also examined dementia severity in relation to number of pathologic diagnoses. Results: The presence of multiple pathologic diagnoses was common and occurred more frequently in those with dementia compared with those without dementia (45% vs 14%). Higher numbers of pathologic diagnoses were also associated with greater dementia severity. Participants with intermediate/high AD pathology alone were 3 times more likely to have dementia (odds ratio = 3.5), but those with single non-AD pathologies were 12 times more likely to have dementia (odds ratio = 12.4). When a second pathology was present, the likelihood of dementia increased 4-fold in those with intermediate/high AD pathology but did not change in those with non-AD pathologies, suggesting that pathologies may interrelate in different ways. Conclusions: In the oldest-old, the presence of multiple pathologies is associated with increased likelihood and severity of dementia. The effect of the individual pathologies may be additive or perhaps synergistic and requires further research. Multiple pathologies will need to be targeted to reduce the burden of dementia in the population. PMID:26180144

  5. [Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: overview].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Ishiki, Aiko; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The development of accurate diagnostic tests and treatment of dementia must be important issues in an aging society. The quality of biomarkers for dementia have dramatically improved recently and are classified into two categories, including (i) biochemical markers in biofluids and (ii) imaging using radiological technologies. Positron emission tomography (PET) to detect amyloid β was first developed in 2004 (1)). Since then, several amyloid PET tracers to detect senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been published by many investigators, including our group (2)). Some laboratories recently developed PET tracers to detect tau pathologies in patients with AD (3)). Moreover, four drugs (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantin), which modulate neurotransmission in the brains of patients with AD are now used to treat AD; however, none of them can cure the disease. Although several anti-amyloid β compounds have been examined in clinical trials as potentially useful drugs, all of them have failed to show significant benefits so far. In contrast, tau-targeted drugs have been developed and have entered clinical trials. We expect strongly a therapeutic drug for dementia to be released in the near future. PMID:25672736

  6. Strategies for molecular imaging dementia and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Bernhard J

    2008-01-01

    Dementia represents a heterogeneous term that has evolved to describe the behavioral syndromes associated with a variety of clinical and neuropathological changes during continuing degenerative disease of the brain. As such, there lacks a clear consensus regarding the neuropsychological and other constituent characteristics associated with various cerebrovascular changes in this disease process. But increasing this knowledge has given more insights into memory deterioration in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and other subtypes of dementia. The author reviews current knowledge of the physiological coupling between cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the light of state-of-the-art-imaging methods and its changes in dementia with special reference to Alzheimer’s disease. Different imaging techniques are discussed with respect to their visualizing effect of biochemical, cellular, and/or structural changes in dementia. The pathophysiology of dementia in advanced age is becoming increasingly understood by revealing the underlying basis of neuropsychological changes with current imaging techniques, genetic and pathological features, which suggests that alterations of (neuro) vascular regulatory mechanisms may lead to brain dysfunction and disease. The current view is that cerebrovascular deregulation is seen as a contributor to cerebrovascular pathologies, such as stroke, but also to neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The better understanding of these (patho) physiological mechanisms may open an approach to new interventional strategies in dementia to enhance neurovascular repair and to protect neurovascular coupling. PMID:18830391

  7. [Neuroepigenetics: Desoxyribonucleic acid methylation in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias].

    PubMed

    Mendioroz Iriarte, Maite; Pulido Fontes, Laura; Méndez-López, Iván

    2015-05-21

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that controls gene expression. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), global DNA hypomethylation of neurons has been described in the human cerebral cortex. Moreover, several variants in the methylation pattern of candidate genes have been identified in brain tissue when comparing AD patients and controls. Specifically, DNA methylation changes have been observed in PSEN1 and APOE, both genes previously being involved in the pathophysiology of AD. In other degenerative dementias, methylation variants have also been described in key genes, such as hypomethylation of the SNCA gene in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies or hypermethylation of the GRN gene promoter in frontotemporal dementia. The finding of aberrant DNA methylation patterns shared by brain tissue and peripheral blood opens the door to use those variants as epigenetic biomarkers in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Geriatric syndromes--vascular disorders?

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Timo E; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Tilvis, Reijo S; O'Neill, Desmond; Erkinjuntti, Timo J

    2013-05-01

    The term geriatric syndrome is used to characterize multifactorial clinical conditions among older people which are not subsumed readily into disease entities, but which nevertheless predispose older people to disability and death. Commonly included are frailty, dementia, delirium, incontinence, falls, and dizziness. Geriatric syndromes are common among older people: in a recent survey, 50% of those aged more than 65 had one or more of these conditions. Better methods for prevention and treatment are needed, but current strategies have lacked a coherent conceptual and diagnostic framework. Prevention and interventions need to be targeted at earlier ages, with geriatrics expertise needed in the definition and operationalization of these complex entities. In this review we consolidate evidence that vascular disorders, including vascular ageing and vascular diseases, are key etiological factors of geriatric syndromes. Identifying this vascular dimension would offer opportunities for more efficient preventive strategies and mandates earlier intervention, especially for women, among whom vascular disease is often expressed more insidiously than among men. This would entail a sensitization of the health care system to the systematic detection of the syndromes, which are currently underdiagnosed. Further disentangling of the mechanisms of vascular ageing may offer therapies for vascular diseases and geriatric syndromes alike.

  9. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics.We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database.We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia.We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients.

  10. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Turrone, Rosanna; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Bianchi, Marta; Poli, Loris; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Premi, Enrico; Formenti, Anna; Bigni, Barbara; Cosseddu, Maura; Cottini, Elisabetta; Berg, Daniela; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive deficits and incident dementia in the general population, but their role on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. The present study addresses the single and cumulative effect of vascular risk factors on cognition in PD patients, taking clinical confounders into account. Standardized neuropsychological assessment was performed in 238 consecutive PD patients. We evaluated the association of single and cumulative vascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and heart disease), with the diagnosis of PD normal cognition (PDNC, n = 94), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 111), and dementia (PDD, n = 33). The association between single neuropsychological tests and vascular risk factors was evaluated with covariance analyses adjusted for age at onset, educational levels, gender, disease duration, and motor performance. Age, educational levels, disease duration, and motor function were significantly different between PDNC, PD-MCI, and PDD. Heart disease was the only vascular factor significantly more prevalent in PDD compared with PDNC in adjusted analyses. Performance of tests assessing executive and attention functions were significantly worse in patients with hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes (p <  0.05). Heart disease is associated with dementia in PD, suggesting a potential window of intervention. Vascular risk factors act especially on attention and executive functions in PD. Vascular risk stratification may be useful in order to identify PD patients with a greater risk of developing dementia. These findings need to be verified in longitudinal studies. PMID:26890741

  11. Physiological imaging with PET and SPECT in Dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Jagust, W.J. . Dept. of Neurology Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-10-01

    Dementia is a medical problem of increasingly obvious importance. The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for at least 50% of all cases of dementia, with multi-infarct dementia the next most common cause of the syndrome. While the accuracy of diagnosis of AD may range from 80 to 90%, there is currently no laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. Functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer diagnostic advantages since brain function is unequivocally disturbed in all dementing illnesses. Both PET and SPECT have been utilized in the study of dementia. While both techniques rely on principles of emission tomography to produce three dimensional maps of injected radiotracers, the differences between positron and single photon emission have important consequences for the practical applications of the two procedures. This briefly reviews the technical differences between PET and SPECT, and discusses how both techniques have been used in our laboratory to elucidate the pathophysiology of dementia. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the environment or personal interactions, and the natural progression of the disease. All Rights Reserved Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. 912 Killian Hill Road S.W., Lilburn, GA 30047 © 2016 Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. Connect ...

  13. Mixed pathology is more likely in black than white decedents with Alzheimer dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leurgans, Sue; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Shah, Raj C.; Arvanitakis, Zoe; James, Bryan D.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the burden of neuropathology in black and white participants with clinical Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Participants included 122 persons enrolled in the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Core, a prospective cohort study of AD. Forty-one black decedents were matched two-to-one to 81 white decedents according to age at death, sex, years of education, and cognition proximate to death. We examined common brain pathologies related to dementia (AD, Lewy body, and macroscopic and microinfarct pathology) and arteriolar sclerosis and atherosclerosis. We calculated the frequency of each dementia pathology both alone and in combination (mixed pathologies). Racial differences in the odds of a single pathology vs mixed pathologies, and in the odds of vessel disease and its severity, were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results: AD pathology was confirmed in >93% of both black and white decedents with AD dementia. However, black decedents were less likely to have Alzheimer pathology as a single dementia pathology than white decedents (19.5% vs 42.0%), and were more likely to have AD mixed with an additional pathology (70.7% vs 50.6%), particularly Alzheimer pathology and Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer pathology, Lewy bodies, and infarcts. Black decedents also had more severe arteriolar sclerosis and atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Black decedents with AD dementia are more likely to have mixed brain pathologies compared with age-, sex-, education-, and cognition-matched white decedents with AD dementia. PMID:26180136

  14. Non-Alzheimer's disease-related memory impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Sönke

    2013-12-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of memory impairment and dementia in the elderly disturbed memory function is a widespread subjective and/or objective symptom in a variety of medical conditions. The early detection and correct distinction of AD from non-AD memory impairment is critically important to detect possibly treatable and reversible underlying causes. In the context of clinical research, it is crucial to correctly distinguish between AD or non-AD memory impairment in order to build homogenous study populations for the assessment of new therapeutic possibilities. The distinction of AD from non-AD memory impairment may be difficult, especially in mildly affected patients, due to an overlap of clinical symptoms and biomarker alterations between AD and certain non-AD conditions. This review aims to describe recent aspects of the differential diagnosis of AD and non-AD related memory impairment and how these may be considered in the presence of memory deficits.

  15. The influence of relationships on personhood in dementia care: a qualitative, hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In dementia personhood can be understood as increasingly concealed rather than lost. The sense of being a person evolves in relationships with others. The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the nature and quality of relationships between persons with dementia, family carers and professional caregivers and how these relationships influenced personhood in people with dementia. Methods This Norwegian study had a qualitative hermeneutical design based on ten cases. Each case consisted of a triad: the person with dementia, the family carer and the professional caregiver. Inclusion criteria for persons with dementia were (1) 67 years or older (2) diagnosed with dementia (3) Clinical Dementia Rating score 2 ie. moderate dementia (4) able to communicate verbally. A semi-structured interview guide was used in interviews with family carers and professional caregivers. Field notes were written after participant observation of interactions between persons with dementia and professional caregivers during morning care or activities at a day care centre. Data were analysed in two steps: (1) inductive analysis with an interpretive approach and (2) deductive analysis, applying a theoretical framework for person-centred care. Results Relationships that sustained personhood were close emotional bonds between family carers and persons with dementia and professional relationships between caregivers and persons with dementia. Relationships that diminished personhood were task-centred relationships and reluctant helping relationships between family carers and persons with dementia and unprofessional relationships between caregivers and persons with dementia. Conclusions A broad range of relationships was identified. Understanding the complex nature and quality of these relationships added insight as to how they influenced the provision of care and the personhood of persons with dementia. Personhood was not only bestowed upon them by family carers and

  16. Preservation of Neurons of the Nucleus Basalis in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, San; Zarow, Chris; Mack, Wendy J.; Zheng, Ling; Vinters, Harrry V.; Ellis, William G.; Lyness, Scott A.; Chui, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Object To compare loss of neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NB) in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) to normal controls, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and cases with mixed AD/SIVD pathology. Design Autopsied cases drawn from a longitudinal observational study with SIVD, AD and normal aging. Subjects Pathologically defined SIVD (n = 16), AD (n = 20), mixed pathology (n = 10), and age- and education-matched normal control (n = 17) groups were studied. Main Outcome measures NB neuronal cell counts in each group and their correlation with the extent of MRI white matter lesions (WML) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores closest to death. Results No significant loss of neurons was found in SIVD compared to age-matched controls in contrast to AD and mixed groups, where there was significant neuronal loss. A significant inverse correlation between NB neurons and CDR scores was found in AD, but not in the SIVD and mixed groups. NB cell counts were not correlated with either the extent of white matter lesions or cortical gray matter volume in SIVD or AD groups. Conclusions These findings inveigh against primary loss of cholinergic neurons in SIVD, but do not rule out the possibility of secondary cholinergic deficits due to disruptions of cholinergic projections to cerebral cortex. PMID:22393167

  17. Vascular ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aberrant subclavian and left ligamentum ateriosus; Congenital heart defect - vascular ring; Birth defect heart - vascular ring ... accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart problems. The condition occurs as often in males ...

  18. [Treatable dementia syndromes].

    PubMed

    Biedert, S; Schreiter, U; Alm, B

    1987-03-01

    Dementia--a syndrome of acquired intellectual deterioration--is an etiologically non-specific condition which is permanent, progressive, or reversible. In the evaluation of demented patients, a careful exposure history will determine the possible role of drugs, metals, or toxins. The physical examination may reveal focal deficits in cases of intracranial mass lesions and spasticity or ataxia of the lower limbs if hydrocephalus is present. Coexistance of dementia and peripheral neuropathy usually indicates a toxic or metabolic disorder. Asterixis, myoclonus, and postural tremor are common in toxic-metabolic dementias, while resting tremor, choreoathetosis, and rigidity occur in progressive extrapyramidal disorders. EEG is focally abnormal in cases of cerebral mass lesions and exhibits generalized slowing in toxic-metabolic encephalopathies. CT will aid in the identification of hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas, and intracranial mass lesions. A thorough laboratory evaluation including complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen and blood sugar, liver and thyroid tests, calcium and phosphorus levels, B12 and folate levels, serum copper and ceruloplasmin, VDRL, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, and lumbar puncture may demonstrate treatable disorders that are adversely affecting intellectual function. Elderly individuals are particularly susceptible to the effects of toxic or metabolic disorders, and a mild dementia might be exaggerated by relatively minor fluctuations in metabolic status. Treatable causes of dementia should be considered in all demented patients.

  19. [Dementia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Wierink, C D; de Baat, C

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this article is a translation of an editorial which appeared in the journal Gerodontology. The author warns that a great increase is expected in the number of dementia patients in the United Kingdom and he argues that care for these patients be given a high place on the national agenda. Dementia was also a major issue at the meeting of the International Association for Dental Research in March 2007. Several international studies presented there indicated that elderly people with dementia constitute a group at risk with respect to oral health. In the evaluation of the editorial, the situation in The Netherlands is described. There is also serious concern in The Netherlands about the statistics with respect to dementia. Due to the growing number of frail elderly people having a natural dentition, the need for professional oral care will increase. General practitioners have the important task of providing adequate oral health care for elderly people suffering from dementia who are still living at home. Guidelines for Oral Care, having to do with the improvement of oral care in institutions, appeared recently. With the guidelines, a good basis for developing adequate oral health care of frail elderly people is available. However, the implementation of these guidelines will require some attention. PMID:19280891

  20. Frequency of dementia syndromes with a potentially treatable cause in geriatric in-patients: analysis of a 1-year interval.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marija; Wedekind, Dirk; Franz, Almuth; Gremke, Melanie; Nau, Roland

    2015-08-01

    In addition to neurodegenerative and vascular causes of dementia, in the differential diagnosis potentially reversible conditions of dementia also must be assessed. Routine laboratory parameters and neuroimaging, which are recommended for the differential diagnosis of suspected dementia by the German S3 Guideline "Dementia", were retrospectively studied in 166 geriatric patients with suspected dementia. Delirium was diagnosed in six patients (3.6%). These six patients were excluded from the study. Of the 160 remaining patients, there were 99 (59.6%) with an already known dementia. In this subgroup of patients, we found a potentially treatable cause of dementia in 18.2%. In the remaining 61 patients (36.8%), the newly diagnosed dementia syndrome was established according to ICD-10 criteria. Potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome were found in 19 of these patients (31.1%). The most common cause was depressive pseudodementia in eight patients followed by vitamin B12 deficiency in six patients. A significant amount of our patients showed laboratory or imaging changes suggestive of potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome upon admission. The results of our study indicate the importance of careful differential diagnosis of dementia based on the recommendations of guidelines. Although therapy of these potential causes is not always accompanied by a full recovery, the identification and therapy of treatable causes of cognitive deficits are possible even for general practitioners, who often are the primary contact persons of affected individuals. PMID:25716929

  1. Does Schizophrenia in Offspring Increase the Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Christopher; Agerbo, Esben; Nielsen, Philip Rising

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Prior studies have consistently found a higher risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia, but whether this is due to a common etiology between the disorders remains obscure. We wanted to elucidate this association by investigating whether schizophrenia in offspring increases the risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Methods All individuals born between 1930 and 1953 were identified through national registers and followed from their 50th birthday until the date of Alzheimer's dementia, death or end of the study. Regressions were performed to evaluate the association between offspring with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia. Results Individuals with offspring with schizophrenia did not have an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07] compared to individuals with offspring without psychiatric contact. This finding remained stable when evaluating early-onset (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.91-1.31) and late-onset Alzheimer's dementia (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-1.07). Similar findings were made for vascular and unspecified dementia. Conclusion The finding of no familial coaggregation between schizophrenia and Alzheimer's dementia may suggest that no common etiology between the disorders exists. This may indicate that the excess risk of dementia in individuals with schizophrenia is a by-product of the higher rates of somatic comorbidity and adverse health risk factors among these individuals. PMID:27703469

  2. Vitamin D in dementia prevention.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    Beyond effects on bone health, vitamin D exerts effects on a variety of target organs, including the brain. The discussion herein presents the state of the art in research on the neurological role of vitamin D and clinical implications among older adults, including implications for dementia onset and progression. Some of the neurosteroid actions of vitamin D include regulation of calcium homeostasis, clearance of amyloid-β peptide, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and possible protection against the neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The correction of age-related hypovitaminosis D and cognitive decline has been reported by various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies reporting associations of lower vitamin D concentrations with brain changes and poorer cognition, specifically with respect to executive dysfunction. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D and cognitive disorders, including greater AD risk. Although there have not been any randomized placebo-controlled trials conducted to examine the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation to prevent AD, several nonrandomized controlled studies have found that older adults experienced cognitive improvements after 1-15 months of vitamin D supplementation. Therefore, it appears crucial to maintain vitamin D concentrations at sufficiently high levels in order to slow, prevent, or improve neurocognitive decline. PMID:27116242

  3. Dementia as a cultural metaphor.

    PubMed

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2014-04-01

    This article contributes to debates about the category "dementia," which until recently has been dominated by biomedical models. The perspectives of critical gerontology are pertinent for extending knowledge about dementia and guiding this analysis. These perspectives encourage examination of cultural and historical influences and thus question how societies have constructed and defined dementia. This article queries the stories told about dementia and the language that we use to tell these stories. Central to the article is an analysis of some of the stories about dementia that are contained within and framed by contemporary culture. A number of films, TV documentaries, news reports, theatre, memoirs, novels, and poems that portray some of the experiences associated with dementia are interrogated. These representations are examined as they either perpetrate or challenge stereotypes about living with dementia. Analysis of these representations demonstrates the sociocultural construction of dementia and the extent to which dementia is a diachronic phenomenon. Above all, the article considers (a) the social and political dimensions of dementia, (b) the ways in which the metaphors persistently used to explain dementia shape our consciousness about this condition, and (c) the extent to which dementia is an inherent part of contemporary life. PMID:23408265

  4. Dementia as a cultural metaphor.

    PubMed

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2014-04-01

    This article contributes to debates about the category "dementia," which until recently has been dominated by biomedical models. The perspectives of critical gerontology are pertinent for extending knowledge about dementia and guiding this analysis. These perspectives encourage examination of cultural and historical influences and thus question how societies have constructed and defined dementia. This article queries the stories told about dementia and the language that we use to tell these stories. Central to the article is an analysis of some of the stories about dementia that are contained within and framed by contemporary culture. A number of films, TV documentaries, news reports, theatre, memoirs, novels, and poems that portray some of the experiences associated with dementia are interrogated. These representations are examined as they either perpetrate or challenge stereotypes about living with dementia. Analysis of these representations demonstrates the sociocultural construction of dementia and the extent to which dementia is a diachronic phenomenon. Above all, the article considers (a) the social and political dimensions of dementia, (b) the ways in which the metaphors persistently used to explain dementia shape our consciousness about this condition, and (c) the extent to which dementia is an inherent part of contemporary life.

  5. Prediction of Dementia in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Frank; Wiese, Birgitt; Bickel, Horst; Eiffländer-Gorfer, Sandra; Fuchs, Angela; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Köhler, Mirjam; Luck, Tobias; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Wagner, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Current approaches for AD prediction are based on biomarkers, which are however of restricted availability in primary care. AD prediction tools for primary care are therefore needed. We present a prediction score based on information that can be obtained in the primary care setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 3.055 non-demented individuals above 75 years recruited via primary care chart registries (Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia, AgeCoDe). After the baseline investigation we performed three follow-up investigations at 18 months intervals with incident dementia as the primary outcome. The best set of predictors was extracted from the baseline variables in one randomly selected half of the sample. This set included age, subjective memory impairment, performance on delayed verbal recall and verbal fluency, on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination, and on an instrumental activities of daily living scale. These variables were aggregated to a prediction score, which achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.84 for AD. The score was applied to the second half of the sample (test cohort). Here, the prediction accuracy was 0.79. With a cut-off of at least 80% sensitivity in the first cohort, 79.6% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 14.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 97.8% negative predictive value of (NPV) for AD were achieved in the test cohort. At a cut-off for a high risk population (5% of individuals with the highest risk score in the first cohort) the PPV for AD was 39.1% (52% for any dementia) in the test cohort. Conclusions The prediction score has useful prediction accuracy. It can define individuals (1) sensitively for low cost-low risk interventions, or (2) more specific and with increased PPV for measures of prevention with greater costs or risks. As it is independent of technical aids, it may be used within large scale prevention programs. PMID:21364746

  6. [Dementia and bipolar disorder on the borderline of old age].

    PubMed

    Kontis, D; Theochari, I; Tsalta, E

    2013-01-01

    efficacy of anticonvulsants and antipsychotics is superior during acute bipolar episodes in elderly individuals, although both drug categories have been associated with important adverse effects. Current data suggest that the best option during the maintenance phase of the elderly bipolar disorder is the continuation of agents which have been shown effective in the management of acute episodes. The appropriate treatment of cognitive symptoms in elderly bipolar patients has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, the therapeutic value of psychotropics except cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in dementia is still controversial, due to their association with side effects. Recent studies which have focused on the role of lithium in dementia could help clarify the relationship of dementia and elderly bipolar disorder. Although there are promising findings with respect to the value of lithium treatment in the prevention of dementia, the existing clinical studies do not support any beneficial effect of lithium administration on enhancing cognitive functioning of people with dementia. The specific role of lithium in dementia and the preventive value of interventions against vascular risk factors in both disorders remain to be evaluated in future prospective studies.

  7. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

    2012-01-01

    An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608

  8. Dementia in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Karen E.

    2004-05-01

    One of the more recently recognized problems in treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is development of cognitive dysfunction and, in many cases, frank dementia. As patients with PD live longer, because of improved care and treatment of motor symptoms, dementia in PD is becoming a major contributor to morbidity in the illness. Prevalence studies suggest that up to 30% of patients with PD develop dementia. Dementia in PD patients is often a multifactorial condition. Neuropathologic changes caused by PD itself may cause memory loss. However, some patients with PD and memory decline also have pathologic changes that are more consistent with Alzheimer's disease. Many PD patients have a mix of the two types of pathology. Other factors, such as underlying illnesses, medication side effects, and interaction of therapeutic agents, may contribute to cognitive changes in PD patients. Predictors of development of dementia in PD include advancing age and severity of neurologic symptoms, which may interact with one another to produce this effect. Recent work suggests that tobacco use also may increase risk of PD dementia, despite its possible protective effect against development of PD itself. Presence of psychiatric illness, especially depression, may interfere with cognition and exacerbate memory loss. Reduction in the dose of dopaminergic agents and of other medications may be helpful in partially improving cognitive function in some cases. The balance between improvement of motor function and preservation of cognitive abilities must be weighed, and it is important for clinicians to discuss this trade-off with patients and their families. At this time, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatment for dementia in PD. However, medication used to treat Alzheimer's disease, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, may slow progression of memory loss in some PD patients. Based on work from small double-blind studies, open-label trials

  9. [Delirium and dementia].

    PubMed

    Marín Carmona, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Delirium and dementia are highly prevalent neurocognitive syndromes in the elderly. These syndromes are defined by level of consciousness, clinical onset, and potential reversibility, etc. Frequently, both syndromes coincide in the elderly patient and share many epidemiologic, pathogenic and clinical features, which are reviewed in this article. There is no solid scientific evidence that explains the association between delirium and dementia. The present article proposes a change of paradigm in the diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic approach to delirium in the elderly that recognizes the inherent complexity of this geriatric syndrome and, unlike dichotomic models, explores the complex interrelations between both geriatric syndromes. Delirium is viewed as an important model to investigate cognitive disorders and dementia.

  10. A walk-in screening of dementia in the general population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Wang, Ling-Chun; Ma, Tzu-Chiao; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased in its prevalence due to the increasing aged population. Currently there is no updated data on the prevalence of dementia including its very mild stage in Taiwan. Under the extensive coverage of Mentality Protection Center (MPC), Fo Guang Shan, Taiwan, the volunteers of MPC have conducted the medicine-related services and the screening of dementia by AD8 (ascertainment of dementia 8) that can screen the dementia even at its very mild stage in general population in all Taiwan. From 2011 to 2013, in total, 2,171 participants, 368 in the northern, 549 in the central, 877 in the southern, and 377 in the eastern part, were recruited with the mean age being 66.9 ± 10.2 years old. The ratio of suspected dementia patients, AD8 score greater than or equal to 2, was 13.6% of all recruited participants with their mean AD8 score being 2.9 ± 1.3, mean age being 69.4 ± 10.8 years old, and female predominance being 73.0%. Although this is a screening study, it has extensive coverage of all Taiwan and the use of AD8 is capable of screening very mild dementia. A further study with a randomized sampling to examine the prevalence and incidence of dementia including its very mild stage is encouraged. PMID:24883363

  11. Behavioral and endocrinological evaluation of music therapy for elderly patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Watanabe, Motoko; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kojima, Emi; Ooshiro, Hajime; Nakahara, Daiichirou

    2004-03-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endocrinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music therapy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) did not significantly change, but the scores of a subscale, "language", improved significantly. According to the Multidimensional Observation Scale For Elderly Subjects (MOSES), scores for "irritability" decreased significantly. Regarding changes in salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels, the average was significantly decreased before session 16 compared to after this. These results suggest that the combination of endocrinological measurements, behavioral evaluations and functional assessment methods are useful in evaluating the effects of music therapy in persons with senile dementia.

  12. Retinal Vascular Fractals and Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Yi-Ting; Hilal, Saima; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Xu, Xin; Chen, Christopher; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Wong, Tien Yin; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60 years) from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study who underwent detailed clinical examinations including retinal photography, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Retinal vascular parameters were assessed from optic disc-centered photographs using a semiautomated program. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered, and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) and dementia were diagnosed according to standard diagnostic criteria. Results Among 268 eligible nondemented participants, 78 subjects were categorized as CIND-mild and 69 as CIND-moderate. In multivariable adjusted models, reduced retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions were associated with an increased risk of CIND-mild and CIND-moderate. Reduced fractal dimensions were associated with poorer cognitive performance globally and in the specific domains of verbal memory, visuoconstruction and visuomotor speed. Conclusion A sparser retinal microvascular network, represented by reduced arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, was associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that early microvascular damage may be present in preclinical stages of dementia. PMID:25298774

  13. Financial errors in dementia: Testing a neuroeconomic conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Winston; Hsu, Ming; Wudka, Danny; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Financial errors by patients with dementia can have devastating personal and family consequences. We developed and evaluated a neuroeconomic conceptual framework for understanding financial errors across different dementia syndromes, using a systematic, retrospective, blinded chart review of demographically-balanced cohorts of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=100) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n=50). Reviewers recorded specific reports of financial errors according to a conceptual framework identifying patient cognitive and affective characteristics, and contextual influences, conferring susceptibility to each error. Specific financial errors were reported for 49% of AD and 70% of bvFTD patients (p = 0.012). AD patients were more likely than bvFTD patients to make amnestic errors (p< 0.001), while bvFTD patients were more likely to spend excessively (p = 0.004) and to exhibit other behaviors consistent with diminished sensitivity to losses and other negative outcomes (p< 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis identified a social/affective vulnerability factor associated with errors in bvFTD, and a cognitive vulnerability factor associated with errors in AD. Our findings highlight the frequency and functional importance of financial errors as symptoms of AD and bvFTD. A conceptual model derived from neuroeconomic literature identifies factors that influence vulnerability to different types of financial error in different dementia syndromes, with implications for early diagnosis and subsequent risk prevention. PMID:23550884

  14. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  15. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  16. Parkinson Disease and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kramberger, Milica G

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present. This review provides an update on current knowledge of PDD including aspects of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, management, and prognosis.

  17. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  18. Parkinson Disease and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kramberger, Milica G

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present. This review provides an update on current knowledge of PDD including aspects of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. PMID:27502301

  19. [Genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease: vascular risk and beta-amyloid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Colacicco, Anna Maria; Torres, Francesco; Altomare, Emanuele; Capurso, Antonio

    2002-09-01

    Progress in clinical and basic research of Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggested theoretical models of possible pathogenetic mechanisms, with a primary role of the genetic factors that have been implicated in AD. These can be divided into two main categories. First, the three genes in which mutations are known to result in early onset autosomal dominant familial AD (presenilins 1 and 2, and amyloid beta protein precursor [APP]): well characterized but that account for only a small proportion of AD cases. Secondly, late onset, sporadic AD is more common and evidence suggests that there is a genetic component to this type of disease. A number of genetic risk factors have been implicated that might increase the risk of developing sporadic disease: particularly, apolipoprotein E (apo E) polymorphism and many others suggested by linkage studies [alpha-macroglobulin, low density receptor protein (LRP1), bleomycin hydrolase], with a precise role in beta-amyloid metabolism and deposition. Many of these are controversial and studies have shown conflicting results, but apoE polymorphism seems to be only one of the possible genetic factors suggested to play a role in the multifactoral pathogenesis of AD. Regional and ethnic differences may affect the strength of association between apoE epsilon 4 allele and the disease, and we reported evidences of the decreasing frequency of epsilon 4 allele in AD patients and centenarians from Northern to Southern European regions. Finally, several genetic risk factors of vascular origin (angiotensin converting enzyme, methyltetrahydropholate-reductase, and NOS3 gene polymorphisms) have been implicated in the development of both vascular dementia and AD with conflicting results.

  20. Distinct behavioural profiles in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, J; Bathgate, D; Varma, A; Blackshaw, A; Gibbons, Z; Neary, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test predictions that frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia give rise to distinct patterns of behavioural change.
METHODS—An informant based semistructured behavioural interview, covering the domains of basic and social emotions, social and personal behaviour, sensory behaviour, eating and oral behaviour, repetitive behaviours, rituals, and compulsions, was administered to carers of 41 patients with semantic dementia and with apathetic (FTD-A) and disinhibited (FTD-D) forms of frontotemporal dementia.
RESULTS—Consistent with prediction, emotional changes differentiated FTD from semantic dementia. Whereas lack of emotional response was pervasive in FTD, it was more selective in semantic dementia, affecting particularly the capacity to show fear. Social avoidance occurred more often in FTD and social seeking in semantic dementia. Patients with FTD showed reduced response to pain, whereas patients with semantic dementia more often showed exaggerated reactions to sensory stimuli. Gluttony and indiscriminate eating were characteristic of FTD, whereas patients with semantic dementia were more likely to exhibit food fads. Hyperorality, involving inedible objects, was unrelated to gluttony, indicating different underlying mechanisms. Repetitive behaviours were common in both FTD and semantic dementia, but had a more compulsive quality in semantic dementia. Behavioural differences were greater between semantic dementia and FTD-A than FTD-D. A logistic regression analysis indicated that emotional and repetitive, compulsive behaviours discriminated FTD from semantic dementia with 97% accuracy.
CONCLUSION—The findings confirm predictions regarding behavioural differences in frontotemporal and semantic dementia and point to differential roles of the frontal and temporal lobes in affect, social functioning, eating, and compulsive behaviour.

 PMID:11181853

  1. International studies in dementia with particular emphasis on populations of African origin.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Hugh C; Murrell, Jill; Gao, Sujuan; Unverzagt, Fredrick W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Hall, Kathleen S

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on dementia generally have 2 major interacting objectives: descriptive, where rates of dementia and Alzheimer Disease (AD) are calculated for communities and selected populations, and analytic, which attempt to explain the observed phenotypic variations in communities and populations by identifying disease risk factors. The public health benefits derived from descriptive studies are exemplified by the recent published review of the global prevalence of dementia under the auspices of Alzheimer Disease International. This review emphasized the enormous and growing burden associated with dementia particularly for countries in the developing world and outlined strategies to influence policy making, planning, and healthcare allocation. One interesting feature of descriptive studies on dementia is that although the few epidemiologic studies conducted in Africa suggest that rates of dementia and AD are relatively low, rates of AD and dementia have been reported to be relatively high for African Americans. The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project has reported that the incidence rates for AD and dementia in Yoruba are less than half the incidence rates for AD and dementia in African Americans. Analytic studies are now underway to identify risk factors that may account for these rate differences. The risk factor model being applied, attempts to identify not only putative genetic and environmental factors but also their interactions. So far the major findings have included: apolipoprotein E e4, a major risk factor for AD in most populations, is also a risk factor for AD in African Americans but not for Yoruba; African Americans are at higher risk not only for AD, but also for diseases associated with increased cardiovascular risk such as hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome; African Americans have higher rates of hypercholesterolemia than Yoruba: there is an interaction between apolipoprotein E e4, cholesterol, and AD risk in both Yoruba and

  2. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): sensitivity in an Italian sample of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Ferroni, L; Lombardi, L; Del Torto, E; Vista, M; Moretti, P

    1992-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed in a sample of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type or vascular dementia. The MMSE identified the majority of pts with diffuse cognitive impairment but did not discriminate between the two types of dementia. If failed to detect mild deterioration or forms in which only some cognitive functions were impaired. The test is therefore not sufficient for distinguishing deteriorated from non deteriorated pts, although it is still useful in mass screening or for a quick assessment of deterioration in the course of clinical neurological examination.

  3. Disease-modifying therapeutic directions for Lewy-Body dementias

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Kim, Young-Cho; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2015-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second leading cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for up to 25% of all dementia. DLB is distinct from AD in that it involves extensive neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as motor symptoms, leads to enormous societal costs in terms of direct medical care and is associated with high financial and caregiver costs. Although, there are no disease-modifying therapies for DLB, we review several new therapeutic directions in treating DLB. We discuss progress in strategies to decrease the level of alpha-synuclein, to prevent the cell to cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and the potential of brain stimulation in DLB. PMID:26347604

  4. Creativity and dementia: a review.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2012-08-01

    In these last years, creativity was found to play an important role for dementia patients in terms of diagnosis and rehabilitation strategies. This led us to explore the relationships between dementia and creativity. At the aim, artistic creativity and divergent thinking are considered both in non-artists and artists affected by different types of dementia. In general, artistic creativity can be expressed in exceptional cases both in Alzheimer's disease and Frontotemporal dementia, whereas divergent thinking decreases in dementia. The creation of paintings or music is anyway important for expressing emotions and well-being. Yet, creativity seems to emerge when the right prefrontal cortex, posterior temporal, and parietal areas are relatively intact, whereas it declines when these areas are damaged. However, enhanced creativity in dementia is not confirmed by controlled studies conducted in non-artists, and whether artists with dementia can show creativity has to be fully addressed. Future research directions are suggested.

  5. Cognitive impairment 18 years before clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Weuve, Jennifer; Barnes, Lisa L.; Evans, Denis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation of performance on brief cognitive tests to development of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia over the following 18 years in a sample of African Americans and European Americans. Methods: A composite cognitive test score based on tests of episodic memory, executive function, and global cognition was constructed in a prospective population-based sample of 2,125 participants (55% African American and 61% female) aged 65 years and older residing in 4 Chicago neighborhoods. Time before AD dementia diagnosis was categorized into 6 groups corresponding to data collection periods: 0.1–0.9, 1.0–3.9, 4.0–6.9, 7.0–9.9, 10.0–12.9, and 13.0–17.9 years. Results: Of 2,125 participants without clinical AD dementia, 442 (21%) developed clinical AD dementia over 18 years of follow-up. Lower composite cognitive test scores were associated with the development of AD dementia over the duration of the study. The magnitude of association between composite cognitive test score and development of AD dementia increased from an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% confidence interval 1.72, 6.67; p < 0.001) at 13.0–17.9 years to 9.84 (95% confidence interval 7.41, 13.06; p < 0.001) at 0.1–0.9 years, per SD increment. These associations were consistently larger among European Americans than among African Americans. Performance on individual cognitive tests of episodic memory, executive function, and global cognition also significantly predicted the development of AD dementia, with associations exhibiting a similar trend over 18 years. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive impairment may manifest in the preclinical phase of AD dementia substantially earlier than previously established. PMID:26109713

  6. Dementia and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  7. Dementia and driving.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  8. Diet and dementia.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2004-09-01

    The ageing brain adapts to the accumulation of damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Adaptive processes include neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. Individual differences in susceptibility to dementia arise when these mechanisms are impaired or are overwhelmed by the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroprotection relies upon extrinsic and intrinsic defences. An adequate intake of antioxidant micronutrients (eg, vitamin C and vitamin E) and anti-inflammatory macronutrients (eg, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) forms an essential component of extrinsic defences against brain ageing. There are many epidemiological data to support an association between an inadequate intake of antioxidants and/or fish oils (an important source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and a greater than expected incidence of late onset dementia. These associations are confounded by established links between poverty, poor diet and failing health, especially in old age. Such links may be sufficient to explain some of the effects of an inadequate diet on the retention of cognitive function and increased risk of dementia in old age. More compelling is the association between increased plasma homocysteine concentration and later increased risk of dementia. This association is possibly caused by an inadequate intake of vitamin B(12)/folate.

  9. Neuroimaging in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Paolo; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Agosta, Federica; Rosen, Howard J.; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Although dementia is a clinical diagnosis, neuroimaging often is crucial for proper assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) may identify nondegenerative and potentially treatable causes of dementia. Recent neuroimaging advances, such as the Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB) ligand for positron emission tomography imaging in Alzheimer’s disease, will improve our ability to differentiate among the neurodegenerative dementias. High-resolution volumetric MRI has increased the capacity to identify the various forms of the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum and some forms of parkinsonism or cerebellar neurodegenerative disorders, such as corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and spinocerebellar ataxias. In many cases, the specific pattern of cortical and subcortical abnormalities on MRI has diagnostic utility. Finally, among the new MRI methods, diffusion-weighted MRI can help in the early diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Although only clinical assessment can lead to a diagnosis of dementia, neuroimaging is clearly an invaluable tool for the clinician in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18843575

  10. Why Wait for Dementia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watchman, Karen

    2003-01-01

    This article offers guidelines for the modification of the living environment of adults with Down syndrome before they develop dementia in order to allow them to remain in familiar surroundings for as long as possible. These include maintaining the person's individuality; aiding his/her communication; changing supports with the course of the…

  11. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and their management].

    PubMed

    Lykouras, L; Gournellis, R

    2011-01-01

    The decline in cognitive function is a core feature of dementias. However, other symptoms of the disease are also crucial. These symptoms are the behavioral and psychological manifestations of dementia and include symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, delusional misindentification syndromes (DMS), illusions, anxiety, aggression, depression, personality changes, disinhibition-impulsivity, violation of social and moral norms, changes in dietary or eating behavior and repetitive behaviors. Delusions, hallucinations, anxiety, depression and aggression are highly prevalent in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, whereas symptoms that include severe disturbance of behavior are highly prevalent in frontotemporal dementias. Psychotic symptoms are associated with subcortical disturbances mainly of the limbic system. Patients with depression present greater loss of noradrenergic cells in the locus coeruleus and loss of serotonergic nuclei of dorsal raphe. Furthermore, disturbances of behavior are associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. Atypical antipsychotics is the first treatment option for delusions, hallucinations, misidentifications, anxiety and aggression. Furthermore, antidepressants may be useful for moderate or severe depression as well as for disinhibition-impulsivity, aggression, changes in dietary or eating behavior and repetitive behaviors. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also improve apathy, anxiety, disinhibition, aberrant behavior, mood disorders and hallucinations. Moreover, non-pharmacological methods alone or in combination with psychotropic drugs may also improve patient's symptomatology. PMID:21688522

  12. Dietary antioxidants, cognitive function and dementia--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen J

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant compounds, contained in fruit, vegetables and tea, have been postulated to have a protective effect against age-related cognitive decline by combating oxidative stress. However, recent research on this subject has been conflicting. The aim of this systematic review was to consider current epidemiological and longitudinal evidence for an association between habitual dietary intake of antioxidants and cognition, with consideration given to both cognitive functioning and risk for dementia and its subtypes, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Searches of electronic databases were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between antioxidant intakes (vitamins C, E, flavonoids, carotenoids) and cognitive function or risk for dementia. Eight cross-sectional and 13 longitudinal studies were identified and included in the review. There were mixed findings for the association between antioxidant intake, cognition and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Large heterogeneity in study design, differential control of confounders, insufficient measures of cognitive performance, and difficulties associated with dietary assessment may contribute to the inconsistent findings. Overall, findings do not consistently show habitual intakes of dietary antioxidants are associated with better cognitive performance or a reduced risk for dementia. Future intervention trials are warranted to elucidate the effects of a high intake of dietary antioxidants on cognitive functioning, and to explore effects within a whole dietary pattern.

  13. Apraxias in Neurodegenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Abbas, Mirza Masoom

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apraxia is a state of inability to carry out a learned motor act in the absence of motor, sensory or cerebellar defect on command processed through the Praxis circuit. Breakdown in default networking is one of the early dysfunction in cortical dementias and result in perplexity, awkwardness, omission, substitution errors, toying behavior and unrecognizable gestures in response to command with voluntary reflex dissociation where, when unobserved patient will carry out reflex movements normally. Awareness into the organicity of these phenomenas will help in early diagnosis, which will help in initiating appropriate treatment and slowing down the progression of the disease. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to look for the various kinds of apraxias in patients with dementia using appropriate simple tests. Patients and Methods: Three hundred patients satisfying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for dementia were evaluated in detail with mandatory investigations for dementia followed by testing for ideational, ideomotor, limb-kinetic, buccopharyngeal, dressing apraxia, constructional apraxia and gait apraxias in addition to recording of rare apraxias when present. Results: Alzheimer's disease showed maximum association with apraxias in all the phases of the disease ideational, ideomotor, dressing and constructional apraxias early and buccopharyngeal and gait apraxia late. Frontotemporal lobe dementia showed buccopharyngeal and gait apraxias late into the disease. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration showed limb apraxias and diffuse Lewy body disease showed more agnosias and less apraxias common apraxias seen was Ideational and Ideomotor. Conclusion: Recognition of the apraxias help in establishing organicity, categorization, caregiver education, early strategies for treatment, avoiding anti-psychotics and introducing disease modifying pharmacotherapeutic agents and also prognosticating. PMID:25722511

  14. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  15. Dementia and Mortality In Persons with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppus, A.; Evenhuis, H.; Verberne, G.-J.; Visser, F.; van Gool, P.; Eikelenboom, P.; van Duijin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have documented that persons with Downs syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of Alzheimers disease (AD). However, at present it is still not clear whether or not all persons with DS will develop dementia as they reach old age. Methods: We studied 506 people with DS, aged 45 years and above. A standardized assessment…

  16. Neuropathologic assessment of dementia markers in identical and fraternal twins.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Diego; Volkman, Inga; Nennesmo, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fratiglioni, Laura; Johansson, Boo; Karlsson, David; Winblad, Bengt; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-07-01

    Twin studies are an incomparable source of investigation to shed light on genetic and non-genetic components of neurodegenerative diseases, as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Detailed clinicopathologic correlations using twin longitudinal data and post-mortem examinations are mostly missing. We describe clinical and pathologic findings of seven monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Our findings show good agreement between clinical and pathologic diagnoses in the majority of the twin pairs, with greater neuropathologic concordance in MZ than DZ twins. Greater neuropathologic concordance was found for β-amyloid than tau pathology within the pairs. ApoE4 was associated with higher β-amyloid and earlier dementia onset, and importantly, higher frequency of other co-occurring brain pathologies, regardless of the zygosity. Dementia onset, dementia duration, difference between twins in age at dementia onset and at death, did not correlate with AD pathology. These clinicopathologic correlations of older identical and fraternal twins support the relevance of genetic factors in AD, but not their sufficiency to determine the pathology, and consequently the disease, even in monozygotic twins. It is the interaction among genetic and non-genetic risks which plays a major role in influencing, or probably determining, the degeneration of those brain circuits associated with pathology and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:24450926

  17. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  18. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease.

  19. Prevalence of dementia in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghly, Wafaa M; Badry, Reda; Rageh, Tarek A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Hakeem M, N Abdel; Abd El Hamed, Mohamed; Sayd, Mohamed A M; Hamed, Yasser; Kandil, Mahmoud R

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most important public health problems as a result of the rapid increase in the number of elderly persons worldwide. Improvement of prevention strategies and caring for people with dementia should be undertaken. We performed a door-to-door study to screen all subjects aged 50 years and older (n=4,329 of 33,285 inhabitants) in Al-Quseir city. The screening was performed by 3 neuropsychiatrists, using a modified form of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Suspected cases were subjected to case ascertainment according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria for dementia; full clinical assessment; psychometric assessment using Cognitive Abilities Screening Instruments, Hachinski Ischaemic Score, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale; neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging); and laboratory investigations for selected patients when indicated. The prevalence of dementia was 2.01% for participants aged 50 years or older and 3.83% for those aged 60 years or older. It increased steeply with increasing age to a maximum of 13.5% for those aged 80 years or older. Alzheimer's dementia (48.3%) was the most common subtype, followed by vascular dementia (36.8%), dementia resulting from general medical conditions (11.5%), and last, dementia resulting from multiple etiologies (3.4%). PMID:24353410

  20. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (Dementia diagnoses were made during biennial health examinations with a two-phase procedure. DSM IV criteria were used for diagnosing dementia, NINCDS-ADRDA for Alzheimer disease, and NINDS-AIREN for vascular disease. To estimate the effect of radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  1. Prevalence of dementia in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghly, Wafaa M; Badry, Reda; Rageh, Tarek A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Hakeem M, N Abdel; Abd El Hamed, Mohamed; Sayd, Mohamed A M; Hamed, Yasser; Kandil, Mahmoud R

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most important public health problems as a result of the rapid increase in the number of elderly persons worldwide. Improvement of prevention strategies and caring for people with dementia should be undertaken. We performed a door-to-door study to screen all subjects aged 50 years and older (n=4,329 of 33,285 inhabitants) in Al-Quseir city. The screening was performed by 3 neuropsychiatrists, using a modified form of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Suspected cases were subjected to case ascertainment according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria for dementia; full clinical assessment; psychometric assessment using Cognitive Abilities Screening Instruments, Hachinski Ischaemic Score, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale; neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging); and laboratory investigations for selected patients when indicated. The prevalence of dementia was 2.01% for participants aged 50 years or older and 3.83% for those aged 60 years or older. It increased steeply with increasing age to a maximum of 13.5% for those aged 80 years or older. Alzheimer's dementia (48.3%) was the most common subtype, followed by vascular dementia (36.8%), dementia resulting from general medical conditions (11.5%), and last, dementia resulting from multiple etiologies (3.4%).

  2. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  3. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics. PMID:25598395

  4. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Deborah M.; Gasquoine, Philip G.; Weimer, Amy A.

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics. PMID:25598395

  5. Nutrition and dementia: are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed

    Shea, Thomas B; Rogers, Eugene; Remington, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has no cure or nullifying pharmacological interventions. Nutritional supplementation represents a systemic approach that in some studies has provided benefit and has augmented pharmacological approaches. However, additional studies report no benefit of supplementation. We review herein how studies of nutrition on dementia, including those combining nutrition and dementia, are inherently compromised. We also review studies with mice, which demonstrate that nutritional supplementation can alleviate multiple genetic risk factors for AD. An individual diagnosed with AD has by definition undergone considerable cognitive decline; anticipating restoration/maintenance of cognitive performance following nutritional supplementation alone may be misdirected. Nutrition declines in aging, and even more so in AD. While optimization of nutrition should ideally be initiated well before any cognitive decline, we present evidence that the systemic benefit alone of nutritional supplementation at the very minimum warrants initiation along with pharmacological intervention.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of some neuropsychological markers of Alzheimer dementia.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, G; Marra, C; Villa, G; Parlato, V; Chiarotti, F

    1998-09-01

    A standardized neuropsychological test battery was administered to 167 patients with different forms of mild-to-moderate dementia: probable Alzheimer dementia (AD: n = 49), multi-infarct dementia (n = 43), idiopathic Parkinson disease with dementia (n = 35), depressive pseudodementia (n = 26), and progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 14). Results obtained were used (a) to analyze the profiles of cognitive impairment shown by the different dementia groups; (b) to assess the incidence of some neuropsychological patterns that we hypothesized to be more characteristic of AD, in the various groups; and hence (c) to evaluate the reliability of these patterns as diagnostic markers of AD. Four of the patterns investigated were derived from a verbal learning task (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning test): (1) absence of the primacy effect; (2) tendency to produce intrusion errors during free recall of a word list; (3) absolute decay of memory trace; and (4) tendency to produce false alarms during delayed recognition of the same word list. Two additional patterns were derived from visual-spatial tasks (copying drawings and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices): (5) occurrence of the closing-in phenomenon in copying drawings; and (6) tendency to choose globalistic or odd responses in Raven's matrices. Though all the six patterns were somewhat useful for identifying AD patients, no pattern met the criteria of being both highly sensitive and highly specific, which should characterize an ideal marker. In fact, intrusions and false alarms were observed in many AD patients, but also in patients affected by other forms of dementia. The absence of the primacy effect, the closing-in phenomenon, and the absolute decay of memory trace were more specific, but could be observed in only one-third of AD patients. We also computed the number of positive patterns shown by each patient and assumed the presence of two or more patterns as a global index suggestive of a dementia of the Alzheimer

  7. Reporting of clinically diagnosed dementia on death certificates: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Stewart, Robert; Higginson, Irene J.; Sleeman, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: mortality statistics are a frequently used source of information on deaths in dementia but are limited by concerns over accuracy. Objective: to investigate the frequency with which clinically diagnosed dementia is recorded on death certificates, including predictive factors. Methods: a retrospective cohort study assembled using a large mental healthcare database in South London, linked to Office for National Statistics mortality data. People with a clinical diagnosis of dementia, aged 65 or older, who died between 2006 and 2013 were included. The main outcome was death certificate recording of dementia. Results: in total, 7,115 people were identified. Dementia was recorded on 3,815 (53.6%) death certificates. Frequency of dementia recording increased from 39.9% (2006) to 63.0% (2013) (odds ratio (OR) per year increment 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15). Recording of dementia was more likely if people were older (OR per year increment 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), and for those who died in care homes (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.50–2.40) or hospitals (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.46) compared with home, and less likely for people with less severe cognitive impairment (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.96), and if the diagnosis was Lewy body (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.62) or vascular dementia (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68–0.93) compared with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions: changes in certification practices may have contributed to the rise in recorded prevalence of dementia from mortality data. However, mortality data still considerably underestimate the population burden of dementia. Potential biases affecting recording of dementia need to be taken into account when interpreting mortality data. PMID:27146301

  8. Collaborative transdisciplinary team approach for dementia care

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, James E; Valois, Licet; Zweig, Yael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Alzheimer's disease (AD) has high economic impact and places significant burden on patients, caregivers, providers and healthcare delivery systems, fostering the need for an evaluation of alternative approaches to healthcare delivery for dementia. Collaborative care models are team-based, multicomponent interventions that provide a pragmatic strategy to deliver integrated healthcare to patients and families across a wide range of populations and clinical settings. Healthcare reform and national plans for AD goals to integrate quality care, health promotion and preventive services, and reduce the impact of disease on patients and families reinforcing the need for a system-level evaluation of how to best meet the needs of patients and families. We review collaborative care models for AD and offer evidence for improved patient- and family-centered outcomes, quality indicators of care and potential cost savings. PMID:25531688

  9. Nuclear techniques applied to dementia studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Trace element imbalances have been implicated in the etiology and/or pathogenesis of several dementing disorders related to aging. Of these diseases, Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is by far the most prevalent. Many elemental imbalances have been reported in AD brain, compared to neurologically normal controls. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed significant increases (p {le} 0.05) in bromine, chlorine, mercury, sodium, and phosphorus and decreased amounts of cesium, nitrogen, and rubidium in AD brain, compared to age-matched control brain. Because INAA is a simultaneous multielement method that does not require tissue dissolution, fewer opportunities for contamination exist than with otherwise powerful analytical methods, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or atomic absorption spectrometry. Although INAA is a very important tool in the study of potential trace element involvement in dementia, we have often found it necessary to go beyond conventional INAA methods.

  10. Defining Alzheimer as a common age-related neurodegenerative process not inevitably leading to dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidro

    2012-04-01

    Since the description by Alois Alzheimer, more than 50 years have passed during which senile dementia and pre-senile dementia have been considered Alzheimer disease (AD) on the basis of their common neuropathological and clinical manifestations. AD now covers pre-senile dementia, senile dementia, mild cognitive impairment and pre-clinical AD, all of them within the context of AD-related pathology. However, there is still a gray area between normal aging with AD-related pathology and AD. Here it is proposed that Alzheimer (or alzheimer) is an age-related neurodegenerative process distinguished from normal aging by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Alzheimer affects about 80% of individuals aged 65 years but dementia only occurs in a small percentage of individuals at this age; prevalence of dementia in Alzheimer increases to 25% in individuals aged 80 years. The concepts derived from the β-amyloid hypothesis support β-amyloid as a conductor in the pathogenesis of familial AD and as a prodding factor in sporadic AD. Moreover, seeding of β-amyloid and truncated tau explains incorporation, enhancement and perpetuation of AD-related changes. Therefore, the earliest Alzheimer changes confined to selected regions are the first grounds and the main risk factor for developing dementia. The term Alzheimer embraces this assumption and likens its meaning to other degenerative biological processes, such as atherosclerosis, that may eventually progress to disease. In this context, the first stages of Alzheimer should be considered as primary targets of therapeutic intervention in order to prevent progression to diseased states.

  11. The origin of dementia praecox.

    PubMed

    Palha, A P; Esteves, M F

    1997-12-19

    Throughout history, insanity--including dementia praecox--has been a complex problem. In the search for a better understanding of dementia praecox, several theories arose from the pre-Kraepelinian concept of human madness that led to the proposal of a new definition in anatomicoclinical terms. This short historical review begins in classical times and ends with the formulation of the concept of dementia praecox in 1896 by Emil Kraepelin (1856 1926).

  12. Doing dementia better: anthropological insights.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Elizabeth Herskovits

    2011-05-01

    Dementia, or neurodegenerative disease, is a disease category, and yet it is widely described in popular and professional media as a horror story. Patients with dementia and their families frequently report that they are less than pleased with their clinical encounters. This article reveals the deleterious impact that cultural assumptions about dementia have on the care provided, and, through an exploration of anthropological theories of personhood, suggests strategies for seeking improved quality of life through personhood-centered care. PMID:21641511

  13. Dementia communication using empathic curiosity.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Phil; Eden, John; Plant, Rachel

    Communication skills training materials in dementia care usually focus on reminiscence. This is important because talking about past events can help people with dementia to retain their sense of self. This article examines the use of an alternative set of communication skills known as empathic curiosity, which may help to promote meaningful communication in the here and now with people who are living with dementia.

  14. The Genetics of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Farlow, Janice L.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic evolution of genetic methodologies that can be used to identify genes contributing to disease. Initially, the focus was primarily on classical linkage analysis; more recently, genomewide association studies, and high-throughput whole genome and whole exome sequencing have provided efficient approaches to detect common and rare variation contributing to disease risk. Application of these methodologies to dementias has led to the nomination of dozens of causative and susceptibility genes, solidifying the recognition that genetic factors are important contributors to the disease processes. In this review, the authors focus on current knowledge of the genetics of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A working understanding of the genes relevant to common dementias will become increasingly critical, as options for genetic testing and eventually gene-specific therapeutics are developed. PMID:24234360

  15. [Neuropsychology of dementia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    As cognitive dysfunction is the core symptom of dementia, the assessment of it is essential for the clinical practice. The role of "neuropsychology" is none other than analysis and interpretation of the central symptoms of brain damaged including dementing illnesses. "Neuropsychology" in this sense does not refer only to the neuropsychological tests that psychologists employ, but certainly implies mental status examination as a part of the neurological examination, which enables us to make focal diagnosis and differential diagnosis, to evaluate the disability, to predict the problems in living, and to measure disease severity, rate of progression, and response to treatment are essential. This paper, citing aphasia due to degenerative diseases, behavioral neurological signs, and the relationship between visuoperceptive impairments and visual hallucinations as examples, discussed the clinical roles and scientific potentials of neuropsychology in dementia. PMID:25672718

  16. Macronutrients, aluminium from drinking water and foods, and other metals in cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna Maria; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Parigi, Angelo Del; Capurso, Sabrina A; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    A possible role of the macronutrients and the basic elements of carbohydrates (glucose administration or depletion), proteins (amino acids such as tryptophan and tyrosine), and fat (unsaturated fatty acids) was recently proposed for age-related changes of cognitive function, and the cognitive decline of degenerative (AD) or vascular origin. The availability and utilization of glucose has been implicated in cognitive function not only as a result of nutritional and systemic metabolic conditions, but also, although speculatively, as a crucial phase of the mechanism of action of molecules used as cognitive-enhancers. Furthermore, many lines of evidence have focused on the importance of oxidative stress mechanisms and free radical damage in AD pathogenesis. In addition, epidemiological studies have recently reported an association between alcohol and the incidence of AD and predementia syndromes. Foods with large amounts of aluminium-containing additives or aluminium from drinking water may affect the risk of developing AD, aluminium more likely acting as a cofactor somewhere in the cascade of events leading to the demented brain. A role for other metals in dementia have been speculated, given the encouraging results reported from studies on peripheral zinc concentrations, zinc supplementation, serum copper, either bound with ceruloplasmin or not, and iron metabolism in AD. Nonetheless, more data are needed to support a possible role of these metals in dementing diseases. Healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, and the prevention of nutritional deficiencies or exposure to foods and water with high content of metals could be considered the first line of defence against the development and progression of cognitive decline.

  17. Macronutrients, aluminium from drinking water and foods, and other metals in cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Colacicco, Anna Maria; D'Introno, Alessia; Capurso, Cristiano; Parigi, Angelo Del; Capurso, Sabrina A; Torres, Francesco; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    A possible role of the macronutrients and the basic elements of carbohydrates (glucose administration or depletion), proteins (amino acids such as tryptophan and tyrosine), and fat (unsaturated fatty acids) was recently proposed for age-related changes of cognitive function, and the cognitive decline of degenerative (AD) or vascular origin. The availability and utilization of glucose has been implicated in cognitive function not only as a result of nutritional and systemic metabolic conditions, but also, although speculatively, as a crucial phase of the mechanism of action of molecules used as cognitive-enhancers. Furthermore, many lines of evidence have focused on the importance of oxidative stress mechanisms and free radical damage in AD pathogenesis. In addition, epidemiological studies have recently reported an association between alcohol and the incidence of AD and predementia syndromes. Foods with large amounts of aluminium-containing additives or aluminium from drinking water may affect the risk of developing AD, aluminium more likely acting as a cofactor somewhere in the cascade of events leading to the demented brain. A role for other metals in dementia have been speculated, given the encouraging results reported from studies on peripheral zinc concentrations, zinc supplementation, serum copper, either bound with ceruloplasmin or not, and iron metabolism in AD. Nonetheless, more data are needed to support a possible role of these metals in dementing diseases. Healthy diets, antioxidant supplements, and the prevention of nutritional deficiencies or exposure to foods and water with high content of metals could be considered the first line of defence against the development and progression of cognitive decline. PMID:17119295

  18. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic brain - metabolic; Mild cognitive - metabolic; MCI - metabolic ... Possible metabolic causes of dementia include: Hormonal disorders, such as Addison disease , Cushing disease Heavy metal exposure, such as ...

  19. [Dementia and music].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia. PMID:19272287

  20. [Shouting in dementia].

    PubMed

    Calvet, Benjamin; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Shouting in dementia is a frequent manifestation in institution and is often considered to be extremely disruptive. It remains the most misunderstood behavioral disorder. Shouting or screaming is not a necessarily pejorative qualifier as defined by public authorities and institutions. It can take a multitude of meanings and be characterized alternately as a "reflex", a "behavior", a "language", an "aggression". Shouting has a multifactorial causation. It can translate organic or somatic disorders, but also psychological, cognitive and/or environmental disturbances that clinicians should look for. The 5W method is a reliable and easy to use method in clinical practice to allow analysis of shouting in dementia. There is still too early and massive use of pharmacological approach in taking charge of the repetitive shouts in dementia. Instead, it is necessary to use a first-line non-pharmacological approach based on patient-centered, environment-centered and/or entourage-centered interventions after careful multidisciplinary assessment of this behaviour by the healthcare team.

  1. [Dementia and music].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia.

  2. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers. PMID:26478197

  3. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  4. Sleep, Cognition and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Porter, Verna R; Buxton, William G; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-12-01

    The older patient population is growing rapidly around the world and in the USA. Almost half of seniors over age 65 who live at home are dissatisfied with their sleep, and nearly two-thirds of those residing in nursing home facilities suffer from sleep disorders. Chronic and pervasive sleep complaints and disturbances are frequently associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and may result in impaired cognition, diminished intellect, poor memory, confusion, and psychomotor retardation all of which may be misinterpreted as dementia. The key sleep disorders impacting patients with dementia include insomnia, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm misalignment, sleep disordered breathing, motor disturbances of sleep such as periodic leg movement disorder of sleep and restless leg syndrome, and parasomnias, mostly in the form of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is a pre-clinical marker for a class of neurodegenerative diseases, the "synucleinopathies", and requires formal polysomnographic evaluation. Untreated sleep disorders may exacerbate cognitive and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia and are a source of considerable stress for bed partners and family members. When left untreated, sleep disturbances may also increase the risk of injury at night, compromise health-related quality of life, and precipitate and accelerate social and economic burdens for caregivers.

  5. Neuropsychiatric aspects of dementia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2014-10-01

    Dementia affects approximately 6.5% of people over the age of 65. Whilst cognitive impairment is central to the dementia concept, neuropsychiatric symptoms are invariably present at some stage of the illness. Neuropsychiatric symptoms result in a number of negative outcomes for the individual and their caregivers and are associated with higher rates of institutionalization and mortality. A number of factors have been associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms including neurobiological changes, dementia type, and illness severity and duration. Specific patient, caregiver and environmental factors are also important. Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be broadly divided into four clusters: psychotic symptoms, mood/affective symptoms, apathy, and agitation/aggression. Neuropsychiatric symptoms tend to persist over time although differing symptom profiles exist at various stages of the illness. Assessment should take into account the presenting symptoms together with an appreciation of the myriad of likely underlying causes for the symptoms. A structured assessment/rating tool can be helpful. Management should focus on non-pharmacological measures initially with pharmacological approaches reserved for more troubling symptoms. Pharmacological approaches should target specific symptoms although the evidence-base for pharmacological management is quite modest. Any medication trial should include an adequate appreciation of the risk-benefit profile in individual patients and discussion of these with both the individual and their caregiver.

  6. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  7. Vascular and Alzheimer's disease markers independently predict brain atrophy rate in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative controls.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Josephine; Carmichael, Owen T; Leung, Kelvin K; Schwarz, Christopher; Ridgway, Gerard R; Bartlett, Jonathan W; Malone, Ian B; Schott, Jonathan M; Rossor, Martin N; Biessels, Geert Jan; DeCarli, Charlie; Fox, Nick C

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed relationships among white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain volume loss. Subjects included 197 controls, 331 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 146 individuals with AD with serial volumetric 1.5-T MRI. CSF Aβ1-42 (n = 351) and tau (n = 346) were measured. Brain volume change was quantified using the boundary shift integral (BSI). We assessed the association between baseline WMH volume and annualized BSI, adjusting for intracranial volume. We also performed multiple regression analyses in the CSF subset, assessing the relationships of WMH and Aβ1-42 and/or tau with BSI. WMH burden was positively associated with BSI in controls (p = 0.02) but not MCI or AD. In multivariable models, WMH (p = 0.003) and Aβ1-42 (p = 0.001) were independently associated with BSI in controls; in MCI Aβ1-42 (p < 0.001) and tau (p = 0.04) were associated with BSI. There was no evidence of independent effects of WMH or CSF measures on BSI in AD. These data support findings that vascular damage is associated with increased brain atrophy in the context of AD pathology in pre-dementia stages.

  8. Saturated and trans fats and dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Bunner, Anne E; Agarwal, Ulka

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive disorders of later life are potentially devastating. To estimate the relationship between saturated and trans fat intake and risk of cognitive disorders. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies reporting saturated or trans fat intake and incident dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or cognitive decline. Only observational studies met the inclusion criteria: 4 for AD or other dementias, 4 for MCI, and 4 for cognitive decline. Saturated fat intake was positively associated with AD risk in 3 of 4 studies, whereas the fourth suggested an inverse relationship. Saturated fat intake was also positively associated with total dementia in 1 of 2 studies, with MCI in 1 of 4 studies, and with cognitive decline in 2 of 4 studies. Relationships between trans fat intake and dementia were examined in 3 reports with mixed results. Several, although not all, prospective studies indicate relationships between saturated and trans fat intake and risk of cognitive disorders.

  9. Anosognosia and depression in patients with Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Verhülsdonk, Sandra; Quack, Robin; Höft, Barbara; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Christian; Supprian, Tillmann

    2013-01-01

    Anosognosia refers to impaired awareness of patients to realize deficits related to a disorder and is a common symptom of dementia. Anosognosia has far-reaching consequences for diagnosis and treatment and is probably associated with unfavorable prognosis. This study examined the relationship between anosognosia and depression in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Assessment included interviews of patients and their caregivers. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with observer and self-rating instruments: the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the "mood" subscale of the Nurses Observation Scale for geriatric patients (NOSGER). Anosognosia was evaluated with the Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia (AQ-D). For the evaluation of behavioral and neuropsychological symptoms in dementia and the caregiver burden, the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and the Cares of older People in Europe (COPE) Index were administered. A total of 47 patients were enrolled in the study at the department's geriatric psychiatry outpatient clinic. A considerable discrepancy was found between observer- and self-ratings of depressive symptoms. In 74.5% of the participants, caregiver ratings indicated secondary symptoms of depression as opposed to patient ratings. Thus, in AD, anosognosia may affect not only deficits in cognition and everyday functioning but also affective symptoms ("affective anosognosia"). Caregiver rating therefore is particularly important when assessing mood changes in AD patients.

  10. Distinct Neuroanatomical Substrates and Cognitive Mechanisms of Figure Copy Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Possin, Katherine L.; Laluz, Victor R.; Alcantar, Oscar Z.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2011-01-01

    Figure copy is the most common method of visual spatial assessment in dementia evaluations, but performance on this test may be multifactorial. We examined the neuroanatomical substrates of figure copy performance in 46 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 48 patients with the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). A group of…

  11. Gene Therapy Models of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Benjamin; Kneynsberg, Andrew; Kanaan, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Dementias are among the most common neurological disorders, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. AD remains a looming health crisis despite great efforts to learn the mechanisms surrounding the neuron dysfunction and neurodegeneration that accompanies AD primarily in the medial temporal lobe. In addition to AD, a group of diseases known as frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) are degenerative diseases involving atrophy and degeneration in the frontal and temporal lobe regions. Importantly, AD and a number of FTDs are collectively known as tauopathies due to the abundant accumulation of pathological tau inclusions in the brain. The precise role tau plays in disease pathogenesis remains an area of strong research focus. A critical component to effectively study any human disease is the availability of models that recapitulate key features of the disease. Accordingly, a number of animal models are currently being pursued to fill the current gaps in our knowledge of the causes of dementias and to develop effective therapeutics. Recent developments in gene therapy-based approaches, particularly in recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs), have provided new tools to study AD and other related neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, gene therapy approaches have emerged as an intriguing possibility for treating these diseases in humans. This chapter explores the current state of rAAV models of AD and other dementias, discuss recent efforts to improve these models, and describe current and future possibilities in the use of rAAVs and other viruses in treatments of disease. PMID:26611599

  12. Assessing white matter ischemic damage in dementia patients by measurement of myelin proteins.

    PubMed

    Barker, Rachel; Wellington, Dannielle; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

    2013-07-01

    White matter ischemia is difficult to quantify histologically. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is highly susceptible to ischemia, being expressed only adaxonally, far from the oligodendrocyte cell body. Myelin-basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) are expressed throughout the myelin sheath. We compared MAG, MBP, and PLP levels in parietal white matter homogenates from 17 vascular dementia (VaD), 49 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 33 control brains, after assessing the post-mortem stability of these proteins. Small vessel disease (SVD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) severity had been assessed in paraffin sections. The concentration of MAG remained stable post-mortem, declined with increasing SVD, and was significantly lower in VaD than controls. The concentration of MBP fell progressively post-mortem, limiting its diagnostic utility in this context. Proteolipid protein was stable post-mortem and increased significantly with SVD severity. The MAG/PLP ratio declined significantly with SVD and CAA severity. The MAG and PLP levels and MAG/PLP did not differ significantly between AD and control brains. We validated the utility of MAG and MAG/PLP measurements on analysis of 74 frontal white matter samples from an Oxford cohort in which SVD had previously been scored. MAG concentration and the MAG/PLP ratio are useful post-mortem measures of ante-mortem white matter ischemia.

  13. Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akira; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD.

  14. Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD. PMID:25191498

  15. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB. PMID:27774333

  16. Cortical Thickness in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease: A Comparison of Prodromal and Dementia Stages

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Frederic; Colloby, Sean J.; Philippi, Nathalie; de Pétigny, Xavier; Jung, Barbara; Demuynck, Catherine; Phillipps, Clélie; Anthony, Pierre; Thomas, Alan; Bing, Fabrice; Lamy, Julien; Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine; O'Brien, John T.; Cretin, Benjamin; McKeith, Ian; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Taylor, John-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess and compare cortical thickness (CTh) of patients with prodromal Dementia with Lewy bodies (pro-DLB), prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD), DLB dementia (DLB-d), AD dementia (AD-d) and normal ageing. Methods Study participants(28 pro-DLB, 27 pro-AD, 31 DLB-d, 54 AD-d and 33 elderly controls) underwent 3Tesla T1 3D MRI and detailed clinical and cognitive assessments. We used FreeSurfer analysis package to measure CTh and investigate patterns of cortical thinning across groups. Results Comparison of CTh between pro-DLB and pro-AD (p<0.05, FDR corrected) showed more right anterior insula thinning in pro-DLB, and more bilateral parietal lobe and left parahippocampal gyri thinning in pro-AD. Comparison of prodromal patients to healthy elderly controls showed the involvement of the same regions. In DLB-d (p<0.05, FDR corrected) cortical thinning was found predominantly in the right temporo-parietal junction, and insula, cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral occipital cortices. In AD-d(p<0.05, FDR corrected),the most significant areas affected included the entorhinal cortices, parahippocampal gyri and parietal lobes. The comparison of AD-d and DLB-d demonstrated more CTh in AD-d in the left entorhinal cortex (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Conclusion Cortical thickness is a sensitive measure for characterising patterns of grey matter atrophy in early stages of DLB distinct from AD. Right anterior insula involvement may be a key region at the prodromal stage of DLB and needs further investigation. PMID:26061655

  17. Nutritional management of older adults with cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2014-04-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a main predictor of disability among elderly people, and with the continued expansion of the aging population and the increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder of older adults, have increased. Recent epidemiological and observational studies suggest a relationship exists between lifestyle factors, including nutrition and diet, and cognitive function in aging adults. It is also suggested that malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies are associated with cognitive decline in patients with dementia. There are a variety of nutritional factors, including nutritional status and dietary patterns, that might be associated with cognitive function, and specific micronutrients and dietary components have been suggested to have an association with cognitive function as well. Based on these findings and evidence, evaluation of nutritional state, as well as nutritional intervention, might be able to play a role in the management and prevention of dementia.

  18. Nutritional management of older adults with cognitive decline and dementia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2014-04-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a main predictor of disability among elderly people, and with the continued expansion of the aging population and the increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder of older adults, have increased. Recent epidemiological and observational studies suggest a relationship exists between lifestyle factors, including nutrition and diet, and cognitive function in aging adults. It is also suggested that malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies are associated with cognitive decline in patients with dementia. There are a variety of nutritional factors, including nutritional status and dietary patterns, that might be associated with cognitive function, and specific micronutrients and dietary components have been suggested to have an association with cognitive function as well. Based on these findings and evidence, evaluation of nutritional state, as well as nutritional intervention, might be able to play a role in the management and prevention of dementia. PMID:24650061

  19. Bridging the Translation Gap: From Dementia Risk Assessment to Advice on Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Anstey, Kaarin J.; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Hosking, Diane E.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Dementia risk reduction is a global health and fiscal priority given the current lack of effective treatments and the projected increased number of dementia cases due to population ageing. There are often gaps among academic research, clinical practice, and public policy. We present information on the evidence for dementia risk reduction and evaluate the progress required to formulate this evidence into clinical practice guidelines. This narrative review provides capsule summaries of current evidence for 25 risk and protective factors associated with AD and dementia according to domains including biomarkers, demographic, lifestyle, medical, and environment. We identify the factors for which evidence is strong and thereby especially useful for risk assessment with the goal of personalising recommendations for risk reduction. We also note gaps in knowledge, and discuss how the field may progress towards clinical practice guidelines for dementia risk reduction. PMID:26380232

  20. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  1. The Effects of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy on Quality of Life in Patients With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Izumi, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Okada, Shingo; Ono, Hiromi; Orimo, Satoshi; Kohri, Takayuki; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Shintani, Shuzo; Tanaka, Yukiko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Ijima, Masashi; Ito, Toru; Endo, Takao; Okano, Hitoshi; Maruyama, Michio; Iwase, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kudo, Michiaki; Takahashi, Mikako; Goshi, Satoshi; Mikami, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Satoyoshi; Akiyama, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Tetsushi; Ogawa, Tomoko; Ono, Shigeki; Onozawa, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Junya; Matsumoto, Masami; Matsumoto, Toshifumi; Jomoto, Kazuaki; Mizuhara, Akihiro; Nishiguchi, Yukio; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Aoki, Masahiko; Ishizuka, Izumi; Kura, Toshiroh; Murakami, Masato; Murakami, Akihiko; Ohta, Tomoyuki; Onishi, Koji; Nakahori, Masato; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Tahara, Ko; Tanaka, Ikuta; Kitagawa, Kazuhiko; Shimazaki, Makoto; Fujiki, Takanori; Kusakabe, Toshiro; Iiri, Takao; Kitahara, Shuichirou; Horiuchi, Akira; Suenaga, Hitoshi; Washizawa, Naohiro; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with dementia. Methods We retrospectively included 53 Japanese community and tertiary hospitals to investigate the relationship between the newly developed PEG and consecutive dementia patients with swallowing difficulty between Jan 1st 2006 and Dec 31st 2008. We set improvements in 1) the level of independent living, 2) pneumonia, 3) peroral intake as outcome measures of QOL and explored the factors associated with these improvements. Results Till October 31st 2010, 1,353 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (33.1%), vascular dementia (61.7%), dementia with Lewy body disease (2.0%), Pick disease (0.6%) and others were followed-up for a median of 847 days (mean 805 ± 542 days). A total of 509 deaths were observed (mortality 59%) in full-followed patients. After multivariate adjustments, improvement in the level of independent living was observed in milder dementia, or those who can live independently with someone, compared with advanced dementia, characterized by those who need care by someone: Odds Ratio (OR), 3.90, 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.59 - 9.39, P = 0.003. Similarly, improvement of peroral intake was noticed in milder dementia: OR, 2.69, 95%CI, 1.17 - 6.17, P = 0.02. Such significant associations were not observed in improvement of pneumonia. Conclusions These results suggest that improvement of QOL after PEG insertion may be expected more in milder dementia than in advanced dementia.

  2. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Tension-Type Headache: A Nationwide Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The association between primary headaches, including tension-type headache (TTH) as one of the most common primary headache disorders, and dementia remains controversial. In this nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study, we explored the potential association between TTH and dementia and examined sex, age, and comorbidities as risk factors for dementia. Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) claims data, the sample included 13908 subjects aged ≥20 years with newly-diagnosed TTH in 2000–2006. The non-TTH group included 55632 randomly selected sex- and age-matched TTH-free individuals. All subjects were followed until dementia diagnosis, death, or the end of 2011. Patients with dementia, including vascular and non-vascular (including Alzheimer’s) subtypes, were identified using International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the risk of dementia and dementia-associated risk factors, such as migraine and other medical comorbidities. Results During the average follow-up of 8.14 years, the incidence density rates of dementia were 5.30 and 3.68/1,000 person-years in the TTH and non-TTH groups, respectively. Compared with the non-TTH group, the risks of dementia were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01–1.27) times higher in the women and >65-year-old TTH group, respectively. TTH patients with comorbidities had a higher risk of dementia. TTH patients had a greater risk of non-vascular dementia (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09–1.34) than the non-TTH group. Conclusion TTH patients have a future risk of dementia, indicating a potentially linked disease pathophysiology that warrants further study. The association between TTH and dementia is greater in women, older adults, and with comorbidities. Clinicians should be aware of potential dementia comorbidity in

  3. Heritability in frontotemporal dementia: more missing pieces?

    PubMed

    Po, Kieren; Leslie, Felicity V C; Gracia, Natalie; Bartley, Lauren; Kwok, John B J; Halliday, Glenda M; Hodges, John R; Burrell, James R

    2014-11-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is reportedly highly heritable, even though a recognized genetic cause is often absent. To explain this contradiction, we explored the "strength" of family history in FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls. Clinical syndromes associated with heritability of FTD and AD were also examined. FTD and AD patients were recruited from an FTD-specific research clinic, and patients were further sub-classified into FTD or AD phenotypes. The strength of family history was graded using the Goldman score (GS), and GS of 1-3 was regarded as a "strong" family history. A subset of FTD patients underwent screening for the main genetic causes of FTD. In total, 307 participants were included (122 FTD, 98 AD, and 87 controls). Although reported positive family history did not differ between groups, a strong family history was more common in FTD (FTD 17.2 %, AD 5.1 %, controls 2.3 %, P < 0.001). The bvFTD and FTD-ALS groups drove heritability, but 12.2 % of atypical AD patients also had a strong family history. A pathogenic mutation was identified in 16 FTD patients (10 C9ORF72 repeat expansion, 5 GRN, 1 MAPT), but more than half of FTD patients with a strong family history had no mutation detected. FTD is a highly heritable disease, even more than AD, and patients with bvFTD and FTD-ALS drive this heritability. Atypical AD also appears to be more heritable than typical AD. These results suggest that further genetic influences await discovery in FTD.

  4. Everyday Action Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Giovannetti, Tania; Britnell, Priscilla; Brennan, Laura; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J.; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Rouzard, Francesca; Eppig, Joel; Seidel, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined everyday action impairment in participants with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) by comparison with participants with Parkinson’s disease-no dementia (PD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in reference to a neuropsychological model. Participants with PDD (n=20), PD (n=20), or AD (n = 20) were administered performance-based measures of everyday functioning that allowed for the quantification of overall performance and error types. Also, caregiver ratings of functional independence were obtained. On performance-based tests, the PDD group exhibited greater functional impairment than the PD group but comparable overall impairment relative to the AD group. Error patterns did not differ between PDD and PD participants but the PDD group demonstrated a higher proportion of commission errors and lower proportion of omission errors relative to the AD group. Hierarchical regression analyses showed omission errors were significantly predicted by neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, whereas commission errors were predicted by both measures of general dementia severity (MMSE) and executive control. Everyday action impairment in PDD differs quantitatively from PD but qualitatively from AD and may be characterized by a relatively high proportion of commission errors—an error type associated with executive control deficits. PMID:22621995

  5. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.

  6. Increased Susceptibility to Oxidative Death of Lymphocytes from Alzheimer Patients Correlates with Dementia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Daniela P.; Salech, Felipe; SanMartin, Carol D.; Silva, Monica; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.; Henriquez, Mauricio; Quest, Andrew F.; Behrens, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on enhanced susceptibility to death of lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and an increased resistance to death in those of patients with a history of skin cancer. This is consistent with our hypothesis proposing that the cellular machinery controlling cell death is deregulated in opposite directions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer, to explain the inverse association observed in epidemiological studies. Here we investigated whether the observed increased susceptibility correlates with the degree of dementia severity. Peripheral lymphocytes from 23 AD patients, classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) into severe dementia (CDR 3, n=10) and mild-to-moderate dementia (CDR 1–2, n=13), and 15 healthy controls (HC) (CDR 0), were exposed to H2O2 for 20 hours. Lymphocyte death was determined by flow cytometry and propidium iodide staining. The greatest susceptibility to H2O2-induced death was observed for lymphocytes from severe dementia patients, whereas those with mild-to-moderate dementia exhibited intermediate values, compared to healthy controls. A significant increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio was found in AD patients. Poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition significantly protected from H2O2-induced death of lymphocytes, whereby a lower degree of protection was observed in severe AD patients. Moreover, inhibition of PARP-1 abolished the differences in apoptosis/necrosis ratios observed between the three groups of patients. These results support the notion that AD is a systemic disorder, whereby enhanced susceptibility to H2O2-induced death in peripheral lymphocytes correlates with dementia severity and enhanced death in AD patients is attributable to a PARP-dependent increase in the apoptosis/necrosis ratio. PMID:25274115

  7. Relationship between Eating Disturbance and Dementia Severity in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Amano, Koichiro; Tanaka, Hibiki; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating is one of the most important daily activities in managing patients with dementia. Although various eating disturbance occur as dementia progresses, to our knowledge, most of the studies focused on a part of eating disturbance such as swallowing and appetite. There have been few comprehensive studies including eating habits and food preference in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aims of this study were to investigate almost all eating disturbance and to examine the relationship of eating disturbance to dementia stage in AD. Methods A total of 220 patients with AD and 30 normal elderly (NE) subjects were recruited. Eating disturbance was assessed by a comprehensive questionnaire that had been previously validated. Potential relationships between the characteristics of eating disturbance and dementia stage as classified by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were assessed. Results Overall, 81.4% of patients with AD showed some eating and swallowing disturbance, whereas only 26.7% of the NE subjects had such a disturbance. Even in an early stage, patients with AD had many types of eating disturbance; “Appetite change” was shown in nearly half of the mild AD patients (49.5%). In the moderate stage, the scores of “change of eating habits and food preference” were highest, and in the severe stage “swallowing disturbance” became critical. Conclusion In AD, the relationship of dementia stage to eating disturbance differs according to the type of eating disturbance. The relationships between various eating disturbance and the severity of dementia should be considered. PMID:26266531

  8. [Neuropsychological characteristics and diagnostic approach to Parkinsońs disease dementia and Lewy body dementia].

    PubMed

    Yubero, Raquel

    2011-10-01

    When approaching the neurophysiological characteristics and diagnostic approach to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD), the first idea that comes to mind is that both types of dementia fall within the group of subcortical dementias, with the practical implications that this observation entails. We should therefore leave our knowledge of Alzheimer's dementia and other cortical dementias to one side as, in most cases, these forms of dementia do not correspond clinically or diagnostically to subcortical dementias. Therefore, the clinical and therapeutic approach of PDD and LBD differs from that of cortical dementias in form, if not in essence.

  9. Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    , in seniors with mild to moderate dementia? 3.2 Nonpharmacologic and Nonexercise Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning in Seniors With Dementia – Secondary Prevention What is the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions to improve cognitive functioning in seniors with mild to moderate dementia? 3.3 Physical Exercise for Delaying the Onset of Dementia – Primary Prevention Can exercise decrease the risk of subsequent cognitive decline/dementia? 3.4 Cognitive Interventions for Delaying the Onset of Dementia – Primary Prevention Does cognitive training decrease the risk of cognitive impairment, deterioration in the performance of basic ADLs or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs),1 or incidence of dementia in seniors with good cognitive and physical functioning? Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Secondary Prevention2 Exercise Physical deterioration is linked to dementia. This is thought to be due to reduced muscle mass leading to decreased activity levels and muscle atrophy, increasing the potential for unsafe mobility while performing basic ADLs such as eating, bathing, toileting, and functional ability. Improved physical conditioning for seniors with dementia may extend their independent mobility and maintain performance of ADL. Nonpharmacologic and Nonexercise Interventions Cognitive impairments, including memory problems, are a defining feature of dementia. These impairments can lead to anxiety, depression, and withdrawal from activities. The impact of these cognitive problems on daily activities increases pressure on caregivers. Cognitive interventions aim to improve these impairments in people with mild to moderate dementia. Primary Prevention3 Exercise Various vascular risk factors have been found to contribute to the development of dementia (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, overweight). Physical exercise is important in promoting overall and vascular health. However, it is unclear whether physical

  10. Dementia-friendly design resource.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Although estimates suggest that, on average, some 30 per cent of all patients in general acute medical wards may have some form of dementia, Stirling University's Dementia Services Development Centre (DSDC), one of the leading international knowledge centres working to improve the lives of dementia sufferers, says progress in designing healthcare facilities that address such patients' needs has been 'patchy at best'. With the number of individuals living with dementia expected to double in the next 25 years, the DSDC has recently worked with Edinburgh-based architects, Burnett Pollock Associates, to develop an online resource that clearly illustrates, via 15 simulated 'dementia-friendly' healthcare 'spaces', some of the key principles to consider when designing effectively for this fast-growing group. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, attended the launch of the so-called 'Virtual Hospital'.

  11. Dementia-friendly design resource.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Although estimates suggest that, on average, some 30 per cent of all patients in general acute medical wards may have some form of dementia, Stirling University's Dementia Services Development Centre (DSDC), one of the leading international knowledge centres working to improve the lives of dementia sufferers, says progress in designing healthcare facilities that address such patients' needs has been 'patchy at best'. With the number of individuals living with dementia expected to double in the next 25 years, the DSDC has recently worked with Edinburgh-based architects, Burnett Pollock Associates, to develop an online resource that clearly illustrates, via 15 simulated 'dementia-friendly' healthcare 'spaces', some of the key principles to consider when designing effectively for this fast-growing group. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, attended the launch of the so-called 'Virtual Hospital'. PMID:24620491

  12. The Korean version of the neuropsychiatric inventory: a scoring tool for neuropsychiatric disturbance in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Na, D L; Kwon, H M; Yoon, S J; Jeong, J H; Ha, C K

    2000-12-01

    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) is a standardized, validated, and reliable tool to assess neuropsychiatric derangements in dementia patients. The aim of this study is to develop the Korean version of the NPI (K-NPI) and to test its reliability and usefulness in dementia patients. The subjects were 49 normal controls and 92 patients with Alzheimer's disease (43), vascular dementia (32), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (11), and other causes (6). Their caregivers familiar with the subjects' everyday behavior were interviewed with the K-NPI. In a subgroup (29/141) of the caregivers, the K-NPI was repeated for test-retest reliability, average of 23.1 days after the initial test. Prevalence rates of 12 behavioral domains in dementia patients were comparable to those of the original NPI; apathy was the most common and hallucination was the least common behavior. Total K-NPI scores correlated positively with dementia severity assessed with the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination. Test-retest reliabilities of frequencies and severities of all subscales were significantly high. Depression, anxiety, apathy, irritability, night-time behavior, and eating change were identified at very low rates in normal controls and were significantly less than those in dementia patients (p<0.001). The K-NPI, whose reliability and competency are comparable to those of the original version, may be a reliable and useful tool for measuring neuropsychiatric disturbances in Korean dementia patients.

  13. Cerebrolysin: a review of its use in dementia.

    PubMed

    Plosker, Greg L; Gauthier, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is a parenterally administered, porcine brain-derived peptide preparation that has pharmacodynamic properties similar to those of endogenous neurotrophic factors. In several randomized, double-blind trials of up to 28 weeks' duration in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Cerebrolysin was superior to placebo in improving global outcome measures and cognitive ability. A large, randomized comparison of Cerebrolysin, donepezil or combination therapy showed beneficial effects on global measures and cognition for all three treatment groups compared with baseline. Although not as extensively studied in patients with vascular dementia, Cerebrolysin has also shown beneficial effects on global measures and cognition in this patient population. Cerebrolysin was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with dizziness (or vertigo) being the most frequently reported adverse event. Although further studies with Cerebrolysin, including longer term trials and further exploration of its use in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors, are needed to more clearly determine its place in the management of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, available data suggest that Cerebrolysin is a useful addition to the treatment options available for dementia.

  14. Teaching Mands to Older Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleson, Chelsey R.; Baker, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of Americans are diagnosed with dementia, and that number is only expected to rise. The diagnosis of dementia comes with impairments, especially in language. Furthermore, dementia-related functional declines appear to be moderated by environmental variables (Alzheimer's Association, "Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the…

  15. Vascular dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease--A review of endothelium-mediated mechanisms and ensuing vicious circles.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Venneri, Annalena; Farkas, Eszter; Evans, Paul C; Marzo, Alberto; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2015-10-01

    Late-onset dementia is a major health concern in the ageing population. Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for the largest proportion (65-70%) of dementia cases in the older population. Despite considerable research effort, the pathogenesis of late-onset AD remains unclear. Substantial evidence suggests that the neurodegenerative process is initiated by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) caused by ageing and cardiovascular conditions. CCH causes reduced oxygen, glucose and other nutrient supply to the brain, with direct damage not only to the parenchymal cells, but also to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a key mediator of cerebral homeostasis. BBB dysfunction mediates the indirect neurotoxic effects of CCH by promoting oxidative stress, inflammation, paracellular permeability, and dysregulation of nitric oxide, a key regulator of regional blood flow. As such, BBB dysfunction mediates a vicious circle in which cerebral perfusion is reduced further and the neurodegenerative process is accelerated. Endothelial interaction with pericytes and astrocytes could also play a role in the process. Reciprocal interactions between vascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration could further contribute to the development of the disease. A comprehensive overview of the complex scenario of interacting endothelium-mediated processes is currently lacking, and could prospectively contribute to the identification of adequate therapeutic interventions. This study reviews the current literature of in vitro and ex vivo studies on endothelium-mediated mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction in AD pathogenesis, with the aim of presenting a comprehensive overview of the complex network of causative relationships. Particular emphasis is given to vicious circles which can accelerate the process of neurovascular degeneration.

  16. An analysis of communication in conversation in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Marc; Sève, Amandine; Vallet, Marion; Pasquier, Florence; Mackowiak-Cordoliani, Marie Anne

    2010-11-01

    Patients with degenerative dementia often show language disorders, but little is known about their verbal (VC) and non-verbal communication (NVC). Our aim was to analyse VC and NVC in patients with standard criteria of mild-moderately severe dementia (MMSE ≥14/30) resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD; 29 cases), behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (FTD; 16), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; 13). We used the Lille Communication Test, which addresses three domains: participation in communication (PC: greeting, attention, participation), VC (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback), and NVC (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). Patients were compared with 47 matching control subjects. AD patients were partially impaired (p≤0.01) in PC (greeting), and more definitely in VC, especially by verbal comprehension and word finding difficulties and to a much lesser degree in verbal pragmatics (responding to open questions, presenting new information), while NVC was mostly preserved. FTD patients were severely impaired in PC. VC difficulties were related to lexical-semantic, syntactic and more specifically pragmatic problems. NVC was impaired by difficulties in affective expressivity, pragmatics and feedback management. DLB patients showed modest difficulties with VC. PC, VC and NVC strongly correlated with performance in the dementia rating scale. In conclusion, the profile of communication difficulties was quite different between groups. FTD patients showed most severe difficulties in PC and verbal and non-verbal pragmatics, in relation to their frontal lesions. AD patients had prominent impairment of lexical-semantic operations.

  17. Psychosis in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Mimura, Masaru; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Miller, Bruce L

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, associated with a progressive decline in behavior caused by focal degeneration of the frontal lobes. Psychosis was an underestimated symptom of FTD, however, recent genetic research has revealed a high prevalence of psychosis in certain genetic groups. The primary objective of this work is to review the literature on psychosis in FTD and to propose directions for future research, with reference to findings on psychosis in schizophrenia. A search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Search terms included "frontotemporal dementia", "psychosis", "schizophreni*", "psychotic symptoms", "hallucinations", and "delusions", and it identified 122 articles. Results revealed: 1) prevalence is approximately 10%, 2) TDP-43 type B and FUS pathologies might have relatively high frequency of psychosis, 3) psychosis in FTD is higher with genetic mutations of C9ORF72 and GRN, 4) imaging researches did not achieve conclusive results, and 5) no treatment for psychosis in FTD is currently available. A limitation of this systematic review is that it includes a small number of studies specifically examining psychosis in FTD. It is suggested that a possible overlap exists between FTD and schizophrenia. This potential overlap indicates a vulnerability to psychosis due to brain systems and pathways shared by these disorders.

  18. What is frontotemporal dementia?

    PubMed

    Kurz, Alexander; Kurz, Carolin; Ellis, Kathryn; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2014-10-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the clinical manifestation of progressive nerve cell loss in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. It represents the second most frequent form of early-onset dementia. The two major types of FTD are determined by the localisation of the underlying pathology. The behaviour variant is characterised by disinhibition, socially inappropriate manners, loss of empathy, blunting of affect and hyperorality. Key features of the language variant are either non-fluent effortful speech and grammatical errors or impaired word finding and loss of meaning of words and objects. Histopathological changes are characterised by the abnormal processing of proteins including microtubule associated protein Tau, transactive response DNA-binding protein, and tumour-associated protein fused in sarcoma. The familial forms of FTD are caused by mutations in 5 genes. The diagnosis of FTD rests on careful history and psychiatric, neuropsychological and neurological examination supported by laboratory assessments and brain imaging. The management requires an interdisciplinary approach involving the carer and using non-pharmacological approaches in the first line. Current antidementia drugs, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, have no consistent positive effects in FTD. Behavioural symptoms may respond favourably to selective serotonergic antidepressants. Antipsychotic agents should be used with caution regarding motor, cardiovascular and mortality risks. PMID:25059437

  19. Interrogating personhood and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Paul; Gilleard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To interrogate the concept of personhood and its application to care practices for people with dementia. Method: We outline the work of Tom Kitwood on personhood and relate this to conceptualisations of personhood in metaphysics and in moral philosophy. Results: The philosophical concept of personhood has a long history. The metaphysical tradition examines the necessary and sufficient qualities that make up personhood such as agency, consciousness, identity, rationality and second-order reflexivity. Alternative viewpoints treat personhood as a matter of degree rather than as a superordinate category. Within moral philosophy personhood is treated as a moral status applicable to some or to all human beings. Conclusion: In the light of the multiple meanings attached to the term in both metaphysics and moral philosophy, personhood is a relatively unhelpful concept to act as the foundation for developing models and standards of care for people with dementia. Care, we suggest, should concentrate less on ambiguous and somewhat abstract terms such as personhood and focus instead on supporting people's existing capabilities, while minimising the harmful consequences of their incapacities. PMID:26708149

  20. Oxytocin for frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    MacKinley, Julia; Blair, Mervin; Oliver, Lindsay D.; Jesso, Sarah; Tartaglia, Maria C.; Borrie, Michael; Wells, Jennie; Dziobek, Isabel; Pasternak, Stephen; Mitchell, Derek G.V.; Rankin, Katherine; Kertesz, Andrew; Boxer, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and tolerability of 3 doses of intranasal oxytocin (Syntocinon; Novartis, Bern, Switzerland) administered to patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We conducted a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using a dose-escalation design to test 3 clinically feasible doses of intranasal oxytocin (24, 48, or 72 IU) administered twice daily for 1 week to 23 patients with behavioral variant FTD or semantic dementia (clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01386333). Primary outcome measures were safety and tolerability at each dose. Secondary measures explored efficacy across the combined oxytocin vs placebo groups and examined potential dose-related effects. Results: All 3 doses of intranasal oxytocin were safe and well tolerated. Conclusions: A multicenter trial is warranted to determine the therapeutic efficacy of long-term intranasal oxytocin for behavioral symptoms in FTD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with FTD, intranasal oxytocin is not significantly associated with adverse events or significant changes in the overall neuropsychiatric inventory. PMID:25503617

  1. Evaluation of dementia by acrolein, amyloid-β and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Yoshida, Madoka; Waragai, Masaaki; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-10-23

    Plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were examined for biochemical markers of dementia. Protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) and the amyloid-β (Aβ)40/42 ratio in plasma can be used to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In plasma, PC-Acro and the Aβ40/42 ratio in MCI and AD were significantly higher relative to non-demented subjects. Furthermore, urine acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA)/creatinine (Cre) and amino acid-conjugated acrolein (AC-Acro)/Cre in AD were significantly lower than MCI. It was also shown that reduced urine 3-HPMA/Cre correlated with increased plasma Aβ40/42 ratio in dementia. The Aβ40/PC-Acro ratio in CSF, together with Aβ40 and Aβ40/42 ratio, was lower in AD than MCI. Increased plasma PC-Acro and Aβ40/42 ratio and decreased urine 3-HPMA/Cre correlated with cognitive ability (MMSE). These results indicate that the measurements of acrolein derivatives together with Aβ and Cre in biologic fluids is useful to estimate severity of dementia.

  2. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia. PMID:26168645

  3. Verb Agreements during On-Line Sentence Processing in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, C.C.; Grossman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An on-line ''word detection'' paradigm was used to assess the comprehension of thematic and transitive verb agreements during sentence processing in individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n=15) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD, n=14). AD, FTD, and control participants (n=17) were asked to listen for a word in a sentence.…

  4. Impact of Alzheimer's-Type Dementia and Information Source on the Assessment of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, David W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The level of agreement between the patient and a collateral source with regard to depressive symptomatology was compared for 185 patients with Alzheimer's-type dementia (AD), 57 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 54 nondemented geriatric referrals. Findings highlight the potential insensitivity of patient report in AD. (SLD)

  5. A Measure of Subjective Burden for Dementia Care: The Caregiving Difficulty Scale Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallion, P.; McCarron, M.; Force, L. T.

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested in the literature on family caregiving for persons with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) that levels of objective and subjective burden among carers often predict institutionalization of the persons with AD. There is a paucity of measures to assess whether perceived burden among formal caregivers may also predict movement to more…

  6. The Role and Timing of Palliative Care in Supporting Persons with Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; Connaire, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To better describe the role and timing of palliative care in supporting persons with intellectual disabilities and advanced dementia (AD). Background: Specialist palliative care providers have focused mostly on people with cancers. Working with persons with intellectual disabilities and AD offers opportunities to expand such palliative care…

  7. Averting Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type in Women: Can Counselors Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthit, Kathryn Z.

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in late life, taking its greatest toll on women over age 80. This article provides an overview of AD, including risk factors and counseling strategies targeting risk. Counseling strategies address stress, cardiovascular health, social integration, depression, and holistic wellness.

  8. An Experimental Approach to Detecting Dementia in Down Syndrome: A Paradigm for Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linda D.; Scheibel, Kevin E.; Ringman, John M.; Sayre, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Measures developed from animal models of aging may detect dementia of the Alzheimer's type in a population at-risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although, by middle age, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) show an extraordinarily high prevalence of AD-type pathology, their severe idiopathic cognitive deficits tend to confound the "clinical"…

  9. Hormones and dementia – a comparative study of hormonal impairment in post-menopausal women, with and without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Robusto-Leitao, Olívia; Ferreira, H

    2006-01-01

    Context Women seem to be more vulnerable to dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD), than men. There is controversy among studies correlating estrogen deficit to cognitive impairment. Because of the sudden drop of estrogens in menopause, this hormonal deficit could represent one of the risk factors for the larger incidence and prevalence of AD in post-menopausal women. Rationale We therefore wanted to find out if post-menopausal women with dementia, or even in a prior stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), would have a more significant deficit of estrogens than post-menopausal women without dementia, or any other type of cognitive problem. Objectives The aim of this study was to detect possible differences of the sex hormone levels among post-menopausal women, simultaneously affected by MCI or dementia, in comparison with a control group without cognitive impairment. Design, setting, and participants A small, multicenter, prospective study was performed on 82 post-menopausal women (41 cases, 41 controls), aged 45–81 years, to investigate their sex hormone balance. The diagnosis of dementia was made according to ICD 9 or 10 and DSM III-R or IV appropriate to the time interval. The diagnosis of probable AD followed the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. MCI met the Paquid-study criteria. Blood was analyzed in qualified centers for LH, FSH, and 17-β-estradiol. All women went through a thorough psychiatric examination and those with a suspected hormonal impairment were examined by a gynecologist. Results 15 cases (36.6%) had impaired hormonal function, compared with 8 controls (19.5%). Of the 15 cases with hormonal impairment, 9 had MCI. Conclusions These preliminary data stress a considerable difference between the sex hormone status of these two populations, showing a tendency towards a more accentuated estrogen deficit linked to cognitive deficit. Enlarging the sample and following the evolution could bring more interesting data. PMID:19412464

  10. Frontotemporal dementia mimicking bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Andrew H; Schroeder, Ryan W; Baade, Lyle E; Lincoln, Janka; Khan, Ahsan Y

    2013-11-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is a cause of behavioral disturbance that usually appears in individuals between 45 and 65 years of age. The authors present the case of a 65-year-old patient that illustrates how frontotemporal dementia can be misdiagnosed based on a behavioral pattern that suggests the presence of a primary mood disorder. Early accurate diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia and subsequent supportive measures can allow patients and families to make important decisions about business and legal affairs and how to spend remaining leisure time in the most meaningful and enjoyable way possible.

  11. An estimate of the prevalence of dementia in Africa: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    George-Carey, Rhiannon; Adeloye, Davies; Chan, Kit Yee; Paul, Abigail; Kolčić, Ivana; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of non–communicable diseases is growing, particularly in developing countries. The greatest economic burden is due to dementia, the prevalence of which is rising with increasing longevity. In Africa, where the rate of increase of elderly persons is the fastest in the world, dementia is normally dismissed as a part of normal ageing. The lack of awareness means that many patients are suffering undiagnosed. This review aims to assess the information on the prevalence of dementia in Africa in order to estimate the current burden. Methods A parallel search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health limited to post–1980 found only 10 relevant studies. Data on prevalence and risk factors were extracted and analysed. We modelled the available information and used the UN population figures for Africa to determine the age–specific and overall burden of dementia. Results The overall prevalence of dementia in adults older than 50 years in Africa was estimated to be about 2.4%, which translates to 2.76 million people living with a disease in 2010. About 2.10 millions of them live in Sub–Saharan Africa. Prevalence was the highest among females aged 80 and over (19.7%) and there was little variation between regions. Alzheimer disease was the most prevalent cause of dementia (57.1%) followed by vascular dementia (26.9%). The main risk factors were increasing age, female sex and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Information on dementia prevalence in Africa is very limited. Further research will not only provide a more reliable estimate of prevalence, and consequently the burden of disease, but will also raise awareness of the problem. This is critical in promoting help–seeking behaviour and generating the political commitment to make dementia a public health priority in Africa. PMID:23289076

  12. [Neuropathologic markers in degenerative dementias].

    PubMed

    Hauw, J J; Seilhean, D; Colle, M A; Hogenhuys, J; Duyckaerts, C

    1998-01-01

    The number of neuropathological markers used for the diagnosis of degenerative dementias is rapidly increasing, and this is somewhat confusing: some lesions described a long time ago, such as ballooned cells, proved to be less specific than they were supposed to be; this is also the case for Lewy bodies, that have been recognised in a larger spectrum of disorders than thought a few years ago. On the contrary, for an increasing number of neuropathologists, Pick bodies are now mandatory for the diagnosis of Pick disease, and this contrasts with the prevalent opinions of the late sixties or seventies. There are a number of reasons for the changing significance of neuropathological markers. Three of them can be easily identified: 1) the burst of immunohistochemistry into neuropathology allowed an easier recognition, a better delineation and new pathophysiological approaches to old lesions, and a dramatic increase in the description of new markers, especially in glial cells; 2) in some conditions characterized by the number and distribution of some lesions rather than by their mere presence, such as aging and Alzheimer disease, a better neuroanatomical point of view permitted new insights into the concept of disease versus age-related changes; 3) more accurate clinicopathologic correlations showed clearly the need of grouping or lumping together some entities: for example, obvious relationship aroused between progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration; in contrast, distinguishing different disorders in the frontal lobe dementias grouped together into "Pick disease" was felt necessary. This review summarizes the main criteria for identification, and the presumed meaning of the chief markers indicating the presence of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins, A beta peptides, and PrP proteins. Abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins can be stored in the neurons, and participate in the constitution of many lesions (neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads

  13. Improving Dementia Health Literacy Using the FLOW Mnemonic: Pilot Findings from the Old SCHOOL Hip-Hop Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, James M.; Hedmann, Monique G.; Williams, Olajide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dementia health literacy is low among the public and likely poses a significant barrier to Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptom recognition and treatment, particularly among minority populations already facing higher AD burden. We evaluated the pilot phase of a novel AD health education program, Old SCHOOL (Seniors Can Have Optimal…

  14. Vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Semashko, D C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the initial assessment and emergent management of several common as well as uncommon vascular emergencies. Aortic dissection, aneurysms, and arterial occlusive disease are familiar but challenging clinical entities. Less frequently encountered conditions are also discussed including an aortic enteric fistula, mesenteric venous thrombosis, phlegmasia alba dolens, and subclavian vein thrombosis.

  15. Evidence for modest familial co-aggregation between dementia and parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Adina L; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Johansson, Anna L V; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of shared familial risk to the co-occurrence of dementia and parkinsonism by studying familial co-aggregation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Using Swedish population-based registers we constructed two cohorts; a first-degree relative cohort of persons born 1932-1960 (n = 2,775,332) and a spouse cohort of persons born 1890-1960 (n = 4,736,006). Study persons were followed up between 1969 and 2009 in the National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. We modeled the association between incidence of disease and having at least one affected relative using Cox proportional hazard regression that estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex and number of relatives. Within each disorder; dementia, AD, parkinsonian disorders and PD, there was a strong association between risk of disease and having at least one affected sibling or parent. There was also a modest shared familial risk between the diseases; risk of parkinsonian disorders was associated with having a sibling with AD (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.11-1.65) and risk of dementia was associated with having a sibling with PD (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41). There were no meaningful familial risks among spouses. The risk of co-occurring dementia in PD was considerably increased (HR 2.83, 95% CI 2.76-2.89). There is strong familial aggregation within dementia, AD, parkinsonian disorders and PD, and modest familial co-aggregation between dementia and parkinsonism. Thus, co-occurrence of dementia and parkinsonism is not primarily caused by shared familial risk between AD and PD. PMID:24248476

  16. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and cognitive function and dementia risk: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Rawlings, Andreea M.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Alonso, Alvaro; Mosley, Thomas H.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Aim Clinical cardiovascular disease is a major risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, less is known about the association of subclinical myocardial damage with cognition and dementia. We sought to examine the associations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) with cognition and dementia. Methods and results Cross-sectional analysis of cognition (baseline 1996–98) and prospective analysis of dementia (follow-up through 2010) in 9472 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T was measured using a novel highly sensitive assay with a lower limit of the blank of 3 ng/L. Cognitive function was assessed by three tests: the delayed word recall test (DWRT), the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), and the word fluency test (WFT). Dementia was defined using ICD-9 codes. Linear regression and Cox models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The mean age of participants was 63 years, 59% were female, 21% were black, and 66% had hs-cTnT ≥3 ng/L. In cross-sectional analyses, higher hs-cTnT was associated with lower scores on the DSST (P-trend < 0.001) and the WFT (P-trend = 0.002), but not on the DWRT (P-trend = 0.089). Over a median of 13 years, there were 455 incident dementia hospitalizations. In prospective analyses, higher baseline concentrations of hs-cTnT were associated with an increased risk for dementia hospitalizations overall (P-trend < 0.001) and for vascular dementia (P-trend = 0.029), but not for Alzheimer's dementia (P-trend = 0.212). Conclusion Elevations in baseline concentrations of hs-cTnT were associated with lower cognitive test scores at baseline and increased dementia hospitalization risk during the follow-up. Our results suggest that subclinical myocardial injury is associated with cognition and dementia. PMID:24685712

  17. Dementia care in rural China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dementia is a major cause of disability and has immense cost implications for the individual suffering from the condition, family caregivers and society. Given the high prevalence of dementia in China with its enormous and rapidly expanding population of elderly adults, it is necessary to develop and test approaches to the care for patients with this disorder. The need is especially great in rural China where access to mental healthcare is limited, with the task made more complex by social and economic reforms over the last 30 years that have transformed the Chinese family support system, family values and health delivery systems. Evidence-based collaborative care models for dementia, depression and other chronic diseases that have been developed in some Western countries serve as a basis for discussion of innovative approaches in the management of dementia in rural China, with particular focus on its implementation in the primary care system. PMID:24427180

  18. Prisons must develop dementia strategy.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    'The prison service badly needs a properly resourced national strategy for its rapidly growing population of older prisoners, to guide its staff in their management of age-related conditions, such as dementia'. PMID:27573969

  19. Social commitment robots and dementia.

    PubMed

    Roger, Kerstin; Guse, Lorna; Mordoch, Elaine; Osterreicher, Angela

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, approximately 500,000 Canadians suffered from a dementia-related illness. The number of sufferers is estimated to double in about 25 years. Due to this growing demographic, dementia (most frequently caused by Alzheimer's disease) will increasingly have a significant impact on our aging community and their caregivers. Dementia is associated with challenging behaviours such as agitation, wandering, and aggression. Care providers must find innovative strategies that facilitate the quality of life for this population; moreover, such strategies must value the individual person. Social commitment robots - designed specifically with communication and therapeutic purposes - provide one means towards attaining this goal. This paper describes a study in which Paro (a robotic baby harp seal) was used as part of a summer training program for students. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the integration of social commitment robots may be clinically valuable for older, agitated persons living with dementia in long-term care settings.

  20. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel and bladder control, difficulty drinking and eating, malnutrition, diffi