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Sample records for ad-like skin lesions

  1. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in: Africa Canada Central and southeastern United States India Israel Saudi Arabia A person gets infected by ... is diagnosed by identifying the fungus in a culture taken from a skin lesion. This usually requires ...

  2. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  3. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be done along with this test. Other studies are often done on a skin sample to determine if cancer is present. Viral skin lesions like herpes simplex are examined by other tests or a viral culture.

  4. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  5. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  6. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers.

  7. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production.

  8. Facial Skin Lesions Dentists Should Know.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Louna; Kudsi, Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin lesions are common; patients may present with a.nodule, crack, ulcer or abnormal discoloration of the skin that is not normally present. Ideally, dentists should include face examination in their routine clinical examination. Any suspicious lesion should be referred to a dermatologist as an early diagnosis and treatment could be life-saving. This article will discuss the diagnosis and treatment of common lesions of the face.

  9. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  10. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  11. Skin lesions in carpet hand-weavers.

    PubMed

    Noorbala, M T

    2008-03-15

    Carpet hand-weaving is an important industry in Iran. The repetitive trauma to hands in this occupation produces typical nodules and plaques. The skin lesions from 150 carpet weavers are reported. The characteristic carpet nodule is clinically and histologically described.

  12. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  13. [Skin vessel lesions in aluminum potroom workers].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Nikanov, A N; Shilov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The features of development of the skin vessels lesions in 550 aluminum production workers have been investigated. The high prevalence of these disorders have been revealed in anode-operators and cell-operators, 49, 3 and 26.0% of workers, respectively. The regularity and staging of the development of this abnormity have been established, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical significance of those remain unknown.

  14. Enhancement of International Dermatologists’ Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsy Decisions Following Dermoscopy with Subsequent Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farberg, Aaron S.; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection and subsequent management of melanoma are critical for patient survival. New technologies have been developed to augment clinician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions. Objective: To determine how information provided by a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device affects the biopsy decisions of international dermatologists following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented skin lesion evaluation. Methods: Participants at a dermoscopy conference in Vienna, Austria, were shown 12 clinical and dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low-grade dysplastic nevi) previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing high-resolution dermoscopy images, and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information. Results: Data were analyzed from a total of 70 international dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity was 58 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 59 percent post-dermoscopy (D), but 74 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participant specificity was 56 percent (C) decreasing to 51 percent (D), but increasing to 61 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 57 percent (C) decreasing to 54 percent (D), but increasing to 67 percent for dermatologists after integrating the multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data into the biopsy decision. The overall number of lesions biopsied increased from 50 percent (C) to 53 percent (D), rising to 54 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Decisions to biopsy melanocytic lesions were more sensitive and specific when multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided with no significant increase in the number of biopsies recommended. Providing multispectral digital skin lesion analysis

  15. Enhancement of International Dermatologists’ Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsy Decisions Following Dermoscopy with Subsequent Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farberg, Aaron S.; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection and subsequent management of melanoma are critical for patient survival. New technologies have been developed to augment clinician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions. Objective: To determine how information provided by a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis device affects the biopsy decisions of international dermatologists following clinical and dermoscopic pigmented skin lesion evaluation. Methods: Participants at a dermoscopy conference in Vienna, Austria, were shown 12 clinical and dermoscopic images of pigmented skin lesions (2 melanomas in situ, 3 invasive melanomas, and 7 low-grade dysplastic nevi) previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images, again after observing high-resolution dermoscopy images, and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information. Results: Data were analyzed from a total of 70 international dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity was 58 percent after clinical evaluation (C) and 59 percent post-dermoscopy (D), but 74 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participant specificity was 56 percent (C) decreasing to 51 percent (D), but increasing to 61 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was 57 percent (C) decreasing to 54 percent (D), but increasing to 67 percent for dermatologists after integrating the multispectral digital skin lesion analysis data into the biopsy decision. The overall number of lesions biopsied increased from 50 percent (C) to 53 percent (D), rising to 54 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Decisions to biopsy melanocytic lesions were more sensitive and specific when multispectral digital skin lesion analysis information was provided with no significant increase in the number of biopsies recommended. Providing multispectral digital skin lesion analysis

  16. Oral administration of royal jelly inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Kohno, Keizo; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Koya-Miyata, Satomi; Okamoto, Iwao; Arai, Norie; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2003-09-01

    We have shown previously that in addition to IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by spleen cells from ovalbumin (OVA)/Alum-immunized mice is inhibited by the administration of royal jelly (RJ). Since it has been shown that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines play pathogenic roles in the generation of atopic dermatitis (AD), we have examined whether RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by repeated application of picryl chloride (PiCl) under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. Oral administration of RJ to the PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions in these mice as exemplified by the significant decrease in the total skin severity scores and the decrease in hypertrophy, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of the epidermis and corium by inflammatory cells. IFN-gamma production by spleen cells from PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice in response to TNP-KLH was partially but significantly inhibited by the oral administration of RJ, while IFN-gamma production by Con A-stimulated spleen cells was not affected. Since inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)-derived NO has been suggested as an important immunoregulatory mediator in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, we have also examined the expression of iNOS in the dorsal skin lesions of PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice. Interestingly, the expression of iNOS was significantly increased in the skin lesions of RJ-administered mice compared with those of control PBS-administered mice. Thus, our results suggest that RJ suppresses the development of AD-like skin lesions in PiCl-treated NC/Nga mice, possibly by a combination of down-regulating TNP-specific IFN-gamma production and up-regulating iNOS expression. PMID:12890429

  17. Diversity of human papillomaviruses in skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Johanna; Mühr, Laila Sara Arroyo; Bzhalava, Davit; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Hultin, Emilie; Nordin, Peter; Stenquist, Bo; Paoli, John; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim

    2013-12-01

    Pools of frozen biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=29) actinic keratosis (AK) (n=31), keratoacanthoma (n=91) and swab samples from 84 SCCs and 91 AKs were analysed with an extended HPV general primer PCR and high-throughput sequencing of amplimers. We found 273 different HPV isolates (87 known HPV types, 139 previously known HPV sequences (putative types) and 47 sequences from novel putative HPV types). Among the new sequences, five clustered in genus Betapapillomavirus and 42 in genus Gammapapillomavirus. Resequencing of the three pools between 21 to 70 times resulted in the detection of 283 different known or putative HPV types, with 156 different sequences found in only one of the pools. Type-specific PCRs for 37 putative types from an additional 296 patients found only two of these putative types. In conclusion, skin lesions contain a large diversity of HPV types, but most appeared to be rare infections.

  18. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  19. Skin lesions image analysis utilizing smartphones and cloud platforms.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos; Stagkopoulos, Paris; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of the art on mobile teledermoscopy applications, utilizing smartphones able to store digital images of skin areas depicting regions of interest (lesions) and perform self-assessment or communicate the captured images with expert physicians. Mobile teledermoscopy systems consist of a mobile application that can acquire and identify moles in skin images and classify them according their severity and Cloud infrastructure exploiting computational and storage resources. The chapter presents some indicative mobile applications for skin lesions assessment and describes a proposed system developed by our team that can perform skin lesion evaluation both on the phone and on the Cloud, depending on the network availability. PMID:25626556

  20. Acute skin lesions after surgical procedures: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Borrego, L

    2013-11-01

    In the hospital setting, dermatologists are often required to evaluate inflammatory skin lesions arising during surgical procedures performed in other departments. These lesions can be of physical or chemical origin. Povidone iodine is the most common reported cause of such lesions. If this antiseptic solution remains in contact with the skin in liquid form for a long period of time, it can give rise to serious irritant contact dermatitis in dependent or occluded areas. Less common causes of skin lesions after surgery include allergic contact dermatitis and burns under the dispersive electrode of the electrosurgical device. Most skin lesions that arise during surgical procedures are due to an incorrect application of antiseptic solutions. Special care must therefore be taken during the use of these solutions and, in particular, they should be allowed to dry.

  1. Estimation of the environmental effect of natural volatile organic compounds from Chamaecyparis obtusa and their effect on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Mi-Jin; Lee, Sung-Suk; Choi, Don-Ha; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-07-01

    Aromatherapy has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic method for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema and other skin diseases. In the current study, the anti-atopic properties of the volatile organic compounds of Chamaecyparis obtusa (VOCCo) were examined to determine whether they are amenable for use as a pharmaceutical candidate. The alterations in histological features, serum IgE levels and mast cell infiltration following exposure to VOCCo were determined in a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like mouse model. The results of these experiments demonstrated that VOCCo inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions by reducing the serum IgE level and mast cell infiltration into the dermal and subcutaneous layers. This was supported by screening of immune cytokine mRNAs, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 from the skin of DNCB-treated mice. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the skin lesions of mice was dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with VOCCo. Furthermore, treatment with VOCCo resulted in the recovery of histopathological features in AD-like skin lesions. These results suggest that VOCCo may have therapeutic and preventive effects for the development of AD. PMID:25760811

  2. Skin lesion image segmentation using Delaunay Triangulation for melanoma detection.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Andrea; Bloisi, Domenico D; Nardi, Daniele; Giampetruzzi, Anna Rita; Mondino, Chiara; Facchiano, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Developing automatic diagnostic tools for the early detection of skin cancer lesions in dermoscopic images can help to reduce melanoma-induced mortality. Image segmentation is a key step in the automated skin lesion diagnosis pipeline. In this paper, a fast and fully-automatic algorithm for skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images is presented. Delaunay Triangulation is used to extract a binary mask of the lesion region, without the need of any training stage. A quantitative experimental evaluation has been conducted on a publicly available database, by taking into account six well-known state-of-the-art segmentation methods for comparison. The results of the experimental analysis demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly accurate when dealing with benign lesions, while the segmentation accuracy significantly decreases when melanoma images are processed. This behavior led us to consider geometrical and color features extracted from the binary masks generated by our algorithm for classification, achieving promising results for melanoma detection.

  3. Skin lesion image segmentation using Delaunay Triangulation for melanoma detection.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Andrea; Bloisi, Domenico D; Nardi, Daniele; Giampetruzzi, Anna Rita; Mondino, Chiara; Facchiano, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Developing automatic diagnostic tools for the early detection of skin cancer lesions in dermoscopic images can help to reduce melanoma-induced mortality. Image segmentation is a key step in the automated skin lesion diagnosis pipeline. In this paper, a fast and fully-automatic algorithm for skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images is presented. Delaunay Triangulation is used to extract a binary mask of the lesion region, without the need of any training stage. A quantitative experimental evaluation has been conducted on a publicly available database, by taking into account six well-known state-of-the-art segmentation methods for comparison. The results of the experimental analysis demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly accurate when dealing with benign lesions, while the segmentation accuracy significantly decreases when melanoma images are processed. This behavior led us to consider geometrical and color features extracted from the binary masks generated by our algorithm for classification, achieving promising results for melanoma detection. PMID:27215953

  4. [Management of skin lesions in returning travelers].

    PubMed

    Monsel, Gentiane; Caumes, Éric

    2015-04-01

    Dermatoses in returning travellers are common. These dermatoses are mainly infectious, the most common being bacterial infections of cosmopolitan origin (cellulitis, pyoderma and abcess). Others dermatoses are environmental diseases such as sunburns, arthropod-related reactions and superficial injuries. The most common tropical skin disease is hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans but treating physicians may also face patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, tungiasis, or myiasis. Also some systemic infections can be associated with skin manifestations. The most useful treatments in this setting are oral antihistamines, topical steroids, antibiotics effective against bacterial skin infection, booster for tetanus immunization, and rabies vaccination in case of animal exposure. PMID:26058193

  5. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  6. Relations between exposure to arsenic, skin lesions, and glucosuria

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M.; Tondel, M.; Chowdhury, I. A.; Axelson, O.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to arsenic causes keratosis, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation and seemingly also diabetes mellitus, at least in subjects with skin lesions. Here we evaluate the relations of arsenical skin lesions and glucosuria as a proxy for diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Through existing measurements of arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh, wells with and without arsenic contamination were identified. Based on a questionnaire, 1595 subjects > or = 30 years of age were interviewed; 1481 had a history of drinking water contaminated with arsenic whereas 114 had not. Time weighted mean arsenic concentrations and mg-years/l of exposure to arsenic were estimated based on the history of consumption of well water and current arsenic concentrations. Urine samples from the study subjects were tested by means of a glucometric strip. People with positive tests were considered to be cases of glucosuria. RESULTS: A total of 430 (29%) of the exposed people were found to have skin lesions. Corresponding to drinking water with < 0.5, 0.5-1.0, and > 1.0 mg/l of arsenic, and with the 114 unexposed subjects as the reference, the prevalence ratios for glucosuria, as adjusted for age and sex, were 0.8, 1.4, and 1.4 for those without skin lesions, and 1.1, 2.2, and 2.6 for those with skin lesions. Taking exposure as < 1.0, 1.0-5.0, > 5.0-10.0 and > 10.0 mg- years/l of exposure to arsenic the prevalence ratios, similarly adjusted, were 0.4, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.7 for those without and 0.8, 1.7, 2.1, and 2.9 for those with skin lesions. All series of risk estimates were significant for trend, (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that skin lesions and diabetes mellitus, as here indicated by glucosuria, are largely independent effects of exposure to arsenic although glucosuria had some tendency to be associated with skin lesions. Importantly, however, glucosuria (diabetes mellitus) may occur independently of skin lesions.   PMID:10450246

  7. Thermographic diagnostics to discriminate skin lesions: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringasci, Mirian Denise; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is responsible for about 13% of all causes of death in the world. Over 7 million people die annually of this disease. In most cases, the survival rates are greater when diagnosed in early stages. It is known that tumor lesions present a different temperature compared with the normal tissues. Some studies have been performed in an attempt to establish new diagnosis methods, targeting this temperature difference. In this study, we aim to investigate the use of a handheld thermographic camera to discriminate skin lesions. The patients presenting Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Actinic Keratosis, Pigmented Seborrheic Keratosis, Melanoma or Intradermal Nevus lesions have been investigated at the Skin Departament of Amaral Carvalho Hospital. Patients are selected by a dermatologist, and the lesion images are recorded using an infrared camera. The images are evaluated taken into account the temperature level, and differences into lesion areas, borders, and between altered and normal skin. The present results show that thermography may be an important tool for aiding in the clinical diagnostics of superficial skin lesions.

  8. Polymorphous light eruption. Experimental reproduction of skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzle, E.; Plewig, G.; Hofmann, C.; Roser-Maass, E.

    1982-07-01

    The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy.

  9. Comparison of skin patterning feature analysis methods for lesion classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Round, Andrew J.; Duller, Andrew W.; Fish, Peter J.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a method of distinguishing between early malignant melanoma and benign moles by examining skin pattern texture on an image of the lesion. Skin patterning is a macroscopic texture composed of fine linear elements. This texture is poorly described by standard definitions of texture and poorly detected by existing techniques. Skin line patterning is detected through a new method which looks at small patches spaced equally across the image and constructs a profile of their linear self-similarity over a range of angles. Regions which exhibit skin patterning result in similar profiles for neighboring patches whereas no such similarity is found in areas where the patterning is disrupted. Interpretation of the profile images for the classification of the lesions is then addressed.

  10. A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease. PMID:24884686

  11. Association between phospholipase production by Malassezia pachydermatis and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, C; Otranto, D

    2004-10-01

    An evaluation was made of the phospholipase activities of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from healthy dogs versus those from dogs with dermatitis and otitis. A high percentage of strains of M. pachydermatis obtained from lesion sites (93.9%) produced phospholipase, compared to the strains obtained from healthy skin of the same dog with localized lesions (41.4%) and healthy dogs (10.6%). PMID:15472366

  12. Inflammatory features of melasma lesions in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Noh, Tai Kyung; Choi, Seok Joo; Chung, Bo Young; Kang, Jin Soo; Lee, Jong Hee; Lee, Mi Woo; Chang, Sung Eun

    2014-09-01

    Melasma is triggered by various factors including ultraviolet radiation and estrogen; however, its pathogenesis is unclear. To investigate the inflammatory features of melasma lesions as triggers for this disorder, 197 women with melasma who attended Asan Medical Center and Kangskin Clinic, Seoul, from June 2011 to October 2011 completed a questionnaire concerning triggering or aggravating factors. These cases were divided into "non-inflammatory" and "inflammatory" groups. Skin biopsies and immunostaining for CD68, CD117, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) were performed in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of ten cases in the non-inflammatory group and nine cases in the inflammatory group. Among the 197 subjects (mean age, 41.5 years; mean age of melasma onset, 33.8 years), 50 patients (25.4%) were categorized into the inflammatory group. This group comprised cases that had inflammatory symptoms and events that triggered the melasma lesions. The lesional dermis contained more CD68(+) melanophages, CD117(+) mast cells, and LCA(+) leukocytes in the inflammatory group than in the non-inflammatory group. Inflammatory clinical features and an increased number of inflammatory cells in the lesion may be involved in the development of melasma in Asian skin.

  13. Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.

    1996-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.

  14. Inhibition of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by topical application of a novel ceramide derivative, K6PC-9p, in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Soon; Yoon, Won Kee; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Park, Byeong Deog; Han, Mi Hwa; Lee, Hyunju; Moon, Eun-Yi; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Kiho; Park, Song-Kyu; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2008-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that commonly begins in childhood. K6PC-9p (N-(Ethyl dihydrogenphosphate)-2-hexyl-3-oxo-decanamide) is a synthetic ceramide derivative of PC-9S (N-Ethanol-2-mirystyl-3-oxo-staramide), which was known to be effective in atopic patients. In this study, we examined the effect of topical application of K6PC-9p on skin inflammation and AD-like skin lesions in mouse models. K6PC-9p dose-dependently inhibited phorbol ester-induced increase in ear thickness in BALB/c mice. Moreover, topical application of K6PC-9p suppressed dust mite extract-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Histopathological analysis revealed that both ear swelling and leucocyte infiltration were suppressed by K6PC-9p treatment. K6PC-9p also suppressed IL-4 and TNF-alpha expression in the ears and mast cell infiltration into the ears in NC/Nga mice. Further study demonstrated that K6PC-9p inhibited ConA-induced IL-4 secretion and LPS-induced macrophage activation. Taken together, our results showed that topical application of K6PC-9p exerts beneficial effects in animal model of skin inflammation and AD, suggesting that K6PC-9p might be a promising topical agent for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  15. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from various skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Kanzaki, H; Tada, J; Arata, J

    1998-09-01

    We isolated 162 coagulase-negative staphylococci (48: from infection, 114: from colonization) from various skin diseases between January, 1995, and January, 1998. From eighteen infected cysts, 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, 3 S. capitis strains, 2 S. hominis strains, 2 S. auricularis strains, and one S. saprophyticus strain were individually detected. Similarly, from ten folliculitis lesions, 6 S. epidermidis strains, 2 S. capitis strains, and 2 S. hominis strains, and from five furuncle lesions, 3 S. lugdunensis strains, one S. epidermidis strains, and one S. hominis strain were detected, respectively. Four abscesses with mild inflammatory signs were localized on the scalp; S. epidermidis strains alone were detected from them. From two felons, one S. lugdunensis strain and one S. haemolyticus strain were detected, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. lugdunensis strains seems to be more frequently associated with skin suppurative lesions than other strains. Staphylococcus hominis strains and S. capitis strains were suggested to be potential pathogens in the initiation of suppuration in various purulent skin lesions. Among the 28 S. epidermidis strains, 13 (46.4%) were methicillin-resistant (oxacillin, minimum inhibitory concentration > or = 4 micrograms/ml). Twelve (29.3%) out of the other 41 coagulase-negative staphylococci were methicillin-resistant. Coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci showed no differences in susceptibility tests against various antistaphylococcal agents.

  16. Role of skin lesions in the Salem witchcraft trials.

    PubMed

    Flotte, T J; Bell, D A

    1989-12-01

    In the late 17th century, several hundred people were tried for the crime of practicing witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Twenty-four people died before the Superior Court of Judicature dismissed the remaining cases and Governor Phips pardoned and granted amnesty to all of the accused and convicted. The evidence used to convict a person of being a witch included spectral evidence confessions, and apparent proof of that person's alleged supernatural abilities. Also used as evidence were skin lesions characteristic of what were termed "devil's marks" or "witch's marks." It was believed that the devil would confirm his pact with a witch by giving her or him a mark of identification. Devil's marks included a variety of skin lesions described as flat or raised, red, blue, or brown lesions, sometimes with unusual outlines. Witch's marks were most probably supernumerary nipples. It was believed that familiars (agents of the devil, usually in animal form) would receive sustenance by being suckled. In the Salem witchcraft trials, a variety of skin lesions were used as confirmatory evidence that the accused person had made a pact with the devil, but there is no indication in the trial transcripts that anyone was convicted based on this evidence alone. PMID:2690652

  17. Role of skin lesions in the Salem witchcraft trials.

    PubMed

    Flotte, T J; Bell, D A

    1989-12-01

    In the late 17th century, several hundred people were tried for the crime of practicing witchcraft in Salem Village, Massachusetts. Twenty-four people died before the Superior Court of Judicature dismissed the remaining cases and Governor Phips pardoned and granted amnesty to all of the accused and convicted. The evidence used to convict a person of being a witch included spectral evidence confessions, and apparent proof of that person's alleged supernatural abilities. Also used as evidence were skin lesions characteristic of what were termed "devil's marks" or "witch's marks." It was believed that the devil would confirm his pact with a witch by giving her or him a mark of identification. Devil's marks included a variety of skin lesions described as flat or raised, red, blue, or brown lesions, sometimes with unusual outlines. Witch's marks were most probably supernumerary nipples. It was believed that familiars (agents of the devil, usually in animal form) would receive sustenance by being suckled. In the Salem witchcraft trials, a variety of skin lesions were used as confirmatory evidence that the accused person had made a pact with the devil, but there is no indication in the trial transcripts that anyone was convicted based on this evidence alone.

  18. Imaging of human skin lesions with the multispectral dermoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; de Giorgi, Vincenzo; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2010-02-01

    The Dermoscope is a widespread and essential tool for dermatology. It reveals morphologic characteristics and aid the identification and diagnosis of a skin lesion. The diagnosis though is not always unambiguous and still the use of Dermoscopy doesn't obviate the need for histopathological verification. We report on the development of the Multispectral Dermoscope which employs high luminance LEDs with emission at three distinct spectral regions (470 nm, 530 nm, 625 nm). The illumination is polarized and an analyzer is used for the detection. Subsequent image analysis for enhancing the contrast for single scattered photons, hemoglobin absorption and melanin absorption is performed. Features like the surface texture of the skin, scattering structures in the epidermis, blood vessel morphology even in pigmented lesions and melanin localization have been observed in various skin pathologies. The device has been tested on volunteers and the features revealed have proven to be helpful in the diagnosis of skin lesions. Use of the Multispectral Dermoscope could improve the sensitivity and specificity of Dermoscopy.

  19. Automatic differentiation of melanoma and clark nevus skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, R. W.; Kasture, A.; Pandey, A.; Umbaugh, S. E.

    2007-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Although melanoma accounts for just 11% of all types of skin cancer, it is responsible for most of the deaths, claiming more than 7910 lives annually. Melanoma is visually difficult for clinicians to differentiate from Clark nevus lesions which are benign. The application of pattern recognition techniques to these lesions may be useful as an educational tool for teaching physicians to differentiate lesions, as well as for contributing information about the essential optical characteristics that identify them. Purpose: This study sought to find the most effective features to extract from melanoma, melanoma in situ and Clark nevus lesions, and to find the most effective pattern-classification criteria and algorithms for differentiating those lesions, using the Computer Vision and Image Processing Tools (CVIPtools) software package. Methods: Due to changes in ambient lighting during the photographic process, color differences between images can occur. These differences were minimized by capturing dermoscopic images instead of photographic images. Differences in skin color between patients were minimized via image color normalization, by converting original color images to relative-color images. Relative-color images also helped minimize changes in color that occur due to changes in the photographic and digitization processes. Tumors in the relative-color images were segmented and morphologically filtered. Filtered, relative-color, tumor features were then extracted and various pattern-classification schemes were applied. Results: Experimentation resulted in four useful pattern classification methods, the best of which was an overall classification rate of 100% for melanoma and melanoma in situ (grouped) and 60% for Clark nevus. Conclusion: Melanoma and melanoma in situ have feature parameters and feature values that are similar enough to be considered one class of tumor that significantly differs from

  20. Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/bovine bone powder biocomposites: A potential biomaterial for the treatment of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nátali O; da Silva, Gabriela T; Weber, Douglas M; Luchese, Cristiane; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Fajardo, André R

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects a large percent of the world́s population. This long-lasting skin disease has been treated by different approaches according to its causative agent and severity. Nonetheless, the use of advanced biomaterials to treat AD is poorly explored. The present study assessed the protective effectiveness of biocomposites films based on chitosan (Cs), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and bovine bone powder (BBP) on AD-like skin lesions. These original biocomposites were fully characterized and in vivo biological assays concerning the AD treatment were performed using a mouse model induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The dorsal skin and ear of Balb/c female mice were challenging cutaneously with DNCB. Our findings demonstrate BBP-based biocomposite attenuated and treated considerably the DNCB-induced skin lesions in an AD-like model. In this sense, this study suggests that this original biocomposite may be applied as an active biomaterial for AD treatment. PMID:27185122

  1. Bullous Skin Lesions in an Adult Male: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Gaurav; Siv, Jenny; Ware, Avis E.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) Symptoms: Bullous hemorrhagic lesions • elevated liver enzymes Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is an IgA small-vessel vasculitis that is primarily a disease of childhood. Its presentation in adulthood is rare and has a more severe disease course. We present a case with an atypical presentation of this disease that was a diagnostic challenge for multiple providers. Case Report: A 42-year-old man noticed bullous lesions over his ankles that spread to his entire legs over a few weeks. They later became necrotic and ulcerated areas. His primary care physician and 2 dermatologists could not reach a definitive diagnosis. He then presented to our hospital with new abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and a new elevation in liver enzymes. A biopsy of his skin lesions led to the diagnosis of HSP. Conclusions: We discuss this highly unusual initial presentation with bullous skin lesions and liver enzyme abnormalities and explore the medical literature to understand its pathogenesis. Clinicians need to be aware of this rare presentation to avoid a delay in diagnosis and management. PMID:25858335

  2. Negative Predictive Value of Pigmented Lesion Evaluation by Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis in a Community Practice Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rigel, Darrell S.; Kollmann, Emily; Swenson, Nicole; Tucker, Natalie; Nestor, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the high negative predictive value of a multispectral digital skin lesion analysis that has been previously found in an academic-based trial would be similar in a community-based setting with its expected different distribution of pigmented lesions. Design: Data were collected from patients undergoing routine skin examinations over a one-year period at a community-based practice in Florida. All lesions that were selected for biopsy to rule out melanoma were also imaged with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis prior to biopsy. Histopathological diagnoses and multispectral digital skin lesion analysis results were reviewed and compared with findings from a prior primarily academic center-based multispectral digital skin lesion analysis trial. Setting/participants: Community-based clinical setting in Florida. Measurements: Negative predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: One hundred thirty-seven consecutive lesions were selected for biopsy and also analyzed via multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. All 21 cases with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis “Low Disorganization” readings were all histologically benign (100% negative predictive value, 95% lower confidence boundary = 96.9%). The negative predictive value and the sensitivity were not significantly different than what was found in the prior academic-based multispectral digital skin lesion analysis trial. Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis also correctly identified all high-risk lesions, which were subsequently confirmed via histology to be one invasive melanoma and 15 moderately dysplastic nevi (100% sensitivity). Specificity with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis was significantly higher than reported in the academic-based multispectral digital skin lesion analysis trial (18% vs. 10%, p=0.02). Conclusion: Because of the high negative predictive value achieved by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis, lesions with readings

  3. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Anke C; Blahak, Silvia; Heckers, Kim O; Wiechert, Jutta; Behncke, Helge; Mathes, Karina; Günther, Pascale; Zwart, Peer; Ball, Inna; Rüschoff, Birgit; Marschang, Rachel E

    2013-09-27

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards.

  4. Ranavirus infections associated with skin lesions in lizards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ranaviral disease in amphibians has been studied intensely during the last decade, as associated mass-mortality events are considered to be a global threat to wild animal populations. Several studies have also included other susceptible ectothermic vertebrates (fish and reptiles), but only very few cases of ranavirus infections in lizards have been previously detected. In this study, we focused on clinically suspicious lizards and tested these animals for the presence of ranaviruses. Virological screening of samples from lizards with increased mortality and skin lesions over a course of four years led to the detection of ranaviral infections in seven different groups. Affected species were: brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), Asian glass lizards (Dopasia gracilis), green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Purulent to ulcerative-necrotizing dermatitis and hyperkeratosis were diagnosed in pathological examinations. All animals tested positive for the presence of ranavirus by PCR and a part of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of each virus was sequenced. Three different ranaviruses were isolated in cell culture. The analyzed portions of the MCP gene from each of the five different viruses detected were distinct from one another and were 98.4-100% identical to the corresponding portion of the frog virus 3 (FV3) genome. This is the first description of ranavirus infections in these five lizard species. The similarity in the pathological lesions observed in these different cases indicates that ranaviral infection may be an important differential diagnosis for skin lesions in lizards. PMID:24073785

  5. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  6. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2011-09-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  7. Melanoma and other skin lesion detection using smart handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Zouridakis, George; Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Hu, Rui; Yuan, Xiaojing; Lancaster, Keith; Queen, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones of the latest generation featuring advanced multicore processors, dedicated microchips for graphics, high-resolution cameras, and innovative operating systems provide a portable platform for running sophisticated medical screening software and delivering point-of-care patient diagnostic services at a very low cost. In this chapter, we present a smartphone digital dermoscopy application that can analyze high-resolution images of skin lesions and provide the user with feedback about the likelihood of malignancy. The same basic procedure has been adapted to evaluate other skin lesions, such as the flesh-eating bacterial disease known as Buruli ulcer. When implemented on the iPhone, the accuracy and speed achieved by this application are comparable to that of a desktop computer, demonstrating that smartphone applications can combine portability and low cost with high performance. Thus, smartphone-based systems can be used as assistive devices by primary care physicians during routine office visits, and they can have a significant impact in underserved areas and in developing countries, where health-care infrastructure is limited.

  8. Melanoma and other skin lesion detection using smart handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Zouridakis, George; Wadhawan, Tarun; Situ, Ning; Hu, Rui; Yuan, Xiaojing; Lancaster, Keith; Queen, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones of the latest generation featuring advanced multicore processors, dedicated microchips for graphics, high-resolution cameras, and innovative operating systems provide a portable platform for running sophisticated medical screening software and delivering point-of-care patient diagnostic services at a very low cost. In this chapter, we present a smartphone digital dermoscopy application that can analyze high-resolution images of skin lesions and provide the user with feedback about the likelihood of malignancy. The same basic procedure has been adapted to evaluate other skin lesions, such as the flesh-eating bacterial disease known as Buruli ulcer. When implemented on the iPhone, the accuracy and speed achieved by this application are comparable to that of a desktop computer, demonstrating that smartphone applications can combine portability and low cost with high performance. Thus, smartphone-based systems can be used as assistive devices by primary care physicians during routine office visits, and they can have a significant impact in underserved areas and in developing countries, where health-care infrastructure is limited. PMID:25626557

  9. Use of optical skin phantoms for preclinical evaluation of laser efficiency for skin lesion therapy.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Maciej S; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, Malgorzata; Galla, Stanislaw; Piechowski, Leszek; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Popov, Alexey P; Bykov, Alexander V; Tuchin, Valery V; Cenian, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Skin lesions are commonly treated using laser heating. However, the introduction of new devices into clinical practice requires evaluation of their performance. This study presents the application of optical phantoms for assessment of a newly developed 975-nm pulsed diode laser system for dermatological purposes. Such phantoms closely mimic the absorption and scattering of real human skin (although not precisely in relation to thermal conductivity and capacitance); thus, they can be used as substitutes for human skin for approximate evaluation of laser heating efficiency in an almost real environment. Thermographic imaging was applied to measure the spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the surface of laser-irradiated phantoms. The study yielded results of heating with regard to phantom thickness and absorption, as well as laser settings. The methodology developed can be used in practice for preclinical evaluations of laser treatment for dermatology.

  10. Use of optical skin phantoms for preclinical evaluation of laser efficiency for skin lesion therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wróbel, Maciej S.; Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, Malgorzata; Galla, Stanislaw; Piechowski, Leszek; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Popov, Alexey P.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Cenian, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Skin lesions are commonly treated using laser heating. However, the introduction of new devices into clinical practice requires evaluation of their performance. This study presents the application of optical phantoms for assessment of a newly developed 975-nm pulsed diode laser system for dermatological purposes. Such phantoms closely mimic the absorption and scattering of real human skin (although not precisely in relation to thermal conductivity and capacitance); thus, they can be used as substitutes for human skin for approximate evaluation of laser heating efficiency in an almost real environment. Thermographic imaging was applied to measure the spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the surface of laser-irradiated phantoms. The study yielded results of heating with regard to phantom thickness and absorption, as well as laser settings. The methodology developed can be used in practice for preclinical evaluations of laser treatment for dermatology. PMID:26263414

  11. Global Gene Expression Profiling of Hyperkeratotic Skin Lesions from Inner Mongolians Chronically Exposed to Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs), which are characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrations in terminal epidermal differentiation, are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. H...

  12. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Alfonso; Quartulli, Marco; Murace, Raffaele; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Manganaro, Mario; Guerra, Oscar; Bizzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR). PMID:24281070

  13. Birthmarks and congenital skin lesions in Chinese newborns.

    PubMed

    Tsai, F J; Tsai, C H

    1993-09-01

    The presence of various types of birthmarks was determined in 3,345 Chinese infants under 48 hours of age. Mongolian spots were present in 86.3% of the studied infants. Vascular lesions included salmon patch (22.6%), port-wine stain (0.4%), and strawberry marks (0.7%). Nevocellular nevi (1%), sebaceous nevi (0.1%), and café au lait spots (0.4%) were also found. The following non-birthmark skin changes were observed: erythema toxicum neonatorum (33.7%), preauricular tags (1.3%), preauricular pits (2.5%) and a hyperpigmented scrotum (31.3%; in 1,727 male infants), which was related to the presence of mongolian spots. PMID:7904869

  14. Birthmarks and congenital skin lesions in Chinese newborns.

    PubMed

    Tsai, F J; Tsai, C H

    1993-09-01

    The presence of various types of birthmarks was determined in 3,345 Chinese infants under 48 hours of age. Mongolian spots were present in 86.3% of the studied infants. Vascular lesions included salmon patch (22.6%), port-wine stain (0.4%), and strawberry marks (0.7%). Nevocellular nevi (1%), sebaceous nevi (0.1%), and café au lait spots (0.4%) were also found. The following non-birthmark skin changes were observed: erythema toxicum neonatorum (33.7%), preauricular tags (1.3%), preauricular pits (2.5%) and a hyperpigmented scrotum (31.3%; in 1,727 male infants), which was related to the presence of mongolian spots.

  15. Navigated tracking of skin lesion progression with optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Lasser, Tobias; Wendler, Thomas; Safi, Asad; Ziegler, Sibylle; Navab, Nassir

    2010-03-01

    Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) is a cancer type externally characterized by alterations in the coloring of skin. Optical spectroscopy has been proposed for quantification of minimal changes in skin offering itself as an interesting tool for monitoring of CTCL in real-time. However, in order to be used in a valid way, measurements on the lesions have to be taken at the same position and with the same orientation in each session. Combining hand-held optical spectroscopy devices with tracking and acquiring synchronously spectral information with position and orientation, we introduce a novel computer-assisted scheme for valid spectral quantification of disease progression. We further present an implementation for an augmented reality guidance system that allows to find a point previously analyzed with an accuracy of 0.8[mm] and 5.0[deg] (vs. 1.6[mm] and 6.6[deg] without guidance). The intuitive guidance, as well as the preliminary results shows that the presented approach has great potential towards innovative computer-assistance methods for quantification of disease progression.

  16. Topical application of a novel ceramide derivative, K6PC-9, inhibits dust mite extract-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Soon; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Park, Byeong Deog; Yoon, Won Kee; Han, Mi Hwa; Lee, Hyunju; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Kiho; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Seung Hun; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Moon, Eun-Yi; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2007-12-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. K6PC-9 (N-Ethanol-2-hexyl-3-oxo-decanamide) is a novel synthetic ceramide derivative of PC-9S (N-Ethanol-2-mirystyl-3-oxo-stearamide), which was known to be effective in atopic and psoriatic patients. To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of K6PC-9, we examined the effect of K6PC-9 on T lymphocyte and macrophage function and the effect of topical application of K6PC-9 on skin inflammation and AD-like skin lesions in mouse models. K6PC-9 had no effect on concanavalin A-induced proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2 secretion and IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite generation was potently suppressed by K6PC-9 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. In mouse model of skin inflammation, K6PC-9 inhibited phorbol ester-induced increase in ear thickness and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the ear of BALB/c mice. Topical application of K6PC-9 also suppressed mite extract-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Increase in ear thickness was significantly inhibited by K6PC-9 in this model. K6PC-9 also blocked the infiltration of mast cells and neutrophils into the ear. Further study demonstrated that the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and adhesion molecules, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, was also suppressed by K6PC-9 in the ear of mite extract-treated NC/Nga mice. Taken together, the results presented in this report show that K6PC-9 has an anti-inflammatory potential and exerts beneficial effects in an animal model of AD, indicating that K6PC-9 might be used as a topical agent for the treatment of AD.

  17. Pigment pattern and depth-of-invasion analysis of skin lesions for malignant melanoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Kini, Prashanth

    1990-07-01

    A clinical instrument called a "Nevoscope" is used to image skin-lesions. The lesion is transilluminated by a fiber-optic annular ring light source that directs light into the skin area surrounding the lesion and thus forming a virtual source just beneath the lesion. Mirrors uniformly spaced around the lesion and tilted at various angles, provide orthographic projections of the skin lesion. Additional views are obtained by rotating the mirror assembly. These multiple views are used in a direct 3-D reconstruction of the lesion to estimate its depth of penetration. A pigment pattern analysis is performed on the direct view. This includes both color and texture segmentation. In this paper, we present preliminary results of our 3-D reconstruction and pigment pattern analyses of some lesions.

  18. Pathogenesis of skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R F; Dannenberg, A M; Schofield, B H; Hynes, N A; Papirmeister, B

    1984-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) (di-2-chlorethyl sulfide), used for chemical warfare in World War I, is a highly reactive radiomimetic alkylating agent. When applied to the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs, it produced vascular leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and slow death of basal epidermal cells. Thirty to sixty minutes after exposure to SM, injury to the superficial microvasculature (beneath the SM application site) was detected by measuring vascular leakage with Evans blue dye and also with horseradish peroxidase. At this same time, injury to the superficial fibroblasts was observed ultrastructurally; and an unexpectedly high percentage of basophils was found among the early infiltrating granulocytes. At 2 to 4 hr, the vascular leakage ceased, and had resumed by 8 hr in a more diffuse form. At this time, the basal epidermal cells showed pyknotic nuclei, an increase in their lysosomal enzymes (observed histochemically), and autophagic vacuoles (observed ultrastructurally). Leukocyte infiltration was marked, consisting mostly of heterophils (PMN) with a reduced percentage of basophils. During the next 24 to 72 hr, the entire inflammatory reaction reached its peak; and a superficial, crust-covered ulcer developed. Then, over the next 10 days, the lesion gradually subsided with concomitant repair and healing. Glucocorticosteroids decreased the early edematous phase, but did not affect the rate of healing. These findings suggest that the skin response to sulfur mustard has an immediate and a delayed phase. The immediate phase, i.e., within the first hour, was characterized by injury to the superficial fibroblasts and to the endothelium of superficial capillaries and venules, possibly because of direct damage to their cell membranes. At this time, a restricted vascular leakage and a selective granulocyte infiltration containing many basophils occurred. The delayed phase, which became evident after 8 hr, was characterized by the death of basal epidermal cells, probably because

  19. Significance of Histopathology in Leprosy Patients with 1–5 Skin Lesions with Relevance to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S; Kumar, Prakash; Shashikala, P; Gurubasavaraj, H; Chandrasekhar, H R; Murugesh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with 1–5 skin lesions are clinically categorized as paucibacillary for treatment purposes. For betterment and adequate treatment of patients, this grouping needs further study. Aim: To study a group of leprosy patients with 1–5 skin lesions, compare clinical details with histopathological findings and bacteriological status of the skin to evaluate the relevance of this grouping. Materials and Methods: Two-year study involving 31 patients of leprosy with 1-5 skin lesions was included in this study. A number of skin lesions were recorded. Skin biopsies were taken in all patients. The biopsies were evaluated for the type of pathology and acid fast bacilli (AFB) status. Results: Of 31 patients, 19 (61.2%) had single skin lesion, 7 (22.5%) had two lesions, 4 (12.9%) had three lesions, and only one (3.22%) had four lesions, there were no patients with five lesions. Of the 31 patients, 30 (96.7%) were clinically diagnosed as borderline tuberculoid and one patient (3.22%) has tuberculoid leprosy. Skin smears were negative for AFB in all patients. The histological diagnoses were: TT 1 (3.22%), BT 24 (77.41%), and IL 6 (19.2%). AFB were found in 2 (6.45%) out of 31 skin biopsies. Clinicopathological correlation was 76.6% in the BT group. Conclusion: Tissue biopsy findings in 1–5 skin lesions which were not considered relevant for treatment purposes until now should be given a status in the categorization and assessment of severity of the disease. The significance of finding of AFB and histopathology of multibacillary (MB) type of leprosy in tissue biopsies, in patients grouped as PB should be resolved so that patients could be given the drug therapy and duration of therapy they warrant. PMID:21701658

  20. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  1. Neutrophilic Skin Lesions in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Estelle; Vignon Pennamen, Marie-Dominique; Battistella, Maxime; Saussine, Anne; Bergis, Maud; Cavelier-Balloy, Benedicte; Janier, Michel; Cordoliani, Florence; Bagot, Martine; Rybojad, Michel; Bouaziz, Jean-David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The pathophysiology of neutrophilic dermatoses (NDs) and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (AICTDs) is incompletely understood. The association between NDs and AICTDs is rare; recently, however, a distinctive subset of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE, the prototypical AICTD) with neutrophilic histological features has been proposed to be included in the spectrum of lupus. The aim of our study was to test the validity of such a classification. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study of 7028 AICTDs patients. Among these 7028 patients, a skin biopsy was performed in 932 cases with mainly neutrophilic infiltrate on histology in 9 cases. Combining our 9 cases and an exhaustive literature review, pyoderma gangrenosum, Sweet syndrome (n = 49), Sweet-like ND (n = 13), neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (n = 6), palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (n = 12), and histiocytoid neutrophilic dermatitis (n = 2) were likely to occur both in AICTDs and autoinflammatory diseases. Other NDs were specifically encountered in AICTDs: bullous LE (n = 71), amicrobial pustulosis of the folds (n = 28), autoimmunity-related ND (n = 24), ND resembling erythema gyratum repens (n = 1), and neutrophilic annular erythema (n = 1). The improvement of AICTDS neutrophilic lesions under neutrophil targeting therapy suggests possible common physiopathological pathways between NDs and AICTDs. PMID:25546688

  2. High-definition optical coherence tomography of melanocytic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Plura, Iris; Schmid-Wendtner, Monika; Valavanis, Konstantinos; Kulichova, Daniela; Stücker, Markus; Pljakic, Azem; Berking, Carola; Maier, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) scanners have recently been developed. We assessed micromorphological HD-OCT correlates of benign naevi (BN) and malignant melanoma (MM). 28 BN and 20 MM were studied using HD-OCT and histology. Epidermal honeycomb/cobblestone pattern, regular junctional cell nests, and edged papillae are more often observed in BN, whereas fusion of rete ridges, pagetoid cells and junctional and/or dermal nests with atypical cells are more frequently seen in MM. A high overlap of HD-OCT features in BN and MM was observed and in 20% of MM we did not find evidence for malignancy in OCT images at all. Using HD-OCT it is possible to visualize architectural and cellular alterations of melanocytic skin lesions. The overlap of HD-OCT features seen in BN and MM and the absence of suspicious HD-OCT features in some MM represents an important limitation of HD-OCT affecting the sensitivity of HD-OCT in diagnosing MM. High-definition optical coherence tomography and the corresponding vertically sectioned histology of a compound naevus. PMID:25237005

  3. Downregulation of immunological mediators in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by hydrocortisone-loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zahid; Katas, Haliza; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Kumolosasi, Endang; Sahudin, Shariza

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, noncontiguous, and exudative disorder accompanied by perivascular infiltration of immune mediators, including T-helper (Type 1 helper/Type 2 helper) cells, mast cells, and immunoglobulin E. The current study explores the immunomodulatory and histological effects of nanoparticle (NP)-based transcutaneous delivery of hydrocortisone (HC). Methods In this study, HC, the least potent topical glucocorticoid, was administered transcutaneously as chitosan NPs. The pharmacological and immunological effects of the NP-based HC delivery on the alleviation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions were evaluated using the NC/Nga mouse model. Results In vivo Dino-Lite® microscopic assessment revealed that the NP-based formulation displayed a remarkable ability to reduce the severity of the pathological features of AD (dermatitis index, 3.0). The AD suppressive activity of the NP-based topical formulation was expected owing to the interruption of a series of immunopathological events, including the production of immunoglobulin E, release of histamine, and expression of prostaglandin-E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-α in the sera and skin of the tested animals. Analysis of the cytokine expression in AD-like skin lesions further revealed that the NP-based formulation inhibited the pathological expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IL-12p70, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and skin homogenates of NC/Nga mice. Further, our histological findings indicated that the NP-based formulation inhibited fibroblast infiltration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, further supporting the clinical importance of these formulations in maintaining the integrity of elastic connective tissues. Conclusion The current investigation suggests that NP-mediated transcutaneous delivery of HC could be considered an effective therapeutic approach to manage dermatitis. PMID:25395851

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, In Jun

    2016-01-01

    Valencene (VAL) isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD.

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, In Jun

    2016-01-01

    Valencene (VAL) isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD. PMID:27630735

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Valencene on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Jun; Lee, Dong-Ung; Shin, Heung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Valencene (VAL) isolated from Cyperus rotundus possesses various biological effects such as antiallergic and antimelanogenesis activity. We investigated the effect of VAL on atopic dermatitis (AD) skin lesions and their molecular mechanisms. We topically applied VAL to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) sensitized NC/Nga mice. Modified scoring atopic dermatitis index, scratching behavior, and histological/immunohistochemical staining were used to monitor disease severity. RT-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine the level of IgE, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines production, and skin barrier proteins expression. Topical application of VAL significantly reduced AD-like symptoms and recovered decreased expression of filaggrin in DNCB-sensitized NC/Nga mice. The levels of serum IgE, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-13 in skin/splenic tissue were reduced. In vitro studies using TNF-α and IFN-γ treated HaCaT cells revealed that VAL inhibited the exaggerated expression of Th2 chemokines including TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and proinflammatory chemokines such as CXCL8, GM-CSF, and I-CAM through blockade of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, expression of the skin barrier protein, involucrin, was also increased by VAL treatment. VAL inhibited the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that VAL may serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD. PMID:27630735

  7. In vivo optical elastography: stress and strain imaging of human skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Gong, Peijun; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    Probing the mechanical properties of skin at high resolution could aid in the assessment of skin pathologies by, for example, detecting the extent of cancerous skin lesions and assessing pathology in burn scars. Here, we present two elastography techniques based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to probe the local mechanical properties of skin. The first technique, optical palpation, is a high-resolution tactile imaging technique, which uses a complaint silicone layer positioned on the tissue surface to measure spatially-resolved stress imparted by compressive loading. We assess the performance of optical palpation, using a handheld imaging probe on a skin-mimicking phantom, and demonstrate its use on human skin. The second technique is a strain imaging technique, phase-sensitive compression OCE that maps depth-resolved mechanical variations within skin. We show preliminary results of in vivo phase-sensitive compression OCE on a human skin lesion.

  8. Molecular changes in skin pigmented lesions of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus.

    PubMed

    Lerebours, Adélaïde; Chapman, Emma C; Sweet, Michael J; Heupel, Michelle R; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2016-09-01

    A high prevalence of skin pigmented lesions of 15% was recently reported in coral trout Plectropomus leopardus, a commercially important marine fish, inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef. Herein, fish were sampled at two offshore sites, characterised by high and low lesion prevalence. A transcriptomic approach using the suppressive subtractive hybridisation (SSH) method was used to analyse the differentially expressed genes between lesion and normal skin samples. Transcriptional changes of 14 genes were observed in lesion samples relative to normal skin samples. These targeted genes encoded for specific proteins which are involved in general cell function but also in different stages disrupted during the tumourigenesis process of other organisms, such as cell cycling, cell proliferation, skeletal organisation and cell migration. The results highlight transcripts that are associated with the lesion occurrence, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular aetiology of this coral trout skin disease. PMID:27521482

  9. The Impact of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis on German Dermatologist Decisions to Biopsy Atypical Pigmented Lesions with Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Richard R.; Hauschild, Axel; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis on German dermatologist biopsy decisions of atypical pigmented skin lesions. Design: Participants were shown high-resolution clinical images of 12 atypical pigmented skin lesions previously analyzed by multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Participants were asked if they would biopsy the lesion based on clinical images and high-resolution dermoscopy images and again when subsequently shown multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information. Setting/participants: Forty-one dermatologists at a skin cancer conference in Germany in September 2014. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, percent biopsying all melanomas, and overall biopsy rates. Results: Sensitivity for the detection of melanoma following clinical evaluation was 64 percent. After receipt of multispectral digital skin lesion analysis probability information, sensitivity decreased nonsignificantly to 62 percent. Specificity with clinical evaluation was 57 percent and increased to 73 percent using multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Overall biopsy accuracy increased from 60 percent with clinical evaluation to 68 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. The percentage of low-grade dysplastic nevi chosen for biopsy decreased from 43 percent after clinical evaluation to 27 percent with multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Finally, the overall percentage of lesions biopsied decreased from 52 percent with clinical evaluation to 42 percent after multispectral digital skin lesion analysis. Conclusion: Multispectral digital skin lesion analysis can be used reliably to detect melanoma as well as clinical evaluation. Dermatologists can confidently use multispectral digital skin lesion analysis to significantly improve specificity and reduce their overall number of biopsies while increasing overall diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26557216

  10. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women’s reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Methods We compared menopausal age in two groups of women – with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies— participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Results Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups’ age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. Conclusions The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure. PMID:24886424

  11. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Karagas, Margaret R.; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1–2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO)’s guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both non-cancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk. PMID:26231242

  12. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Margaret R; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-03-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1-2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both noncancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk.

  13. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Margaret R; Gossai, Anala; Pierce, Brandon; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-03-01

    Skin lesions and cancer are known manifestations of chronic exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water. Epidemiologic data primarily comes from regions with exposures 1-2 orders of magnitude above the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 10 μg/L. Emerging evidence indicates that more common exposures may also be related to both noncancerous and cancerous changes to the skin. In this review, we focus on the body of epidemiologic literature that encompasses exposures within the WHO guidelines, excluding studies that lacked individual exposure estimates and case reports. For skin lesions and skin cancers, 15 and 10 studies were identified that met our criteria, respectively. For skin lesions, a consistent dose-response relationship with water arsenic has been observed, with increased risk evident at low- to moderate-dose exposure. Of the larger studies of specific histologic types of skin cancers, although with differing exposure definitions, there was evidence of dose-related relationships with both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The effect of arsenic exposure on skin lesion risk is likely modified by genetic variants that influence arsenic metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that arsenic may increase risk of skin lesions and skin cancers at levels not previously considered harmful, and that genetic factors may influence risk. PMID:26231242

  14. Characterization of skin lesions induced by skin-tropic α- and β-papillomaviruses in a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Borgogna, C; Landini, M M; Lanfredini, S; Doorbar, J; Bouwes Bavinck, J N; Quint, K D; de Koning, M N C; Genders, R E; Gariglio, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, lifelong, autosomal recessive skin disease associated with an unusual susceptibility to infections with ubiquitous β-human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs), and in some cases also skin-tropic α genotypes. In this case report, HPV infection patterns were correlated with pathology and clinical manifestations of skin lesions from a patient with EV, without loss-of-function mutations in the EVER genes. HPV infection was investigated by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and laser capture microdissection (LCM) PCR, alongside immunofluorescence for the viral proteins E4 and L1. Analysis of eyebrow hair bulbs revealed multiple β-genus HPV infections, including HPV20 and HPV24, which were consistently found in all 11 skin lesions on the patient. Six lesions were also positive for the skin tropic α-genotype, HPV27. Clear-cut differences between two wart-like lesions, one caused by a skin-tropic α-genotype and the other by β-genotypes (as detected by LCM PCR) are shown, including the high cellular proliferation rate in β-HPV-induced lesions. Widespread expression of the early protein E4 was also evident in skin lesions positive for HPV20 by LCM PCR in both tumours and nearby intraepidermal proliferative areas. L1 expression was restricted to areas of intraepidermal proliferation showing productive infection. The patient's inability to control HPV infections is conclusive to the uncontrolled replication of few genotypes from both α and β genera, which cause proliferative lesions with clear-cut clinical and histological features.

  15. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in skin lesions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Karouni, Mirna; Kurban, Mazen; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-09-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), which allows them to provide anti-viral resistance and to link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. pDCs are involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious [especially viral, such as Molluscum contagiosum (MC)], inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, systemic lympho-angioproliferative tumor associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Microscopy typically exhibits a chronic inflammatory lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in addition to the vascular changes and spindle cell proliferation. Despite the extensive research done on the immune evasion strategies employed by KSHV, pDCs role in relation to KS has only rarely been investigated. Given this, we intend to investigate pDC occurrence and activity in the skin lesions of KS. Immunohistochemical staining for BDCA-2 (specific pDC marker) and MxA (surrogate marker for local type I IFN production) was performed on classic KS (n = 20) with the control group comprising inflamed MC (n = 20). As expected, BDCA-2+ pDCs were present in abundance with diffuse and intense MxA expression (indicative of local type I IFN production) in all inflamed MC cases (20 of 20, 100 %). Though present in all the KS cases, pDCs were significantly less abundant in KS than in inflamed MC cases, and MxA expression was patchy/weak in most KS cases. In summary, pDCs are part of the inflammatory host response in KS; however, they were generally low in number with decreased type I IFN production which is probably related to KSHV's ability to evade the immune system through the production of different viral proteins capable of suppressing IFN production as well as pDC function.

  16. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-03-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  17. Reconstructing in-vivo reflectance spectrum of pigmented skin lesion by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; He, Qingli; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2011-11-01

    In dermatology applications, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively investigated as a promising tool for the noninvasive method to distinguish melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesion (nevus), which is concentrated with the skin chromophores like melanin and hemoglobin. We carried out a theoretical study to examine melanin distribution in human skin tissue and establish a practical optical model for further pigmented skin investigation. The theoretical simulation was using junctional nevus as an example. A multiple layer skin optical model was developed on established anatomy structures of skin, the published optical parameters of different skin layers, blood and melanin. Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the interaction between excitation light and skin tissue and rebuild the diffuse reflectance process from skin tissue. A testified methodology was adopted to determine melanin contents in human skin based on in vivo diffuse reflectance spectra. The rebuild diffuse reflectance spectra were investigated by adding melanin into different layers of the theoretical model. One of in vivo reflectance spectra from Junctional nevi and their surrounding normal skin was studied by compare the ratio between nevus and normal skin tissue in both the experimental and simulated diffuse reflectance spectra. The simulation result showed a good agreement with our clinical measurements, which indicated that our research method, including the spectral ratio method, skin optical model and modifying the melanin content in the model, could be applied in further theoretical simulation of pigmented skin lesions.

  18. Assessing the arsenic-contaminated rice (Oryza sativa) associated children skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Min; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential risk of children skin lesions from arsenic-contaminated rice (Oryza sativa) consumption in West Bengal (India). Published age- and gender-specific skin lesions data in West Bengal were reanalyzed and incorporated into a Weibull dose-response model to predict children skin lesion prevalence. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) levels in urine was used as a biomarker that could be predicted from a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. This study integrated arsenic contents in irrigation water, bioaccumulation factors of paddy soil, cooking methods, and arsenic bioavailability of cooked rice in gastrointestinal tract into a probabilistic risk model. Results indicated that children aged between 13 and 18 years might pose a relative higher potential risk of skin lesions to arsenic-contaminated cooked rice (odds ratios (ORs)=1.18 (95% CI 1.12-2.15)) than those of 1-6 years children (ORs=0.98 (0.85-1.40)). This study revealed the need to consider the relationships between cooking method and arsenic in cooked rice when assessing the risk associated with children skin lesions from rice consumption. This study suggested that arsenic-associated skin lesions risk from arsenic-contaminated rice consumption would be reduced significantly by adopting traditional rice cooking method (wash until clean; rice:water=1:6; discard excess water) as followed in West Bengal (India) and using water containing lower arsenic (e.g., <10 microg L(-1)) for cooking. PMID:19945215

  19. Gabor filter for the segmentation of skin lesions from ultrasonographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrella, Lorena I.; Gómez, W.; Alvarenga, André V.; Pereira, Wagner C. A.

    2012-05-01

    The present work applies Gabor filters bank for texture analysis of skin lesions images, obtained by ultrasound biomicroscopy. The regions affected by the lesions were differentiated from surrounding tissue in all the analyzed cases; however the accuracy of the traced borders showed some limitations in part of the images. Future steps are being contemplated, attempting to enhance the technique performance.

  20. Affinity cytochemistry analysis of mast cells in skin lesions: a possible tool to assess the timing of lesions after death.

    PubMed

    Bonelli, A; Bacci, S; Norelli, G A

    2003-12-01

    The histamine content in vital wounds is known to increase, with a zenith after 3 h, and then decrease until 24 h after wounding. We addressed whether this biochemical alteration has a morphological counterpart. Since the main source of skin histamine are mast cells, the distribution and number of these cells was assessed upon labeling with fluorescent avidin and with antibodies to the mast cell specific enzymes, chymase and tryptase. Analyses were performed on skin from 15 healthy controls (from surgical biopsies), from 15 post-mortem lesions and 75 vital lesions, obtained at autopsy from subjects who had survived from a few seconds to 24 h. The number of mast cells per unit area of section surface increased progressively with survival time, up to a maximum in subjects who survived 1-3 h ( p<0.01), and decreased thereafter becoming less than in the controls if lesions had occurred earlier than 6 h before death ( p<0.01). Samples from post-mortem lesions had significantly fewer mast cells than those of any other groups of samples ( p<0.01). We suggest that in association to other histological and circumstantial evidence the analysis of mast cells by affinity cytochemistry can help to discriminate vital from post-mortem lesions and to estimate survival time after lesions.

  1. Locomotion Disorders and Skin and Claw Lesions in Gestating Sows Housed in Dynamic versus Static Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Emilie-Julie; Maes, Dominiek; van Riet, Miriam M. J.; Millet, Sam; Ampe, Bart; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lameness and lesions to the skin and claws of sows in group housing are commonly occurring indicators of reduced welfare. Typically, these problems are more common in group housing than in individual housing systems. Group management type (dynamic versus static) and stage of gestation influence the behavior of the animals, which in turn influences the occurrence of these problems. The present study compared prevalence, incidence and mean scores of lameness and skin and claw lesions in static versus dynamic group housed sows at different stages of gestation during three consecutive reproductive cycles. A total of 10 Belgian sow herds were monitored; 5 in which dynamic groups and 5 in which static groups were utilized. All sows were visually assessed for lameness and skin lesions three times per cycle and the claws of the hind limbs were assessed once per cycle. Lameness and claw lesions were assessed using visual analogue scales. Static groups, in comparison with dynamic groups, demonstrated lower lameness scores (P<0.05) and decreased skin lesion prevalence (24.9 vs. 47.3%, P<0.05) at the end of gestation. There was no difference between treatment group regarding claw lesion prevalence with 75.5% of sows demonstrating claw lesions regardless of group management. Prevalences of lameness (22.4 vs. 8.9%, P<0.05) and skin lesions (46.6 vs. 4.4%, P<0.05) were highest during the group-housed phase compared to the individually housed phases. Although the prevalence of lameness and skin lesions did not differ three days after grouping versus at the end of the group-housing phase, their incidence peaked during the first three days after moving from the insemination stalls to the group. In conclusion, the first three days after grouping was the most risky period for lameness incidence, but there was no significant difference between static or dynamic group management. PMID:27680675

  2. Quantitative measure in image segmentation for skin lesion images: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nurulhuda Firdaus Mohd; Ibrahim, Mohd Hakimi Aiman; Keng, Lau Hui; Ibrahim, Nuzulha Khilwani; Sarkan, Haslina Md

    2014-12-01

    Automatic Skin Lesion Diagnosis (ASLD) allows skin lesion diagnosis by using a computer or mobile devices. The idea of using a computer to assist in diagnosis of skin lesions was first proposed in the literature around 1985. Images of skin lesions are analyzed by the computer to capture certain features thought to be characteristic of skin diseases. These features (expressed as numeric values) are then used to classify the image and report a diagnosis. Image segmentation is often a critical step in image analysis and it may use statistical classification, thresholding, edge detection, region detection, or any combination of these techniques. Nevertheless, image segmentation of skin lesion images is yet limited to superficial evaluations which merely display images of the segmentation results and appeal to the reader's intuition for evaluation. There is a consistent lack of quantitative measure, thus, it is difficult to know which segmentation present useful results and in which situations they do so. If segmentation is done well, then, all other stages in image analysis are made simpler. If significant features (that are crucial for diagnosis) are not extracted from images, it will affect the accuracy of the automated diagnosis. This paper explore the existing quantitative measure in image segmentation ranging in the application of pattern recognition for example hand writing, plat number, and colour. Selecting the most suitable segmentation measure is highly important so that as much relevant features can be identified and extracted.

  3. Non-linear laser imaging of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-07-01

    We investigated different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin samples by combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), spectral lifetime imaging (SLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE). Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor stroma, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. A score, based on the SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID), was assigned to characterize each region. We found that both BCC and surrounding dermis have a negative SAAID value, tumor stroma has a positive SAAID value, whereas fibroblastic proliferation and keloids have a SAAID value close to the unit. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM, SLIM, and MTPE. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher fluorescence response at 800 nm excitation wavelength and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed an emission spectrum similar to the corresponding healthy skin emission spectrum, and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution shifted towards shorter values. Finally, the use of aminolevulinic acid as a contrast agent has been demonstrated to increase the constrast in BCC border detection. The results obtained represent further support for in-vivo non-invasive imaging of diseased skin.

  4. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  5. Circular Excision and Purse-String Closure for Pediatric Facial Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Javier A; Greene, Arin K

    2015-07-01

    Standard resection of pediatric facial skin lesions consists of lenticular excision and linear closure. This one-stage procedure for circular lesions results in a linear scar 3 times longer than the diameter of the removed specimen. Circular excision and purse-string closure has been described for infantile hemangiomas to reduce the length of scar. The purpose of this study was to analyze the application of this technique for any type of circular facial skin lesion in the pediatric population. Records of consecutive pediatric patients with facial skin lesions treated with circular excision and purse-string closure from 2007-2014 were reviewed. Patient age, sex, type of lesion, location, and size were recorded. Number of stages necessary to remove the area and complications were analyzed. Seventy-seven children (74% female) underwent circular excision and purse-string closure for an infantile hemangioma (46%), pigmented nevus (27%), Spitz nevus (7%), pilomatrixoma (5%), pyogenic granuloma (5%), vascular malformation (4%), or another type of skin lesion (6%). Age at the time of resection was 6.0 years (range 4 months-17 years) and mean lesion area was 3.9  cm (range 0.2-19.6); 30% of patients underwent a second procedure and no infection or wound dehiscence occurred. Circular excision and purse-string closure is an effective technique to manage any type of circular skin lesion in the pediatric population. It is particularly useful for lesions on the face because it limits the length of a scar. A subset of patients may benefit from second procedure to convert the circular scar from a circle into a line.

  6. A medical ontology for intelligent web-based skin lesions image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Maragoudakis, Manolis; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2011-06-01

    Researchers have applied increasing efforts towards providing formal computational frameworks to consolidate the plethora of concepts and relations used in the medical domain. In the domain of skin related diseases, the variability of semantic features contained within digital skin images is a major barrier to the medical understanding of the symptoms and development of early skin cancers. The desideratum of making these standards machine-readable has led to their formalization in ontologies. In this work, in an attempt to enhance an existing Core Ontology for skin lesion images, hand-coded from image features, high quality images were analyzed by an autonomous ontology creation engine. We show that by exploiting agglomerative clustering methods with distance criteria upon the existing ontological structure, the original domain model could be enhanced with new instances, attributes and even relations, thus allowing for better classification and retrieval of skin lesion categories from the web.

  7. Skin lesions on common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites in the Northwest Atlantic, USA.

    PubMed

    Hart, Leslie Burdett; Rotstein, Dave S; Wells, Randall S; Allen, Jason; Barleycorn, Aaron; Balmer, Brian C; Lane, Suzanne M; Speakman, Todd; Zolman, Eric S; Stolen, Megan; McFee, Wayne; Goldstein, Tracey; Rowles, Teri K; Schwacke, Lori H

    2012-01-01

    Skin disease occurs frequently in many cetacean species across the globe; methods to categorize lesions have relied on photo-identification (photo-id), stranding, and by-catch data. The current study used photo-id data from four sampling months during 2009 to estimate skin lesion prevalence and type occurring on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites along the southeast United States coast [Sarasota Bay, FL (SSB); near Brunswick and Sapelo Island, GA (BSG); and near Charleston, SC (CHS)]. The prevalence of lesions was highest among BSG dolphins (P = 0.587) and lowest in SSB (P = 0.380), and the overall prevalence was significantly different among all sites (p<0.0167). Logistic regression modeling revealed a significant reduction in the odds of lesion occurrence for increasing water temperatures (OR = 0.92; 95%CI:0.906-0.938) and a significantly increased odds of lesion occurrence for BSG dolphins (OR = 1.39; 95%CI:1.203-1.614). Approximately one-third of the lesioned dolphins from each site presented with multiple types, and population differences in lesion type occurrence were observed (p<0.05). Lesions on stranded dolphins were sampled to determine the etiology of different lesion types, which included three visually distinct samples positive for herpesvirus. Although generally considered non-fatal, skin disease may be indicative of animal health or exposure to anthropogenic or environmental threats, and photo-id data provide an efficient and cost-effective approach to document the occurrence of skin lesions in free-ranging populations. PMID:22427955

  8. Skin Lesions on Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Three Sites in the Northwest Atlantic, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Leslie Burdett; Rotstein, Dave S.; Wells, Randall S.; Allen, Jason; Barleycorn, Aaron; Balmer, Brian C.; Lane, Suzanne M.; Speakman, Todd; Zolman, Eric S.; Stolen, Megan; McFee, Wayne; Goldstein, Tracey; Rowles, Teri K.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2012-01-01

    Skin disease occurs frequently in many cetacean species across the globe; methods to categorize lesions have relied on photo-identification (photo-id), stranding, and by-catch data. The current study used photo-id data from four sampling months during 2009 to estimate skin lesion prevalence and type occurring on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites along the southeast United States coast [Sarasota Bay, FL (SSB); near Brunswick and Sapelo Island, GA (BSG); and near Charleston, SC (CHS)]. The prevalence of lesions was highest among BSG dolphins (P = 0.587) and lowest in SSB (P = 0.380), and the overall prevalence was significantly different among all sites (p<0.0167). Logistic regression modeling revealed a significant reduction in the odds of lesion occurrence for increasing water temperatures (OR = 0.92; 95%CI:0.906–0.938) and a significantly increased odds of lesion occurrence for BSG dolphins (OR = 1.39; 95%CI:1.203–1.614). Approximately one-third of the lesioned dolphins from each site presented with multiple types, and population differences in lesion type occurrence were observed (p<0.05). Lesions on stranded dolphins were sampled to determine the etiology of different lesion types, which included three visually distinct samples positive for herpesvirus. Although generally considered non-fatal, skin disease may be indicative of animal health or exposure to anthropogenic or environmental threats, and photo-id data provide an efficient and cost-effective approach to document the occurrence of skin lesions in free-ranging populations. PMID:22427955

  9. Association between Multi-level Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water and Skin Lesions in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Ye, Xiaolei; Liu, Jun; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is one of the most important toxicants in the environment. In Inner Mongolia of China, 300,000 residents are believed to be drinking water containing >50μg/liter. Skin lesions have been known as the most common consequences resulting from chronic exposure to arsenic. To clarify the prevalence of arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is important to assess the impact of this problem among the target population, and to make future planning. We evaluated the association between multi-levels inorganic arsenic exposure from drinking water and skin lesions in an arsenic-affected area in Inner Mongolia, China. One hundred nine and 32 subjects in high (>50μg/liter) and low (<50μg/liter) arsenic-affected villages were recruited and had the detailed physical examination with special emphasis on arsenic-related skin lesions. Arsenic exposure was measured for each participant with respect to iAs concentration of primary well and the duration using the well. Arsenic-induced skin lesions including keratosis, pigmentation, and/or depigmentation were diagnosed in 56 and 3 subjects in the two villages, respectively. Logistic regression was conducted to calculate odd ratios of skin lesions associated with arsenic exposure with adjustments for sex, age group, smoking and duration of exposure. A consistent dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure level and skin lesion risk was observed. Compared to those with iAs concentration <50μg/liter, the adjusted odds ratios of skin lesions for the subjects with 51–99, 100–149 and >150μg/liter were 33.3% (OR =15.50, 95% CI: 1.53–248.70), 46.7% (OR =16.10, 95% CI: 3.73–69.63) and 55.7% (OR= 25.70, 95% CI: 6.43–102.87), respectively. Duration of using well was not associated with increased risk of skin lesions in this population; (OR =1.68, 95% CI: 0.40–6.91 for 6–15 years, OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 0.58–9.14 for over 15 years) compared with the duration of less than 5 years. PMID:16968972

  10. Confocal imaging of benign and malignant proliferative skin lesions in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Anderson, R. Rox

    1999-06-01

    Near-infrared confocal reflectance microscopy (CM) provides non- invasive real-time images of thin en-face tissue sections with high resolution and contrast. Imaging of cells, nuclei, other organelles, microvessels, and hair follicles has been possible at resolution comparable to standard histology, to a maximum depth of 250-300 μm in human skin in vivo. We have characterized psoriasis as a prototype of benign proliferative skin conditions, and non-pigmented skin malignancies in vivo based on their unstained, native histologic features using CM. Our data shows that reflectance CM may potentially diagnose and morphometrically evaluate proliferative skin lesions in vivo.

  11. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor gene variants and susceptibility of arsenic-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cordova, E J; Valenzuela, O L; Sánchez-Peña, L C; Escamilla-Guerrero, G; Hernández-Zavala, A; Orozco, L; Del Razo, L M

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important pollutant associated with various chronic-degenerative diseases. The cytoprotective protein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2) has been proposed as an important responsive mechanism against iAs exposure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of skin lesions in people exposed to iAs-contaminated water could be modified by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NRF2 coding gene. We studied 117 individuals with long-term iAs exposure and 120 nonexposed individuals. Total As was determined in water, meanwhile iAs and its metabolites were measured in urine. The iAs-induced skin lesion status was evaluated by expert dermatologists. We sequenced the promoter region of NRF2 in a sample of 120 healthy donors. We found four polymorphisms previously reported and one novel polymorphism in the 5' regulatory region of the NRF2. In this study, we did not find allelic and genotype association of NRF2 polymorphisms with iAs-related skin lesion. However, the analysis of haplotypes composed by -653GA, and -617CA NRF2 single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a significant association with protection against skin lesions in the low-As exposure group. This is the first report studying the association between NRF2 polymorphisms and susceptibility of As-related skin lesions. Increasing the sample size will allow us to confirm this data. PMID:24107458

  12. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved." PMID:25222947

  13. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor gene variants and susceptibility of arsenic-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cordova, E J; Valenzuela, O L; Sánchez-Peña, L C; Escamilla-Guerrero, G; Hernández-Zavala, A; Orozco, L; Del Razo, L M

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important pollutant associated with various chronic-degenerative diseases. The cytoprotective protein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2) has been proposed as an important responsive mechanism against iAs exposure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of skin lesions in people exposed to iAs-contaminated water could be modified by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NRF2 coding gene. We studied 117 individuals with long-term iAs exposure and 120 nonexposed individuals. Total As was determined in water, meanwhile iAs and its metabolites were measured in urine. The iAs-induced skin lesion status was evaluated by expert dermatologists. We sequenced the promoter region of NRF2 in a sample of 120 healthy donors. We found four polymorphisms previously reported and one novel polymorphism in the 5' regulatory region of the NRF2. In this study, we did not find allelic and genotype association of NRF2 polymorphisms with iAs-related skin lesion. However, the analysis of haplotypes composed by -653GA, and -617CA NRF2 single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a significant association with protection against skin lesions in the low-As exposure group. This is the first report studying the association between NRF2 polymorphisms and susceptibility of As-related skin lesions. Increasing the sample size will allow us to confirm this data.

  14. Diagnostic value of Tzanck smear in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yaeen, Atiya; Ahmad, Qazi Masood; Farhana, Anjum; Shah, Parveen; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous cytology has long been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of several erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. The Tzanck smear although an old tool, still remains a simple, rapid, easily applied, and inexpensive test for these skin lesions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Tzanck smear by determining its sensitivity and specificity in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with erosive, vesicular, and/or bullous skin lesions were included in the study. Four groups of disorders were identified: infections, immunologic disorders, genodermatosis, and spongiotic dermatitis. All the study cases were evaluated by Tzanck smear. Definitive diagnosis was established by standard diagnostic techniques (including when appropriate, viral serology, bacterial culture, histopathology, direct immunoflourescence). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytologic findings was respectively 86.36% and 91.30% for viral infections; for bacterial infections, it was 85.7% and 66.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear was respectively 85.0% and 83.33% for pemphigus; for bullous pemhigoid it was 11.11% and 100.0%. Tzanck smear sensitivity in genodermatoses was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test in spongiotic dermatitis could not be calculated due to an insufficient number of patients. Conclusion: The Tzanck smear is a quick and reliable tool for the evaluation of various erosive and vesiculobullous skin lesions. PMID:26751561

  15. Histiocytosis X revealed by diabetes insipidus and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    El Fekih, Nadia; Kamoun, Inés; Jones, Meriem; Remmeh, Soummeya; Zéglaoui, Faten; Ben Slama, Claude; Fazaa, Bécima

    2013-07-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is part of a larger group of syndromes described as histiocytoses. The disease may involve single or multiple systems including skin and nervous system. Here we report an adult case where Langerhans cell histiocytosis presented with diabetes insipidus and cutaneous ulcers.

  16. Notes from the field: outbreak of skin lesions among high school wrestlers--Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Williams, Candice; Wells, Jamie; Klein, Ronald; Sylvester, Tammy; Sunenshine, Rebecca

    2015-05-29

    Skin infections are a common problem among athletes at all levels of competition; among wrestlers, 8.5% of all adverse events are caused by skin infections. Wrestlers are at risk because of the constant skin-to-skin contact required during practice and competition. The most common infections transmitted among high school wrestlers include fungal infections (e.g., ringworm), the viral infection herpes gladiatorum caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and bacterial infections (e.g., impetigo) caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA). On February 7, 2014, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health was notified of multiple wrestlers who reported skin lesions 2 weeks after participating in a wrestling tournament at school A. The tournament was held on January 24-25 and included 168 wrestlers representing 24 schools. The county health department initiated an investigation to identify cases of skin lesion, determine lesion etiology, identify risks associated with lesion development, and provide guidance for preventing additional cases. PMID:26020140

  17. Notes from the field: outbreak of skin lesions among high school wrestlers--Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Williams, Candice; Wells, Jamie; Klein, Ronald; Sylvester, Tammy; Sunenshine, Rebecca

    2015-05-29

    Skin infections are a common problem among athletes at all levels of competition; among wrestlers, 8.5% of all adverse events are caused by skin infections. Wrestlers are at risk because of the constant skin-to-skin contact required during practice and competition. The most common infections transmitted among high school wrestlers include fungal infections (e.g., ringworm), the viral infection herpes gladiatorum caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and bacterial infections (e.g., impetigo) caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA). On February 7, 2014, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health was notified of multiple wrestlers who reported skin lesions 2 weeks after participating in a wrestling tournament at school A. The tournament was held on January 24-25 and included 168 wrestlers representing 24 schools. The county health department initiated an investigation to identify cases of skin lesion, determine lesion etiology, identify risks associated with lesion development, and provide guidance for preventing additional cases.

  18. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CAUSES OF SKIN LESIONS IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) IN THE EASTERN USA, 1975-2013.

    PubMed

    Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Allison, Andrew B; Brown, Justin D

    2016-07-01

    Skin lesions of Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) are a common cause of concern to wildlife biologists and the general public and are a frequent reason for submission to diagnostic laboratories. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the causes, occurrence, and epidemiologic patterns of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys in the eastern US. Skin lesions were diagnosed in 30% (n=199) of the 660 Wild Turkey samples submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study diagnostic service from 1975 to 2013. Avian pox was the most frequent cause of skin lesions (66%, n=131), followed by bacterial dermatitis (22%, n=44), ectoparasitism-related dermatitis (3%, n=6), fungal dermatitis (2.5%, n=5), and neoplasia (2.0%, n=4). Although the gross appearance of skin lesions is often insufficient to determine the etiology, the anatomic distribution of lesions and temporal occurrence of certain diseases may offer insights into likely causes. Cases with lesions involving or restricted to the head and neck were much more likely to be caused by avian pox than other etiologies. Similarly, lesions restricted to the feet were more likely to be of bacterial origin. Skin lesions observed in the fall and winter were more likely to be caused by avian pox, whereas bacterial dermatitis was more frequently observed in the spring and summer. This retrospective study provides a summary of the causes of skin lesions in Wild Turkeys and serves as a useful reference to diagnosticians and biologists when evaluating Wild Turkeys with skin lesions.

  19. Skin lesion metrics: role of photography in acne.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Audris; Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-04-01

    Accurate assessment of acne severity is essential for determining the appropriate treatment required. This paper reviews photographic methods for such assessment. Literature included met the following criteria: proposed photographic standards to assess acne, evaluated such standards, or offered photographic methods to improve visualization and assessment. Validity was evaluated by comparing given photographic grading methods to other methods, such as lesion counting. Many photographic standards were shown to be objective, time-efficient, and have intra-grader and inter-grader consistency. Photography also documents progress for retrospective verification. Drawbacks include not allowing determination of depth, minimization of small lesions and erythema, and difficulty in maintaining consistent settings. Fluorescence and polarized photography improve visualization beyond clinical observation alone. Advances such as computer alignment, imaging segmentation, and three-dimensional analysis methods track lesions and measure objective characteristics. The combined experience summarized here strongly promotes the use of a photographic standard in assessing acne severity. Cook's method can also be used to train and qualify graders. Photographic advancements improve accuracy of assessment by solving problems with consistent settings and depth visualization. Further advancements can improve image analysis through analysis of objective attributes.

  20. A prospective study of arsenic exposure from drinking water and incidence of skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Rathouz, Paul J; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-07-15

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000-2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1-50.0, 50.1-100.0, 100.1-200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (P(trend) = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L).

  1. Gender-specific protective effect of hemoglobin on arsenic-induced skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Breton, Carrie V; Houseman, E Andres; Kile, Molly L; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C

    2006-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning remains a public health crisis in Bangladesh. As arsenic has been shown to bind to human hemoglobin (Hb), hematologic mechanisms may play a role in the pathway through which arsenic exerts its toxicity. Two separate studies, a case-control and a cohort, were conducted to investigate the role of Hb in the development of arsenic-induced skin lesions. In the first, conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the effect of Hb on skin lesions among 900 case-control pairs from Pabna, Bangladesh, in which individuals were matched on gender, age, and location. In the second, mixed linear regression models were used to examine the association between toenail arsenic, urinary arsenic, and Hb within a cohort of 184 individuals from 50 families in the same region who did not have arsenic-induced skin lesions. Hb was significantly associated with skin lesions but this association was gender specific. In males, a 40% reduction in the odds of skin lesions occurred for every 1 g/dL increase in Hb (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.73). No effect was observed for females (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.46). In the cohort of 184 individuals, no associations between toenail arsenic or urinary arsenic species and Hb levels were observed. Low Hb levels may exacerbate the detrimental health effects of chronic arsenic poisoning. Whereas providing clean water remains the optimal solution to Bangladesh's problem of arsenic poisoning, improving nutrition and reducing iron-deficiency anemia may ameliorate negative health effects, such as skin lesions in individuals who have been exposed.

  2. Association of AS3MT polymorphisms and the risk of premalignant arsenic skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Drobna, Zuzana; Hernandez-Castellanos, Erika; Sanchez-Pena, Luz C.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Styblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-09-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic (iAs), primarily from contaminated drinking water, is considered one of the top environmental health threats worldwide. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the key enzyme in the biotransformation pathway of iAs. AS3MT catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to trivalent arsenicals, resulting in the production of methylated (MAs) and dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). MAs is a susceptibility factor for iAs-induced toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the association of the polymorphism in AS3MT gene with iAs metabolism and with the presence of arsenic (As) premalignant skin lesions. This is a case-control study of 71 cases with skin lesions and 51 controls without skin lesions recruited from a iAs endemic area in Mexico. We measured urinary As metabolites, differentiating the trivalent and pentavalent arsenical species, using the hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, the study subjects were genotyped to analyze three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), A-477G, T14458C (nonsynonymus SNP; Met287Thr), and T35587C, in the AS3MT gene. We compared the frequencies of the AS3MT alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in individuals with and without skin lesions. Marginal differences in the frequencies of the Met287Thr genotype were identified between individuals with and without premalignant skin lesions (p = 0.055): individuals carrying the C (TC+CC) allele (Thr) were at risk [odds ratio = 4.28; 95% confidence interval (1.0-18.5)]. Also, individuals with C allele of Met287Thr displayed greater percentage of MAs in urine and decrease in the percentage of DMAs. These findings indicate that Met287Thr influences the susceptibility to premalignant As skin lesions and might be at increased risk for other adverse health effects of iAs exposure.

  3. A Prospective Study of Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Incidence of Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000–2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1–50.0, 50.1–100.0, 100.1–200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (Ptrend = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L). PMID:21576319

  4. Visualization of dermal alteration in skin lesions with discoid lupus erythematosus by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. H.; Yu, H. B.; Zhu, X. Q.; Zhuo, S. M.; Wang, Y. Y.; Yang, Y. H.; Chen, J. X.

    2013-04-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic dermatological disease which lacks valid methods for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Considering the collagen and elastin disorder due to mucin deposition of DLE, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging techniques were employed to obtain high-resolution collagen and elastin images from the dermis. The content and distribution of collagen and elastin were quantified to characterize the dermal pathological status of skin lesions with DLE in comparison with normal skin. Our results showed a significant difference between skin lesions with DLE and normal skin in terms of the morphological structure of collagen and elastin in the dermis, demonstrating the possibility of MPM for noninvasively tracking the pathological process of DLE even in its early stages and evaluating the therapeutic efficacy at the molecular level.

  5. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs with and without skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Iatta, Roberta; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-03-23

    Canine Malassezia dermatitis is frequently treated with systemic ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ). However, no information is available on the antifungal susceptibility to azoles and allilamine of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from dogs with or without skin lesions. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis strains from dogs with or without skin lesions to KTZ, ITZ, miconazole (MICO), fluconazole (FLZ), posaconazole (POS), voriconazole (VOR) and terbinafine (TER) using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference Broth Microdilution Method (CLSI M27-A2). The association between the susceptibility to antifungal compounds and the origin of M. pachydermatis, from skin with or without lesions has been also assessed. A total of 62 M. pachydermatis strains from healthy dogs (i.e., Group A=30) or with skin lesions (i.e., Group B=32) were tested. ITZ, KTZ and POS showed the highest activity against M. pachydermatis strains, whereas MICO TER and FLZ the lowest. A higher number of Malassezia resistant strains were registered among isolates from Group B than those from Group A. This study indicates that M. pachydermatis strains were susceptible to ITZ, KTZ, and POS. However, dogs with lesions may harbour strains with low susceptibility to antifungal agents and displaying cross-resistance phenomena to azole. The antifungal therapy in Malassezia infections requires careful appraisal of choice of drugs especially in cases of unresponsiveness to antifungal treatment or recurrent infections. PMID:21962411

  6. Global gene expression profiling of hyperkeratotic skin lesions from inner Mongolians chronically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kathryn; Xia, Yajuan; Ward, William O; Knapp, Geremy; Mo, Jinyao; Mumford, Judy L; Owen, Russell D; Thai, Sheau-Fung

    2009-12-01

    The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic (As) exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs) are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. HKs can be precursor lesions of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), but the driving forces behind their formation and how they may ultimately progress to NMSCs are unknown. The goal of this study was to examine the global gene expression profiles of As-related HKs in an effort to better understand gene expression changes that are potentially associated with early stages of As carcinogenesis. HK biopsies were removed from individuals living in an arsenicosis-endemic region in Inner Mongolia who had been exposed to high As levels in their drinking water for >20 years. Gene expression profiling was performed on RNA isolated from 7 individuals in this group and from 4 lesion-free skin samples from healthy individuals. Consistent with the pathological characteristics of the HK lesions, major functional categories and known canonical pathways represented by altered transcripts include those involved in development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. The results of this study may help define a signature profile of gene expression changes associated with long-term As exposure in the skin.

  7. Hazards from simian herpes viruses: reactivation of skin lesions with virus shedding.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K; Tosolini, F A

    1975-03-22

    A new simian herpes virus with biological properties similar to herpes simplex and to simian "B" virus has been used as a model system for studying virus latency in dorsal root spinal sensory ganglia. Following intradermal injection, virus is present in the skin lesions and corresponding ganglia only, during the acute stage of the disease. By organ-culture techniques, latent virus was rescued from ganglia up to 2 years later. No latent virus was ever found in skin organ cultures of the primary site. Treatment with cortisone up to 18 months later reactivated virus latent in the ganglia, and virus returned to the skin where it produced small but typical herpes lesions which shed virus. Reactivation of Herpesvirus tamarinus was achieved after 28 months. This is believed to be the first report of a model system for the study of herpes latency in which skin lesions are found to recur, and provides an opportunity for more detailed investigations of the mechanisms of virus latency in man. The presumption that reactivation of skin lesions will also be possible in rhesus monkeys seropositive for "B" virus points to a possibly grave and largely unsuspected hazard for those engaged in primate research.

  8. Paeoniflorin inhibits skin lesions in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mice by downregulating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Zhang, Jie; Huo, Rongfen; Zhai, Tianhang; Li, Huidan; Wu, Pinru; Zhu, Xianjin; Zhou, Zhou; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease. It is well known that macrophages, neutrophils and T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cells play important roles in skin lesions by provoking inflammation. Paeoniflorin (PF) is the major effective component extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora, which has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis. Although PF shows a clinical therapeutic effect on psoriasis patients, how PF affects infiltrated immune cells in psoriasis skin lesions is still unknown. In this study, using a generated imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model, we found that PF ameliorates inflammation and skin lesions. Subsequent analyses showed that PF decreases the number of F4/80(+)CD68(+) macrophages and their related cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) in the skin of IMQ-challenged mice. Moreover, PF suppresses the number of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) neutrophils and the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; a counterpart of human IL-8, which is responsible for the recruitment of neutrophils in mice). Finally, PF also down-regulates Th1- and Th17-related cytokine expression. Therefore, our new findings reveal that PF alleviates psoriatic skin lesions by inhibiting inflammation, which provides new insights into the immunomodulatory effect of PF in psoriasis treatment. PMID:25576402

  9. Estimation of Fractal Dimension in Differential Diagnosis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aralica, Gorana; Milošević, Danko; Konjevoda, Paško; Seiwerth, Sven; Štambuk, Nikola

    Medical differential diagnosis is a method of identifying the presence of a particular entity (disease) within a set of multiple possible alternatives. The significant problem in dermatology and pathology is the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions, especially of dysplastic nevi. Malignant melanoma is the most malignant skin neoplasma, with increasing incidence in various parts of the world. It is hoped that the methods of quantitative pathology, i.e. morphometry, can help objectification of the diagnostic process, since early discovery of melanoma results in 10-year survival rate of 90%. The aim of the study was to use fractal dimension calculated from the perimeter-area relation of the cell nuclei as a tool for the differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. We analyzed hemalaun-eosin stained pathohistological slides of pigmented skin lesions: intradermal naevi (n = 45), dysplastic naevi (n = 47), and malignant melanoma (n = 50). It was found that fractal dimension of malignant melanoma cell nuclei differs significantly from the intradermal and dysplastic naevi (p ≤ 0. 001, Steel-Dwass Multiple Comparison Test). Additionaly, ROC analysis confirmed the value of fractal dimension based evaluation. It is suggested that the estimation of fractal dimension from the perimeter-area relation of the cell nuclei may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter in the medical differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions.

  10. Necessity of Distinguishing Verrucous Carcinoma From Verrucous Skin Lesion Overlaying Residual Skin Staples in an Area of Sensory Loss: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tokiyoshi, Takahiro; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is a condition usually induced by chronic mechanical stimulation of the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy and usually occurs at weight-bearing sites. We here present a rare case involving a man with verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy at an unusual, non–weight-bearing site. Methods: A 58-year-old man with diabetic neuropathy presented with a verrucous skin lesion overlaying residual skin staples and an amputation stump of the second metatarsal bone on the dorsal foot. Results: The biopsy findings were inconclusive and suggested the necessity of distinguishing the lesion from verrucous carcinoma. The lesion was resected, and the residual skin staples were simultaneously removed. Investigation of the excisional biopsy confirmed our diagnosis of verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy. Conclusions: Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy is often difficult to distinguish from verrucous carcinoma; in this case, the unusual location of the lesion could be attributed not only to sensory loss but also to the presence of an amputation stump and the persistence of the residual skin staples. PMID:26171095

  11. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases.

  12. Examinations on the prevalence of footpad lesions and breast skin lesions in British United Turkeys Big 6 fattening turkeys in Germany. Part I: prevalence of footpad lesions.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E; Ellerich, R; Mitterer-Istyagin, H; Ludewig, M; Fehlhaber, K; Schuster, E; Berk, J; Petermann, S; Bartels, T

    2011-03-01

    The present study demonstrates the prevalence of footpad lesions in turkeys and their level of expression in both live birds and in carcasses. In clinical investigations of 11,860 turkeys (5,740 males, 6,120 females) of the strain British United Turkeys Big 6, individuals of all the observed flocks showed alterations to the plantar skin. In general, the degree and severity of skin alterations were higher in the 16th week of life than in the 6th or 11th week of life. Epithelial necrosis, however, was already apparent in about 45% of individuals in the 6th week of life. At this point, deep lesions on the footpad surface were still rare findings. In the 11th week of life, such skin changes were apparent in 14.7% of males and 25.7% of hens. In general, the feet of male turkeys were less affected by footpad damage than those of females in the subsequent fattening period. In hens, the prevalence of lesions of the footpads at wk 16 of age was 60.0%, almost twice as high as in males of the same age group (33.8%). A comparison of the findings from the right and left feet showed that the state of the 2 extremities was correlated (Spearman correlation: r = 0.830). During the visual inspection of 16,200 slaughtered turkeys (7,800 males, 8,400 hens), almost all carcasses studied showed alterations to the footpad skin. Only 2.1% of males and 0.6% of females were without lesions. The most frequently observed lesions measured up to 2 cm in diameter (males: 59.2%; hens: 57.7%). Pronounced skin lesions of the footpad (males: 21.1%; females: 29.5%) and necrosis of the superficial epithelium (males: 17.5%; females: 12.1%) were less common. Foot abscesses were diagnosed only sporadically (males: 0.1%; females: 0.1%). PMID:21325225

  13. Detecting arsenic-related skin lesions: experiences from a large community-based survey in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Das, Chandra Shakhar; Yeasmin, Sultana; Ahmad, S K Akhtar; Sayed, M H Salim Ullah; Islam, Azm Maidul; Vahter, Marie; Persson, Lars Ake

    2007-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, to determine the prevalence of skin lesions (a three-step procedure) associated with arsenic exposure and discuss validity and feasibility in relation to recommended screening algorithms. Cases with skin lesions were identified by screening above 4 years of age (n = 166,934). Trained field teams conducted a careful house-to-house screening and identified 1682 individuals with skin lesions, who were referred to physicians for confirmation. Physicians diagnosed 579 cases as probable and documented all these with digital photographs. Two experts inspected all photographs for consensus agreement that was reached for 504 cases. Using the experts' opinions as reference, the positive predictive value of the physicians' diagnosis was 87% (male = 82% vs. female = 94%; p < 0.01). The physicians had difficulties in separating arsenic-induced keratosis from differential diagnoses, while probability for correct diagnosis was high for arsenic-related pigmentation changes. Including information on current arsenic concentration in drinking water (which was masked at time of skin examination) or urine in the diagnostic algorithm should have increased the number of false negative cases. In the present transition of drinking water sources these markers of current exposure levels provide no information on past exposure. A 2-3 step procedure with house-to-house screening and clinic-based confirmation of arsenic-induced skin lesions is a feasible approach. Information on arsenic concentration in current water sources or in urine should not have improved the precision in the diagnosis. These results may have policy implications for community screening of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh and elsewhere.

  14. Orocutaneous Fistula or Traumatic Infectious Skin Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Vermani, Mayank; Kalia, Vimal; Singh, Sumita; Garg, Sunny; Aggarwal, Shweta; Khurana, Richa; Kalra, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Orocutaneous fistula (OCF) (of dental origin) is an uncommon but well-described condition in the literature. These are often misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists. Careful selection of investigating modality is important in case of diagnostically challenging cases. A 19-year-old female came with a complaint of a lesion on the chin reported with h/o trauma with the impact on chin presented as diagnostic dilemma because of unusual case history and clinical examination. Commonly used radiographic investigations like IOPA and orthopantomograph did not resolve the dilemma whereas advanced imaging modality like CT scan, 3D volume imaging, and contrast enhanced CT played an important role in the diagnosis of OCF and selecting the treatment plan. PMID:26618009

  15. Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Adults Revealed by Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Atarguine, Hanane; Hocar, Ouafa; Oussmane, Samia; Mouafik, Sara Batoul; Hamdaoui, Abderrachid; Hafiane, Hanan; Belbaraka, Rhizlane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with no remarkable medical or family history presented with papules and vesicles on an erythematous background involving the neck, sacrum, and folds (postauricular, axillary, inguinal, and under the breasts) (Figure 1). During the previous year, she was treated with local and systemic antifungals without improvement. Her history included a secondary amenorrhea, polydipsia, and polyuria (6 L/d) that started 2 years prior. Physical examination revealed chronic bilateral purulent otorrhea with thick eardrums. Histologic examination of skin biopsy revealed a highly suggestive appearance of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with immunohistochemistry (anti-PS100 and anti-CD1a), which were positive (Figure 2A and 2B). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging showed a thickening of the pituitary stalk in relation to a location histiocytic (Figure 3). Bone gaps were objectified on two radiographic tibial diaphyseal. Results from computed tomography (CT) scan showed a magma coelio mesenteric, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:27319965

  16. Arsenic Reduction in Drinking Water and Improvement in Skin Lesions: A Follow-Up Study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kile, Molly L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Lin, Xihong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with skin lesions. However, it is not known whether reducing arsenic exposure will improve skin lesions. Objective: We evaluated the association between reduced arsenic exposures and skin lesion recovery over time. Methods: A follow-up study of 550 individuals was conducted in 2009–2011 on a baseline population of skin lesion cases (n = 900) previously enrolled in Bangladesh in 2001–2003. Arsenic in drinking water and toenails, and skin lesion status and severity were ascertained at baseline and follow-up. We used logistic regression and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to evaluate the association between log10-transformed arsenic exposure and skin lesion persistence and severity. Results: During the study period, water arsenic concentrations decreased in this population by 41% overall, and 65 individuals who had skin lesions at baseline had no identifiable lesions at follow-up. In the adjusted models, every log10 decrease in water arsenic and toenail arsenic was associated with 22% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.78] and 4.5 times (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.94, 11.1) relative increase in skin lesion recovery, respectively. In addition, lower baseline arsenic levels were significantly associated with increased odds of recovery. A log10 decrease in toenail arsenic from baseline to follow-up was also significantly associated with reduced skin lesion severity in cases over time (mean score change of –5.22 units; 95% CI: –8.61, –1.82). Conclusions: Reducing arsenic exposure increased the odds that an individual with skin lesions would recover or show less severe lesions within 10 years. Reducing arsenic exposure must remain a public health priority in Bangladesh and in other regions affected by arsenic-contaminated water. PMID:23060367

  17. Quantitative optical coherence tomography of skin lesions induced by different ultraviolet B sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Guo, Zhouyi; Zhuang, Zhengfei; Zhai, Juan; Xiong, Honglian; Zeng, Changchun

    2010-10-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) has been widely used in dermatological phototherapy. Narrowband UVB (NB-UVB), with a peak at 311 nm, is considered to be more effective than broadband UVB (BB-UVB). However, the safety of NB-UVB is controversial. In this study, we first introduced optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel, non-invasive in vivo imaging technology, to assess the effect of NB-UVB and BB-UVB on skin. Balb/c mice dorsal skin was exposed with increasing UVB doses (1MED, 3MEDs and 5MEDs), and then OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with 1310 nm central wavelength. Quantitative parameters (skin thickness, disruption of the entrance signal and correlation coefficient) were extracted from the OCT images. The data indicated that NB-UVB-induced skin lesions were similar to that of BB-UVB at 1MED or 3MEDs UVB. However, the skin tissues exposed with 5MEDs NB-UVB suffered from more lesions than BB-UVB. Furthermore, the persistence of skin inflammation in 3MEDs NB-UVB-induced skin tissues was much longer than that of BB-UVB (P = 0.004). In conclusion, optimized treatment time and frequency as well as close clinical monitoring should be undertaken to reduce the latent risk of NB-UVB phototherapy.

  18. Genotyping of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from canine healthy skin and lesional skin of atopic dermatitis in Japan, Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Koike, Anna; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Chen, Charles; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2013-07-31

    Isolates of the yeast Malassezia pachydermatis obtained from skin samples of healthy dogs and of dogs with atopic dermatitis in Japan, Taiwan and Korea were molecularly characterized using intergenic pacer 1 (IGS1) region analysis. The percentage of IGS1 subtype isolates detected in healthy skin was as follows: 1A (6%), 1B (27%), 1C (11%), 2A (6%), 2B (6%), 3A (11%), 3B (6%), 3C (3%) and 3D (24%). In contrast, the most prevalent isolates detected in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis were subtype 3D in Japan and Taiwan and subtype 3C in Korea. All subtype isolates grew well on acidic medium (pH 6). However, subtype 3C and 3D isolates grew better than the other subtype isolates on medium at pH 8. PMID:23411408

  19. Chitin nanofibrils suppress skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Ryotaro; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Nagashima, Masaaki; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of chitin nanofibril (CNF) application via skin swabs on an experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) model. AD scores were lower, and hypertrophy and hyperkeratosis of the epidermis were suppressed after CNF treatment. Furthermore, inflammatory cell infiltration in both the epidermis and dermis was inhibited. CNFs also attenuated histological scores. The suppressive effects of CNFs were equal to those of corticosteroid application; however, chitin did not show these effects. CNF application might have anti-infllammatory effects via suppression of the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In an early-stage model of experimental AD, CNFs suppressed AD progression to the same extent as corticosteroids. They also suppressed skin inflammation and IgE serum levels. Our findings indicate that CNF application could aid in the prevention or treatment of AD skin lesions. PMID:27112880

  20. Correlation Between the Evaluation of Pigmented Lesions by a Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device and the Clinical and Histological Features of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rigel, Darrell S.; Ferris, Laura; Sober, Arthur; Tucker, Natalie; Cockerell, Clay J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To correlate Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis classifier scores with histopathological severity of pigmented lesions and clinical features of melanoma. Design: Classifier scores were computed for 1,632 skin lesions. Dermatologists evaluated the same lesions for Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color variegation, Diameter >6mm, Evolution, Patient’s Concern, Regression, and/or “Ugly Duckling” sign. Classifier scores were correlated to the number of clinical risk features and for six histopathological severity levels of pigmented lesions. Measurements: Average classifier score, Welch’s t-test, and chi-square analysis. Results: Melanomas had higher mean classifier scores (3.5) than high-grade dysplastic nevi (2.7, p=0.002), low-grade dysplastic nevi (1.7, p<0.0001), non-dysplastic nevi (1.6, p<0.0001), and benign non-melanocytic lesions (2.0, p<0.0001). Classifier score and the number of clinical risk characteristics directly correlated (Pearson coefficient 0.32, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Correlation of classifier scores to clinical and histological melanoma features supports the effectiveness of Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis in assessing the risk of pigmented lesions requiring biopsy. Optimizing outcomes of dermatologist decisions to biopsy suspicious pigmented lesions may be enhanced utilizing Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis. PMID:27354886

  1. Comparative Genomic Profiling of Synovium Versus Skin Lesions in Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Belasco, Jennifer; Louie, James S; Gulati, Nicholas; Wei, Nathan; Nograles, Kristine; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To our knowledge, there is no broad genomic analysis comparing skin and synovium in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Also, there is little understanding of the relative levels of cytokines and chemokines in skin and synovium. The purpose of this study was to better define inflammatory pathways in paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue in patients with PsA. Methods We conducted a comprehensive analysis of cytokine and chemokine activation and genes representative of the inflammatory processes in PsA. Paired PsA synovial tissue and skin samples were obtained from 12 patients on the same day. Gene expression studies were performed using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Confirmatory quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on selected transcripts. Cell populations were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results Globally, gene expression in PsA synovium was more closely related to gene expression in PsA skin than to gene expression in synovium in other forms of arthritis. However, PsA gene expression patterns in skin and synovium were clearly distinct, showing a stronger interleukin-17 (IL-17) gene signature in skin than in synovium and more equivalent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-γ gene signatures in both tissues. These results were confirmed with real-time PCR. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive molecular comparison of paired lesional skin and affected synovial tissue samples in PsA. Our results support clinical trial data showing that PsA skin and joint disease are similarly responsive to TNF antagonists, while IL-17 antagonists have better results in PsA skin than in PsA joints. Genes selectively expressed in PsA synovium might direct future therapies for PsA. PMID:25512250

  2. Identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of poxvirus in skin lesions of southern right whale.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Carla; Palacios, Carlos; Golemba, Marcelo; Bratanich, Ana; Argüelles, Maria Belen; Fazio, Ana; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Lombardo, Daniel

    2015-10-16

    Poxvirus skin disease has been reported in several species of cetaceans, principally in odontocetes, and a single report in mysticetes. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis in Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, show a variety of skin lesions of unknown etiology, and the number of these lesions has increased in recent years. Samples from dead whales were taken in order to establish the etiology of these lesions. One calf and one adult presented ring-type lesions, characterized by a circumscribed and slightly raised area of skin. Lesions were histologically characterized by the presence of microvesicles and vacuolated cells in the stratum spinosum, along with hyperplasia of the stratum corneum and eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed aggregations of virions with typical poxvirus morphology. PCR of cetacean poxvirus (CPV) DNA polymerase, DNA topoisomerase I and parapoxvirus DNA polymerase gene fragments was done, and confirmed the presence of poxvirus in one sample. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected poxvirus belongs to the CPV-2 group. This is the first confirmed report of poxvirus in southern right whales in Argentina.

  3. Fibroblast-dependent induction of a murine skin lesion with similarity to human common blue nevus.

    PubMed Central

    Prouty, S. M.; Lawrence, L.; Stenn, K. S.

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to define epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in skin appendage formation, we have been studying a nude mouse grafting model that permits the combination of heterotypic and heterochronic epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this study using neonatal hair bud cells combined with various mesenchymal cell preparations, we show that one can regenerate near-complete skin with intact epidermal and dermal layers plus mature hair follicles. It was determined that the character of the resulting regenerated skin could be manipulated as a function of the specific mesenchymal component. Lack of dermal cells resulted in a scar, whereas inclusion of a suspension of dissociated total dermal cells resulted in near-complete skin regeneration, and in the presence of follicular papilla fibroblasts (both hair-inductive and non-hair-inductive) or NIH3T3 fibroblasts, the reconstitution had similarity to the common blue nevus. The results indicate that 1) a stimulant of human common blue nevus can be produced in an animal model, 2) the underlying disorder of the lesion in mice appears to be entirely dermal in origin, arising independent of the epidermal component, and 3) complex dermal cell interactions involving lesion-initiative and lesion-suppressive activities underlie the pathogenesis. This experimental system will serve as a valuable tool in elucidating cutaneous dermal-epidermal signals in normal skin as well as the alteration of these signals in malformations such as the hamartoma described here. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8669473

  4. Combining two excitation wavelengths for pulsed photothermal profiling of hypervascular lesions in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaron, Boris; Verkruysse, Wim; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Milner, Thomas E.; Telenkov, Sergey A.; Goodman, Dennis M.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-07-01

    When pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) is used for depth profiling of hypervascular lesions in human skin, melanin absorption also heats the most superficial skin layer (epidermis). Determination of lesion depth may be difficult when it lies close to the epidermal-dermal junction, due to PPTR's limited spatial resolution. To overcome this problem, we have developed an approximation technique, which uses two excitation wavelengths (585 and 600 nm) to separate the vascular and epidermal components of the PPTR signal. This technique permits a noninvasive determination of lesion depth and epidermal thickness in vivo, even when the two layers are in close physical proximity to each other. Such information provides the physician with guidance in selecting the optimal parameters for laser therapy on an individual patient basis.

  5. Segmentation of skin lesion using Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau biorthogonal wavelet.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Shehzad; Jamil, Uzma; Saleem, Kashif; Akram, M Usman; Manzoor, Waleed; Ahmed, Waqas; Sohail, Amina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for segmentation of skin lesion in dermoscopic images based on wavelet transform along with morphological operations. The acquired dermoscopic images may include artifacts inform of gel, dense hairs and water bubble which make accurate segmentation more challenging. We have also embodied an efficient approach for artifacts removal and hair inpainting, to enhance the overall segmentation results. In proposed research, color space is also analyzed and selection of blue channel for lesion segmentation have confirmed better performance than techniques which utilizes gray scale conversion. We tackle the problem by finding the most suitable mother wavelet for skin lesion segmentation. The performance achieved with 'bior6.8' Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau biorthogonal wavelet is found to be superior as compared to other wavelet family. The proposed methodology achieves 93.87 % accuracy on dermoscopic images of PH2 dataset acquired at Dermatology Service of Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos, Portugal. PMID:27652176

  6. Intakes of several nutrients are associated with incidence of arsenic-related keratotic skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-12-01

    Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond.

  7. Intakes of Several Nutrients Are Associated with Incidence of Arsenic-Related Keratotic Skin Lesions in Bangladesh12

    PubMed Central

    Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-01-01

    Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23077185

  8. Skin lesion removal: practice by general practitioners in Grampian Region before and after April 1990.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Kernohan, N M; Smart, L M; Savargaonkar, P; Atkinson, P; Robinson, S; Russell, D; Kerr, K M

    1992-10-01

    The introduction of new GP contracts in April 1990 incorporated a financial incentive to undertake minor surgical procedures. Previous reports have noted large increases in the number of GP-derived skin specimens after April 1990. Our present study intended to address whether similar changes have occurred in Grampian Region as well as, more specifically, noting whether there have been changes in the quality of practice following the 1st April 1990. A retrospective study of skin biopsies removed by general practitioners in Grampian Region was undertaken. Cases were selected from four periods of six months (1st April to end of September) in 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990. All skin specimens sent by general practitioners to the Department of Pathology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, were included. Following April 1990 there was a two-fold increase in skin specimen numbers--an increase significantly greater than increases observed over previous years (p < 0.01). Of particular note was the contribution made to this increase by Aberdeen City GPs whose contribution rose five-fold (p < 0.0001). Non-benign lesions (ie malignant plus carcinoma-in-situ-) represented 6% of lesions excised. A non-benign clinical diagnosis or an indication of suspicion was written on only one third of request forms for histopathologically diagnosed non-benign lesions. The proportion of histologically incompletely excised lesions rose over the four years (p < 0.01); moreover the increase in total numbers of lesions resulted in a striking increase in the actual numbers of incompletely excised lesions after April 1990.

  9. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Skin Lesions Using Conventional Digital Photography: A Reliability and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Adam; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yin-Chun; Wu, Tian-Yau; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) software that provides a second opinion has been widely used to assist physicians with various tasks. In dermatology, however, CADx has been mostly limited to melanoma or melanocytic skin cancer diagnosis. The frequency of non-melanocytic skin cancers and the accessibility of regular digital macrographs have raised interest in developing CADx for broader applications. Objectives To investigate the feasibility of using CADx to diagnose both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions based on conventional digital photographic images. Methods This study was approved by an institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. In total, 769 conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions were retrospectively reviewed and used to develop a CADx system. Conventional and new color-related image features were developed to classify the lesions as benign or malignant using support vector machines (SVMs). The performance of CADx was compared with that of dermatologists. Results The clinicians' overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.33%, 85.88%, and 85.31%, respectively. New color correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) features improved the classification ability of the baseline CADx (p = 0.001). The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) of the proposed CADx system was 0.949, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.63% and 87.65%, respectively, and a maximum accuracy of 90.64%. Conclusions We have developed an effective CADx system to classify both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions using conventional digital macrographs. The system's performance was similar to that of dermatologists at our institute. Through improved feature extraction and SVM analysis, we found that conventional digital macrographs were feasible for providing useful information for CADx applications. The new color

  10. The microbiological signature of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions exhibits restricted bacterial diversity compared to healthy skin

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Vanessa R; de Queiroz, Artur TL; Sanabani, Sabri S; de Oliveira, Camila I; Carvalho, Edgar M; Costa, Jackson ML; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most common form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by single or multiple painless chronic ulcers, which commonly presents with secondary bacterial infection. Previous culture-based studies have found staphylococci, streptococci, and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in LCL lesions, but there have been no comparisons to normal skin. In addition, this approach has strong bias for determining bacterial composition. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacterial communities in LCL lesions differ from those found on healthy skin (HS). Using a high throughput amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for better populational evaluation due to greater depth coverage and the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline, we compared the microbiological signature of LCL lesions with that of contralateral HS from the same individuals.Streptococcus, Staphylococcus,Fusobacterium and other strict or facultative anaerobic bacteria composed the LCL microbiome. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria found in HS, including environmental bacteria, were significantly decreased in LCL lesions (p < 0.01). This paper presents the first comprehensive microbiome identification from LCL lesions with next generation sequence methodology and shows a marked reduction of bacterial diversity in the lesions. PMID:27074253

  11. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Methods Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Results Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In

  12. MSIM: multistage illumination modeling of dermatological photographs for illumination-corrected skin lesion analysis.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Jeffrey; Amelard, Robert; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A

    2013-07-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer and it is costly for dermatologists to screen every patient for melanoma. There is a need for a system to assess the risk of melanoma based on dermatological photographs of a skin lesion. However, the presence of illumination variation in the photographs can have a negative impact on lesion segmentation and classification performance. A novel multistage illumination modeling algorithm is proposed to correct the underlying illumination variation in skin lesion photographs. The first stage is to compute an initial estimate of the illumination map of the photograph using a Monte Carlo nonparametric modeling strategy. The second stage is to obtain a final estimate of the illumination map via a parametric modeling strategy, where the initial nonparametric estimate is used as a prior. Finally, the corrected photograph is obtained using the final illumination map estimate. The proposed algorithm shows better visual, segmentation, and classification results when compared to three other illumination correction algorithms, one of which is designed specifically for lesion analysis.

  13. Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

  14. Virus-associated papillomatous skin lesions in a giant guitarfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Camus, Alvin; Dill, Jennifer; McDermott, Alexa; Camus, Melinda; Fan Ng, Terry Fei

    2016-01-13

    Although elasmobranch species are increasingly displayed in public aquaria, knowledge of disease in wild and captive elasmobranchs, as well as the agents involved, remains limited, and descriptions are often incomplete. This report describes papillomatous skin lesions in a juvenile giant guitarfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis associated with intranuclear viral particles. Skin biopsies were collected from multiple, friable, raised, villonodular skin lesions affecting pigmented and non-pigmented skin of the caudal fin and ventrum, respectively. Microscopic examination revealed papillary proliferation of the epidermis, with widespread marked karyomegaly of squamous epithelial cells. In approximately 75% of nuclei, chromatin was marginated by one to multiple, large, amphophilic inclusions. Large numbers of unencapsulated, 75 nm, icosahedral viral particles were observed to form large arrays in affected nuclei using transmission electron microscopy. Based on intranuclear location, particle size and morphology, a consensus nested-PCR for adenovirus polymerase was attempted. However, no adenoviral gene sequence was amplified. The nature of the involved virus remains unknown and an ongoing area of investigation. Lesions regressed completely over a 6 mo period, during which time the animal showed no signs of systemic illness, and there has been no recrudescence for 6 mo following resolution. Two cohorts of similar age and in close contact with the case animal were unaffected. PMID:26758659

  15. Virus-associated papillomatous skin lesions in a giant guitarfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Camus, Alvin; Dill, Jennifer; McDermott, Alexa; Camus, Melinda; Fan Ng, Terry Fei

    2016-01-13

    Although elasmobranch species are increasingly displayed in public aquaria, knowledge of disease in wild and captive elasmobranchs, as well as the agents involved, remains limited, and descriptions are often incomplete. This report describes papillomatous skin lesions in a juvenile giant guitarfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis associated with intranuclear viral particles. Skin biopsies were collected from multiple, friable, raised, villonodular skin lesions affecting pigmented and non-pigmented skin of the caudal fin and ventrum, respectively. Microscopic examination revealed papillary proliferation of the epidermis, with widespread marked karyomegaly of squamous epithelial cells. In approximately 75% of nuclei, chromatin was marginated by one to multiple, large, amphophilic inclusions. Large numbers of unencapsulated, 75 nm, icosahedral viral particles were observed to form large arrays in affected nuclei using transmission electron microscopy. Based on intranuclear location, particle size and morphology, a consensus nested-PCR for adenovirus polymerase was attempted. However, no adenoviral gene sequence was amplified. The nature of the involved virus remains unknown and an ongoing area of investigation. Lesions regressed completely over a 6 mo period, during which time the animal showed no signs of systemic illness, and there has been no recrudescence for 6 mo following resolution. Two cohorts of similar age and in close contact with the case animal were unaffected.

  16. Arsenic metabolism, genetic susceptibility, and risk of premalignant skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Slavkovich, Vesna; Parvez, Faruque; Jasmine, Farzana; Gamble, Mary V; Graziano, Joseph H

    2007-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate interindividual variability in susceptibility to health effects of inorganic arsenic due to arsenic metabolism efficiency, genetic factors, and their interaction. A total of 594 cases of arsenic-induced skin lesions and 1,041 controls was selected from baseline participants in a large prospective cohort study in Bangladesh. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for skin lesions were estimated in relation to the polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase omega1 and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes, the percentage of monomethylarsonous acid (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (%DMA) in urine, and the ratios of MMA to inorganic arsenic and DMA to MMA. Water arsenic concentration was positively associated with %MMA and inversely associated with %DMA. The dose-response relationship of risk of skin lesion with %MMA was more apparent than those with other methylation indices; the ORs for skin lesions in relation to increasing %MMA quartiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.92-1.93], 1.68 (95% CI, 1.17-2.42), and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.10-2.26; P for trend = 0.01). The ORs for skin lesions in relation to the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT/1298AA and 677CT/1298AA diplotypes (compared with 677CC/1298CC diplotype) were 1.66 (95% CI, 1.00-2.77) and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.61-5.14), respectively. The OR for skin lesions in relation to the glutathione S-transferase omega1 diplotype containing all at-risk alleles was 3.91 (95% CI, 1.03-14.79). Analysis of joint effects of genotypes/diplotypes with water arsenic concentration and urinary %MMA suggests additivity of these factors. The findings suggest that arsenic metabolism, particularly the conversion of MMA to DMA, may be saturable and that differences in urinary arsenic metabolites, genetic factors related to arsenic metabolism, and their joint distributions modulate arsenic toxicity.

  17. Endothelin-1 levels are increased in sera and lesional skin extracts of psoriatic patients and correlate with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Bonifati, C; Mussi, A; Carducci, M; Pittarello, A; D'Auria, L; Venuti, A; Bagnato, A; Salani, D; Fazio, M; Ameglio, F

    1998-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs), in addition to their systematical activities, exert important functions at the skin level, such as increase of keratinocyte proliferation, neo-angiogenesis and leukocyte chemotaxis, which are among the main characteristics of psoriasis. To assess a possible ET-1 involvement in plaque-type psoriasis, ET-1 determinations were carried out in 15 sera and 8 lesional and non-lesional biopsy skin extracts from psoriatic patients and in 15 sera and 5 biopsy skin extracts from healthy volunteers, sex- and age-matched, using commercially available ELISA kits. A statistical analysis of the results showed that ET-1 levels were increased in sera of psoriatic patients, as compared to normal subjects (p = 0.04). In addition, there was a significant correlation between both serum (r = 0.60, p = 0.02) and lesional skin (r = 0.80, p = 0.03) ET-1 values versus the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores. Significant increases of the lesional versus the non-lesional (p = 0.01) and versus the normal (p = 0.04) ET-1 skin extract values were observed, together with a significant correlation between lesional and non-lesional ET-1 skin levels (r = 0.79, p = 0.03). These findings were also confirmed at the mRNA level, using RT-PCR analysis, where increased ET-1 mRNA levels, densitometrically measured, were found in the lesional samples versus non-lesional and normal skin. Since interleukin-8 is involved in psoriasis and shares some biological properties with ET-1, we further evaluated the levels of this cytokine in skin extracts. The behaviour of interleukin-8 paralleled that of ET-1, and a significant correlation between these two molecules was observed in the lesional skin (r = 0.76, p = 0.05). Taken together, these data stress that, as previously described for interleukin-8, ET-1 may be involved in inflammatory processes associated with psoriasis.

  18. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies. PMID:26872778

  19. Novel Approaches for Diagnosing Melanoma Skin Lesions Through Supervised and Deep Learning Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Premaladha, J; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-04-01

    Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma. Enhancement of the images are done using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique (CLAHE) and median filter. A new segmentation algorithm called Normalized Otsu's Segmentation (NOS) is implemented to segment the affected skin lesion from the normal skin, which overcomes the problem of variable illumination. Fifteen features are derived and extracted from the segmented images are fed into the proposed classification techniques like Deep Learning based Neural Networks and Hybrid Adaboost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. The proposed system is tested and validated with nearly 992 images (malignant & benign lesions) and it provides a high classification accuracy of 93 %. The proposed CAD system can assist the dermatologists to confirm the decision of the diagnosis and to avoid excisional biopsies.

  20. Familial tyrosinaemia with eye and skin lesions. Presentation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, A M; Borgogni, P; Farnetani, M A; Fois, A; Frezzotti, R; Mattei, R; Molinelli, M; Sargentini, I

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of tyrosinaemia with eye and skin lesions typical of the Richner-Hanhart syndrome are described. The patients are a 29- and 26-year-old brother and sister. They do not show neurological abnormalities or mental retardation. Parents are not consanguineous and family history is negative for similar conditions. The diagnosis of type II tyrosinaemia was based upon an increase of blood tyrosine (14-16mg/100 ml), tyrosinuria and absence of liver and kidney abnormalities. The treatment with a low tyrosine phenylalanine diet has resulted in a disappearence of the ocular manifestations while the cutaneous lesions are much improved.

  1. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed. PMID:24724463

  2. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  3. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  4. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination.

  5. Extraction of ABCD rule features from skin lesions images with smartphone.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Luís; Castro, Rui; Ferreira, Liliana; Ferreira, Márcia

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in dermatology today is the early detection of melanoma since the success rates of curing this type of cancer are very high if detected during the early stages of its development. The main objective of the work presented in this paper is to create a prototype of a patient-oriented system for skin lesion analysis using a smartphone. This work aims at implementing a self-monitoring system that collects, processes, and stores information of skin lesions through the automatic extraction of specific visual features. The selection of the features was based on the ABCD rule, which considers 4 visual criteria considered highly relevant for the detection of malignant melanoma. The algorithms used to extract these features are briefly described and the results achieved using images taken from the smartphone camera are discussed.

  6. A quantitative analysis of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria; de França, Emmanuel Rodrigues; Magalhães, Marcelo; Lins, Ana Kelly; Brandão, Laura Costa; Magalhães, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of progressive macular hypomelanosis, although it has been suggested that Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role. While microbiological culture is commonly employed to identify Propionibacterium acnes, new identification methods have been under investigation, amongst them polymerase chain reaction. To determine the cut-off point for the number of genome copies of Propionibacterium acnes in the lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis as a positive marker, employing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and anaerobic culture, considered gold standard. An observational study with a comparison group, included 35 patients with dermatosis, attended at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil, between March and May 2008. Lesional skin was compared to non-lesional skin through positive testing with real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 12.0, was employed for the association analysis with the McNemar test, and the cut-off point with the ROC curve for maximum values. Propionibacterium acnes was most frequently encountered in lesional areas (p<0,025). The cut-off point of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional skin was 1,333 genome copies, with a sensitivity of 87,9% and a specificity of 100,0%. Since Propionibacterium acnes is a saprophyte, identifying the cut-off point may assist in determining its positivity in lesional skin in patients suffering with this dermatosis. PMID:24031649

  7. Noninvasive Real-Time Automated Skin Lesion Analysis System for Melanoma Early Detection and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Barkana, Buket D.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma spreads through metastasis, and therefore, it has been proved to be very fatal. Statistical evidence has revealed that the majority of deaths resulting from skin cancer are as a result of melanoma. Further investigations have shown that the survival rates in patients depend on the stage of the cancer; early detection and intervention of melanoma implicate higher chances of cure. Clinical diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma are challenging, since the processes are prone to misdiagnosis and inaccuracies due to doctors’ subjectivity. Malignant melanomas are asymmetrical, have irregular borders, notched edges, and color variations, so analyzing the shape, color, and texture of the skin lesion is important for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. This paper proposes the two major components of a noninvasive real-time automated skin lesion analysis system for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. The first component is a real-time alert to help users prevent skinburn caused by sunlight; a novel equation to compute the time for skin to burn is thereby introduced. The second component is an automated image analysis module, which contains image acquisition, hair detection and exclusion, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. The proposed system uses PH2 Dermoscopy image database from Pedro Hispano Hospital for the development and testing purposes. The image database contains a total of 200 dermoscopy images of lesions, including benign, atypical, and melanoma cases. The experimental results show that the proposed system is efficient, achieving classification of the benign, atypical, and melanoma images with accuracy of 96.3%, 95.7%, and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:27170906

  8. Noninvasive monitoring of photodynamic therapy on skin neoplastic lesions using the optical attenuation coefficient measured by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Viviane P.; dos Santos, Moisés O.; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment.

  9. Widespread atypical vascular lesions of the skin after whole-body electron beam therapy: expanding the clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Werner

    2013-02-01

    Atypical vascular lesion of the skin is an uncommon usually benign condition, thus far reported almost exclusively from mammary skin after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Some clinical and histological overlap exists with early angiosarcoma, which can also occur on irradiated skin. The lesions are divided into vascular and lymphatic types, the first representing a higher risk for development of angiosarcoma and the latter being more common. This article reports a rare case of widespread, progressive, vascular-type atypical vascular lesion after repeated whole-body electron beam irradiation administered as treatment for mycosis fungoides.

  10. CHILD syndrome with mild skin lesions: histopathologic clues for the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Susanne; Rütten, Arno; Requena, Luis; Gassenmaier, Gerhard; Landthaler, Michael; Hafner, Christian

    2014-10-01

    CHILD syndrome is an acronym signifying congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects. A 27-year-old woman presented with chronic verrucous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions involving the left genital area, left hand and left foot since childhood. The histopathologic findings were consistent with verruciform xanthoma. In correlation with the clinical picture of a linear lesion, the diagnosis of CHILD nevus was made. Subsequent genetic analysis identified a germline c.324C>T (p.A105V) NSDHL mutation and confirmed a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome. This syndrome can be associated with only minimal clinical symptoms. The anatomical distribution of the lesions, a static clinical course and the typical histopathologic features of a CHILD nevus can serve as the clue to a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome in such cases. PMID:25093865

  11. The impact of diet and betel nut use on skin lesions associated with drinking-water arsenic in Pabna, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Kathleen M; Houseman, E Andres; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Smith, Thomas; Ryan, Louise; Christiani, David C

    2006-03-01

    An established exposure-response relationship exists between water arsenic levels and skin lesions. Results of previous studies with limited historical exposure data, and laboratory animal studies suggest that diet may modify arsenic metabolism and toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of diet on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Pabna, Bangladesh. Six hundred cases and 600 controls loosely matched on age and sex were enrolled at Dhaka Community Hospital, Bangladesh, in 2001-2002. Diet, demographic data, and water samples were collected. Water samples were analyzed for arsenic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Betel nut use was associated with a greater risk of skin lesions in a multivariate model [odds ratio (OR) = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.36]. Modest decreases in risk of skin lesions were associated with fruit intake 1-3 times/month (OR = 0.68; 95%CI, 0.51-0.89) and canned goods at least 1 time/month (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20-0.86). Bean intake at least 1 time/day (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.11-3.22) was associated with increased odds of skin lesions. Betel nut use appears to be associated with increased risk of developing skin lesions in Bangladesh. Increased intake of fruit and canned goods may be associated with reduced risk of lesions. Increased intake of beans may be associated with an increased risk of skin lesions. The results of this study do not provide clear support for a protective effect of vegetable and overall protein consumption against the development of skin lesions, but a modest benefit cannot be excluded.

  12. Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice.

    PubMed

    Overk, C R; Perez, S E; Ma, C; Taves, M D; Soma, K K; Mufson, E J

    2013-02-01

    Decreases in testosterone and 17β-oestradiol (E(2)) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in β-amyloid and tau pathological lesions. Although recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, almost none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in testosterone and E(2) concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and nontransgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain testosterone levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (IR) cell number in the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal testosterone levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau up-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E(2) levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-IR cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Furthermore, E(2) levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E(2). Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

  13. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( < 0.001). Regarding claw disorders, both parameters "heel overgrowth and erosion" (difference of 4.6 ± 1.8 mm; = 0.01) and "heel-sole crack" (difference of 3.1 ± 1.5 mm; = 0.04) scores were better for sows on rubber flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; < 0.001) had better scores on rubber flooring. No differences for skin lesions were observed between floor treatments. The improved scores

  14. Well water arsenic exposure, arsenic induced skin-lesions and self-reported morbidity in Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yajuan; Wade, Timothy J; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; He, Xingzhou; Chen, Binfei; Feng, Yong; Mumford, Judy L

    2009-03-01

    Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years, but relatively few studies have investigated health effects in this region. We surveyed one village to document exposure to arsenic and assess the prevalence of arsenic-associated skin lesions and self-reported morbidity. Five-percent (632) of the 12,334 residents surveyed had skin lesions characteristics of arsenic exposure. Skin lesions were strongly associated with well water arsenic and there was an elevated prevalence among residents with water arsenic exposures as low as 5 microg/L-10 microg/L. The presence of skin lesions was also associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease.

  15. INDUCTION OF CARDIAC LESIONS, CLOSELY RESEMBLING THOSE OF RHEUMATIC FEVER, IN RABBITS FOLLOWING REPEATED SKIN INFECTIONS WITH GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, George E.; Swift, Homer F.

    1949-01-01

    Cardiac lesions, closely resembling those found in rheumatic fever, have developed in rabbits that sickened following multiple, successive skin infections with several serological types of group A streptococci. PMID:18129867

  16. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, Nida F; Kazi, Tasneem G; Wadhwa, Sham K; Afridi, Hassan I; Baig, Jameel A; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p>0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p<0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p<0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies.

  17. Nutritional factors and susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin lesions in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Soma R; Mazumder, D N Guha; Basu, Arindam; Block, Gladys; Haque, Reina; Samanta, Sambit; Ghosh, Nilima; Smith, Meera M Hira; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Smith, Allan H

    2004-07-01

    There has been widespread speculation about whether nutritional deficiencies increase the susceptibility to arsenic health effects. This is the first study to investigate whether dietary micronutrient and macronutrient intake modulates the well-established human risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions, including alterations in skin pigmentation and keratoses. The study was conducted in West Bengal, India, which along with Bangladesh constitutes the largest population in the world exposed to arsenic from drinking water. In this case-control study design, cases were patients with arsenic-induced skin lesions and had < 500 microg/L arsenic in their drinking water. For each case, an age- and sex-matched control was selected from participants of a 1995-1996 cross-sectional survey, whose drinking water at that time also contained < 500 microg/L arsenic. Nutritional assessment was based on a 24-hr recall for major dietary constituents and a 1-week recall for less common constituents. Modest increases in risk were related to being in the lowest quintiles of intake of animal protein [odds ratio (OR) = 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-3.59], calcium (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.43), fiber (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.15-4.21), and folate (OR = 1.67; 95% CI, 0.87-3.2). Conditional logistic regression suggested that the strongest associations were with low calcium, low animal protein, low folate, and low fiber intake. Nutrient intake was not related to arsenic exposure. We conclude that low intake of calcium, animal protein, folate, and fiber may increase susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin lesions. However, in light of the small magnitude of increased risks related to these dietary deficiencies, prevention should focus on reducing exposure to arsenic.

  18. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  19. Interleukin-6 receptor alpha blockade improves skin lesions in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Birner, Peter; Heider, Susanne; Petzelbauer, Peter; Wolf, Peter; Kornauth, Christoph; Kuroll, Madeleine; Merkel, Olaf; Steiner, Günter; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Rose-John, Stefan; Soleiman, Afschin; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) and immunocomplexes, commonly affecting kidneys, skin, heart, lung or even the brain. We have shown that JunB(Δep) mice develop a SLE phenotype linked to increased epidermal Interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. Blocking of IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα) is considered as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SLE. JunB(Δep) and wild-type mice were treated for short (5 weeks) or long term (21 weeks) with the IL-6Rα-blocking antibody MR16-1. Skin and kidney of mice were investigated by histology and immunofluorescence, and in addition, kidneys were analysed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), antihistone and antinucleosome antibodies levels were measured and associated with disease parameters. Treatment with MR16-1 resulted in significant improvement of SLE-like skin lesions in JunB(Δep) mice, compared to untreated mice. The sIL-6R amount upon long-term treatment with MR16-1 was significantly higher in JunB(Δep) versus untreated JunB(Δep) (P = 0.034) or wild-type mice (P = 0.034). MR16-1 treatment over these time spans did not significantly improve kidney pathology of immunoglobulin deposits causing impaired function. Significantly higher antihistone (P = 0.028) and antinucleosome antibody levels (P = 0.028) were measured in MR16-1-treated JunB(Δep) mice after treatment compared to levels before therapy. In conclusion, blockade of IL-6Rα improves skin lesions in a murine SLE model, but does not have a beneficial effect on autoimmune-mediated kidney pathology. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling might be helpful in lupus cases with predominant skin involvement, but combinatorial treatment might be required to restrain autoantibodies. PMID:26739431

  20. The association of anti-annexin1 antibodies with the occurrence of skin lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Z; Shi, Z-R; Tan, G-Z; Yin, J; Wu, J; Mi, X-B; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Anti-annexin1 antibodies are associated with the subtypes of cutaneous lupus and are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation of this antibody with the incidence of SLE skin lesions. The presence of anti-annexin1-IgG and-IgM determined by Western blot was no different among healthy controls and SLE patients with and without skin lesions. Serum levels of anti-annexin1-IgG and -IgM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were comparable between patients with and without skin lesions, whereas anti-annexin1-IgM was lower in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Annexin1 was abundantly detected in each epidermal layer in lupus lesional skin. Additionally, anti-annexin1-IgG was higher in SLE patients with arthritis and negatively correlated with white blood cells (WBC). Anti-annexin1-IgM was higher in patients with antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive sera, and was positively related to hemoglobin and total serum IgM. Collectively, anti-annexin1 antibodies are not related to the incidence of skin lesions in SLE, and annexin1 abundantly distributes in epidermis in lesional skin.

  1. Quality of life in patients with leg ulcers or skin lesions – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mościcka, Paulina; Jawień, Arkadiusz; Cwajda-Białasik, Justyna; Cierzniakowska, Katarzyna; Ślusarz, Robert; Hancke, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Attempts to determine the quality of life are advisable in patients with ulcers as the group affected with this problem is relatively large. According to one Polish randomized trial, approximately 0.3–2% of the adult population suffers from active or healed venous ulcers. Aim To compare the quality of life of patients with leg ulcers of venous and arterial etiology and those with lower limb skin lesions due to chronic venous insufficiency. Material and methods This study included 90 consecutive patients with ulcers of venous (n = 30) or arterial etiology (n = 30), or patients with trophic disorders of the skin associated with chronic venous insufficiency (n = 30) treated at the Venous Ulceration Outpatient Clinic and at the Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Dr. J. Biziel Memorial University Hospital No. 2, in Bydgoszcz. This study was designed as a questionnaire survey and included the Skindex-29 instrument for the assessment of quality of life in patients with dermatological conditions. Results Overall, the global Skinndex-29 scores of all studied participants ranged between 37 and 136 points, 23.93 points on average. The analyzed groups of patients differed significantly with respect to the average level of the global quality of life determined using the Skindex-29 questionnaire. Conclusions Significant differences were observed in the global quality of life of patients who suffered from venous or arterial leg ulcers or skin lesions resulting from chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:26755912

  2. Sun exposure related methylation in malignant and non-malignant skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka G; Moore, Angela Yen; Li, Lin; Padar, Asha; Majmudar, Kuntal; Stastny, Victor; Makarla, Prakash; Suzuki, Makoto; Minna, John D; Feng, Ziding; Gazdar, Adi F

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the aberrant promoter methylation status of 12 genes in skin lesions, both malignant (basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), n=68 and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), n=35) and non-malignant (tags, n=58) skin lesions and compared the results of lesions from sun exposed (SE) and sun protected (SP) regions. Methylation was studied using a methylation specific PCR (MSP) and methylation of CDH1 was also measured using a semi-quantitative fluorescence based real-time MSP method. The methylation index (MI) was calculated as the methylated fraction of the genes examined. In this report, we found high frequencies of methylation of several known or suspected tumor suppressor genes in tags and skin cancers. Among the 12 genes, for the cadherin genes CDH1 and CDH3 and for two of the laminin 5 encoding genes LAMA3 and LAMC2 methylation frequencies greater than 30% were noted in one or more specimen types. We investigated whether methylation was tumor related. Surprisingly, the differences in the methylation profile of genes among the three specimen types were modest, and the MI, indicators of overall methylation frequencies, was nearly identical. However, significant differences were noted in the frequencies of methylation among the three specimen types for the genes RASSF1A (P=0.002), CDH1 (P=0.007) and one or more of three CAD genes (P=0.02). Methylation was highly significantly related to sun exposure, and sun protected specimens had little or no methylation. As methylation of CDH1 was completely SE specific we analyzed all the skin samples using a semi-quantitative real-time PCR assay for the CDH1 gene. The concordance between standard MSP and real-time MSP for all the samples (n=161) was 75% (P<0.0001). While weak signals were detected in the SP samples by real time PCR, the differences between SE and SP specimens were 148 fold for tags and 390 fold for BCCs. These differences were highly significant (P<0.0001). These findings suggest that methylation commences in

  3. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms. PMID:27065570

  4. A pathway-based analysis of urinary arsenic metabolites and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kile, Molly L; Hoffman, Elaine; Rodrigues, Ema G; Breton, Carrie V; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Christiani, David C

    2011-04-01

    Inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Limited evidence suggests that the ability to fully metabolize arsenic into DMA influences susceptibility to disease. To determine whether percentage of MMA was predictive of disease, the authors used data from a case-control study conducted in Bangladesh (2001-2003). Persons who were diagnosed with keratosis, melanosis, Bowen's disease, or squamous cell carcinoma were matched on age, sex, and village to persons without these conditions. This analysis was restricted to persons who had no missing data on covariates (859 cases, 868 controls). A path analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the association between the percentage of all urinary arsenic metabolites and the odds of skin lesions using PROC CALIS in SAS, version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina) and Mplus, version 6.1 (Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, California). The odds of skin lesions were significantly associated with log(10) percentage of MMA (adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj)) = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 2.12) but not log(10) percentage of inorganic arsenic (OR(adj) = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.50) or log(10) percentage of DMA (OR(adj) = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.33, 3.46). This novel analysis confirmed that persons who excrete a higher proportion of MMA have a greater risk of skin lesions after data are adequately controlled for urinary arsenic metabolites, current arsenic exposure, and other risk factors.

  5. Combined immunological and histochemical analysis of skin and lymph node lesions in histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J A; Janossy, G; Chilosi, M; Pritchard, J; Pincott, J R

    1982-01-01

    The immunological phenotype of the cells involved in skin and lymph node lesions from two cases of histiocytosis X (H-X) were analysed by immunofluorescence techniques using combinations of heterologous and monoclonal antisera to Ia-like antigen and human cortical thymocyte (HTA-1) determinant. These cells were also characterised by a new technique using simultaneous immunofluorescence and enzyme histochemistry for acid phosphatase (ACPase). The major cell type in the lesions was found to express the same Ia+, HTA-1+ phenotype as normal epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) and was unreactive for ACPase. Additional cell types included Ia-, HTA-1- multinucleate giant cells and residual lymphoid populations. These findings endorse previous concepts that H-X is a proliferation of abnormal LC and emphasise the heterogeneous nature of the cells involved in the disease. Images PMID:6175664

  6. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    PubMed

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-01

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons > or = 15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  7. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    SciTech Connect

    Fatmi, Zafar; Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar

    2009-07-15

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further

  8. Association of NALP2 polymorphism with arsenic induced skin lesions and other health effects.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Das, Nandana; Chatterjee, Debmita; Banerjee, Anirban; Das, Jayanta K; Basu, Santanu; Banerjee, Saptarshi; Majumder, Papia; Goswami, Prashant; Giri, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of arsenic-laden water above the threshold limit of 10μg/L causes a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological multi-organ health problems, including cancer and death. Among several mechanisms of arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity studied so far, role of arsenic in impairment of immune system is less understood. Epidemiological data, animal model as well as cell line based studies have indicated that arsenic targets immune system and is associated with characteristic immunosupression, which may further adversely affect respiratory function. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study with respect to arsenic susceptibility investigating the role of genetic variation having immunological function. Hence, we have recruited a total of 432 arsenic-exposed individuals, of which 219 individuals with characteristic arsenic-induced skin lesions (cases) and 213 individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesion(controls), from arsenic-exposed districts of West Bengal, India. To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NALP2 gene, an important component of inflammasome complex, we screened the entire coding region (exon) in all the study participants. Among 9 SNPs found in NALP2 gene, the A1052E polymorphism (at least with one minor allele), was significantly overrepresented in controls and hence implies decreased risk toward the development of skin lesions [OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.97]. Since, development of non-dermatological health effects are also important factor to properly look into, we have attempted to correlate the genetic variation of NALP2 with the extent of cytogenetic damage as measured by chromosomal aberration assay and adverse health effects including peripheral neuropathy, eye problem and respiratory diseases in the study population. We observed individuals with the protective genotype had less chromosomal aberration (p<0.05), and were also less

  9. Association of NALP2 polymorphism with arsenic induced skin lesions and other health effects.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Pritha; Das, Nandana; Chatterjee, Debmita; Banerjee, Anirban; Das, Jayanta K; Basu, Santanu; Banerjee, Saptarshi; Majumder, Papia; Goswami, Prashant; Giri, Ashok K

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged consumption of arsenic-laden water above the threshold limit of 10μg/L causes a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological multi-organ health problems, including cancer and death. Among several mechanisms of arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity studied so far, role of arsenic in impairment of immune system is less understood. Epidemiological data, animal model as well as cell line based studies have indicated that arsenic targets immune system and is associated with characteristic immunosupression, which may further adversely affect respiratory function. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study with respect to arsenic susceptibility investigating the role of genetic variation having immunological function. Hence, we have recruited a total of 432 arsenic-exposed individuals, of which 219 individuals with characteristic arsenic-induced skin lesions (cases) and 213 individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesion(controls), from arsenic-exposed districts of West Bengal, India. To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NALP2 gene, an important component of inflammasome complex, we screened the entire coding region (exon) in all the study participants. Among 9 SNPs found in NALP2 gene, the A1052E polymorphism (at least with one minor allele), was significantly overrepresented in controls and hence implies decreased risk toward the development of skin lesions [OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.97]. Since, development of non-dermatological health effects are also important factor to properly look into, we have attempted to correlate the genetic variation of NALP2 with the extent of cytogenetic damage as measured by chromosomal aberration assay and adverse health effects including peripheral neuropathy, eye problem and respiratory diseases in the study population. We observed individuals with the protective genotype had less chromosomal aberration (p<0.05), and were also less

  10. [Types of skin lesions in pulmonary sarcoidosis and their prognostic value].

    PubMed

    Garmash, Iu Iu; Soldatskaia, L V; Enikeeva, E G; Agadzhanova, I S; Slutskaia, O M

    2007-01-01

    When sarcoidosis is suspected, a patient should be meticulously examined for dermal changes, the favorite sites of which are the skin of the face, ears, upper and lower extremities, and trunk. Elements may vary in number from solitary to multiple. When dermal changes are suspected of sarcoidosis, a dermatologist should examine the patient and, if there are some doubts about the nature of dermal elements, biopsy and histological study should be made since the morphological verification of the diagnosis primarily requires the use of extrapulmonary sites of the process, namely superficial peripheral lymph nodes, as well as the skin. The findings suggest that skin sarcoidosis characterized by the long-term chronic or progressive course is encountered at different (X-ray) stages of sarcoidosis of respiratory organs and is of poor prognostic value. The severity of dermal manifestations is no less and, in individual cases, more significant than pulmonary symptoms. Great or ugly skin lesions require prednisolone treatment. In some cases, long-term therapy cannot yield a result. Delagil treatment of dermal manifestations remains to be effective.

  11. Statistical image segmentation for the detection of skin lesion borders in UV fluorescence excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Padilla-Martinez, Juan Pablo; Franco, Walfre

    2016-04-01

    The skin contains several fluorescent molecules or fluorophores that serve as markers of structure, function and composition. UV fluorescence excitation photography is a simple and effective way to image specific intrinsic fluorophores, such as the one ascribed to tryptophan which emits at a wavelength of 345 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, and is a marker of cellular proliferation. Earlier, we built a clinical UV photography system to image cellular proliferation. In some samples, the naturally low intensity of the fluorescence can make it difficult to separate the fluorescence of cells in higher proliferation states from background fluorescence and other imaging artifacts -- like electronic noise. In this work, we describe a statistical image segmentation method to separate the fluorescence of interest. Statistical image segmentation is based on image averaging, background subtraction and pixel statistics. This method allows to better quantify the intensity and surface distributions of fluorescence, which in turn simplify the detection of borders. Using this method we delineated the borders of highly-proliferative skin conditions and diseases, in particular, allergic contact dermatitis, psoriatic lesions and basal cell carcinoma. Segmented images clearly define lesion borders. UV fluorescence excitation photography along with statistical image segmentation may serve as a quick and simple diagnostic tool for clinicians.

  12. Assembly and characterization of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for skin lesions diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Texiera Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis in biological tissues has been presented as a technique of a great potential for tissue characterization for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study is to assemble and characterize a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for diagnostic of clinically similar skin lesions in vivo. The fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (Becker & Hickl, Berlin, Germany) technique. Two lasers, one emitting at 378 nm and another at 445 nm, are used for excitation with 20, 50 and 80 MHz repetition rate. A bifurcated optical fiber probe conducts the excitation light to the sample, the collected light is transmitted through bandpass filters and delivered to a hybrid photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence spectra were obtained by using a portable spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB-2000-FLG) with the same excitation sources. An instrument response function of about 300 ps was obtained and the spectrum and fluorescence lifetime of a standard fluorescent molecule (Rhodamine 6G) was measured for the calibration of the system ((4.1 +/- 0.3) ns). The assembled system was considered robust, well calibrated and will be used for clinical measurements of skin lesions.

  13. Adaptive technique for matching the spectral response in skin lesions' images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Pavlova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2015-03-01

    The suggested technique is a subsequent stage for data obtaining from diffuse reflectance spectra and images of diseased tissue with a final aim of skin cancer diagnostics. Our previous work allows us to extract patterns for some types of skin cancer, as a ratio between spectra, obtained from healthy and diseased tissue in the range of 380 - 780 nm region. The authenticity of the patterns depends on the tested point into the area of lesion, and the resulting diagnose could also be fixed with some probability. In this work, two adaptations are implemented to localize pixels of the image lesion, where the reflectance spectrum corresponds to pattern. First adapts the standard to the personal patient and second - translates the spectrum white point basis to the relative white point of the image. Since the reflectance spectra and the image pixels are regarding to different white points, a correction of the compared colours is needed. The latest is done using a standard method for chromatic adaptation. The technique follows the steps below: -Calculation the colorimetric XYZ parameters for the initial white point, fixed by reflectance spectrum from healthy tissue; -Calculation the XYZ parameters for the distant white point on the base of image of nondiseased tissue; -Transformation the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum by obtained matrix; -Finding the RGB values of the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum according sRGB; Finally, the pixels of the lesion's image, corresponding to colour from the test-spectrum and particular diagnostic pattern are marked with a specific colour.

  14. Altered leukocyte delivery to specific and nonspecific inflammatory skin lesions following burn injury

    SciTech Connect

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Latter, D.A.; Psychogios, J.; Christou, N.V.

    1988-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of burn trauma on the in vivo leukocyte cell delivery during the first 24 hr of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test reaction and a bacterial skin abscess. Inbred male Lewis rats sensitized to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were given a 30% scald burn or sham burn. Three days later the animals were injected intradermally, at different sites, with 0.3 mg of KLH, 10(8) organisms of S. aureus 502A, and 0.1 cc of saline, at 2 to 24 hr. Leukocytes labelled with Indium-111 oxine(leu-111) were injected intravenously. In sham rats the peak leu-111 influx in the DTH reaction occurred at 2-4 hr while in the abscess it was biphasic with peaks at 3 hr and 6-8 hr. In burn trauma rats there was a markedly increased leu111 peak at 2 hr in both the DTH and abscess reactions followed by a significantly lower than normal leu111 delivery in the late (6-24) hours. This marked early leukocyte influx in burned rats was paralleled by a reduced DTH skin test lesion (8.2 +/- 1.1 mm to 4.2 +/- 1.1 mm) and an increased bacterial abscess (5.1 +/- 1.1 mm to 8.1 +/- 0.9 mm) post burn. There was a direct correlation between leukocyte cell delivery to a DTH reaction and a bacterial abscess (r8 = 0.69, Spearman rank; p less than 0.001). We conclude that burn trauma results in altered leukocyte delivery to inflammatory lesions and the DTH response can be used to assess the ability of a burn trauma host to recruit leukocytes at a site of infection.

  15. Differences of urinary arsenic metabolites and methylation capacity between individuals with and without skin lesions in Inner Mongolia, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Yongfang; Liu, Juan; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-07-18

    Incomplete arsenic (As) methylation has been considered a risk factor of As-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the difference of urinary As metabolites and the methylation capacity between subjects with and without skin lesions. Urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analyzed. The percentage of each As species (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%), the primary methylation index (PMI) and secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated. The results showed that subjects with skin lesions have higher levels of urinary iAs (99.08 vs. 70.63 μg/g Cr, p = 0.006) and MMA (69.34 vs. 42.85 μg/g Cr, p = 0.016) than subjects without skin lesions after adjustment for several confounders. Significant differences of urianry MMA% (15.49 vs. 12.11, p = 0.036) and SMI (0.74 vs. 0.81, p = 0.025) were found between the two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that subjects with skin lesions may have a lower As methylation capacity than subjects without skin lesions.

  16. Iron, copper, and zinc concentrations in normal skin and in various nonmalignant and malignant lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Sheskin, J.; Weinreb, A.

    1986-09-01

    The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in the skin have been noninvasively determined in vivo by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry. The skin of healthy controls was divided into two major groups based upon the distribution of the concentrations of these elements. In the face and upper neck, the following wet weight concentrations were recorded: Fe, 14.2 +/- 3.3 ppm; Cu, 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppm; and Zn, 6.7 +/- 1.1 ppm. In the chest, abdomen, arm, axilla, and lower neck, the concentrations of these elements were as follows: Fe, 10.2 +/- 2.5 ppm; Cu, 0.8 +/- 0.3 ppm; and Zn, 4.5 +/- 1.7 ppm. In most lesions of solar dermatitis, solar keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, variable elevations of Zn and Fe (up to significant levels) were recorded in most of the contralateral, apparently uninvolved skin. In the majority of pigmented nevi and malignant melanomas, the levels of Fe and Zn were elevated. In some of these, the Cu concentration also was increased.

  17. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy. PMID:26203886

  18. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  19. [Similar skin lesions in victim and perpetrator caused by a knife with a serrated blade].

    PubMed

    Vendura, K; Geserick, G

    2000-01-01

    Reported in this paper is an attack of two adolescents on a man who was killed in the fight, with several kitchen knives being used, including two with grooved and wave-grooved blades. One of the offenders held the victim tight from behind and was injured by his attacking accomplice++. A grid mark on the left side of the victim's face and the left forearm of the second offender in the back supported the assumption of a knife with simple wave profile. Skin lesions of finer structure below the left ear and on the left forearm of the victim suggested involvement of a smaller kitchen knife with groove-milled wave profile. Offender-victim position and course of offence were verified and confirmed by evaluation of these specific findings.

  20. Automatic classification of skin lesions using color mathematical morphology-based texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Castro, Victor; Debayle, Johan; Wazaefi, Yanal; Rahim, Mehdi; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Fertil, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In this paper an automatic classification method of skin lesions from dermoscopic images is proposed. This method is based on color texture analysis based both on color mathematical morphology and Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), and it does not need any previous segmentation process. More concretely, mathematical morphology is used to compute a local descriptor for each pixel of the image, while the SOM is used to cluster them and, thus, create the texture descriptor of the global image. Two approaches are proposed, depending on whether the pixel descriptor is computed using classical (i.e. spatially invariant) or adaptive (i.e. spatially variant) mathematical morphology by means of the Color Adaptive Neighborhoods (CANs) framework. Both approaches obtained similar areas under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.854 and 0.859 outperforming the AUC built upon dermatologists' predictions (0.792).

  1. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  2. Analytical Characteristics of a Noninvasive Gene Expression Assay for Pigmented Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zuxu; Allen, Talisha; Oakley, Margaret; Samons, Carol; Garrison, Darryl; Jansen, Burkhard

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported clinical performance of a novel noninvasive and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based molecular diagnostic assay (the pigmented lesion assay; PLA) that differentiates primary cutaneous melanoma from benign pigmented skin lesions through two target gene signatures, LINC00518 (LINC) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). This study focuses on analytical characterization of this PLA, including qPCR specificity and sensitivity, optimization of RNA input in qPCR to achieve a desired diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and analytical performance (repeatability and reproducibility) of this two-gene PLA. All target qPCRs demonstrated a good specificity (100%) and sensitivity (with a limit of detection of 1-2 copies), which allows reliable detection of gene expression changes of LINC and PRAME between melanomas and nonmelanomas. Through normalizing RNA input in qPCR, we converted the traditional gene expression analyses to a binomial detection of gene transcripts (i.e., detected or not detected). By combining the binomial qPCR results of the two genes, an improved diagnostic sensitivity (raised from 52%- 65% to 71% at 1 pg of total RNA input, and to 91% at 3 pg of total RNA input) was achieved. This two-gene PLA demonstrates a high repeatability and reproducibility (coefficient of variation <3%) and all required analytical performance characteristics for the commercial processing of clinical samples. PMID:27505074

  3. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S; Ramot, Yuval; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-07-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous, and often annular cutaneous eruption. Although the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 patients with CANDLE syndrome by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder and further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  4. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic. PMID:27679577

  5. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic. PMID:27679577

  6. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  7. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and hi-tech evaluation of vascular skin lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, Marta; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Rossari, Susanna; Gori, Alessia; Oranges, Teresa; Longo, Anna Sara; Lotti, Torello; Bencini, Pier Luca; De Giorgi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Vascular skin lesions comprise a wide and heterogeneous group of malformations and tumors that can be correctly diagnosed based on natural history and physical examination. However, considering the high incidence of such lesions, a great number of them can be misdiagnosed. In addition, it is not so rare that an aggressive amelanotic melanoma can be misdiagnosed as a vascular lesion. In this regard, dermoscopy and confocal laser microscopy examination can play a central role in increasing the specificity of the diagnosis of such lesions. In fact, the superiority of these tools over clinical examination has encouraged dermatologists to adopt these devices for routine clinical practice, with a progressive spread of their use. In this review, we will go through the dermoscopic and the confocal laser microscopy of diagnosis of most frequent vascular lesions (i.e., hemangiomas angiokeratoma, pyogenic granuloma, angiosarcoma) taking into particular consideration the differential diagnosis with amelanotic melanoma. PMID:22950556

  8. The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tondel, M; Rahman, M; Magnuson, A; Chowdhury, I A; Faruquee, M H; Ahmad, S A

    1999-09-01

    To determine the relationship of arsenic-associated skin lesions and degree of arsenic exposure, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangladesh, where a large part of the population is exposed through drinking water. Four villages in Bangladesh were identified as mainly dependent on wells contaminated with arsenic. We interviewed and examined 1,481 subjects [Greater/equal to] 30 years of age in these villages. A total of 430 subjects had skin lesions (keratosis, hyperpigmentation, or hypopigmentation). Individual exposure assessment could only be estimated by present levels and in terms of a dose index, i.e., arsenic levels divided by individual body weight. Arsenic water concentrations ranged from 10 to 2,040 microg/L, and the crude overall prevalence rate for skin lesions was 29/100. After age adjustment to the world population the prevalence rate was 30. 1/100 and 26.5/100 for males and females, respectively. There was a significant trend for the prevalence rate both in relation to exposure levels and to dose index (p < 0.05), regardless of sex. This study shows a higher prevalence rate of arsenic skin lesions in males than females, with clear dose-response relationship. The overall high prevalence rate in the studied villages is an alarming sign of arsenic exposure and requires an urgent remedy.

  9. The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, M; Rahman, M; Magnuson, A; Chowdhury, I A; Faruquee, M H; Ahmad, S A

    1999-01-01

    To determine the relationship of arsenic-associated skin lesions and degree of arsenic exposure, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangladesh, where a large part of the population is exposed through drinking water. Four villages in Bangladesh were identified as mainly dependent on wells contaminated with arsenic. We interviewed and examined 1,481 subjects [Greater/equal to] 30 years of age in these villages. A total of 430 subjects had skin lesions (keratosis, hyperpigmentation, or hypopigmentation). Individual exposure assessment could only be estimated by present levels and in terms of a dose index, i.e., arsenic levels divided by individual body weight. Arsenic water concentrations ranged from 10 to 2,040 microg/L, and the crude overall prevalence rate for skin lesions was 29/100. After age adjustment to the world population the prevalence rate was 30. 1/100 and 26.5/100 for males and females, respectively. There was a significant trend for the prevalence rate both in relation to exposure levels and to dose index (p < 0.05), regardless of sex. This study shows a higher prevalence rate of arsenic skin lesions in males than females, with clear dose-response relationship. The overall high prevalence rate in the studied villages is an alarming sign of arsenic exposure and requires an urgent remedy. PMID:10464073

  10. Increased chromosome aberration frequencies in the Bowen's patients compared to non-cancerous skin lesions individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Banerjee, Mayukh; De Chaudhuri, Sujata; Das, Jayanta K; Sarma, Nilendu; Basu, Arindam; Giri, Ashok K

    2007-08-15

    Cytogenetic biomarkers are essential for assessing environmental exposure that can predict adverse human health effects such as cellular damage. Chromosomal aberrations are the most important cytogenetic end-points successfully used for the cancer risk assessment of populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to different toxic chemicals. Previous reports suggest that, increased frequency of chromosomal aberration (CA), in peripheral blood lymphocytes, is a predictor of cancer. Arsenic is a paradoxical human carcinogen, clastogen and aneugen. Despite of exposure at similar extent, only 15-20% of individuals show arsenic induced skin lesions including Bowen's disease (BD). Previously we have reported the significant increase in CA in the individuals with arsenic induced skin lesions when compared to individuals without any skin lesions, drinking arsenic contaminated water at similar extent. Presently, a matched case-control study was performed to examine whether biomarkers such as chromosomal aberrations can predict the development of arsenic induced Bowen's (in situ carcinoma) diseases. Chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome and chromatid types) and mitotic index were analyzed from the lymphocytes of 25 cases of Bowen's patient which was compared to matched control from the individuals with arsenic induced non-cancerous skin lesions such as raindrop pigmentation, keratosis of palm and sole, hypo and hyper pigmentation. Chromosomal aberrations/cell, chromosome type aberrations and total percentage of aberrant cells were significantly higher in cases compared to control (p<0.01). These results suggest that chromosomal aberrations can be used for cancer risk assessment of the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water.

  11. Production of staphylococcal impetigo-like lesion on human skin explants in culture.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Akiyama, H; Arata, J

    1993-06-01

    We produced a highly reproducible experimental impetigo-like lesion in normal human skin explants in culture. The three Staphylococcus aureus strains we used were an isolate from a human impetigo (E strain), an isolate from a human furunculosis (N strain) and ATCC 29213 strain. E strain was a protein A positive, coagulase type V, producer of exfoliative toxin (ET) and beta-toxin. N strain was a coagulase type IV, ET non-producer and alpha-toxin positive. ATCC 29213 was a coagulase type II, ET non-producer, and alpha-, beta-, and delta-toxin positive. Normal human skin samples were obtained from 8 adult skin surgery patients. One specimen was obtained from human oral mucosa. Small pieces of the samples were slightly abraded on the epidermal surface and cultured on lens paper rafts floating in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. Fifty microliters of the respective bacterial suspensions were applied to the epidermal surfaces of the explants. The inoculated surfaces were then occluded under sterile plastic plaster. Histologically, the formation of intraepidermal blisters at the granular layer level with acantholytic cells was observed in all 8 of the skin specimens at 10 h after inoculation with E strain. The specimen from an oral mucous membrane did not produce similar changes with any of the three S. aureus strains. Neither N or ATCC strains developed bullae in the epidermis at 6, 10 or 18 h after inoculation. Immunofluorescent examination revealed that the inner surfaces of blisters in the epidermis were lined with anti-ETA antibody. Under the electron microscope, the blisters of the specimens which had been inoculated with strain E contained only a few S. aureus cells. These results suggest that blister formation at the granular layer level with acantholytic cells is mediated by ET action at the granular layer level and occurs without invasion of lymphocytes or neutrophils, or the involvement of any serum components. Therefore

  12. Histopathology of skin lesions in chronic arsenic toxicity--grading of changes and study of proliferative markers.

    PubMed

    Paul, P C; Chattopadhyay, A; Dutta, S K; Mazumder, D N; Santra, A

    2000-07-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT) manifests predominantly as cutaneous lesions in the form of melanosis, keratosis and neoplastic changes. We have studied skin biopsies from 42 patients of CAT. Histological study of H/E stained sections showed--hyperkeratosis in 13, parakeratosis in 13, acanthosis in 12, papillomatosis in 24, elongation of reteridges in 21, increased basal pigmentation in 27 and dysplastic changes in 8 cases. Squamous cell carcinoma was present in 2, basisquamous in 1 and basal cell carcinoma in 1 case. Changes of skin lesions after drug DMSA and DMPS therapy compared to placebo were studied. The result was inconclusive. Proliferative activity of skin lesions in CAT were studied by AgNOR stain to assess the biological behaviour of the lesions. AgNOR score showed--normal control 1.08, benign changes (e.g. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis etc.) without dysplasia--1.35, mild to moderate dysplasia--1.735, severe dysplasia--3.0 and carcinoma--3.56. Thus, AgNOR score gives some idea on the biological behaviour of CAT lesions. It is suggested that AgNOR staining should be done regularly along with H&E staining for proper assessment of the cases.

  13. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  14. Composition of innate lymphoid cell subsets in the human skin: enrichment of NCR(+) ILC3 in lesional skin and blood of psoriasis patients.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Marcel B M; Munneke, J Marius; Bernink, Jochem H; Spuls, Phyllis I; Res, Pieter C M; Te Velde, Anje; Cheuk, Stanley; Brouwer, Marijke W D; Menting, Stef P; Eidsmo, Liv; Spits, Hergen; Hazenberg, Mette D; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation. However, their role in human skin remains obscure. We found that healthy peripheral blood CD117(+) ILC3, lacking the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp44 (NCR(-) ILC3), CD117(-)NCR(-)CRTH2(-)CD161(+) ILC1, and CRTH2(+) ILC2, express the skin-homing receptor cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA). NCR(+) ILC3 were scarce in peripheral blood. Consistently, we identified in normal skin ILC2 and NCR(-) ILC3, a small proportion of CD161(+) ILC1, and hardly any NCR(+) ILC3, whereas NCR(+) ILC3 were present in cultured dermal explants. The skin ILC2 and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets produced IL-13 and IL-22, respectively, upon cytokine stimulation. Remarkably, dermal NCR(-) ILC3 converted to NCR(+) ILC3 upon culture in IL-1β plus IL-23, cytokines known to be involved in psoriatic inflammation. In line with this observation, significantly increased proportions of NCR(+) ILC3 were present in lesional skin and peripheral blood of psoriasis patients as compared with skin and blood of healthy individuals, respectively, whereas the proportions of ILC2 and CD161(+) ILC1 remained unchanged. NCR(+) ILC3 from skin and blood of psoriasis patients produced IL-22, which is regarded as a key driver of epidermal thickening, suggesting that NCR(+) ILC3 may participate in psoriasis pathology.

  15. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned.

  16. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. PMID:23806213

  17. Genetic variability and phospholipase production of Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from dogs with diverse grades of skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mauro L S; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Ferreira, Rafael R; Bianchi, Simone P; Latrofa, Maria S; Parisi, Antonio; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2010-09-01

    Little detailed information is available on the association of Malassezia pachydermatis genotypes and the extent of skin damage that they cause. In the present study, isolates of M. pachydermatis, recovered from the skin of healthy dogs and dogs with dermatitis in Brazil, were characterized on the basis of partial sequencing of the large subunit (LSU), first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) and chitin synthase 2 gene (chs-2). The determination of phospholipase production was also included in the investigations. The severity of lesions and hyperpigmentation of dogs with skin disease were evaluated. For each locus, two main sequence types were designated as genotypes A and C. Two other minor sequence types (A2(I)-C2(I)) were also recorded and defined for the ITS-1. Genotype A isolates were the most prevalent, being recovered from healthy and diseased animals. No significant difference was detected among genotypes or ITS-1 sequence types and grades of skin damage or hyperpigmentation in the dogs with skin lesions. The number of M. pachydermatis isolates that produced phospholipase was statistically higher for diseased dogs than for strains found in healthy animals. The present study reveals that multiple genetic variants of M. pachydermatis occur in dogs and that the distribution patterns of particular genotypes on the skin of dogs in Brazil might be related to environmental and ecological factors which maintain distinctive genotype assemblages in specific geographical areas. PMID:20105099

  18. Multiple Human Papilloma Virus 16 Infection Presenting as Various Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jun Ho

    2016-06-01

    The 53-year-old woman admitted with multiple persistent, progressive, slightly raised, red, and crusted plague form masses that suddenly occurred on left thumb, both upper and lower extremity about 10 years ago. There was no induration in the lesion or in its surrounding skin. There was no unusual opinion on a radiologic test and family history. And she had no history of working in the business related to any chemical product such as arsenic or tar which was carcinogen. The patient has had total hysterectomy to treat uterine myoma 10 years ago. The wide excision and split thickness skin graft of 2 × 1.5 cm was performed around mass in the size of 1.5 × 1.2 cm on the left thumb and wide excision and local advancement flap was done on the other sites. As a result of biopsy, masses were diagnosed as Bowen disease, actinic keratosis, and Seborrheic keratosis. These specimens were obtained during surgery: broom-type cell sampling devices were used to collect samples from the specimens, and they were placed into PreservCyt solution (Cytyc Corp, Boxborough, MA). Then, the collected samples underwent the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ) that allows for the simultaneous identification of human papilloma virus (HPV) types from liquid-based cell preparations. On histopathological examination of the surgical specimen, atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The entire tumor was confined to the epidermis and did not invade into the dermis. The cells were often highly atypical. That were the irregular shape which the resection margin of masses had a negative tumor component. And HPV 16 genotyping test was positive although vaginal examination of HPV 16 genotyping was negative. PMID:27192658

  19. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  20. Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Banerjee, Mayukh; De Chaudhuri, Sujata; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Das, Jayanta K; Mukherjee, Angshuman; Sarkar, Ajoy K; Mondal, Lakshmikanta; Baidya, Kalipada; Sau, Tanmoy Jyoti; Banerjee, Apurba; Basu, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Keya; Ray, Kunal; Giri, Ashok K

    2007-05-01

    A study was conducted to explore the effect of arsenic causing conjunctivitis, neuropathy and respiratory illness in individuals, with or without skin lesions, as a result of exposure through drinking water, contaminated with arsenic to similar extent. Exposed study population belongs to the districts of North 24 Parganas and Nadia, West Bengal, India. A total of 725 exposed (373 with skin lesions and 352 without skin lesions) and 389 unexposed individuals were recruited as study participants. Participants were clinically examined and interviewed. Arsenic content in drinking water, urine, nail and hair was estimated. Individuals with skin lesion showed significant retention of arsenic in nail and hair and lower amount of urinary arsenic compared to the group without any skin lesion. Individuals with skin lesion also showed higher risk for conjunctivitis ((odd's ratio) OR: 7.33, 95% CI: 5.05-10.59), peripheral neuropathy (OR: 3.95, 95% CI: 2.61-5.93) and respiratory illness (OR: 4.86, 95% CI: 3.16-7.48) compared to the group without any skin lesion. The trend test for OR of the three diseases in three groups was found to be statistically significant. Again, individuals without skin lesion in the exposed group showed higher risk for conjunctivitis (OR: 4.66, 95% CI: 2.45-8.85), neuropathy (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.95-8.09), and respiratory illness (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.65-6.26) when compared to arsenic unexposed individuals. Although individuals with skin lesions were more susceptible to arsenic-induced toxicity, individuals without skin lesions were also subclinically affected and are also susceptible to arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity when compared to individuals not exposed to arsenic.

  1. Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Mayhew, David; Paps, Judy S; Linder, Keith E; Peredo, Carlos; Rajpal, Deepak; Hofland, Hans; Cote-Sierra, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Determining inflammation and itch pathway activation in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is fraught with the inability to precisely assess the age of skin lesions, thus affecting the analysis of time-dependent mediators. To characterize inflammatory events occurring during early experimental acute AD lesions, biopsy samples were collected 6, 24, and 48 hours after epicutaneous application of Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites to sensitized atopic dogs. The skin transcriptome was assessed using a dog-specific microarray and quantitative PCR. Acute canine AD skin lesions had a significant up-regulation of genes encoding T helper (Th) 2 (e.g., IL4, IL5, IL13, IL31, and IL33), Th9 (IL9), and Th22 (IL22) cytokines as well as Th2-promoting chemokines such as CCL5 and CCL17. Proinflammatory (e.g., IL6, LTB, and IL18) cytokines were also up-regulated. Other known pruritogenic pathways were also activated: there was significant up-regulation of genes encoding proteases cathepsin S (CTSS), mast cell chymase (CMA1), tryptase (TPS1) and mastin, neuromedin-B (NMB), nerve growth factor (NGF), and leukotriene-synthesis enzymes (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, and LTA4H). Experimental acute canine house dust mite-induced AD lesions exhibit an activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and pruritogenic pathways similar to those seen in humans with acute AD, thereby validating this model to test innovative therapeutics modalities for this disease.

  2. Mutations in COX7B cause microphthalmia with linear skin lesions, an unconventional mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Indrieri, Alessia; van Rahden, Vanessa Alexandra; Tiranti, Valeria; Morleo, Manuela; Iaconis, Daniela; Tammaro, Roberta; D'Amato, Ilaria; Conte, Ivan; Maystadt, Isabelle; Demuth, Stephanie; Zvulunov, Alex; Kutsche, Kerstin; Zeviani, Massimo; Franco, Brunella

    2012-11-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin lesions (MLS) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disorder associated with mutations in holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS), which encodes a crucial player of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). Unlike other mitochondrial diseases, MLS is characterized by a well-recognizable neurodevelopmental phenotype. Interestingly, not all clinically diagnosed MLS cases have mutations in HCCS, thus suggesting genetic heterogeneity for this disorder. Among the possible candidates, we analyzed the X-linked COX7B and found deleterious de novo mutations in two simplex cases and a nonsense mutation, which segregates with the disease, in a familial case. COX7B encodes a poorly characterized structural subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the MRC complex IV. We demonstrated that COX7B is indispensable for COX assembly, COX activity, and mitochondrial respiration. Downregulation of the COX7B ortholog (cox7B) in medaka (Oryzias latipes) resulted in microcephaly and microphthalmia that recapitulated the MLS phenotype and demonstrated an essential function of complex IV activity in vertebrate CNS development. Our results indicate an evolutionary conserved role of the MRC complexes III and IV for the proper development of the CNS in vertebrates and uncover a group of mitochondrial diseases hallmarked by a developmental phenotype.

  3. Texture descriptors based on adaptive neighborhoods for classification of pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Castro, Víctor; Debayle, Johan; Wazaefi, Yanal; Rahim, Mehdi; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Fertil, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Different texture descriptors are proposed for the automatic classification of skin lesions from dermoscopic images. They are based on color texture analysis obtained from (1) color mathematical morphology (MM) and Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs) or (2) local binary patterns (LBPs), computed with the use of local adaptive neighborhoods of the image. Neither of these two approaches needs a previous segmentation process. In the first proposed descriptor, the adaptive neighborhoods are used as structuring elements to carry out adaptive MM operations which are further combined by using Kohonen SOM; this has been compared with a nonadaptive version. In the second one, the adaptive neighborhoods enable geometrical feature maps to be defined, from which LBP histograms are computed. This has also been compared with a classical LBP approach. A receiver operating characteristics analysis of the experimental results shows that the adaptive neighborhood-based LBP approach yields the best results. It outperforms the nonadaptive versions of the proposed descriptors and the dermatologists' visual predictions.

  4. The causes of skin lesions in the returning travelers: with special reference to Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Often people yearn of a greater travel adventure like a year in Africa to get away from their routine situations and locations, for a quick vacation or as a means of finding one's self, to enjoy new experiences, to learn and experience new languages, new food, and new cultures. While most people associate Sub-Saharan Africa with safaris, there are endless other possibilities for adventure. Some African countries have actual entry requirements and won't let you in unless you have proof you've been vaccinated against a specific disease. Every African country is unique in the quality of its parks and reserves, roads and other infrastructure, visitor accommodations and receptivity to tourists. Creating an itinerary and arranging travel logistics can intimidate even the most enthusiastic tourist. Others travel more nowadays for the better economy and the advancements in transportation make it easier to do so. If family members do not reside in the same country or are probably working abroad, other family members would want to visit them and would do so as frequently as their resources would allow. Visiting families and friends in different states or countries are probably the most important reasons for taking time off to travel. No doubt, travelling to different climates, cultures and environments abroad can expose to tropical infectious diseases and health risks. This review dealt with skin lesions in the returning travelers.

  5. Characterization of lymphocyte subtypes in scabietic skin lesions of naive and sensitized dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Rapp, C M; Stemmer, B L; Morgan, M S; Moore, P F

    1997-03-01

    We delineated the density of cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD21 and CD45RA antigens in the cellular infiltrates in the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium in scabietic skin lesions of naive hosts and sensitized hosts that expressed resistance to scabies infestation. No cells expressing CD21 (B-lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells) were present in the epidermis and only a few were occasionally present in the dermis during both the first and second infestations. Naive T-cells (CD45RA+) and CD8+ cells (cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes) were present in varying densities in the infiltrates throughout the epidermis, dermis and follicular epithelium with no apparent differences in density and the rate of appearance between sensitizing and challenge infestations. CD4+ cells were abundant in fluctuating densities in the dermis, epidermis, and follicular epidermis during the sensitizing infestation and these cells became the dominant cell type early during the challenge infestation. The density of CD4+ cells in the infiltrate was much greater during the challenge than during the sensitization infestation. This population of CD4+ cells consisted of both T-helper/inducer cells and neutrophils and the large increase in their numbers during the challenge suggested they played a key role in the successful immune/inflammatory response that resulted in resistance to scabies infestation.

  6. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  7. Dermocystid infection and associated skin lesions in free-living palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) from Southern France.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Milagros; Denoël, Mathieu; Duffus, Amanda J L; Garner, Trenton W J; Cunningham, Andrew A; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2010-09-01

    Since the early 1900s, mesomycetozoan parasites have been reported in both European anuran and caudate species. These reports have primarily been descriptive, which has made assessing the impact of these parasites on host populations difficult. Anecdotal reports of dermocystidium-like parasites are becoming widespread across Europe, possibly indicating that these mesomycetozoan parasites are increasing in distribution and/or abundance. This highlights the need for further investigations into the occurrence, pathogenesis and effects on host health of these parasitic infections for free-living amphibian populations, particularly those which are already stressed or threatened by other factors. Here we report the results of pathological, microbiological and molecular investigations used to characterize unidentified skin lesions in palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) from Larzac, France. We confirm that the lesions are the result of infection with a novel dermocystidium-like parasite, which is related to Amphybiocystidium ranae. We also show that the same parasite is distributed across several newt breeding sites. The lesions that result from infection with this parasite range from single or few vesicular or nodular cutaneous lesions to multiple coalescing skin ulcers with extensive hemorrhages. The latter have not been previously described in amphibians due to mesomycetozoan parasitic infection. Dermocystid DNA was detected only in newts that showed lesions, providing comparative evidence of the parasite's pathogenicity. We discuss the potential significance of the presence of this pathogen in the context of the population health of palmate newts.

  8. Cytodiagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual with molluscum contagiosum-like skin lesions and lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prajwala; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). The early clinical manifestations are nonspecific, often lead to diagnostic difficulty, and is misdiagnosed as tuberculosis and seen usually in immunosuppressed states. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, safe, and quick technique to establish the initial diagnosis of H. capsulatum, thereby prompting early treatment. The skin involvement is rare in disseminated disease and we describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient with unusual molluscum contagiosum like umbilicated skin lesions and FNAC of the cervical lymph node was the only tool for rapid and early confirmatory diagnosis.

  9. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose-response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions.

  10. ARSENIC AND SKIN LESION STATUS IN RELATION TO MALIGNANT AND NON-MALIGNANT LUNG DISEASE MORTALITY IN BANGLADESHI ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hore, Samar Kumar; Islam, Tariqul; Chen, Yu; Pierce, Brandon L.; Slavkovich, Vesna; Olopade, Christopher; Yunus, Muhammad; Baron, John A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water is a public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide, including at least 30 million in Bangladesh. We prospectively investigated the associations of arsenic exposure and arsenical skin lesion status with lung disease mortality in Bangladeshi adults. Methods Data are from a population-based sample of 26,043 adults, with an average of 8.5 years of follow-up (220,157 total person-years). There were 156 non-malignant lung disease deaths and 90 lung cancer deaths ascertained through October 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung disease mortality. Results Creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic was associated with non-malignant lung disease mortality, with persons in the highest tertile of exposure having a 75% increased risk for mortality (95% CI=1.15–2.66) compared with those in the lowest tertile of exposure. Persons with arsenical skin lesions were at increased risk of lung cancer mortality (hazard ratio=4.53 [95% CI=2.82–7.29]) compared with those without skin lesions. Conclusions This prospective investigation of lung disease mortality, utilizing individual-level arsenic measures and skin lesion status, confirms a deleterious effect of ingested arsenic on mortality from lung disease. Further investigations should evaluate effects on the incidence of specific lung diseases, more fully characterize dose-response, and evaluate screening and biomedical interventions to prevent premature death among arsenic-exposed populations, particularly among those who may be most susceptible to arsenic toxicity. PMID:24802365

  11. Exacerbation of Skin Lesions in a 50 year old Man with Psoriasis during Treatment by Pegylated Interferon.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Fakharzadeh, Elham; Zamini, Hedyeh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan; Jabbari, Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C might lead to several immunological dysfunctions. Studies have shown a positive association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and psoriasis. These results suggest that the infection may be one of the triggering factors for the development or exacerbation of psoriasis. Here, we present a case of chronic HCV infection with psoriasis who developed exacerbation of skin lesions during therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin. We discuss the management, course and results of HCV treatment in this patient.

  12. T lymphocytes in skin lesions of psoriasis and mycosis fungoides express B7-1: a ligand for CD28.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Nestle, F O; Zheng, X G; Turka, L A

    1994-05-01

    The activation of T cells requires two distinct signals. One signal involves interaction of the antigen-specific T-cell receptor with major histocompatibility complex molecules plus antigenic peptide; a second signal, which is antigen nonspecific, is the interaction of CD28 with its natural ligands B7-1 and B7-2/B70. CD28 is expressed on 80% of T cells, is upregulated after activation, and binds to B7 gene-family members, found on antigen-presenting cells. Because of our interest in the immunologic basis of benign and malignant T-cell-mediated disorders of the skin, we investigated the cellular distribution of CD28 and B7 family members in lesions of psoriasis and mycosis fungoides. By immunostaining cryostat sections of skin, CD28 was found to be expressed on virtually all lymphocytes in the epidermis and dermis of both skin diseases. Surprisingly, B7-1 was also found to be expressed on virtually all lymphocytes in the epidermis and dermis of both skin diseases. B7-1 expression was confirmed on CD3+ T lymphocytes using flow cytometry of single cell suspensions of fresh, unfixed psoriatic lesional tissue. To exclude the possibility that this result was caused by a second reagent contaminating the monoclonal antibody (MoAb) preparation, two different lots were used, and the MoAb was absorbed onto Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) transfectants expressing B7-1, or vector-only transfected CHO cells. These procedures confirmed that a B7-1-like epitope was being recognized on psoriatic lesional T cells. In contrast to B7-1 expression on lymphocytes, B7-3, as defined by anti-BB-1 MoAb reactivity, was found primarily on epidermal keratinocytes in both skin diseases and was not found on T cells. These results indicate that within two common skin disorders, lesional T cells accumulate in the dermis and epidermis, which express B7-1. Such expression may permit self-costimulation involving the CD28-mediated activation pathway, and thereby contribute to the ongoing T

  13. High-risk human papillomavirus in non-melanoma skin lesions from renal allograft recipients and immunocompetent patients

    PubMed Central

    Reuschenbach, M; Tran, T; Faulstich, F; Hartschuh, W; Vinokurova, S; Kloor, M; Krautkrämer, E; Zeier, M; von Knebel Doeberitz, M; Sommerer, C

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) can be detected in a proportion of non-melanoma skin cancers. Data on prevalence are inconclusive, but are essential to estimate the relevance of HR-HPV, particularly with regard to prophylactic HPV vaccines for skin cancer prevention. Methods: High-risk human papillomavirus DNA was investigated in 140 non-melanoma skin lesions from 54 immunocompetent patients and 33 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients. Expression of p16INK4a, a marker for HR-HPV oncogene expression in the uterine cervix, and of p53 and pRB was evaluated immunohistochemically. Results: The highest prevalence of HR-HPV was found in squamous cell cancer (SCC) (46.2% (6 out of 13) in immunosuppressed and 23.5% (4 out of 17) in immunocompetent patients). High-risk human papillomavirus positivity was accompanied by diffuse p16INK4a expression in most SCC (P<0.001) and basal cell cancers (P=0.02), while almost all SCC in situ were p16INK4a positive irrespective of HR-HPV presence (P=0.66). Diffuse p16INK4a expression was associated with lack of pRB expression (P=0.001). p53 was strongly expressed in 40.0% (56 out of 140) of the lesions irrespective of HR-HPV presence. Conclusion: High-risk human papillomavirus can be detected in lesions of keratinised squamous epithelia. The association of HR-HPV with diffuse p16INK4a expression might indicate HR-HPV oncogene expression in a proportion of lesions. Overexpression of p53 suggests p53 pathway alterations in HR-HPV-positive and -negative lesions. PMID:21427726

  14. A case of stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) with lobomycosis-like skin lesions in Kinko-wan, Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yuko; Sasaki, Kyoko; Kashiwagi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-08-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic fungal disease caused by the etiologic agent, Lacazia loboi, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues in humans and dolphins in tropical and transitional tropical climates. An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) stranded in Kagoshima, Japan, had severe skin lesions characterized by granulomatous reactions and hyperkeratosis that were similar to those of the lobomycosis, but no fungal organism was observed in the skin lesion. In this paper, we report a stranded Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin with lobomycosis-like lesions based on pathological examinations in Japan.

  15. Prevalence of arsenic-related skin lesions in 53 widely-scattered villages of Bangladesh: an ecological survey.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Corbett; Hoque, Rezaul; Huda, Nazmul; Cherry, Nicola

    2006-06-01

    A survey was carried out to provide a representative assessment of prevalence and risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in relation to geographical distribution of arsenic in wells of rural Bangladesh as a necessary background for research into effects in pregnancy and cancer risks. A systematic random sample of 53 villages in four divisions of Bangladesh served by Gonoshasthaya Kendra was selected, and all women aged 18 years or more (n=16,740) were listed. Trained paramedics recorded the presence of skin thickening and nodules on the palms and soles, together with information on tubewell use. The prevalence was related to the mean concentration of arsenic for the district as indicated by data from the British Geological Survey and to the date the first well in the village was installed. Overall, the observed prevalence was 176 cases (1.3%) in 13,705 women examined, varying from 0% in 26 villages to 23% in one; lesions were observed more frequently on hands than on feet. The estimate doubled with concentrations of arsenic from 11 to < or =50 microg/L and increased more than 20 times at >50 microg/L. In the absence of further information, priority for control measures should be directed at areas where the average concentrations of arsenic are above 50 microg/L, especially in villages where skin lesions have been identified.

  16. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Sarasin, Alain

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis. PMID:15748637

  17. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Dhaenens, F; Miyamoto, M; Marneffe, A; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V; Nebosis, R

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) appears to offer additional structural and cellular information on melanocytic lesions complementary to that of RCM. However, the diagnostic potential of HD-OCT seems to be not high enough for ruling out the diagnosis of melanoma if based on morphology analysis. The aim of this paper is first to quantify in vivo optical properties such as light attenuation in melanocytic lesions by HD-OCT. The second objective is to determine the best critical value of these optical properties for melanoma diagnosis. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes a straight line has been implemented on HD-OCT signals coming from four successive skin layers (epidermis, upper papillary dermis, deeper papillary dermis and superficial reticular dermis). This permitted the HD-OCT in vivo measurement of skin entrance signal (SES), relative attenuation factor normalized for the skin entrance signal (µ raf1) and half value layer (z 1/2). The diagnostic accuracy of HD-OCT for melanoma detection based on the optical properties, µ raf1 , SES and z 1/2 was high (95.6, 82.2 and 88.9 %, respectively). High negative predictive values could be found for these optical properties (96.7, 89.3 and 96.3 %, respectively) compared to morphologic assessment alone (89.9 %), reducing the risk of mistreating a malignant lesion to a more acceptable level (3.3 % instead of 11.1 %). HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with in vivo analysis of optical properties of tissue scatterers in melanocytic lesions. In vivo HD-OCT analysis of optical properties permits melanoma

  18. Penicillamine-induced elastosis perforans serpiginosa with abnormal "lumpy-bumpy" elastic fibers in lesional and non-lesional skin.

    PubMed

    Khatu, Swapna S; Dhurat, Rachita S; Nayak, Chitra S; Pereira, Rickson R; Kagne, Rucha B

    2011-01-01

    Four types of elastosis perforans serpiginosa (EPS) have been described in literature: 1) idiopathic EPS, 2) reactive perforating elastosis associated with connective tissue disorders, 3) in some instances of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), disease-specific calcified elastic tissue is extruded, producing a clinical picture indistinguishable from other types, may also be seen in patients undergoing hemodialysis and 4) EPS induced by long-term treatment with D-penicillamine is observed in patients suffering from Wilson's disease. Long term D-penicillamine therapy causes an alteration in the dermal elastic tissue. D-penicillamine induced EPS has a distinctive histopathologic feature - serrated appearance of elastic fibers due to perpendicular budding from their surface giving a "lumpy-bumpy" look. D-penicillamine induced elastic fiber alteration may not always manifest clinically as EPS. We report a case of D-penicillamine induced widespread alteration in skin elastic tissue with distinct histopathologic features.

  19. Skin Lesions in European Hibernating Bats Associated with Geomyces destructans, the Etiologic Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; Görföl, Tamás; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000–2011) revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated. PMID:24023927

  20. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; Görföl, Tamás; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011) revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated. PMID:24023927

  1. Gene expression profiles in peripheral lymphocytes by arsenic exposure and skin lesion status in a Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Argos, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Parvez, Faruque; Jasmine, Farzana; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahsan, Habibul

    2006-07-01

    Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic through their drinking water. In this study, the effect of arsenic exposure and arsenical skin lesion status on genome-wide gene expression patterns was evaluated using RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study. Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) arrays were used to measure the expression of approximately 22,000 transcripts. Our primary statistical analysis involved identifying differentially expressed genes between participants with and without arsenical skin lesions based on the significance analysis of microarrays statistic with an a priori defined 1% false discovery rate to minimize false positives. To better characterize differential expression, we also conducted Gene Ontology and pathway comparisons in addition to the gene-specific analyses. Four-hundred sixty-eight genes were differentially expressed between these two groups, from which 312 differentially expressed genes were identified by restricting the analysis to female never-smokers. We also explored possible differential gene expression by arsenic exposure levels among individuals without manifest arsenical skin lesions; however, no differentially expressed genes could be identified from this comparison. Our findings show that microarray-based gene expression analysis is a powerful method to characterize the molecular profile of arsenic exposure and arsenic-induced diseases. Genes identified from this analysis may provide insights into the underlying processes of arsenic-induced disease and represent potential targets for chemoprevention studies to reduce arsenic-induced skin cancer in this population.

  2. Identical TCR beta-chain rearrangements in streptococcal angina and skin lesions of patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Diluvio, Laura; Vollmer, Sigrid; Besgen, Petra; Ellwart, Joachim W; Chimenti, Sergio; Prinz, Joerg C

    2006-06-01

    Tonsillar infection with Streptococcus pyogenes may induce several nonsuppurative autoimmune sequelae. The precise pathogenetic mechanisms behind this clinically well-established association are still unresolved. Using TCR analysis, we sought to identify a link between streptococcal tonsillitis and the T cell-mediated autoimmune response in psoriasis. Three patients with streptococcal-induced psoriasis underwent tonsillectomy. Using size spectratyping and sequencing of TCR beta-chain variable region gene (TCRBV) rearrangements, we compared the TCR usage of psoriatic skin lesions, blood, tonsils, and tonsillar T cells fractionated according to the expression of the skin address in "cutaneous lymphocyte-associated Ag" (CLA). TCRBV-size spectratype analysis of the blood lymphocytes, tonsils, and the CLA-negative tonsillar T cells revealed largely unselected T cell populations. Instead, TCRBV gene families of the psoriatic lesions and skin-homing CLA-positive tonsillar T cells displayed highly restricted spectratypes. Sequencing of TCRBV cDNA identified various clonal TCRBV rearrangements within the psoriatic lesions that indicated Ag-driven T cell expansion. Several of these clonotypes were also detected within the tonsils and, in one of the patients, within the small subset of CLA-positive tonsillar T cells, suggesting that T cells from the same T cell clones were simultaneously present within skin and tonsillar tissue. Because after tonsillectomy psoriasis cleared in all three patients our observations indicate that T cells may connect psoriatic inflammation to streptococcal angina. They suggest that the chronic streptococcal immune stimulus within the tonsils could act as a source for pathogenic T cells in poststreptococcal disorders, and they may help to explain why eliminating this source with tonsillectomy may improve streptococcal-induced sequelae.

  3. Combined Spline and B-spline for an improved automatic skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images using optimal color channel.

    PubMed

    Abbas, A A; Guo, X; Tan, W H; Jalab, H A

    2014-08-01

    In a computerized image analysis environment, the irregularity of a lesion border has been used to differentiate between malignant melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. The accuracy of the automated lesion border detection is a significant step towards accurate classification at a later stage. In this paper, we propose the use of a combined Spline and B-spline in order to enhance the quality of dermoscopic images before segmentation. In this paper, morphological operations and median filter were used first to remove noise from the original image during pre-processing. Then we proceeded to adjust image RGB values to the optimal color channel (green channel). The combined Spline and B-spline method was subsequently adopted to enhance the image before segmentation. The lesion segmentation was completed based on threshold value empirically obtained using the optimal color channel. Finally, morphological operations were utilized to merge the smaller regions with the main lesion region. Improvement on the average segmentation accuracy was observed in the experimental results conducted on 70 dermoscopic images. The average accuracy of segmentation achieved in this paper was 97.21 % (where, the average sensitivity and specificity were 94 % and 98.05 % respectively).

  4. Skin-colour changes i the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, in response to localized electrical stimulation and lesions in the diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Hemer, J H; Salas, M A; LaPointe, J L

    1981-05-01

    A study was made of changes in skin colour in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, in response to deep electrical stimulation at 0.2 mm intervals throughout the periventricular region of the diencephalon and the anterior brain stem. Double-barrelled glass microelectrodes with tip diameters of 3 microns were used. A 20 microA pulse-train consisting of a 500 Hz signal lasting for 1 s yielded localized responses. Skin darkening occurred only in response to stimulation delivered in the anterior and dorsal region of the diencephalon and skin lightening only in response to stimulation in a small area in the posterior and ventral region of the hypothalamus. Electrical lesions in the latter region resulted in permanent skin darkening. Surgical interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial neurosecretory tract did not block skin-colour change in response to dark or light backgrounds. It was concluded that MSH release is under tonic inhibitory control by hypothalamic neurones in Anolis. Both inhibitory and stimulatory neurones can be localized stereotaxically in the diencephalon and neither type corresponds with the neurosecretory neurones of the hypothalamo-hypophysial tract. The functional relationship between the stimulatory neurones and the inhibitory neurones and pars intermedia remains unclear.

  5. A Herbal Formula, Atofreellage, Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in an NC/Nga Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Sung-Bae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effect of Atofreellage (AF), a herbal formula composed of 10 medicinal plants. AD was induced on the dorsal skin areas of NC/Nga mice (male, seven weeks old) by daily application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for five weeks. After three weeks of DNCB application, 200 μL of AF (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/mL) was applied to the skin lesions. Histological findings, blood cell populations, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory signaling in the skin tissue, and T-helper cell type 2 (Th₂)-related cytokines in splenocytes were analyzed. Histopathological findings showed AF treatment notably attenuated the thickness of dorsal skin, and eosinophil infiltration. AF treatment (especially 100 mg/mL) also demonstrably ameliorated the blood cell population abnormalities, as the notable elevation of serum concentrations of IgE, histamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were remarkably normalized by AF treatment. Western blot analysis evidenced the apparent normalization of inflammatory signals (ERK, p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and NF-κB) in the skin tissue. Additionally, AF treatment notably attenuated the activation of Th₂-dominant cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5) in Con A-treated splenocytes in an ex vivo assay. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical relevance of Atofreellage. PMID:26712731

  6. Orange-induced skin lesions in patients with atopic eczema: evidence for a non-IgE-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Hautmann, Christian; Fötisch, Kay; Rakoski, Jürgen; Borelli, Siegfried; Vieths, Stefan; Ring, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Oranges are suspected of inducing adverse skin reactions in patients with atopic eczema. We studied 21 adult patients with atopic eczema and a history of adverse reactions to oranges and 10 patients without. A dietary history, skin tests, serum IgE and oral provocation tests with oranges were obtained. Severity of eczema was monitored by SCORAD, and serum tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein and urinary methylhistamine were measured. No allergic reactions were found to orange in skin prick or patch tests. However, 23 patients (74%) had specific serum IgE to orange. Oral provocation testing resulted in pruritic eczematous or maculopapular skin lesions predominantly at the predilection sites in 16 patients (52%). The SCORAD increased significantly in patients positive to the oral provocation test (p <0.05). Specific IgE to orange did not correlate with the clinical outcome of the oral provocation test. No significant changes were found in serum mast cell tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein or in urinary methylhistamine excretion. The negative results in the skin tests and a lack of correlation between specific IgE and oral provocation tests indicate that non-IgE-mediated mechanisms are involved in cutaneous adverse reactions to oranges in patients with atopic eczema. PMID:12636022

  7. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation changes with development of arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh: a case-control follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Kile, Molly L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Pan, Wen-Chi; Byun, Hyang-Min; Mostofa, Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have found an association between aberrant DNA methylation and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Yet, little is known about DNA methylation changes over time in people who develop arsenic-induced skin lesions. We sought to investigate epigenome-wide changes of DNA methylation in people who developed arsenic-induced skin lesions in a ten year period. In 2009–2011, we conducted a follow-up study of 900 skin lesion cases and 900 controls and identified 10 people who developed skin lesions since a baseline survey in 2001–2003. The 10 cases (“New Cases”) were matched with 10 controls who did not have skin lesions at baseline or follow-up (“Persistent Controls”). Drinking water and blood samples were collected and skin lesion was diagnosed by the same physician at both time points. We measured DNA methylation in blood using Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip, followed by quantitative validation using pyrosequencing. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare changes in percent methylation between New Cases and Persistent Controls. Six CpG sites with greatest changes of DNA methylation over time among New Cases were further validated with a correlation of 93% using pyrosequencing. One of the validated CpG site (cg03333116; change of %methylation was 13.2 in New Cases versus −0.09 in Persistent Controls; P <0.001) belonged to the RHBDF1 gene, which was previously reported to be hypermethylated in arsenic-exposed cases. We examined DNA methylation changes with the development of arsenic-induced skin lesions over time but nothing was statistically significant given the small sample size of this exploratory study and the high dimensionality of data. PMID:24677489

  8. Quantitative elastography of skin and skin lesion using phase-sensitive OCT (PhS-OCT) and surface wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the combination of phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) imaging system and surface wave method to achieve quantitative evaluation and elastography of the mechanical properties of in vivo human skin. PhS-OCT measures the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated by impulse stimulation from a home-made shaker, and provide the B-frame images for the sample. The surface wave phase velocity dispersion curves were calculated, from which the elasticity of different skin layers were determined. The combination of phase velocities from adjacent two locations generates a quantitative elastography of sample. The experimental results agree well with theoretical expectations and may offer potential use in clinical situations.

  9. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P < 0.01), and mounting behaviour (performed only by males) was almost three times lower in Supplement than in control pens (P < 0.01). However, there was no effect of Supplement on the incidence of each of the harmful behaviours. Behaviour of the focal pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours

  10. Time course of lewisite-induced skin lesions and inflammatory response in the SKH-1 hairless mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Vallet, Virginie; Elbakdouri, Nacéra; Wartelle, Julien; Mouret, Stéphane; Bertoni, Marine; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Data on the toxicity of lewisite (L), a vesicant chemical warfare agent, are scarce and conflicting, and the use of the specific antidote is not without drawbacks. This study was designed to evaluate if the SKH-1 hairless mouse model was suitable to study the L-induced skin injuries. We studied the progression of lesions following exposure to L vapors for 21 days using paraclinical parameters (color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and biomechanical measurements), histological assessments, and biochemical indexes of inflammation. Some data were also obtained over 27 weeks. The development of lesions was similar to that reported in other models. The TEWL parameter appeared to be the most appropriate index to follow their progression. Histological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltration and microvesications at day 1 and a complete wound closure by day 21. Biochemical studies indicated a deregulation of the levels of several cytokines and receptors involved in inflammation. An increase in the quantity of pro-matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 was shown as observed in other models. This suggests that the SKH-1 mouse model is relevant for the investigation of the physiopathological process of skin lesions induced by L and to screen new treatment candidates. PMID:24635178

  11. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection associated with nodular skin lesions and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sa-Hee; Kang, Min-Hee; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old Pekingese dog with atopic dermatitis was referred due to pyrexia, multiple skin nodules, anorexia, and depression. The dog was diagnosed as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by bacterial dermatitis. This case presents diagnosis and treatment of SIRS with staphylococcal skin infection in a dog that was immunosuppressed due to long-term use of corticosteroid. PMID:24790236

  12. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  13. Association between floor type and behaviour, skin lesions, and claw dimensions in group-housed fattening bulls.

    PubMed

    Platz, Siegfried; Ahrens, Frank; Bahrs, Elisabeth; Nüske, Stefan; Erhard, Michael H

    2007-07-16

    Rubber mats covering concrete slatted flooring are a developing market in dairy barns but remain rare in beef cattle facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of covering slatted concrete floor with perforated rubber mats on behaviour and occurrence of skin and claw lesions in fattening bulls. The groups of six bulls each with a total average age of 9.8 months were kept over 1 year on either slatted concrete (CONCRETE PEN) or on slatted concrete covered completely (RUBBER PEN) or partially (CHOICE PEN) with perforated rubber mats. Every quarter-year, behaviour (preference of flooring, lying, aggression, mounting) was recorded. In two-weekly intervals the incidence of skin lesions was examined. At 12 and 18 months of age the rising time of the bulls was measured. At the beginning of the study and after slaughter claw dimensions were recorded. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN preferred (P<0.01) the rubber coated area throughout the experiment. Animals in the RUBBER and the CHOICE PENS showed more lying periods (P<0.01) and had a lesser incidence of skin lesions (P<0.01) compared to bulls in the CONCRETE PEN. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN needed less time for rising (2.7+/-0.3s) than bulls in the CONCRETE PEN (4.4+/-0.5s, P<0.01). Net claw growth differed significantly between all pens (RUBBER>CHOICE>CONCRETE; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that rubber coated slatted flooring has a positive influence on the housing conditions of beef cattle.

  14. Histological Lesions and Cellular Response in the Skin of Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) Spontaneously Affected by Sarcoptic Mange

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Claudia; Lazzarotti, Camilla; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Population dynamics of chamois (genus Rupicapra, subfamily Caprinae) can be influenced by infectious diseases epizootics, of which sarcoptic mange is probably the most severe in the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra). In this study, skin lesions and cellular inflammatory infiltrates were characterized in 44 Alpine chamois affected by sarcoptic mange. Dermal cellular responses were evaluated in comparison with chamois affected by trombiculosis and controls. In both sarcoptic mange and trombiculosis, a significantly increase of eosinophils, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, and macrophages was detected. Moreover, in sarcoptic mange significant higher numbers of T lymphocytes and macrophages compared to trombiculosis were observed. Lesions in sarcoptic mange were classified in three grades, according to crusts thickness, correlated with mite counts. Grade 3 represented the most severe form with crust thickness more than 3.5 mm, high number of mites, and severe parakeratosis with diffuse bacteria. Evidence of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity was detected in all three forms associated with diffuse severe epidermal hyperplasia. In grade 3, a significant increase of B lymphocytes was evident compared to grades 1 and 2, while eosinophil counts were significantly higher than in grade 1, but lower than in grade 2 lesions. An involvement of nonprotective Th2 immune response could in part account for severe lesions of grade 3. PMID:27403422

  15. Optical configuration of pigmented lesion detection by frequency analysis of skin speckle patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bishitz, Yael; Ozana, Nisan; Schwarz, Ariel; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach of realizing a safe, simple, and inexpensive sensor applicable to pigmented lesions detection. The approach is based on temporal tracking of back-reflected secondary speckle patterns generated while illuminating the affected area with a laser and applying periodic pressure to the surface via a controlled vibration source. When applied to pigmented lesions, the technique is superior to visual examination in avoiding many false positives and resultant unnecessary biopsies. Applying a series of different vibration frequencies at the examined tissue and analyzing the 2-D time varying speckle patterns in response to the applied periodic pressure creates a unique signature for each and different pigmented lesion. Analyzing these signatures is the first step toward detection of malignant melanoma. In this paper we present preliminary experiments that show the validity of the developed sensor for the classification of pigmented lesions. PMID:27231603

  16. Toward noninvasive microspectrofluorometry of skin lesions for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of cell metabolism and organelle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Schachtschabel, Astrid; Kohen, Elli; Kohen, Cahide; Schachtschabel, Dietrich O.

    1995-02-01

    The basic principle of this approach relies on microspectrofluorometric observations of upheavals in the cell's energy metabolism and cell-to-cell metabolic communication in human and mouse melanoma cells. A striking feature is the definition of a highly active nuclear energy metabolism in M8255 human melanoma cells which is characterized by an intense fluorescence response associated with NAD(P) reduction by substrates of glycolysis or the hexose monophosphate shunt. Changes are also expected in the steady state levels of reduced/oxidized NAD(P) in the nuclear, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, which are probably dependent on ATP levels and distribution (as determined by cell metabolism and eventually the presence of ATP traps). A topographic scanning of skin lesions, either under metabolic steady state conditions or in the presence of permeating substrates, can lead to the recognition of characteristic patterns associated with pigmented and nonpigmented, malignant and nonmalignant skin lesions. The method is, in a way, an extension of microscopic transillumination techniques which have led to the identification of specific patterns associated with such lesions. However, here, a new dimension is added by introduction of fluorescence evaluations. This can represent the first step in a multiparameter approach to the non-invasive in situ fluorescence scan of dermatological lesions by inclusion of: (1) fluorescence excitation and emission spectra; (2) new fluorescence probes of cytoplasmic organelles and nuclear components. Primary emphasis should be placed on the highly active nuclear energy metabolism, which can be triggered to maximum levels when the role of mitochondria as the `cells's policeman' with regard to metabolic control is suppressed by use of topically cytotoxic agents such as the `antipsoriatic' anthralin and dicarboxylic acids used in the local treatment of melanoma. Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy may be of particular advantage in

  17. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  18. Research Note Mesenchymal stem cells from skin lesions of psoriasis patients promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Wang, F; Wang, Q; Zhao, X C; Zhang, K M

    2015-12-22

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by excessive proliferation and abnormal differentiation and apoptosis of keratinocytes (KCs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from skin lesions of psoriasis patients demonstrate abnormal cytokine secretion, which may affect KC proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we explored how MSCs from skin lesions of psoriasis patients affect HaCaT cell proliferation and apoptosis. First, flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation methods were used to identify skin MSCs, which were then co-cultured with HaCaT cells. HaCaT cell proliferation was analyzed in real-time, and cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell morphologies and multipotencies of skin MSCs were similar between the psoriasis group and healthy control group, with high levels of CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105 and limited expression of CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. MSCs from skin lesions of psoriasis patients promote KC proliferation more potently and are less capable of inducing KC apoptosis. This may underlie KC proliferation and abnormal apoptosis in psoriasis skin lesions, which results in abnormal thickening of the epidermis.

  19. The risk of arsenic induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi men and women is affected by arsenic metabolism and the age at first exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2008-07-01

    It is known that a high fraction of methylarsonate (MA) in urine is a risk modifying factor for several arsenic induced health effects, including skin lesions, and that men are more susceptible for developing skin lesions than women. Thus, we aimed at elucidating the interaction between gender and arsenic metabolism for the risk of developing skin lesions. This study is part of a population-based case-referent study concerning the risk for skin lesions in relation to arsenic exposure via drinking water carried out in Matlab, a rural area 53km south-east of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly selected 526 from 1579 referents and all 504 cases for analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine using HPLC coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICPMS). The present study confirm previous studies, with the risk for skin lesions being almost three times higher in the highest tertile of %MA (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.2, p < 0.001) compared to the lowest tertile. The present study is the first to show that the well documented higher risk for men to develop arsenic-related skin lesions compared to women is mainly explained by the less efficient methylation of arsenic, as defined by a higher fraction of MA and lower fraction of DMA in the urine, among men. Our previously documented lower risk for skin lesions in individuals exposed since infancy, or before, was found to be independent of the observed arsenic methylation efficiency. Thus, it can be speculated that this is due to a programming effect of arsenic in utero.

  20. Average depth of blood vessels in skin and lesions deduced by optical fiber spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Saidi, Iyad S.; Tittel, Frank K.

    1994-09-01

    The average depth of blood vessels in a cutaneous site, either normal or diseased, can be specified by a simple rapid noninvasive optical measurement. An optical fiber spectrophotometer delivers white light via optical fibers to a skin site. The light reflected by tissue scattering and successfully collected by optical fibers is carried to a diode array spectrophotometer for spectral analysis. The reflectance spectrum is analyzed to specify the component of the optical density (OD) spectrum which is attributed to the cutaneous blood. Then the ratio of the OD420 nm/OD585 nm provides a quantitative indication of the average depth of the blood in the skin site. The purple light (420 nm) less easily penetrates the skin to sample the cutaneous blood content than does the yellow light (585 nm). The calibration of the measurement was accomplished by Monte Carlo simulations of measurements on skin with a layer of blood at various depths. In a study of 47 neonates, the amount of blood content ranged from 4 - 12 mg hemoglobin/g tissue (equivalent to 0.8 - 2.4% of the skin volume being whole blood), and the average depth of blood ranged from 250 - 425 micrometers .

  1. Risk Factors in Patients with Venous Stasis-Related Skin Lesions without Major Abnormalities on Duplex Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Morikage, Noriyasu; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Samura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the risk factors for venous stasis-related skin lesions in the legs in patients without major abnormalities on duplex ultrasonography (DUS). Methods: Fifty patients (nine males and 41 females, age 27–93 years) with symptoms of C4 or greater according to the Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathological (CEAP) classification, but having no abnormalities on DUS were reviewed for known risk factors for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) such as older age (>70 years), obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2), short walking distance (<200 m/day), reduced ankle range of motion (<20°), and occupation requiring prolonged standing (>8h per day). Results: The risk factor was different between male and female patients; although all patients had at least one of the above risk factors, the most commonly found risk factor in male patients was occupation requiring prolonged standing (63%), while advanced age (78%) and limited walking distance (83%) were risk factors in female patients. Conclusions: Although male and female patients had different risk factors, insufficient walking seemed to be closely related to the development of venous stasis-related skin lesions. PMID:27738462

  2. Leukemic manifestation of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm lacking skin lesion : a borderline case between acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Takiuchi, Yoko; Maruoka, Hayato; Aoki, Kazunari; Kato, Aiko; Ono, Yuichiro; Nagano, Seiji; Arima, Hiroshi; Inoue, Daichi; Mori, Minako; Tabata, Sumie; Yanagita, Soshi; Matsushita, Akiko; Nishio, Mari; Imai, Yukihiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Ito, Kiminari; Fujita, Haruyuki; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy with a poor prognosis. We encountered a unique case of BPDCN that was leukemic at presentation without skin lesion and expressed CD33 antigen. A 74-year-old man was admitted because of dyspnea. Physically, hepatosplenomegaly, but not skin lesions and superficial lymph node swelling, was noted. The white blood count was 33.6 × 10(9)/L with 19% giant abnormal cells. These cells were positive for CD4, CD86, CD123 (bright), BDCA-2, and HLA-DR, but negative for CD1a, CD3, CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14, CD19, CD64, and CD68. From these findings, a diagnosis of BPDCN was made. In terms of unusual expression, these tumor cells were positive for CD33 but negative for CD56. The karyotype was 47, XY, t(6;8) (p21;q24), + r. We performed combination chemotherapy (Ara-C + VP-16 + MIT), which resulted in a marked reduction of tumor cells and improvement of the dyspnea. On day 16, however, he died of sepsis due to Bacillus cereus. The clinical picture of this patient is unusual and may provide new information on the clinicopathology of BPDCN. PMID:23037626

  3. An estimation of the global burden of disease due to skin lesions caused by arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, Lorna; Fuge, Ron; Kay, David

    2005-06-01

    The global burden of disease due to skin lesions caused by arsenic in drinking water was estimated by combining country-based exposure data with selected exposure-response relationships derived from the literature. Populations were considered to be exposed to elevated arsenic levels if their drinking water contained arsenic concentrations of 50 microg I(-1) or greater. Elevated arsenic concentrations in drinking water result in a significant global burden of disease, even when confining the health outcome to skin lesions. The burden of disease was particularly marked in the World Health Organization (WHO) comparative risk assessment (CRA) 'Sear D' region, which includes Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Unsurprisingly, Bangladesh was the worst affected country with 143 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1,000 population. Although this initial estimate is subject to a large degree of uncertainty, it does represent an important first step in allowing the comparison of the problem relating to elevated arsenic in drinking water to other environmental health outcomes.

  4. Prospective evaluation of skin surface electropotentials in Japanese patients with suspicious breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M; Shimizu, K; Okamoto, N; Arimura, T; Ohta, T; Yamaguchi, S; Faupel, M L

    1996-10-01

    The biofield breast examination (BBE) is a new, noninvasive and cost-effective method for diagnosing breast lesions currently undergoing multicenter evaluation in the USA and Europe. The test analyzes subtle differences in electrical potential caused by dysregulated epithelial proliferation. This report summarizes a prospective evaluation of BBE in a population of 101 patients with suspicious breast lesions scheduled either for open surgical biopsy or fine needle aspiration biopsy. Of the 101 patients included in the study, 49 were found to have a breast malignancy and 52 were found to have a benign breast lesion. BBE correctly identified 44 of 49 biopsy-proven cancers (sensitivity=90%) and correctly indicated no cancer in 31 of 52 biopsy-proven benign cases (specificity=60%). Sensitivity increased to 95% for cancers less than 2.5 cm in size. These results indicate that BBE may be an effective adjunctive test to help to resolve abnormalities discovered by physical examination or other screening methods.

  5. Detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, E; Bosman, A M; van Wilpe, E; Williams, J H; Bengis, R G; van Heerden, J; Venter, E H

    2011-06-01

    Papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). The virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. Histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA. Bovine papillomavirus-1 was characterised by real-time PCR in the sable and giraffe, and cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed a similarity to BPV-1. As in the 1st giraffe, the lesions from a 2nd giraffe revealed locally malignant pleomorphism, possibly indicating the lesional end-point of papilloma infection. Neither virus particles nor positively staining papillomavirus antigen could be demonstrated in the 2nd giraffe but papillomavirus DNA was detected by real-time PCR which corresponded with BPV-1 and BPV-2. PMID:22135920

  6. Amentoflavone protects against psoriasis-like skin lesion through suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    An, Jingang; Li, Zhengxiao; Dong, Yingying; Ren, Jianwen; Huo, Jia

    2016-02-01

    Psoriasis is a one of the most common chronic skin diseases, which affects 0.6-4.8% of the general population. Amentoflavone (AMF) belongs to the biflavonoid class of flavonoids, possessing various biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AMF on psoriasis in imiquimod (IMQ) psoriasis-like lesions in mice and keratinocyte proliferation in HaCaT cells. We showed that AMF reduced skinfold thickening, and improved erythema and scaling scores and histological lesions in IMQ-treated mice. AMF exerted potent anti-inflammatory effect via influencing a variety of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 in local skin lesions and the whole body. In M5 (a cocktail of cytokines)-treated HaCaT cells, AMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and inhibited the increase of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, IL-17A, and IL-22. In addition, AMF inhibited the upregulation of p65 NF-κB under psoriatic condition. Moreover, overexpression of p65 NF-κB significantly suppressed the effect of AMF on keratinocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, IL-17A, and IL-22. These results demonstrated that suppression of NF-κB was involved in AMF-resulted anti-proliferative, apoptosis-promoting, anti-inflammatory effects in keratinocytes. The data demonstrate that AMF may serve as potential therapeutic option for patients with psoriasis.

  7. Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Toru; Ichikawa, Miki; Sato, Bunpei; Shibata, Shinji; Hara, Yuichi; Naritomi, Yuji; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Koyanagi, Samon; Hara, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tetsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is caused by infiltrating lymphocytes and associated cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17. Effective treatments, including pathogenesis-based biological agents against psoriasis, are currently under development. Although the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been investigated, it remains to be fully elucidated; ROS-targeted therapeutic strategies are also lacking at present. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess whether H2, a ROS scavenger, has a therapeutic effect on psoriasis-associated inflammation by reducing hydroxyl radicals or peroxynitrite in the immunogenic psoriasis cascade. Three methods were used to administer H2: Drop infusion of saline containing 1 ppm H2 (H2-saline), inhalation of 3% H2 gas, and drinking of water containing a high concentration (5-7-ppm) of H2 (high-H2 water). Treatment efficacy was estimated using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) system, based on C-reactive protein levels, and the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score, determined at baseline and following each H2 treatment. Furthermore, levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-17 were analyzed. The DAS28 and PASI score of the three patients decreased during H2 treatment, regardless of the administration method. The psoriatic skin lesions almost disappeared at the end of the treatment. IL-6 levels decreased during H2 treatment in Case 1 and 2. IL-17, whose concentration was high in Case 1, was reduced following H2 treatment, and TNFα also decreased in Case 1. In conclusion, H2 administration reduced inflammation associated with psoriasis in the three cases examined and it may therefore be considered as a treatment strategy for psoriasis-associated skin lesions and arthritis.

  8. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lone Bak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1%) were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4%) of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5%) patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions. PMID:27525117

  9. A Fast-Track Referral System for Skin Lesions Suspicious of Melanoma: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study from a Plastic Surgery Center.

    PubMed

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Hansen, Lone Bak; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To minimize delay between presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM), a national fast-track referral system (FTRS) was implemented in Denmark. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral patterns to our department of skin lesions suspicious of melanoma in the FTRS. Methods. Patients referred to the Department of Plastic Surgery and Breast Surgery in Zealand University Hospital were registered prospectively over a 1-year period in 2014. A cross-sectional study was performed analyzing referral patterns, including patient and tumor characteristics. Results. A total of 556 patients were registered as referred to the center in the FTRS for skin lesions suspicious of melanoma. Among these, a total of 312 patients (56.1%) were diagnosed with CM. Additionally, 41 (7.4%) of the referred patients were diagnosed with in situ melanoma. Conclusion. In total, 353 (63.5%) patients had a malignant or premalignant melanocytic skin lesion. When only considering patients who where referred without a biopsy, the diagnostic accuracy for GPs and dermatologists was 29% and 45%, respectively. We suggest that efforts of adequate training for the referring physicians in diagnosing melanocytic skin lesions will increase diagnostic accuracy, leading to larger capacity in secondary care for the required treatment of malignant skin lesions. PMID:27525117

  10. Multimodal imaging findings of SAPHO syndrome with no skin lesions: A report of three cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Na; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis syndrome (SAPHO) is a rare syndrome that affects the skin, bones and joints. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is established on clinical appearance and imaging features. The present case report described the imaging features of three cases of SAPHO with sternoclavicular joint arthritis but without skin manifestations using multiple imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy. The first case was a 52-year-old male who suffered from progressive sternoclavicular arthritis for 2 years. The second case was a 62-year-old female with arthritis in the larger joints for 5 years, particularly on the right thoracic area. The third case was a 44-year-old male who exhibited a slight bulge accompanied by pain in the upper anterior chest wall for 4 years. All of them lacked cutaneous lesions. CT demonstrated sclerosis and hyperostosis with subchondral erosions in the sternocostoclavicular joints. MRI revealed bone marrow edema that was slightly hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Typical ‘bull head’ signs were observed in bone scintigraphy images. The present case study demonstrated that SAPHO syndrome should be suspected in patients with multifocal osteitis or arthritis affecting the chest wall that lack skin manifestations. Multimodal imaging modalities in combination are helpful for SAPHO diagnosis.

  11. Multimodal imaging findings of SAPHO syndrome with no skin lesions: A report of three cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Na; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis syndrome (SAPHO) is a rare syndrome that affects the skin, bones and joints. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is established on clinical appearance and imaging features. The present case report described the imaging features of three cases of SAPHO with sternoclavicular joint arthritis but without skin manifestations using multiple imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy. The first case was a 52-year-old male who suffered from progressive sternoclavicular arthritis for 2 years. The second case was a 62-year-old female with arthritis in the larger joints for 5 years, particularly on the right thoracic area. The third case was a 44-year-old male who exhibited a slight bulge accompanied by pain in the upper anterior chest wall for 4 years. All of them lacked cutaneous lesions. CT demonstrated sclerosis and hyperostosis with subchondral erosions in the sternocostoclavicular joints. MRI revealed bone marrow edema that was slightly hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Typical ‘bull head’ signs were observed in bone scintigraphy images. The present case study demonstrated that SAPHO syndrome should be suspected in patients with multifocal osteitis or arthritis affecting the chest wall that lack skin manifestations. Multimodal imaging modalities in combination are helpful for SAPHO diagnosis. PMID:27698770

  12. The effects of tungstate on skin lesions caused by PPD in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Gug; Lee, Sang-Il

    2008-04-01

    P-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been used as one of the ingredients in hair dye. The purpose of this study is to investigate the skin toxicity of PPD application in a tungstate-induced xanthine oxidase (XO) deficient animal model. PPD (2.5% PPD in 2% NH4OH) was applied to rat skin (25 mg/16.5 cm2) five times every other day in rats fed a standard diet (SD) or a tungstate supplemented diet (TD). The skin structure in the SD and the TD group was intact, whereas XO activity was not detected in the TD group during experimental periods. Furthermore, there were no differences between the SD and the TD group in dermal reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes. In these experimental conditions, although XO activity was not detected in the applied PPD rats fed a tungstate supplemented diet (PTD) group, it showed more severe tissue damage compared with the applied PPD rats fed a standard diet (PSD) group. In addition, the PTD group showed higher increased rates of ROS scavenging enzyme activity and lipid peroxide (LPO) content, and decreased glutathione (GSH) content than in the PSD group. In conclusion, the increase of PPD dermal toxicity in tungstate-induced XO deficient animals may be due to excessive ROS via ROS imbalance during PPD skin application. PMID:18379062

  13. Accelerated reepithelialization by triterpenes: proof of concept in the healing of surgical skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Brandner, Johanna M; Schumann, Hauke; Bross, Felix; Fimmers, Rolf; Böttger, Kerstin; Scheffler, Armin; Podmelle, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The acceleration of wound healing is a major surgical concern. A triterpene extract from birch bark (Betulae cortex) experimentally enhances keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and accelerates wound healing ex vivo. We conducted an open, blind-evaluated, controlled, prospective, randomized (1:1) phase II clinical trial in patients requiring split-thickness skin graft transplantation at two university hospitals in Germany. Donor sites on the upper legs were covered with a moist silicone-coated dressing. Oleogel-S10 ointment containing 10% birch bark extract was randomly applied to the distal or proximal half of the wound, with the other half serving as an intraindividual control, for 14 days after the skin graft surgery. The primary efficacy variable was faster reepithelialization as determined from macrophotographs by independent, blinded experts. Twenty-four patients were randomized and completed the trial. After the 14-day test period, the planned interim analysis revealed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) superiority of Oleogel-S10 in the primary efficacy variable and the trial was terminated early due to ethical concerns. The treatment side was also better reepithelialized and more similar to normal skin after 3 months. In conclusion, Oleogel-S10 significantly accelerated reepithelialization at split-thickness skin graft donor sites. Treatment with Oleogel-S10 was safe and well tolerated.

  14. Characterization of acute and long-term pathologies of superficial and deep dermal sulfur mustard skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Cohen, Maayan; Kamus-Elimeleh, Dikla; Fishbine, Eliezer; Sahar, Rita; Gez, Rellie; Brandeis, Rachel; Horwitz, Vered; Kadar, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard induces severe acute and prolonged damage to the skin and only partially effective treatments are available. We have previously validated the use of hairless guinea pigs as an experimental model for skin lesions. The present study aimed to characterize a model of a deep dermal lesion and to compare it with the previously described superficial lesion. Clinical evaluation of the lesions was conducted using reflectance colorimetry, trans-epidermal water loss and wound area measurements. Prostaglandin E(2) content, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activity, and histopathology were conducted up to 4 weeks post-exposure. Sulfur mustard skin injury, including erythema and edema, impairment of skin barrier and wounds developed in a dose-dependent manner. Prostaglandin E(2) content and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activities were elevated during the wound development and the healing process. Histological evaluation revealed severe damage to the epidermis and deep dermis and vesications. At 4 weeks postexposure, healing was not completed: significantly impaired stratum corneum, absence of hair follicles, and epidermal hyperplasia were observed. These results confirm the use of the superficial and deep dermal skin injuries in the hairless guinea pigs as suitable models that can be utilized for the investigation of the pathological processes of acute as well as long-term injuries. These models will be further used to develop treatments to improve the healing process and prevent skin damage and long-term effects. PMID:23082902

  15. A Distinct and Replicable Squamous Cell Carcinoma Gene INPPA5 Variant Modifies Susceptibility of Arsenic-Associated Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kile, Molly L.; Lin, Tong; Baccarelli, Andrea; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mostofa, Golam; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Kibriya, Muhammad; Ahsan, Habibul; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation, one-carbon metabolism and skin cancer genes might influence susceptibility to arsenic-induced skin lesions. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Pabna, Bangladesh (2001-2003) and drinking water arsenic concentration was measured for each participant. A panel of twenty-five candidate SNPs was analyzed in 540 cases and 400 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between each SNP and the potential for gene-environment interactions in skin lesion risk adjusting for relevant covariates. Replication testing was conducted in an independent Bangladesh population with 488 cases and 2,794 controls. Results In the discovery population, genetic variants in the one-carbon metabolism genes PEMT (rs2278952, P for interaction = 0.004; rs897453, P for interaction = 0.05) and DHFR (rs1650697, P for interaction = 0.02), inflammation gene IL10 (rs3024496, P for interaction = 0.04), and skin cancer genes INPP5A (rs1133400, P for interaction = 0.03) and XPC (rs2228000, P for interaction = 0.01) significantly modified the association between arsenic and skin lesions after adjusting for multiple comparisons. The significant gene-environment interaction between a SNP in INPP5A gene (rs1133400) and water arsenic on skin lesion risk was successfully replicated in an independent population (P for interaction = 0.03). Conclusion Minor allele carriers of skin cancer gene INPP5A modified odds of arsenic-induced skin lesions in both main and replicative populations. Genetic variation in INPP5A appears to have a role in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. PMID:25759212

  16. Inhibitory effects of Juglans mandshurica leaf on allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions-induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-03-01

    Allergic dermatitis among common skin diseases is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder caused by genetic, environmental, allergens as well as microbial factors. Allergic dermatitis patients clinically present skin erythematous plaques, eruption, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine levels. The leaf of walnut tree Juglans mandshurica Maxim (JM) is consumed food and traditional phytomedicine in Asia, China, Siberia and Korea. JM has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and anti-bacterial effects. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of JM on allergic dermatitis has been reported. Here, we demonstrated the effect of JM against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions. 0.5% JM or 1% dexamethasone (positive control) applied to the dorsal skin inhibited development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions and scratching behavior. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines IgE, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-13, were significantly reduced by JM treatment. Thus JM can inhibit development of allergic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators, and may be an effective alternative therapy for allergic dermatitis.

  17. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    PubMed

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution. PMID:18854963

  18. Simulating light transport through skin for color prediction of port wine stain lesions: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tom; Wright, Philip A.; Chappell, Paul H.

    2012-11-01

    A survey of the literature is presented regarding the simulation of port wine stain (PWS) skin color. Knowledge of PWS features, such as the depths and diameters of affected vessels, is essential for informing laser treatment. These may be determined through the inverse application of a skin model. The techniques which have been applied to achieve this are analyzed in detail. Radiative transfer (RT) is found to be the preferred method of simulation. By far the most common approximations to RT are the diffusion approximations, which have been applied successfully in the past and Monte Carlo techniques, which are now the methods of choice. As the requirements for improvement of laser treatment on an individual basis continues, the needs for further work towards accurate estimations of individual optical coefficients and robust, flexible simulation techniques are identified.

  19. Empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Wormser, Gary P; Clemen, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The skin lesion of early Lyme disease, erythema migrans (EM), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. Because other skin lesions may resemble EM, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of EM is appropriate in regions where Lyme disease is rare. We constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of EM: Treat All, Observe, and Serology as a function of the probability that an EM-like lesion is Lyme disease. Treat All was found to be the preferred strategy in regions that are endemic for Lyme disease. Where Lyme disease is rare, Observe is the preferred strategy, as presumptive treatment would be expected to produce excessive harm and increased costs. Where Lyme disease is rare, clinicians and public health officials should consider observing patients with EM-like lesions who lack travel to Lyme disease-endemic areas.

  20. Arsenic methylation capacity and its correlation with skin lesions induced by contaminated drinking water consumption in residents of chronic arsenicosis area.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Bing; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Jin, Yaping; Itoh, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko; Sun, Guifan

    2011-04-01

    Chronic exposure to excess level of arsenic through contaminated drinking water is associated with many injuries, among which skin lesions are the most prominent. In this study, we measured the concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the blood of the residents of arsenicosis area, who demonstrated different skin lesion grade from mild, moderate to advanced. We evaluated the individual methylation capacity by two indices of the first and secondary methylation ratio (FMR and SMR). We found that SMR of moderate and advanced groups were markedly lower than that of mild group. Significant negative correlation was found between SMR of all the subjects and the grade of skin lesion, with Spearman's correlation coefficient of -0.429 (P = 0.016). Moreover, blood MMA proportion of moderate and advanced groups was found to be significantly higher than that of the mild group. These results suggest that low secondary arsenic methylation capacity and high MMA proportion are associated with the severity of arsenic-related skin lesions. Our findings evaluated by blood speciation is consistent with that evaluated by the generally accepted urinary arsenic speciation in the relationship between arsenic methylation capacity and arsenic-related lesions.

  1. Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Skin Lesions from Sporotrichosis Epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porto Ferreira, Cassio; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:25653392

  2. Nonhealing skin lesions in a sailor and a journalist returning from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Lesho, Emil P; Wortmann, Glenn; Neafie, Ronald; Aronson, Naomi

    2005-02-01

    US health care providers who are not familiar with cutaneous leishmaniasis may now begin to encounter more patients with this challenging entity as military personnel return from rotations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Diagnosis requires a skin scraping, aspiration, or biopsy, followed by examination by an experienced microscopist or pathologist. Demonstration of the parasite DNA by PCR or culture in special media can also be used to confirm the diagnosis. Sodium stibogluconate is the mainstay of therapy, but other options for selected cases include topical thermal or cryotherapy treatment and oral triazole compounds. Assistance is available through the CDC and, for Department of Defense beneficiaries, certain military facilities.

  3. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Møllersen, Kajsa; Kirchesch, Herbert; Zortea, Maciel; Schopf, Thomas R.; Hindberg, Kristian; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND) is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND's ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME), a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95% melanoma sensitivity, the NMSC sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 12%. The melanomas misclassified by ND at 95% sensitivity were correctly classified by ME, and vice versa. ND is able to detect NMSC without sacrificing melanoma sensitivity. PMID:26693486

  4. Thalidomide induces granuloma differentiation in sarcoid skin lesions associated with disease improvement.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen J; Kikuchi, Toyoko; Krueger, James G; Kaplan, Gilla

    2002-03-01

    Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, is treated with immune suppressive drugs such as corticosteroids. Sarcoidosis patients have been reported to benefit clinically from treatment with thalidomide. We administered thalidomide for 16 weeks to eight patients with chronic skin sarcoidosis and evaluated the drug's effects before and with treatment. After thalidomide treatment, all skin biopsies showed decreases in granuloma size and reduction in epidermal thickness. We also observed extensive T cell recruitment into the granulomas, the appearance of multinucleated giant cells, and increased numbers of dermal Langerhans cells (CD1a(+)) and mature dendritic cells (CD83(+) or DC-LAMP(+)). Plasma IL-12 levels increased and remained elevated during the treatment period. We noted increased HLA-DR expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and a corresponding drop in the naive T cell marker CD45RA. Our data suggest that thalidomide treatment of sarcoidosis results in granuloma differentiation to a Th1-type cellular immune response usually associated with protective immunity to tuberculosis and tuberculoid leprosy.

  5. [Characteristics of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme spectrum of the skin in the presence of thermal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nosova, I M; Zaets, T L; Kotkina, T I

    1977-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on rats; a study was made of the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes in the zone of affection and in the adjacent areas of the skin at various periods after the burn infliction; on the 1st--8th day there occurred a reduction of the sum total LDH activity in the scab zone and the underlying tissue by 70--80%, and in the margin and the intact skin--by 50%. These changes were accompanied by shifts in the isoenzymatic LDH spectrum in the affected tissue; the activity of fraction 5 displayed a sharp rise on the 1st day and that of fractions 2 and 3--a reduction, on the contrary, by the 8th day there was seen some diminution of fraction 5 activity and an elevation of fractions 2 and 3 activity. The following picture is observed on the 14th--22nd day after the burn; the sum total LDH activity remains low, the isoenzymatic LDH spectrum in the margin and the scab is largely normalized, whereas in the underlying tissue there persist changes in the LDH enzyme ratio (a reduction of fractions 1--3 activity, and a rise of fraction 5 activity). PMID:912082

  6. [A Case of Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala lecanii-corni Showing a Seasonal Fluctuation of Skin Lesions].

    PubMed

    Tsujioka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Risa; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ogura, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old Japanese female presented to our hospital in March complaining of asymptomatic skin lesions on both cheeks for the past few years. She had been receiving treatment for phlebosclerotic colitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. We identified subcutaneous nodules with scale, erosion, and necrotic crusts on the surface, with one on the right cheek and two on the left. The patient said that the eruptions almost disappeared every summer but always recurred in winter, a phenomenon that we confirmed. Histopathology revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and marked infiltration from various inflammatory cells with a granulomatous reaction in the dermis. Brown fungal elements were scattered around the epidermis and dermis in the form of single spore or toruloid hyphae. We identified the fungus as Exophiala lecanii-corni based on morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as rRNA gene analysis. The strain grew well at 27 ℃, but growth was remarkably suppressed at 33 ℃ and not observed at all at 37 ℃. Treatment with itraconazole 200 mg / day for 6 months resulted in complete remission of the lesions. PMID:26617107

  7. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an

  8. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an

  9. Increased mRNA expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in psoriasis skin lesions and in cultured human keratinocytes exposed to IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Löntz, W; Sirsjö, A; Liu, W; Lindberg, M; Rollman, O; Törmä, H

    1995-02-01

    Because reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various hyperproliferative and inflammatory diseases, the mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was studied in psoriatic skin tissue. By using reverse transcription-PCR we found similar expression of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the involved vs. uninvolved psoriatic skin. In contrast, the level of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA message was consistently higher in lesional psoriatic skin as compared to adjacent uninvolved skin and healthy control skin. Parallel investigation of those cytokines that are thought to be direct or indirect inducers of the MnSOD activity revealed an increased mRNA expression of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF in lesional psoriatic skin. To study if these cytokines exert a direct effect on dismutase expression in epidermal cells, human keratinocytes in culture were challenged with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF. It was found that IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, but not GM-CSF, induced the mRNA expression of MnSOD, and an additive effect was demonstrated for the two former cytokines. Further, the expression of both CuZnSOD and MnSOD transcripts was similar in cultured keratinocytes maintained at low differentiation (low Ca2+ medium) and cells forced to terminal differentiation (by high Ca2+ medium). Our results indicate that the abnormal expression of MnSOD mRNA in lesional psoriatic skin is not directly linked to the pathologic state of keratinocyte differentiation in the skin. It seems more likely that the cutaneous overexpression of MnSOD in psoriatic epidermis represents a protective cellular response evoked by cytokines released from inflammatory cells invading the diseased skin. PMID:7744320

  10. Dynamic markers based on blood perfusion fluctuations for selecting skin melanocytic lesions for biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Gemma; Stefanovska, Aneta; Pesce, Margherita; Marco Vezzoni, Gian; Loggini, Barbara; Pingitore, Raffaele; Ghiara, Fabrizio; Barachini, Paolo; Cervadoro, Gregorio; Romanelli, Marco; Rossi, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Skin malignant melanoma is a highly angiogenic cancer, necessitating early diagnosis for positive prognosis. The current diagnostic standard of biopsy and histological examination inevitably leads to many unnecessary invasive excisions. Here, we propose a non-invasive method of identification of melanoma based on blood flow dynamics. We consider a wide frequency range from 0.005-2 Hz associated with both local vascular regulation and effects of cardiac pulsation. Combining uniquely the power of oscillations associated with individual physiological processes we obtain a marker which distinguishes between melanoma and atypical nevi with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.9%. The method reveals valuable functional information about the melanoma microenvironment. It also provides the means for simple, accurate, in vivo distinction between malignant melanoma and atypical nevi, and may lead to a substantial reduction in the number of biopsies currently undertaken.

  11. Dynamic markers based on blood perfusion fluctuations for selecting skin melanocytic lesions for biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Gemma; Stefanovska, Aneta; Pesce, Margherita; Marco Vezzoni, Gian; Loggini, Barbara; Pingitore, Raffaele; Ghiara, Fabrizio; Barachini, Paolo; Cervadoro, Gregorio; Romanelli, Marco; Rossi, Marco

    2015-08-11

    Skin malignant melanoma is a highly angiogenic cancer, necessitating early diagnosis for positive prognosis. The current diagnostic standard of biopsy and histological examination inevitably leads to many unnecessary invasive excisions. Here, we propose a non-invasive method of identification of melanoma based on blood flow dynamics. We consider a wide frequency range from 0.005-2 Hz associated with both local vascular regulation and effects of cardiac pulsation. Combining uniquely the power of oscillations associated with individual physiological processes we obtain a marker which distinguishes between melanoma and atypical nevi with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.9%. The method reveals valuable functional information about the melanoma microenvironment. It also provides the means for simple, accurate, in vivo distinction between malignant melanoma and atypical nevi, and may lead to a substantial reduction in the number of biopsies currently undertaken.

  12. VivaScope® 1500 and 3000 systems for detecting and monitoring skin lesions: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Steven J; Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Osei-Assibey, George; Marceniuk, Gemma; Wakefield, Victoria; Karner, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the UK. The main risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or the use of sunbeds. Patients with suspicious skin lesions are first examined with a dermoscope. After examination, those with non-cancerous lesions are discharged, but lesions that are still considered clinically suspicious are surgically removed. VivaScope(®) is a non-invasive technology designed to be used in conjunction with dermoscopy to provide a more accurate diagnosis, leading to fewer biopsies of benign lesions or to provide more accurate presurgical margins reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of VivaScope(®) 1500 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA; Lucid Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; or Lucid Inc., MAVIG GmbH, Munich, Germany) and VivaScope(®) 3000 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA) in the diagnosis of equivocal skin lesions, and VivaScope 3000 in lesion margin delineation prior to surgical excision of lesions. DATA SOURCES Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library) were searched on 14 October 2014, reference lists of included papers were assessed and clinical experts were contacted for additional information on published and unpublished studies. METHODS A systematic review was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies evaluating dermoscopy plus VivaScope, or VivaScope alone, with histopathology as the reference test. A probabilistic de novo economic model was developed to synthesise the available data on costs and clinical outcomes from the UK NHS perspective. All costs were expressed as 2014 prices. RESULTS Sixteen studies were included in the review, but they were too heterogeneous to be combined in a meta-analysis. One of two diagnostic studies that were deemed most representative of UK clinical practice reported that dermoscopy plus VivaScope 1500

  13. VivaScope® 1500 and 3000 systems for detecting and monitoring skin lesions: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Steven J; Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Osei-Assibey, George; Marceniuk, Gemma; Wakefield, Victoria; Karner, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the UK. The main risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or the use of sunbeds. Patients with suspicious skin lesions are first examined with a dermoscope. After examination, those with non-cancerous lesions are discharged, but lesions that are still considered clinically suspicious are surgically removed. VivaScope(®) is a non-invasive technology designed to be used in conjunction with dermoscopy to provide a more accurate diagnosis, leading to fewer biopsies of benign lesions or to provide more accurate presurgical margins reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of VivaScope(®) 1500 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA; Lucid Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; or Lucid Inc., MAVIG GmbH, Munich, Germany) and VivaScope(®) 3000 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA) in the diagnosis of equivocal skin lesions, and VivaScope 3000 in lesion margin delineation prior to surgical excision of lesions. DATA SOURCES Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library) were searched on 14 October 2014, reference lists of included papers were assessed and clinical experts were contacted for additional information on published and unpublished studies. METHODS A systematic review was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies evaluating dermoscopy plus VivaScope, or VivaScope alone, with histopathology as the reference test. A probabilistic de novo economic model was developed to synthesise the available data on costs and clinical outcomes from the UK NHS perspective. All costs were expressed as 2014 prices. RESULTS Sixteen studies were included in the review, but they were too heterogeneous to be combined in a meta-analysis. One of two diagnostic studies that were deemed most representative of UK clinical practice reported that dermoscopy plus VivaScope 1500

  14. Correspondence between Pigmented Lesions Identified by Melanoma Patients Trained to Perform Partner-Assisted Skin Self-Examination and Dermatological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Robinson, June K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin-self examination (SSE) training interventions can increase understanding of melanoma early detection criteria and promote SSE. However, there remains a need to evaluate whether intervention participants can apply such early detection skills to accurately identify concerning, or potentially malignant, pigmented lesions during full body SSE. Methods We assessed SSE accuracy using data from a randomized control trial of a SSE skills training intervention designed to promote partner-assisted SSE among melanoma patients. In the trial, patient-partner pairs were administered the training intervention and performed monthly SSE to identify, evaluate, and track concerning pigmented skin lesions. Patients received a total body skin examination by a dermatologist approximately 4-months post-intervention. SSE accuracy was assessed as the correspondence between the specific concerning pigmented lesions identified by 274 study pairs during SSE with those identified during dermatological examination. We also examined whether lesions that were biopsied during the study were identified prior to biopsy during SSE. Results Approximately 3 in 4 of the concerning lesions identified by pairs during SSE were also identified during the dermatological exam. There were 81 biopsies performed during the study and pairs had identified 73% of the corresponding lesions during SSE. Of the 5 melanoma detected, 3 were identified during SSE. Conclusion Melanoma patients and partner taught to do SSE using an evidence-based program developed a high degree of correspondence with the study dermatologist in identifying concerning lesions. Impact This study provides novel evidence that supports the accuracy of full-body SSE for the patient identification of concerning lesions. PMID:26063475

  15. [Terbinafine : Drug-induced lupus erythematodes and triggering of psoriatic skin lesions].

    PubMed

    Mayser, P

    2016-09-01

    Based on the technical information that oral terbinafine must be used with caution in patients with pre-existing psoriasis or lupus erythematosus, the literature was summarized. Terbinafine belongs to the drugs able to induce subcutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE)-with a relatively high risk. The clinical picture of terbinafine-induced SCLE may be highly variable and can also include erythema exsudativum multiforme-like or bullous lesions. Thus, differentiation of terbinafine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis may be difficult. Therefore, terbinafine should be prescribed with caution in patients who show light sensitivity, arthralgias, positive antinuclear antibodies or have a history of SLE or SCLE. Case reports include wide-spread, but mostly nonlife-threatening courses, which did not require systemic therapy with steroids or antimalarials in every case. Terbinafine is also able to induce or to aggravate psoriasis. The latency period seems to be rather short (<4 weeks). Terbinafine therefore is not first choice if a systemic therapy with antimycotics is indicated in a patient with psoriasis or psoriatic diathesis. Azole derivatives according to the guidelines may be used as an alternative. PMID:27455869

  16. Asymmetric stem-cell division ensures sustained keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriatic skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    JIA, HAI-YAN; SHI, YING; LUO, LONG-FEI; JIANG, GUAN; ZHOU, QIONG; XU, SHI-ZHENG; LEI, TIE-CHI

    2016-01-01

    Excessive expansion of the transit-amplifying (TA) cell compartment is a distinct morphological characteristic of psoriatic epidermal hyperplasia. In order to examine the activation of basal stem cells and how they replenish such an enlarged compartment of TA cells in psoriatic epidermis, we utilized a BrdU labeling method to monitor mitotic stem cells in a mouse model of psoriasiform dermatitis, which was induced by imiquimod. Our results showed that perpendicular and parallel cell division characteristics of dividing stem cells existed in the inflamed epidermis. When we analyzed template-DNA strand segregation in trypsin-dissociated human psoriatic keratinocytes using BrdU pulse-chase labeling, we found that the percentage of asymmetric segregation of BrdU was significantly increased in the cell pairs of psoriatic epidermal cells compared with normal epidermal cells. Furthermore, we also examined the effects of both interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-22 cytokines on the differentiation status of cultured human keratinocytes. The results indicated that both cytokines had synergistic effects on passage-one epidermal cell sheets derived from skin explants and also on cultured keratinocytes, were involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated stem cell phenotype, and these results suggest an efficient mechanism for preventing the premature loss of basal stem-cell pools in the pro-inflammatory cytokine-enriched milieu of the psoriatic epidermis. Our findings suggest that inhibition of hyperactive stem cells represents a potential therapeutic target to combat recalcitrant epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis. PMID:26707630

  17. Spotlight on talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, Marlana

    2016-01-01

    On October 27, 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), a first in class intralesional oncolytic virotherapy, was granted the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of melanoma in the skin and lymph nodes. Its approval has added yet another therapeutic option to the growing list of effective therapies for melanoma. Though the Phase III OPTiM trial has demonstrated its efficacy as a single agent, the target patient population remains narrow. With numerous effective and tolerable treatments available for unresectable and metastatic melanoma, intralesional therapies such as T-VEC are still finding their niche. T-VEC is now widely accepted as option for treatment; however, its combination with various other agents in an effort to expand its use and synergize with other interventions is still being explored. This article will review the pre-clinical and clinical work that eventually led to the Food and Drug Administration approval of this first-in-class agent, as well as address concerns about clinical application and ongoing research. PMID:27785448

  18. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic.

  19. An 8-month-old boy with purpuric skin lesions. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Eric P; Matiz, Catalina; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy 8-month-old Hispanic boy presented with a 5-day history of an erythematous, non-pruritic papular eruption on both legs. The eruption was initially diagnosed as impetigo by his primary care practitioner but progressed despite trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole therapy, with extension to the face, trunk, and all extremities. When the patient subsequently developed a fever of 100.8° F, emesis, diarrhea, and upper respiratory symptoms, he was referred to the pediatric dermatology clinic for evaluation. Further questioning revealed a 3-day febrile illness 6 weeks prior to presentation that was treated with ceftriaxone. Review of systems failed to identify any hematuria, blood in stool, or abdominal pain, but the parents did report swelling of the extremities and face, as well as decreased oral intake. On examination, the infant was in no apparent distress, afebrile, and had mild rhinorrhea. His mucous membranes were unaffected, and no lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly was noted. Cutaneous exam revealed numerous edematous erythematous to violaceous plaques on the cheeks, arms, buttocks, and legs with minimal involvement of the trunk. Several lesions on the arms had a distinct cockade (rosette or iris-like) pattern. There were no vesicles, bullae, or necrosis. Edema of the bilateral lower extremities was noted. Laboratory work up revealed a normal complete blood count (CBC), comprehensive metabolic panel, creatinine, and urinalysis. Platelets were borderline elevated at 439 TH/μL (140-440 TH/μL), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein (CRP) were minimally elevated at 22 mm (0-15 mm) and 3.1 mg/dL (0.0-0.99 mg/dL), respectively. PMID:24549086

  20. SU-E-T-560: Commissioning An HDR Freiburg Flap Applicator for Skin Lesion Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, K; Li, B; Lerma, F; Aroumougame, V; Sarfaraz, M; Laser, B; Jacobs, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flexible Freiburg flap used with high dose rate afterloaders is easy to cut into any size for any body site and to dwell with a precise source position, conforms to curved skin surface and then to the planned target. However, unlike intracavity or interstitial situations, incomplete scatter environment due to flap applicators exposed to air might lead to dose difference between the delivered and planned. This research is focused on the dose deviation of incomplete scatter versus full scatter. Methods: A 12x12 cm of Freiburg flap applicator was used for the validation. A Nucletron Oncentra Brachy Ver. 4.3 treatment planning system (TPS) was used for treatment planning. However, no heterogeneity correction incorporated into the brachytherap TPS needs to be considered. A Philips Brilliance CT Big Bore was employed for CT scan. Radiation was delivered using a Nucletron HDR remote afterloader system. A 10cm bolus was used to cover the flap for obtaining a full scatter. An OSL, ion chamber, and Gafchromic EBT2 film were used for commissioning the flap applicator. Results: The applicator calibration at 5mm depth was performed using an OSL dosimeter. Applicator source dwelling positions with 1D and 2D array exposed to and recorded by Gafchromic EBT2 film showed an agreement within 1mm. 1D array of Freiburg flap exhibited 4.2% cooler in dose with incomplete scatter than full scatter. 2D array showed 7.1% lower in dose for incomplete scatter than full scatter. The deviation was found more than 10% beyond 8cm in depth. Conclusion: Significant dose deviation caused by the incomplete scatter environment was found to be 7.1% at 1cm depth. This deviation was increased with increasing depth. The inaccuracy resulted from the incomplete scatter can be fixed by either placing a bolus on the top of the flap or making the plan at least 7% hotter.

  1. Influence of housing and season on pubertal development, boar taint compounds and skin lesions of male pigs.

    PubMed

    Prunier, A; Brillouët, A; Merlot, E; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Tallet, C

    2013-12-01

    Rearing entire pigs may lead to meat quality and welfare problems in relation to pubertal development. A better knowledge of the sources of variation of pubertal development, behaviour and boar taint is needed before generalizing entire male pigs. From 84 days of age, entire male pigs were reared in groups of 10 either in a conventional (C, 1 m²/animal, slatted floor) or an enriched (E, 2.5 m²/animal, straw bedding, outdoor run) housing during spring or autumn and fed ad libitum (n=10/housing/season). Mounting behaviour was observed for 3 h during the third (M3), fourth (M4) and fifth (M5) months of age. The total number of skin lesions was counted on both sides of the pigs 1 day before the behavioural recordings. The time spent in the outdoor run was also recorded during 3 days per month. The animals were slaughtered at 161±1 days of age (122±9 kg live weight). Blood samples were collected at 89 (M3), 119 (M4) and 152 (M5) days of age and at slaughter for the testosterone and oestradiol measurements. The testes were collected at slaughter, freed from the surrounding tissues and weighed. The fat samples were collected for the androstenone and skatole concentration measurement. Plasma testosterone and oestradiol-17β (oestradiol), fat androstenone and skatole and weight of the testes did not differ between the housing systems. Plasma testosterone (8.3 v. 3.9 nmol/l, P<0.05) and oestradiol (12.0 v. 9.2 pmol/l, P<0.1) at M3, fat skatole (0.124 v. 0.043, P<0.03) and weight of the testes (587 v. 512 g, P<0.05) were higher in the autumn than in the spring trial, suggesting that the pubertal development was accelerated. The number of received mounting behaviours was slightly higher in the autumn (P=0.08) trial and was markedly higher in the E than in the C environment (P<0.003). Skin lesions were more numerous in the C than in the E housing at M4 and M5 and in the spring than in the autumn trial at M3 and M4 (P<0.05). Fat androstenone and the number of performed

  2. Genetic associations of short- and long-term aggressiveness identified by skin lesion with growth, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Desire, S; Turner, S P; D'Eath, R B; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Lewis, C R G; Roehe, R

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships between skin lesion traits in group housed growing pigs as a measure of short- (in a newly mixed group) and long- (in a socially stable group) term aggression and commonly used commercial performance measures: growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass traits. Data on 2,413 growing pigs (138 groups) were available. Pigs were mixed into new social groups of 18 animals, and skin lesions were counted 24 h (SL24h) and 5 wk (SL5wk) postmixing. The animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters for skin lesion traits, test daily gain, lifetime daily gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency (calculated as test daily gain divided by daily feed intake), loin depth, back fat, and HCW. Skin lesions had a heritable component, ranging from 0.08 for anterior SL24h to 0.22 for central SL5wk and would, therefore, be suitable as a method of phenotyping aggression for selection purposes. Significant positive genetic correlations were found between SL24h and SL5wk (0.46 to 0.81). Positive genetic correlations were also found between SL24h (central and posterior body regions) or SL5wk (all body regions) and the production traits lifetime daily gain, test daily gain, and HCW (0.29 to 0.54). Central SL24h, anterior SL5wk, and posterior SL5wk were found to correlate positively with feed efficiency (0.39 to 0.50), suggesting that pigs with more lesions convert feed more efficiently. Where significant, the magnitude of phenotypic correlations was low but positive (0.07 to 0.10). These results suggest that, genetically, animals that receive many lesions show improved performance compared to those with few lesions, except for anterior SL24h, which had previously been shown to be genetically positively correlated with the initiation of nonreciprocal attacks. It may, therefore, be possible, via selection against anterior skin lesions at mixing, to reduce this form of 1-sided aggression without adversely

  3. Green tea polyphenol induces caspase 14 in epidermal keratinocytes via MAPK pathways and reduces psoriasiform lesions in the flaky skin mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen; Dickinson, Douglas; Borke, James; Walsh, Douglas S; Wood, Joseph; Qin, Haiyan; Winger, Julia; Pearl, Henna; Schuster, George; Bollag, Wendy B

    2007-08-01

    Psoriasiform lesions are characterized by hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, accompanied by inflammation, leading to a disrupted skin barrier with an abnormal stratum corneum. The expression and proteolytic processing of caspase 14, a member of the caspase family which is associated with epithelial cell differentiation, planned cell death, and barrier formation, is altered in psoriatic epidermis. We recently reported that human psoriatic tissues lack normal expression of caspase 14 [J Dermatol Sci37 (2005) 61], and caspase 14 is induced by EGCG, a green tea polyphenol (GTP), in exponentially growing normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) [J Pharmacol Exp Ther315 (2005) 805]. This suggests that GTPs may have beneficial effects on psoriasiform lesions. The current study aimed to determine whether MAPK pathways are required for GTP-induced caspase 14 expression in NHEK and if GTPs can modulate the expression of pathological markers in the psoriasiform lesions that develop in the flaky skin mouse. The results indicate that the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways are required for EGCG-induced expression of caspase 14 in NHEK. Importantly, topical application of 0.5% GTPs significantly reduced the symptoms of epidermal pathology in the flaky skin mice, associated with efficient caspase 14 processing and reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels. This suggests that GTP-activated pathways may be potential targets for novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of some psoriasiform skin disorders.

  4. Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms.

    PubMed

    Lualdi, M; Colombo, A; Carrara, M; Scienza, L; Tomatis, S; Marchesini, R

    2006-12-01

    Different technological tools have been developed to aid in the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, including cameras working with conventional RGB colour systems, epiluminescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using visible and near infrared wavelengths. All the different procedures should provide in an objective and reproducible fashion quantitative measurements of the colour and shape features of a given skin mole. At present, many devices have been introduced in experimental stages for clinical diagnosis, mainly used to provide to the clinicians an objective, computer-assisted second opinion. As for any diagnostic instruments, optical devices should also be subjected to a dedicated quality assurance protocol in order to evaluate the response repeatability of each device (intra-instrument agreement) and to check the accordance among the responses of different devices (inter-instrument agreement). The aim of this study was to design a quality assurance protocol for optical devices dedicated to image analysis of pigmented skin lesions and, in case, to detect cutaneous melanoma by using suitable tissue-like phantoms as standard references that enable testing of both hardware and software components. As an example, we report the results of intra-instrument and inter-instrument agreement when the protocol was applied on a series of 30 SpectroShade instruments, a novel optical device based on multi-spectral image analysis of colour and shape features of pigmented skin lesion.

  5. Effect of selenium and vitamin e supplementation on plasma protein carbonyl levels in patients with arsenic-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Julie; Argos, Maria; Verret, Wendy; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Santella, Regina M; Ahsan, Habibul

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 35 million people in Bangladesh have been chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water and are at risk of an array of adverse health conditions. The mechanisms of arsenic toxicity have not been well established; however, oxidative stress has been one commonly proposed pathway. In this study, we evaluated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on plasma protein oxidation among patients with arsenical skin lesions participating in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of vitamin E and selenium. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 treatments arms (vitamin E, selenium, combination, or placebo) and were treated for a 6-mo period. We observed a dose-dependent increase in adjusted protein carbonyl levels by arsenic exposure status in the pretreatment samples, although trends were not statistically significant. Following the 6-mo intervention, there was a decrease in protein carbonyl levels in each treatment group, although no resultant decrease was significantly different from that seen in the placebo group. Although we did not see a notable effect of selenium or vitamin E supplementation on changes in protein carbonyl levels, these preliminary data demonstrate a feasible methodological approach for the assessment of plasma protein carbonyls in relation to environmental toxicants in a human population and their potential use as endpoints in intervention trials.

  6. Atopic dermatitis-associated protein interaction network lead to new insights in chronic sulfur mustard skin lesion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Jafari, Mohieddin; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Davoodi, Seyed-Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Chronic sulfur mustard skin lesions (CSMSLs) are the most common complications of sulfur mustard exposure; however, its mechanism is not completely understood.According to clinical signs, there are similarities between CSMSL and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, proteomic results of AD were reviewed and the AD-associated protein-protein interaction network (PIN) was analyzed. According to centrality measurements, 16 proteins were designated as pivotal elements in AD mechanisms. Interestingly, most of these proteins had been reported in some sulfur mustard-related studies in late and acute phases separately. Based on the gene enrichment analysis, aging, cell response to stress, cancer, Toll- and NOD-like receptor and apoptosis signaling pathways have the greatest impact on the disease. By the analysis of directed protein interaction networks, it is concluded that TNF, IL-6, AKT1, NOS3 and CDKN1A are the most important proteins. It is possible that these proteins play role in the shared complications of AD and CSMSL including xerosis and itching. PMID:24117202

  7. Utility of Non-rule-based Visual Matching as a Strategy to Allow Novices to Achieve Skin Lesion Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    ALDRIDGE, R. Benjamin; GLODZIK, Dominik; BALLERINI, Lucia; FISHER, Robert B.; REES, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Non-analytical reasoning is thought to play a key role in dermatology diagnosis. Considering its potential importance, surprisingly little work has been done to research whether similar identification processes can be supported in non-experts. We describe here a prototype diagnostic support software, which we have used to examine the ability of medical students (at the beginning and end of a dermatology attachment) and lay volunteers, to diagnose 12 images of common skin lesions. Overall, the non-experts using the software had a diagnostic accuracy of 98% (923/936) compared with 33% for the control group (215/648) (Wilcoxon p < 0.0001). We have demonstrated, within the constraints of a simplified clinical model, that novices’ diagnostic scores are significantly increased by the use of a structured image database coupled with matching of index and referent images. The novices achieve this high degree of accuracy without any use of explicit definitions of likeness or rule-based strategies. PMID:21461552

  8. Arsenic-induced skin lesions among Atacameño people in Northern Chile despite good nutrition and centuries of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A H; Arroyo, A P; Mazumder, D N; Kosnett, M J; Hernandez, A L; Beeris, M; Smith, M M; Moore, L E

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that the indigenous Atacameño people in Northern Chile might be protected from the health effects of arsenic in drinking water because of many centuries of exposure. Here we report on the first intensive investigation of arsenic-induced skin lesions in this population. We selected 11 families (44 participants) from the village of Chiu Chiu, which is supplied with water containing between 750 and 800 microg/L inorganic arsenic. For comparison, 8 families (31 participants) were also selected from a village where the water contains approximately 10 microg/L inorganic arsenic. After being transported to the nearest city for blind assessment, participants were examined by four physicians with experience in studying arsenic-induced lesions. Four of the six men from the exposed village, who had been drinking the contaminated water for more than 20 years, were diagnosed with skin lesions due to arsenic, but none of the women had definite lesions. A 13-year-old girl had definite skin pigmentation changes due to arsenic, and a 19-year-old boy had both pigmentation changes and keratoses on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet. Family interviews identified a wide range of fruits and vegetables consumed daily by the affected participants, as well as the weekly intake of red meat and chicken. However, the prevalence of skin lesions among men and children in the small population studied was similar to that reported with corresponding arsenic drinking water concentrations in both Taiwan and West Bengal, India--populations in which extensive malnutrition has been thought to increase susceptibility. PMID:10903614

  9. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA expression in epidermal keratinocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, José Ronaldo M; Fuzii, Hellen T; Kayser, Cristiane; Alberto, Fernando L; Soares, Fernando A; Sato, Emília I; Andrade, Luís Eduardo C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytokine gene expression in keratinocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). INTRODUCTION: Keratinocytes represent 95% of epidermal cells and can secrete several cytokines. METHODS: Keratinocytes were obtained by laser microdissection from 21 patients with SLE (10 discoid and 11 acute lesions) at involved and uninvolved sites. All patients were receiving a low/moderate prednisone dose and 18 were receiving chloroquine diphosphate. IL-2, IL-5, TNF-α and IFN-γ gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and expressed as the ratio (R) to a pool of skin samples from 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Heterogeneity in cytokine gene expression was found among patients with SLE. Eighteen of 38 valid SLE samples (47%) presented overexpression (R>1) of at least one cytokine. Lesional skin samples tended to show higher cytokine expression than samples from uninvolved skin (p = 0.06). IL-5 and IFN-γ were the most commonly overexpressed cytokines. Samples with cytokine overexpression corresponded to more extensive and severe lesions. Prednisone dose did not differ between samples without cytokine overexpression (15.71±3.45 mg/day) and those with overexpressed cytokines (12.68±5.41 mg/day) (p = 0.216). Samples from all patients not receiving diphosphate chloroquine had at least one overexpressed cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous keratinocyte cytokine gene expression reflects the complex immunological and inflammatory background in SLE. Patients with severe/extensive skin lesions showed a higher frequency of cytokine gene overexpression. Increased IFN-γ and IL-5 expression suggests that Th1 and Th2 cells are involved in SLE skin inflammation. The possibility that prednisone and antimalarial drugs may have contributed to low cytokine gene expression in some samples cannot be ruled out. PMID:21437440

  10. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  11. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  12. Ameliorative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyoung-Min; Kim, Seung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Sik; Kim, Bum Hoi; Lee, Hai Woong; Lee, Yong Tae; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Folium has been used to treat skin diseases, including eczema and dermatitis, in South Korean medicine. The present study investigated the curative effects of Artemisia argyi Folium extract (AAFE) on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in a BALB/c mouse model. Briefly, the dorsal skin of the BALB/c mice was sensitized three times with DNCB, whereas the ears were challenged twice. Repeated treatment with DNCB induced AD-like lesions. The effects of AAFE on AD-like lesions were evaluated by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed. Treatment with AAFE reduced AD-like lesions, as determined by clinical observation, histopathological analysis, and detection of the serum levels of histamine, immunoglobulin E and cytokines. With regards to its mechanism of action, AAFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lck/yes-related novel tyrosine kinase (Lyn), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and IκBα, which have essential roles in the production of various cytokines in lymph nodes. The suppressive activity of AAFE may be due to the inhibition of a series of immunopathological events, including the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The results of the present study strongly suggest that AAFE exerts an anti-AD effect by inhibiting the Lyn, Syk, MAPKs, PI3K/Akt and IκBα pathways. Therefore, AAFE may be considered an effective herbal remedy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27571702

  13. Application of concentrated deep sea water inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mineral water from deep-sea bedrock, formed over thousands of years, is rich in minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and others. Our present study was to investigate the preventive effects of natural deep-sea water on developing atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods We elicited AD by application of DNCB (2,4-dinitro-chlorobezene) in Nc/Nga mouse dorsal skin. Deep Sea water (DSW) was filtered and concentrated by a nanofiltration process and reverse osmosis. We applied concentrated DSW (CDSW) to lesions five times per week for six weeks, followed by evaluation. 1% pimecrolimus ointment was used as positive control. The severity of skin lesions was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in the serum were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ spleen lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Results DNCB-treated mice showed atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions. Treatment of mice with CDSW reduced the severity of symptoms in the skin lesions, including edema, erythema, dryness, itching, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Histological analyses demonstrated that epidermal thickness and infiltration of inflammatory cells were decreased after CDSW treatment. Given these interesting observations, we further evaluated the effect of CDSW on immune responses in this AD model. Treatment AD mice with CDSW inhibited up-regulation of IgE, histamine, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. Also, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocyte was down-regulated after treatment with CDSW. Finally, cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-10 which are important for Th2 cell development, were reduced. Conclusions Our data suggests that topical application of CDSW could be useful in preventing the development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:22834904

  14. The feasibility of using manual segmentation in a multifeature computer-aided diagnosis system for classification of skin lesions: a retrospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Adam; Chen, Yin-Chun; Lin, Chi-Wei; Tsai, John; Yang, Chung-Kai; Huang, Yin-Tseng; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of manual segmentation by users of different backgrounds in a previously developed multifeature computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system to classify melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions based on conventional digital photographic images. Methods In total, 347 conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions were retrospectively reviewed, and manually segmented by two groups of physicians, dermatologists and general practitioners, as well as by an automated segmentation software program, JSEG. The performance of CADx based on inputs from these two groups of physicians and that of the JSEG program was compared using feature agreement analysis. Results The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification of benign or malignant skin lesions based were comparable on individual segmentation by the gold standard (0.893, 95% CI 0.856 to 0.930), dermatologists (0.886, 95% CI 0.863 to 0.908), general practitioners (0.883, 95% CI 0.864 to 0.903) and JSEG (0.856, 95% CI 0.812 to 0.899). The agreement in the malignancy probability scores among the physicians was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.91). By selecting an optimal cut-off value of malignancy probability score, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.07% and 81.47% for dermatologists and 79.90% and 80.20% for general practitioners. Conclusions This study suggests that manual segmentation by general practitioners is feasible in the described CADx system for classifying benign and malignant skin lesions. PMID:25941190

  15. Design, Development and Characterization of Topical Microemulsions of 5-Fluorouracil for the Treatment of Non Melanoma Skin Cancer and its Precursor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of non melanoma skin cancer and its precancerous skin lesions is associated with severe topical and systemic toxicity. So, it has become necessary to develop an efficient novel delivery system with less side effects and better patient compliance. Topical w/o microemulsion of 5-FU were prepared using sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), sorbitan trioleate (Span 85), polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with different oils such as oleic acid, triacetin and isopropyl myristate (IPM). Evaluation tests of microemulsions like determination of thermodynamic stability, droplet size, viscosity, pH, conductivity and ex vivo release studies were performed. Spherical shape and Droplet size of microemulsion, which was around 100nm, was supported by Transmission electron microscopy. The lesser flux across skin for all microemulsion batches and higher skin retention of 5-FU loaded in microemulsion in comparison to topical 5-FU marketed cream resulted in better control over the drug release. Skin irritation studies on rats were performed to evaluate chronic toxicity of optimized microemulsion formulation on skin for 21 days and were compared with control group. Formalin (0.8%) was taken as standard irritant. Rat skin was observed for erythema and edema and the formulation was found safe for chronic use (p˃0.01). Histopathology studies showed the epidermal and dermal layers to be normal, showing the 5-FU microemulsion formulation to be safe for topical use. Better control of the drug release through skin can curtail topical and systemic toxicity which is supported by the skin irritation and histopathology studies. PMID:26343142

  16. The simultaneous detection of mitochondrial DNA damage from sun-exposed skin of three whale species and its association with UV-induced microscopic lesions and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amy; Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gendron, Diane; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Due to life history and physiological constraints, cetaceans (whales) are unable to avoid prolonged exposure to external environmental insults, such as solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). The majority of studies on the effects of UV on skin are restricted to humans and laboratory animals, but it is important to develop tools to understand the effects of UV damage on large mammals such as whales, as these animals are long-lived and widely distributed, and can reflect the effects of UV across a large geographical range. We and others have used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a reliable marker of UV-induced damage particularly in human skin. UV-induced mtDNA strand breaks or lesions accumulate throughout the lifespan of an individual, thus constituting an excellent biomarker for cumulative exposure. Based on our previous studies in human skin, we have developed for the first time in the literature a quantitative real-time PCR methodology to detect and quantify mtDNA lesions in skin from sun-blistered whales. Furthermore the methodology allows for simultaneous detection of mtDNA damage in different species. Therefore using 44 epidermal mtDNA samples collected from 15 blue whales, 10 fin whales, and 19 sperm whales from the Gulf of California, Mexico, we quantified damage across 4.3 kilobases, a large region of the ~16,400 base pair whale mitochondrial genome. The results show a range of mtDNA damage in the skin of the three different whale species. This previously unreported observation was correlated with apoptotic damage and microscopic lesions, both of which are markers of UV-induced damage. As is the case in human studies, this suggests the potential use of mtDNA as a biomarker for measuring the effect of cumulative UV exposure in whales and may provide a platform to help understand the effects of changing global environmental conditions. PMID:23583579

  17. The simultaneous detection of mitochondrial DNA damage from sun-exposed skin of three whale species and its association with UV-induced microscopic lesions and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amy; Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gendron, Diane; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Due to life history and physiological constraints, cetaceans (whales) are unable to avoid prolonged exposure to external environmental insults, such as solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). The majority of studies on the effects of UV on skin are restricted to humans and laboratory animals, but it is important to develop tools to understand the effects of UV damage on large mammals such as whales, as these animals are long-lived and widely distributed, and can reflect the effects of UV across a large geographical range. We and others have used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a reliable marker of UV-induced damage particularly in human skin. UV-induced mtDNA strand breaks or lesions accumulate throughout the lifespan of an individual, thus constituting an excellent biomarker for cumulative exposure. Based on our previous studies in human skin, we have developed for the first time in the literature a quantitative real-time PCR methodology to detect and quantify mtDNA lesions in skin from sun-blistered whales. Furthermore the methodology allows for simultaneous detection of mtDNA damage in different species. Therefore using 44 epidermal mtDNA samples collected from 15 blue whales, 10 fin whales, and 19 sperm whales from the Gulf of California, Mexico, we quantified damage across 4.3 kilobases, a large region of the ~16,400 base pair whale mitochondrial genome. The results show a range of mtDNA damage in the skin of the three different whale species. This previously unreported observation was correlated with apoptotic damage and microscopic lesions, both of which are markers of UV-induced damage. As is the case in human studies, this suggests the potential use of mtDNA as a biomarker for measuring the effect of cumulative UV exposure in whales and may provide a platform to help understand the effects of changing global environmental conditions.

  18. Prevention of surgical site infection in lower limb skin lesion excisions with single dose oral antibiotic prophylaxis: a prospective randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel C; Heal, Clare F; Buttner, Petra G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of a single perioperative prophylactic 2 g dose of cephalexin in preventing surgical site infection (SSI) following excision of skin lesions from the lower limb. Design Prospective double-blinded placebo-controlled trial testing for difference in infection rates. Setting Primary care in regional North Queensland, Australia. Participants 52 patients undergoing lower limb skin lesion excision. Interventions 2 g dose of cephalexin 30–60 min before excision. Main outcome measures Incidence of SSI. Results Incidence of SSI was 12.5% (95% CI 2.7% to 32.4%) in the cephalexin group compared with 35.7% (95% CI 18.6% to 55.9%) in the placebo group (p=0.064). This represented an absolute reduction of 23.21% (95% CI −0.39% to 46.82%), relative reduction of 65.00% (95% CI −12.70% to 89.13%) and number-needed-to-treat of 4.3. Conclusions Administration of a single 2 g dose of cephalexin 30–60 min before skin lesion excision from the lower limb may produce a reduction in the incidence of infection; however, this study was underpowered to statistically determine this. Trial registration number ACTRN12611000595910. PMID:25079934

  19. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... focused on a very small area. The laser heats the cells in the area being treated until they "burst." There are several types of lasers. Each laser has specific uses. Laser excision can remove: Benign or pre- ...

  20. Localization of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare within a skin lesion of bacillary angiomatosis in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sagerman, P M; Relman, D A; Niroomand, F; Niedt, G W

    1992-09-01

    We report a 39-year-old man who had AIDS and who presented with an unusual cutaneous vascular lesion, which was clinically thought to be Kaposi's sarcoma. Histologically, the lesion was characterized by capillary proliferation and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate that included numerous histiocytes. The lesion was found to contain slender intracellular acid-fast bacilli, as well as plump extracellular Warthin-Starry-positive bacilli. The acid-fast bacilli were confirmed to be Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare by subsequent positive blood cultures for this organism. To further investigate the lesion, polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and sequencing was performed, and the lesion was found to contain DNA sequences identical to those previously established for the agent of bacillary angiomatosis. The lesion is thought to represent a lesion of bacillary angiomatosis with secondary involvement by M. avium-intracellulare.

  1. Hydrogel-gauze dressing for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: development and efficacy study on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Lew, Pit-Chin; Sin, Yong-Boey

    2014-11-01

    Topical emollients are known to provide symptomatic relief for atopic dermatitis. In hospitals, wet-wrap therapy has been shown to benefit children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), but the application of wet-wraps is tedious and time-consuming. Topical emollients have low residence time and often dry out easily. The aim of this work was to develop a hydrogel-gauze dressing that is not only easy to apply but also rehydrates and traps moisture to provide longer relief for AD patients. In this study, a prototype hydrogel-gauze dressing was developed with varying ratios of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) and propylene glycol. The hydrogel-gauze dressings were assessed based on the moisture vapor transmission rate, moisture absorption, mechanical properties and storage stability over three months. Then, the efficacy of the hydrogel-gauze dressing was compared to topical emollients using transgenic NC/Nga mice with AD-like lesions. The NaCMC hydrogel-gauze dressings significantly lowered transepidermal water loss, and the animals displayed a faster recovery, which indicates that hydrogel-gauze dressings can trap moisture more effectively and accelerate AD healing. Hence, we propose that hydrogel-gauze dressings can potentially become an alternative to wet-wrap therapy due to the ease of application and the higher efficacy compared to topical products. PMID:24025072

  2. Improvement of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by IL-4 inhibition of P14 protein isolated from Lactobacillus casei in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Kim, Tai Hoon; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2015-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, with a complex etiology encompassing immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and is exacerbated by a variety of environmental factors, which contribute to its pathogenesis. However, the etiology of AD remains unknown. Recently, reports have documented the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. The LAB, Lactobacillus casei (LC), is frequently used in the treatment of AD. To identify the active component of LC, we screened fractions obtained from the ion exchange chromatography of LC extracts. Using this approach, we identified the candidate protein, P14. We examined whether the P14 protein has anti-atopic properties, using both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that the P14 protein selectively downregulated serum IgE and interleukin-4 cytokine levels, as well as the AD index and scratching score in AD-like NC/Nga mice. In addition, histological examination was also effective in mice. These results suggest that the P14 protein has potential therapeutic effects and that it may also serve as an effective immunomodulatory agent for treating patients with AD. PMID:25687448

  3. Meta-analysis of digital dermoscopy follow-up of melanocytic skin lesions: a study on behalf of the International Dermoscopy Society.

    PubMed

    Salerni, G; Terán, T; Puig, S; Malvehy, J; Zalaudek, I; Argenziano, G; Kittler, H

    2013-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that dermoscopic monitoring of melanocytic lesions allows for the recognition of melanoma in early stages while minimizing the excision of benign lesions. However, it is still pending to determine the real impact of digital follow-up in the clinical management of pigmented lesions. To assess the evidence of follow-up of melanocytic skin lesions with digital dermoscopy in the management of individuals at risk for melanoma by performing a meta-analysis. Medline database was screened, no limits in terms of date or language were applied. Original studies were selected when the following criteria were met: performed in clinical setting with clinical and dermoscopic evaluation made by physicians, data regarding population characteristics included, follow-up strategy used described. Fourteen of 145 retrieved references were retained. Included studies account for a total of 5787 patients (mean 445 per study) and 52,739 lesions monitored (mean per study 4057; range 272-11,396) with a mean of 12 lesions monitored per patient; a total of 4388 lesions (8.3%) were excised. The mean length of follow-up was 30 months. A mean of <1 lesion was excised per patient along the surveillance period. The number needed to monitor (NNM) ranged from 31 to 1008 (mean: 348) among eligible studies. For every additional month of monitoring, 1additional melanoma was detected. Using digital dermoscopy follow-up, the proportion of in situ melanoma and thin melanomas are higher than expected in general population. Chances to detect a melanoma during surveillance increase as the length of follow-up extends.

  4. Burden of skin lesions of arsenicosis at higher exposure through groundwater of taluka Gambat district Khairpur, Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Fatmi, Zafar; Abbasi, Imran Naeem; Ahmed, Mubashir; Kazi, Ambreen; Kayama, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    Prior surveys conducted have found higher proportion of arsenic-contaminated wells in villages along river Indus in Pakistan. This study aims to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions among population exposed to higher exposure in taluka Gambat district Khairpur in Sindh. The cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 to January 2009 among 610 households. A total of 707 water sources (hand pumps/wells) were tested from the villages of union councils of Agra and Jado Wahan for arsenic levels with Quick rapid arsenic field test kits. A total of 110 households exposed to arsenic levels >50 ppb were identified. Case screening for arsenic skin lesions was performed for 610 individuals residing in these 110 high-risk households. Information regarding household and socio-demographic characteristics, height and weight measurements and arsenic exposure assessment were collected. Physical examinations by trained physicians were carried out to diagnose the arsenic skin lesions. After data cleaning, 534 individuals from all age groups were included in the final analysis which had complete exposure and outcome information. Overall prevalence of arsenicosis skin lesions was 13.5 % (72 cases). Of the 534 individuals, 490 (91.8 %) were exposed to arsenic levels of ≥100 ppb in drinking water (8.2 % to >50-99 ppb, 58.6 % to 100-299 ppb, 14.6 % to 300-399 ppb and 18 % to ≥400 ppb). Prevalence rate (per 100 population) of arsenicosis was highest at arsenic levels of 100-199 ppb (15.2 cases) followed by ≥400 ppb (13.5 cases) and 300-399 (12.8 cases). Prevalence rate was higher among females (15.2) compared to males (11.3). Our study reports arsenicosis burden due to exposure to higher arsenic levels in drinking water in Pakistan. Exposure to very high levels of arsenic in drinking water calls for urgent action along river Indus. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with increasing arsenic levels in drinking groundwater. Provision of arsenic-free drinking

  5. Topical skin treatment with Fab fragments of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody suppresses allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Sae-Wong, Chutha; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Kangsanant, Sureeporn; Yoshino, Shin

    2016-05-15

    Fab fragments (Fabs), which lack effector functions due to the absence of the Fc portion, maintain the ability to bind to specific allergens. In the present study, we examined whether Fabs of an allergen-specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) were able to regulate allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. BALB/c mice passively sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE mAb were repeatedly challenged with OVA applied to the skin after sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. Fabs prepared by the digestion of anti-OVA IgG1 mAb (O1-10) with papain were applied to the skin 30min before the OVA challenges followed by measurement of clinical symptoms including erythema/hemorrhage, edema, scarring/dryness, and excoriation/erosion of the skin. Treatment with O1-10 Fabs, but not intact O1-10, showed inhibition of clinical symptoms (P<0.01) induced by the repeated OVA challenges in the sensitized mice; O1-10 Fabs suppressed histological changes such as epidermal hyperplasia (P<0.01) and the accumulation of mast cells (P<0.01) and neutrophils (P<0.01). Furthermore, treatment with O1-10 Fabs inhibited the increase in levels of IL-13 (P<0.01) and IL-17A production (P<0.05) in the lymph nodes of the sensitized mice. Additionally, the increased level of OVA in serum following the repeated OVA challenges in the sensitized mice was reduced by the treatment (P<0.05). These results suggest that topical application of pathogenic allergen-specific IgG1 mAb Fabs to the skin of mice is effective in suppressing allergen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions, suggesting that allergen-specific mAb Fabs could be used as a tool to regulate allergen-induced atopic dermatitis. PMID:26970183

  6. TSLP is differentially regulated by vitamin D3 and cytokines in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Landheer, Janneke; Giovannone, Barbara; Sadekova, Svetlana; Tjabringa, Sandra; Hofstra, Claudia; Dechering, Koen; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Chang, Charlie; Ying, Yu; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Hijnen, DirkJan; Knol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in allergic diseases and is highly expressed in keratinocytes in human lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin. In nonlesional AD skin TSLP expression can be induced by applying house dust mite allergen onto the skin in the atopy patch test. Several studies have demonstrated that the induction of TSLP expression in mouse skin does not only lead to AD-like inflammation of the skin, but also predisposes to severe inflammation of the airways. In mice, TSLP expression can be induced by application of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) analogue calcipotriol and results in the development of eczema-like lesions. The objective is to investigate the effect of VD3 (calcitriol) or calcipotriol on TSLP expression in normal human skin and skin from AD patients. Using multiple ex vivo experimental setups, the effects of calci(po)triol on TSLP expression by normal human skin, and skin from AD patients were investigated and compared to effects of calcipotriol on mouse and non-human primates (NHP) skin. No induction of TSLP expression (mRNA or protein) was observed in human keratinocytes, normal human skin, nonlesional AD skin, or NHP skin samples after stimulation with calcipotriol or topical application of calcitriol. The biological activity of calci(po)triol in human skin samples was demonstrated by the increased expression of the VD3-responsive Cyp24a1 gene. TSLP expression was induced by cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α) in skin samples from all three species. In contrast to the findings in human and NHP, a consistent increase in TSLP expression was confirmed in mouse skin biopsies after stimulation with calcipotriol. VD3 failed to induce expression of TSLP in human or monkey skin in contrast to mouse, implicating careful extrapolation of this often-used mouse model to AD patients. PMID:25866638

  7. Simultaneous assessment of risk factors for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin lesions, with emphasis on sun exposure and related variables.

    PubMed

    Dubin, N; Pasternack, B S; Moseson, M

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to identify differences in risk factors between melanoma and non-melanoma skin lesions. The study group, interviewed from 1979 to 1982, consisted of 289 subjects with melanoma, 75 subjects with non-melanoma sun-related skin lesions and 527 controls. Simultaneous comparison of the three subgroups was accomplished by polychotomous logistic regression. The highest exposure category of lifetime sun exposure was associated with a nearly threefold risk of both melanoma and non-melanoma. Poor tanning was associated with an approximately twofold risk of both disease types. Similarly, northern European ethnicity was associated with an approximately twofold risk of disease. Number of moles on the body exhibited a relationship with melanoma only: having more than 25 moles, compared to their absence, was associated with a thirteenfold risk of melanoma. History of freckling was associated with a twofold risk of melanoma, but no increase in the risk of non-melanoma. Alternatively, mixed indoor-outdoor recreational exposure was associated with a 50% increased risk of non-melanoma, but a 25% decreased risk of melanoma. History of severe sunburn was associated with a twofold risk of non-melanoma only. For history of prior sun-related lesions the nearly sevenfold risk of melanoma was exceeded by the 14-fold risk of non-melanoma.

  8. Elemental analysis of tissue pellets for the differentiation of epidermal lesion and normal skin by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Shin, Sungho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jeong, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    By laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of epidermal lesion and dermis tissue pellets of hairless mouse, it is shown that Ca intensity in the epidermal lesion is higher than that in dermis, whereas Na and K intensities have an opposite tendency. It is demonstrated that epidermal lesion and normal dermis can be differentiated with high selectivity either by univariate or multivariate analysis of LIBS spectra with an intensity ratio difference by factor of 8 or classification accuracy over 0.995, respectively. PMID:27231610

  9. Changes in gene expression profiles in response to selenium supplementation among individuals with arsenic-induced pre-malignant skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kibriya, Muhammad G; Jasmine, Farzana; Argos, Maria; Verret, Wendy J; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Alauddin; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul

    2007-03-01

    The molecular basis and downstream targets of oral selenium supplementation in individuals with elevated risk of cancer due to chronic exposure from environmental carcinogens has been largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated genome-wide differential gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals with pre-malignant arsenic (As)-induced skin lesions before and after 6 months daily oral supplementation of 200 microg L-selenomethionine. The Affymetrix GeneChip Human 133A 2.0 array, containing probes for 22,277 gene transcripts, was used to assess gene expression. Three different normalization methods, RMA (robust multi-chip analysis), GC-RMA and PLIER (Probe logarithmic intensity error), were applied to explore differentially expressed genes. We identified a list of 28 biologically meaningful, significantly differentially expressed genes. Genes up-regulated by selenium supplementation included TNF, IL1B, IL8, SOD2, CXCL2 and several other immunological and oxidative stress-related genes. When mapped to a biological association network, many of the differentially expressed genes were found to regulate functional classes such as fibroblast growth factor, collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase and stromelysin-1, and thus, considered to affect cellular processes like apoptosis, proliferation and others. Many of the significantly up-regulated genes following selenium-supplementation were previously found by us to be down-regulated in a different set of individuals with As-induced skin lesions compared to those without. In conclusion, findings from this study may elucidate the biological effect of selenium supplementation in humans. Additionally, this study suggests that long-term selenium supplementation may revert some of the gene expression changes presumably induced by chronic As exposure in individuals with pre-malignant skin lesions.

  10. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; dos Santos, K.R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD. PMID:25992644

  11. Increased number of skin lesions as a measure of aggression following the mixing of slaughter boars from western Canada assembled for export

    PubMed Central

    Paetkau, Leanne N.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary observational study was conducted to evaluate the animal welfare impacts of holding and mixing on boars; specifically, the need to tusk trim on arrival at assembly. Cull boars assembled in Manitoba from 3 western Canadian provinces were observed without intervention. Although aggression among boars was common, significant physical injury to boars from handling and other boars was rare. Tusk trimming was widely practised in mature boars prior to transport in the population studied. Length of time assembled, number of boars in a pen, temperature, size of boar, and presence of tusk were not associated with change in the skin score of new boars introduced into a pen. Holding groups of previously unfamiliar boars en route to slaughter did not appear to be a significant risk for increased skin lesions in the population studied. Further research is required into the methods and welfare implications to boars subjected to tusk trimming. PMID:18512461

  12. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Portas, M; Mansilla, E; Drago, H; Dubner, D; Radl, A; Coppola, A; Di Giorgio, M

    2016-09-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radiopathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radiopathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy.

  13. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Portas, M; Mansilla, E; Drago, H; Dubner, D; Radl, A; Coppola, A; Di Giorgio, M

    2016-09-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radiopathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radiopathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. PMID:27574323

  14. Blood concentrations of methionine, selenium, beta-carotene, and other micronutrients in a case-control study of arsenic-induced skin lesions in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joyce S; Haque, Reina; Guha Mazumder, D N; Moore, Lee E; Ghosh, Nilima; Samanta, Sambit; Mitra, Soma; Hira-Smith, Meera M; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Basu, Arindam; Liaw, Jane; Smith, Allan H

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that susceptibility to arsenic toxicity could be influenced by micronutrients, in particular selenium, methionine, and beta-carotene. A case-control study was conducted in West Bengal, India, in a region known to have groundwater arsenic contamination, to determine whether differences in micronutrient status contribute to susceptibility to arsenic-induced skin lesions. Micronutrient status was assessed by blood levels of specific micronutrients and metabolic indicators. Blood was obtained from 180 cases with skin lesions and 192 controls. Blood assays measured micronutrients and carotenoids (folate, selenium, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolic indicators such as glucose, cholesterol, transthyretin, amino acids, and proteins potentially associated with methylation (cysteine, homocysteine, methionine, glutathione). The distributions of nutrient concentrations were similar in cases and controls. The median selenium concentrations in cases and controls were both 1.15 micromol/L, and there was little evidence of differences in other micronutrients. Odds ratios (ORs) for arsenic-induced skin lesions were estimated for each quartile of nutrient concentrations, using the quartile with the highest nutrient level as the referent group. There were no clear trends associated with deficiencies of any micronutrient or metabolic indicator. For decreasing quartiles of selenium, the OR estimates were 1.00, 0.67, 0.99, 0.80; P=0.81; for methionine, the OR estimates were 1.00, 0.83, 0.78, 0.72; P=0.29. For beta-carotene, the ORs were 1.00, 0.53, 0.51, 0.96, demonstrating no increased risk at the lower quartiles. The measured micronutrients and metabolic indicators investigated do not appear to modify the risk of developing arsenic-induced skin lesions. The lack of any trend of increasing risk with lower selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene concentrations

  15. Clinically-Relevant Cutaneous Lesions by Nitrogen Mustard: Useful Biomarkers of Vesicants Skin Injury in SKH-1 Hairless and C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Inturi, Swetha; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of clinically applicable biomarkers to screen therapies in laboratory is a limitation in the development of countermeasures against cutaneous injuries by chemical weapon, sulfur mustard (SM), and its analog nitrogen mustard (NM). Consequently, we assessed NM-caused progression of clinical cutaneous lesions; notably, skin injury with NM is comparable to SM. Exposure of SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 (haired) mice to NM (3.2 mg) for 12–120 h caused clinical sequelae of toxicity, including microblister formation, edema, erythema, altered pigmentation, wounding, xerosis and scaly dry skin. These toxic effects of NM were similar in both mouse strains, except that wounding and altered pigmentation at 12–24 h and appearance of dry skin at 24 and 72 h post-NM exposure were more pronounced in C57BL/6 compared to SKH-1 mice. Conversely, edema, erythema and microblister formation were more prominent in SKH-1 than C57BL/6 mice at 24–72 h after NM exposure. In addition, 40–60% mortality was observed following 120 h of NM exposure in the both mouse strains. Overall, these toxic effects of NM are comparable to those reported in humans and other animal species with SM, and thus represent clinically-relevant cutaneous injury endpoints in screening and optimization of therapies for skin injuries by vesicating agents. PMID:23826320

  16. CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and skin lesions of psoriasis patients and their correlations with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J.; Ding, Y.; Yi, X.; Zheng, J.

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and increasing evidence indicates that B cells also play an important role. The mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. We evaluated the ratios of CD19+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 157 patients with psoriasis (65 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 32 patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, 30 patients with arthropathic psoriasis, and 30 patients with pustular psoriasis) and 35 healthy controls (HCs). Ratios of CD19+ B cells in skin lesions were compared with non-lesions in 7 erythrodermic psoriasis patients. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to measure disease severity. CD19+ B cell ratios in PBMCs from psoriasis vulgaris (at both the active and stationary stage) and arthropathic psoriasis patients were higher compared with HCs (P<0.01), but ratios were lower in erythrodermic and pustular psoriasis patients (P<0.01). CD19+ B cell ratios in erythrodermic psoriasis skin lesions were higher than in non-lesion areas (P<0.001). Different subsets of CD19+CD40+, CD19+CD44+, CD19+CD80+, CD19+CD86+, CD19+CD11b+, and CD19+HLA-DR+ B cells in PBMCs were observed in different psoriasis clinical subtypes. PASI scores were positively correlated with CD19+ B cell ratios in psoriasis vulgaris and arthropathic psoriasis cases (r=0.871 and r=0.692, respectively, P<0.01), but were negatively correlated in pustular psoriasis (r=-0.569, P<0.01). The results indicated that similar to T cells, B cells activation may also play important roles in different pathological stages of psoriasis. PMID:27532281

  17. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  18. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 368–385 nm) elicits a distinct orange–yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange–yellow wing fluorescence (n = 80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n = 88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n = 22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n = 40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  19. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S

    2014-07-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 366-385 nm) elicits a distinct orange-yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange-yellow wing fluorescence (n=80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n=88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n=22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n=40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS. PMID:24854396

  20. Pattern of inflammatory response to Loxosceles intermedia venom in distinct mouse strains: a key element to understand skin lesions and dermonecrosis by poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M F; Oliveira, F L; Monteiro-Machado, M; Cardoso, P F; Guilarducci-Ferraz, V V C; Melo, P A; Souza, C M V; Calil-Elias, S

    2015-03-01

    Envenomation caused by spiders Loxosceles induce intense dermonecrosis at the bite site and systemic disease. In this work we described the hyaluronidase and collagenase activities in vitro of the Loxosceles intermedia venom, but no phospholipase A2 activity. In vivo, we evaluated the effect of L. intermedia venom used different strain of mice, C57BL/6, BALB/c and Swiss. All mice developed paw edema after venom injection, persistent for 24 h in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Histopathological analysis of the skin after venom injection revealed vascular congestion in Swiss mice and an inflammatory reaction in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The mobilization of inflammatory cells from bone marrow, spleen and blood was investigated. Typical innate immune response with mobilization of myeloid cells and cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes was observed in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, typical acquired/humoral immune response was observed in BALB/c mice, with preferential involvement of conventional B lymphocytes and CD4 T helper cells. The skin inflammation associated to mobilization of inflammatory cells indicated that mice models are strongly recommended to investigate specific cell types involved with immune response to the envenomation and mechanisms to inhibit skin lesions.

  1. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne. PMID:25753198

  2. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne.

  3. Well water arsenic exposure, arsenic induced skin-lesions and self-reported morbidity in Inner Mongolia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure from contaminated well water is a cause of skin and bladder cancer and linked to numerous other adverse health effects. Residents of the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia, China, have been exposed to arsenic-contaminated well water for over 20 years but few s...

  4. Systemic PPARgamma ligation inhibits allergic immune response in the skin.

    PubMed

    Dahten, Anja; Koch, Christin; Ernst, Dennis; Schnöller, Corinna; Hartmann, Susanne; Worm, Margitta

    2008-09-01

    We have shown previously that specific ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit the systemic allergic immune response. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARgamma-ligand treatment on the local allergic immune response. We established a murine model exhibiting clinical and histological features of AD-like skin lesions with high reproducibility. In this model, the PPARgamma ligand was applied in an either preventive or therapeutic manner via systemic and local routes. The affected skin areas were assessed by standardized skin score, histological analyses, and immunohistochemical examinations. Our data show that systemic application of PPARgamma ligand by a preventive protocol led to significantly reduced onset of eczematous skin lesions. This was confirmed by histology, showing decreased skin thickness accompanied by significantly reduced infiltrations of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but also mast cells. Additionally, early allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 responses were reduced (day 21/35), whereas IgG2a levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PPARgamma-ligand treatment inhibits not only systemic allergic immune response, but also local allergen-mediated dermatitis. Our findings point to therapeutic strategies, including a PPARgamma-ligand-based treatment. PMID:18401424

  5. Loss of expression of TGF-βs and their receptors in chronic skin lesions induced by sulfur mustard as compared with chronic contact dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister-forming agent that has been used as a chemical weapon. Sulfur mustard can cause damage in various organs, especially the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Generally, the multiple complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency; it reacts with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipid membranes. TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with multiple biological effects ranging from cell differentiation and growth inhibition to extracellular matrix stimulation, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation. TGF-β has 3 isoforms (TGF-β 1, 2, 3) and its signaling is mediated by its receptors: R1, R2 and intracellular Smads molecules. TGF-β has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-βs and their receptors also have an important role in modulation of skin inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells, and wound healing, and they have been implicated in different types of skin inflammatory disorders. Methods Seventeen exposed SM individuals (48.47 ± 9.3 years), 17 chronic dermatitis patients (46.52 ± 14.6 years), and 5 normal controls (44.00 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of TGF-βs and their receptors expressions was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only TGF1was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Our results showed significant decreases in the expression percentages of TGF-β 1, 2 and R1, R2 in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal subjects and significant decreases in the intensity of R1 and R2 expressions in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal controls. (P value < 0.05) Conclusions TGF-βs and their receptors appear to have a noticeable role in chronic inflammatory skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:21235789

  6. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  7. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  8. Vision and the skin camouflage reactions of Ambystoma larvae: the effects of eye transplants and brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, P; Schneider, C W

    1985-08-01

    Salamander larvae typically adapt their dermal melanophores to achieve camouflage, and it has been known for some time that removal of the eyes abolishes the response. Here we survey the contribution of the optic system to the bright and dark camouflage reactions and report that: the stimulus depends on an interaction between the direct and reflected light; an eye mounted atop the head and oriented vertically tended not to support camouflage, even though the animal responded to visual cues and learned a vision-dependent task; deviating the transplanted eye off the vertical axis enhanced the recovery of camouflage reactions; amputating or reorienting the telencephalon, epithalamus, pretectum or tectum did not abolish either camouflage reaction whereas lesions of the ventral optic pathway blocked brightening; transection near the midbrain-hindbrain junction--well posterior to known optic terminals--retarded the dark reaction; when the latter lesion was combined with disconnection of the telencephalon and epithalamus, contrary to predictions from the lesions executed separately, the animals lost the bright reaction; the hypophysis is necessary for darkening, but the organ supported this reaction even though detached, displaced or reoriented; and the pineal body was not essential for the grosser aspects of camouflage in Ambystoma larvae but may play an adjunctive role in fine tuning. PMID:4027646

  9. A machine learning method for identifying morphological patterns in reflectance confocal microscopy mosaics of melanocytic skin lesions in-vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose, Kivanc; Alessi-Fox, Christi; Gill, Melissa; Dy, Jennifer G.; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    We present a machine learning algorithm that can imitate the clinicians qualitative and visual process of analyzing reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) mosaics at the dermal epidermal junction (DEJ) of skin. We divide the mosaics into localized areas of processing, and capture the textural appearance of each area using dense Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF). Using these features, we train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier that can distinguish between meshwork, ring, clod, aspecific and background patterns in benign conditions and melanomas. Preliminary results on 20 RCM mosaics labeled by expert readers show classification with 55 - 81% sensitivity and 81 - 89% specificity in distinguishing these patterns.

  10. Medium dose ultraviolet A1 phototherapy and mRNA expression of interleukin 8, interferon γ, and chemokine receptor 4 in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Karolina; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Wozniacka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mechanisms responsible for UVA1 efficacy in atopic dermatitis (AD) are not fully elucidated. Aim To investigate IL-8, CCR-4, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in AD before and after UVA1, to identify correlations among them, and to determine whether and to what degree mRNA expression is influenced by UVA1. Material and methods Twenty-five patients with AD underwent medium dose UVA1-phototherapy at daily dosages of 10, 20, 30, 45, and then continuing 45 J/cm2 up to 20 days, from Monday to Friday for 4 weeks. Before and after UVA1, biopsies from acute skin lesions were studied using reverse-transcription and RT-PCR. Results The levels of CCR-4 mRNA correlated with those of IFN-γ, both before and after UVA1 phototherapy (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found after UVA1 between mRNA levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ (p < 0.05). After UVA1 an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression in comparison to the baseline assessment (p = 0.02) was found, while no significant difference was revealed in the expression of CCR-4 and IFN-γ mRNA. UVA1 improved both SCORAD and severity of AD (p < 0.001). SCORAD and the severity of AD did not correlate with the degree of expression of measured cytokine mRNA, neither before nor after UVA1. Conclusions CCR-4 is expressed in parallel with IFN-γ in acute skin lesions of patients with AD both before and after UVA1 phototherapy. UVA1 significantly improves SCORAD index, lessens the severity of AD and increases the expression of IL-8, with no direct effects on other studied molecules. PMID:27512350

  11. Burns or phytophotodermatitis, abuse or neglect: confusing aspects of skin lesions caused by the superstitious use of fig leaves.

    PubMed

    Abali, Ayse Ebru Sakallioglu; Aka, Mehmet; Aydogan, Cem; Haberal, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    As a superstition, homemade decoctions are believed to be beneficial for several diseases. This kind of medical therapy, however, can lead to serious adverse effects. In this report, we present three cases from a single family. Each of the family members developed phytophotodermatitis after the application of a fig leaf decoction. The most severe effect was in the case of a 13-year-old boy who had been bathed with the fig leaf decoction; the two other cases were the parents who prepared and applied the medicine to their child's skin to heal the boy's congenital mental-motor retardation. Silver sulfadiazine was used for wound care. The mother was discharged 6 days after admission, the father, after 8 days, and the boy, after 14 days. Burnlike wounds in all three cases healed completely.

  12. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    PubMed

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  13. Association of XPD/ERCC2 G23591A and A35931C polymorphisms with skin lesion prevalence in a multiethnic, arseniasis-hyperendemic village exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guo-fang; Du, Hui; Chen, Ji-gang; Lu, Hong-chao; Guo, Wei-chao; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2010-01-01

    More than 2,000 arsenic-related skin lesions (as at 2002) in a few villages of China's Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture represent a unique case of endemic arseniasis related with indoor combustion of high-arsenic coal. The skin lesion prevalence was significantly higher in ethnic Han villagers than in ethnic Hmong villagers. This study was focused on a possible involvement of XPD/ERCC2 G23591A and A35931C polymorphisms in risk modulation of skin lesions and in the body burden of As in this unique case of As exposure. G23591A and A35931C were genotyped by a PCR-based procedure. Total As contents in hair and urine samples as well as environmental samples of the homes of the two ethnic clans were analysed. A significant higher presentation of A/A35931 (homozygous wild) genotype in both clans was found in skin lesion patients, compared with their asymptomatic fellow villagers (67.1 vs. 46.3%, OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.35-4.14, P=0.002). Interestingly, the population frequencies of the A/A35931 genotype did not show significant differences between ethnic Han villagers and their Hmong neighbours (47.1 vs. 45.5%). Very low frequencies of homozygous and heterozygous variant genotypes of G23591A were recorded in the residents in target village. G/A23591 and A/A23591 were detected only in 3.2% (8/244) and 0.8% (2/244) of the villagers, respectively. The polymorphic status at the locus of A35931C might modulate the risk for arsenic-related skin lesions in the investigated groups.

  14. Interconnecting smartphone, image analysis server, and case report forms in clinical trials for automatic skin lesion tracking in clinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haak, Daniel; Doma, Aliaa; Gombert, Alexander; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    Today, subject's medical data in controlled clinical trials is captured digitally in electronic case report forms (eCRFs). However, eCRFs only insufficiently support integration of subject's image data, although medical imaging is looming large in studies today. For bed-side image integration, we present a mobile application (App) that utilizes the smartphone-integrated camera. To ensure high image quality with this inexpensive consumer hardware, color reference cards are placed in the camera's field of view next to the lesion. The cards are used for automatic calibration of geometry, color, and contrast. In addition, a personalized code is read from the cards that allows subject identification. For data integration, the App is connected to an communication and image analysis server that also holds the code-study-subject relation. In a second system interconnection, web services are used to connect the smartphone with OpenClinica, an open-source, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved electronic data capture (EDC) system in clinical trials. Once the photographs have been securely stored on the server, they are released automatically from the mobile device. The workflow of the system is demonstrated by an ongoing clinical trial, in which photographic documentation is frequently performed to measure the effect of wound incision management systems. All 205 images, which have been collected in the study so far, have been correctly identified and successfully integrated into the corresponding subject's eCRF. Using this system, manual steps for the study personnel are reduced, and, therefore, errors, latency and costs decreased. Our approach also increases data security and privacy.

  15. Th17 and regulatory T cells contribute to the in situ immune response in skin lesions of Jorge Lobo's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro-Galo, Luciane; Pagliari, Carla; Barboza, Tania Cristina; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marilia Brasil; de Oliveira, Clivia Maria Moraes; Unger, Deborah Aben Athar; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas

    2016-01-01

    Jorge Lobo's disease (JLD) is a chronic granulomatous mycosis described in various Latin American countries. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg cells in the pathogenesis of Jorge Lobo's disease. Human skin biopsies were submitted to an immunohistochemistry protocol to detect Foxp3, interleukin (IL)-1beta, CD25, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23. The epidermis presented acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and frequent presence of fungi. The dermis presented inflammatory infiltrate comprising macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelioid and multinucleated cells, and an intense number of fungi. Foxp3+ Treg cells and IL-17+ cells were visualized in lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate. IL-1, IL-2R (CD25), IL-6, and IL-23 were visualized in the dermis, intermingled with fungal cells, permeating or participating of the granuloma. Following IL-17, the most prominent cytokine was IL-6. IL-23 and cells expressing CD25 were present in fewer number. The comparative analysis between IL-17 and Foxp3 demonstrated a statistically significant increased number of IL-17+ cells. Th17 cells play a role in the immune response of JLD. IL-1beta and IL-6 added to the previously described increased number of TGF-beta would stimulate such pattern of response. Th17 cells could be present as an effort to modulate the local immune response; however, high levels of a Th17 profile could overcome the role of Treg cells. The unbalance between Treg/Th17 cells seems to corroborate with the less effective immune response against the fungus.

  16. Skin lesions on yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares from Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf: Morphological, molecular, and histological diagnosis of infection by a capsalid monogenoid.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A; Womble, Matthew R; Maynard, Margaret K; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R

    2015-12-01

    We characterize lesion-associated capsaline infections on yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in the Gulf of Mexico by comparing our specimens with published descriptions and museum specimens ascribed to Capsala biparasiticum and its synonyms: vouchers of C. biparasiticum from parasitic copepods; the holotype of Capsala neothunni; and vouchers of Capsala abidjani. Those from parasitic copepods differed by having a small, rounded body, large anterior attachment organs, closely spaced dorsomarginal body sclerites, small testes, and a short and wide testicular field. No morphometric feature in the holotype of C. neothunni ranged outside of that reported for the newly-collected specimens, indicating conspecificity of our specimens. The specimens of C. abidjani differed by having a large anterior attachment organ, few and dendritic testes, and a short, wide testicular field. Large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) sequences grouped our specimens and Capsala sp. as sister taxa and indicated a phylogenetic affinity of Nasicola klawei. The haptoral attachment site comprised a crater-like depression surrounded by a blackish-colored halo of extensively rugose skin, with abundant pockmarked-like, irregularly-shaped oblong or semi-circular epidermal pits surrounding these attachment sites. Histology confirmed extensive folding of epidermis and underlying stratum laxum, likely epidermal hyperplasia, foci of weak cell-to-cell adhesions among apical malpighian cells as well as that between stratum germinativum and stratum laxum, myriad goblet cells in epidermis, rodlet cells in apical layer of epidermis, and lymphocytic infiltrates and melanin in dermis. The present study comprises (i) the first published report of this parasite from yellowfin tuna captured in the Gulf of Mexico-NW Atlantic Ocean Basin, (ii) confirmation of its infection on the skin (rather than on a parasitic copepod), (iii) the first molecular data for this capsaline, and (iv) the first observations of

  17. Montmorillonite-chitosan-silver sulfadiazine nanocomposites for topical treatment of chronic skin lesions: in vitro biocompatibility, antibacterial efficacy and gap closure cell motility properties.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Ferrari, Franca; Rossi, Silvia; Aguzzi, Carola; Mori, Michela; Grisoli, Pietro; Cerezo, Pilar; Tenci, Marika; Viseras, Cesar; Caramella, Carla

    2014-02-15

    Silver compounds and especially silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) are reported as effective antimicrobial agents against almost all known bacteria, fungi and some viruses. However, AgSD has been shown to be cytotoxic toward fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro and consequently to retard wound healing in vivo. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility (cytotoxicity and proliferation), antimicrobial efficacy and cell motility gap closure (assay of wound closure) of MT/CS nanocomposites loaded with silver sulfadiazine (AgSD). It is envisioned to be administered as a powder or a dressing for cutaneous application in the treatment of skin ulcers. The loading of AgSD in MT/CS nanocomposites aimed at preventing the delay in wound healing, by decreasing the cytotoxicity of AgSD and maintaining its antimicrobial properties. Nanocomposites were prepared by using different amounts of MT (100-2000 mg) and 40 ml of a 1% (w/w) chitosan glutamate aqueous solution. The relative amounts of AgSD and chitosan in the systems were assessed by suitable analytic methods. The nanocomposite prepared using 100mg of MT was characterized for in vitro biocompatibility and proliferation and for wound healing using normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Antimicrobial properties were evaluated against four reference bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. AgSD loaded in the 100 MT/CS nanocomposite showed good in vitro biocompatibility and gap closure properties (fibroblasts) and maintained AgSD antimicrobial properties, especially against P. aeruginosa, that often complicates skin lesions. PMID:24507371

  18. Skin lesions on yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares from Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf: Morphological, molecular, and histological diagnosis of infection by a capsalid monogenoid.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A; Womble, Matthew R; Maynard, Margaret K; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R

    2015-12-01

    We characterize lesion-associated capsaline infections on yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in the Gulf of Mexico by comparing our specimens with published descriptions and museum specimens ascribed to Capsala biparasiticum and its synonyms: vouchers of C. biparasiticum from parasitic copepods; the holotype of Capsala neothunni; and vouchers of Capsala abidjani. Those from parasitic copepods differed by having a small, rounded body, large anterior attachment organs, closely spaced dorsomarginal body sclerites, small testes, and a short and wide testicular field. No morphometric feature in the holotype of C. neothunni ranged outside of that reported for the newly-collected specimens, indicating conspecificity of our specimens. The specimens of C. abidjani differed by having a large anterior attachment organ, few and dendritic testes, and a short, wide testicular field. Large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) sequences grouped our specimens and Capsala sp. as sister taxa and indicated a phylogenetic affinity of Nasicola klawei. The haptoral attachment site comprised a crater-like depression surrounded by a blackish-colored halo of extensively rugose skin, with abundant pockmarked-like, irregularly-shaped oblong or semi-circular epidermal pits surrounding these attachment sites. Histology confirmed extensive folding of epidermis and underlying stratum laxum, likely epidermal hyperplasia, foci of weak cell-to-cell adhesions among apical malpighian cells as well as that between stratum germinativum and stratum laxum, myriad goblet cells in epidermis, rodlet cells in apical layer of epidermis, and lymphocytic infiltrates and melanin in dermis. The present study comprises (i) the first published report of this parasite from yellowfin tuna captured in the Gulf of Mexico-NW Atlantic Ocean Basin, (ii) confirmation of its infection on the skin (rather than on a parasitic copepod), (iii) the first molecular data for this capsaline, and (iv) the first observations of

  19. Expansion of natural killer cells in peripheral blood in a Japanese elderly with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-related skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Naoko; Kubo, Kagekatsu; Ohshima, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1- (HTLV-1-) associated neurologic disease. Our patient was a 77-year-old Japanese man, who had been treated for infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 for nearly 10 years. When referred to us, he had facial eczema/edema as well as extensive dermatitis at the neck/upper chest and nuchal area/upper back regions. Dermal lesions had CD3+CD4+ cells, but no NK cells. Flow cytometry of his peripheral blood showed a phenotype of CD2+ (97%), CD3+ (17%), CD4+ (12%), CD7+ (94%), CD8+ (6%), CD11c+ (70%), CD16+ (82%), CD19+ (0%), CD20+ (0%), CD56+ (67%), HLA-DR+ (68%), and NKp46+ (36%). Absolute numbers of CD56+NK cells in the peripheral blood were in a range of 986/μL-1,270/μL. The expanded NK cells in the peripheral blood are considered to be reactive, to maintain the confinement of the HTLV-1-positive CD4+ cells in the skin, and to prevent the progression of the disease.

  20. Langerhans cells (CD1a and CD207), dermal dendrocytes (FXIIIa) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD123) in skin lesions of leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Kelly Emi; Aarão, Tinara Leila de Sousa; Silva, Luciana Mota; de Sousa, Jorge Rodrigues; de Souza, Juarez; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2016-02-01

    The clinical course of infection with Mycobacterium leprae varies widely and depends on the pattern of the host immune response. Dendritic cells play an important role in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system and seem to be essential for the development of the disease. To analyze the presence of epidermal dendritic cells (CD1a and CD207), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD123) and dermal dendrocytes (factor XIIIa) in lesion fragments of leprosy patients, skin samples from 30 patients were studied. These samples were submitted to immunohistochemistry against CD1a, CD207, FXIIIa, and CD123. The results showed a larger number of Langerhans cells, detected with the CD1a or CD207 marker, dermal dendrocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with the tuberculoid form. A positive correlation was observed between the Langerhans cell markers CD1a and CD207 in both the tuberculoid and lepromatous forms, and between Langerhans cells and dermal dendrocytes in samples with the tuberculoid form. The present results indicate the existence of a larger number of dendritic cells in patients at the resistant pole of the disease (tuberculoid) and suggest that the different dendritic cells studied play a role, favoring an efficient immune response against infection with M. leprae.

  1. Myelin injury induces axonal transport impairment but not AD-like pathology in the hippocampus of cuprizone-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Junjun; Zhou, Hong; Bai, Feng; Ren, Qingguo; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are progressive neurological disorders with myelin injury and memory impairment. However, whether myelin impairment could cause AD-like neurological pathology remains unclear. To explore neurological pathology following myelin injury, we assessed cognitive function, the expression of myelin proteins, axonal transport-associated proteins, axonal structural proteins, synapse-associated proteins, tau and beta amyloid and the status of neurons, using the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination. We found the mild impairment of learning ability in cuprizone-fed mice and the decreased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the hippocampus. And anti-LINGO-1 improved learning ability and partly restored MBP level. Furthermore, we also found kinesin light chain (KLC), neurofilament light chain (NFL) and neurofilament heavy chain (NF200) were declined in demyelinated hippocampus, which could be partly improved by treatment with anti-LINGO-1. However, we did not observe the increased expression of beta amyloid, hyperphosphorylation of tau and loss of neurons in demyelinated hippocampus. Our results suggest that demyelination might lead to the impairment of neuronal transport, but not cause increased level of hyperphosphorylated tau and beta amyloid. Our research demonstrates remyelination might be an effective pathway to recover the function of neuronal axons and cognition in MS. PMID:27129150

  2. Myelin injury induces axonal transport impairment but not AD-like pathology in the hippocampus of cuprizone-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junjun; Zhou, Hong; Bai, Feng; Ren, Qingguo; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-05-24

    Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are progressive neurological disorders with myelin injury and memory impairment. However, whether myelin impairment could cause AD-like neurological pathology remains unclear. To explore neurological pathology following myelin injury, we assessed cognitive function, the expression of myelin proteins, axonal transport-associated proteins, axonal structural proteins, synapse-associated proteins, tau and beta amyloid and the status of neurons, using the cuprizone mouse model of demyelination. We found the mild impairment of learning ability in cuprizone-fed mice and the decreased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the hippocampus. And anti-LINGO-1 improved learning ability and partly restored MBP level. Furthermore, we also found kinesin light chain (KLC), neurofilament light chain (NFL) and neurofilament heavy chain (NF200) were declined in demyelinated hippocampus, which could be partly improved by treatment with anti-LINGO-1. However, we did not observe the increased expression of beta amyloid, hyperphosphorylation of tau and loss of neurons in demyelinated hippocampus. Our results suggest that demyelination might lead to the impairment of neuronal transport, but not cause increased level of hyperphosphorylated tau and beta amyloid. Our research demonstrates remyelination might be an effective pathway to recover the function of neuronal axons and cognition in MS. PMID:27129150

  3. Inflammatory and chloracne-like skin lesions in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachloroazobenzene for 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, Yuval; Nyska, Abraham; Lieuallen, Warren; Maly, Alex; Flake, Gordon; Kissling, Grace E.; Brix, Amy; Malarkey, David E.; Hooth, Michelle J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) has been connected to the induction of chloracne in humans and animals. 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is an environmental contaminant that induces chloracne in humans. TCAB has been studied only to a limited extent in laboratory animals. While performing a 2-year gavage study in B6C3F1 mice to evaluate the toxic and carcinogenic effects of TCAB, we also explored potential chloracnegenic properties. Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed by gavage to TCAB at dose levels of 0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg for 5 days a week for 2 years. The animals developed treatment-related gross inflammatory skin lesions, which were characterized histologically by inflammation, fibrosis, hyperplasia, and ulcers. Additionally, many of the animals developed follicular dilatation and sebaceous-gland atrophy, consistent with chloracne-like lesions. This current 2-year study supports recently published papers showing susceptibility to chloracne in mouse strains other than hairless mice. The chloracne-like lesions were not clinically evident; therefore, our study highlights the need for careful examination of the skin in order to identify subtle lesions consistent with chloracne-like changes in rodents exposed to dioxin and DLCs. Since previous short term studies did not demonstrate any skin lesions, we suggest that reliable assessment of all safety issues involving dioxin and DLCs requires evaluation following chronic exposure. Such studies in animal models will help to elucidate the mechanisms of dioxin-related health hazards. PMID:19737593

  4. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... To do this: Your provider may suggest using petroleum jelly or an antibiotic ointment on the wound. ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  5. Hemicellulose dressing for skin lesions caused by herpes zoster in a patient with leukemia-an alternative dressing.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Julieta; Ferreira, Lydia

    2009-01-01

     Herpes zoster is a painful disease that can develop in immunosuppressed children. Prolonged immunosuppression in leukemia patients can substantially delay healing of herpetic lesions. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the use of hemicellulose dressings as an alternative treatment for extensive herpetic lesions in an immunosuppressed child with leukemia. The hemicellulose dressing was applied to the lesions on the second day after debridement. After 36 days, the lesions were completely healed. The hemicellulose dressing was an effective resource for promoting complete epithelial healing.

  6. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  7. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.

  8. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  9. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-03-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:27607324

  10. Arsenic-related skin lesions and glutathione S-transferase P1 A1578G (lle105Val) polymorphism in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in one village

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.F.; Du, H.; Chen, J.G.; Lu, H.C.; Guo, W.C.; Meng, H.; Zhang, T.B.; Zhang, X.J.; Lu, D.R.; Golka, K.; Shen, J.H.

    2006-12-15

    A total of 2402 patients with arsenic-related skin lesions, such as hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, or even skin cancer in a few villages in Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture, China represent a unique case of endemic arsenism related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. This study aimed to investigate the cluster of arsenism cases and the possible relevant factors including GSTP1 polymorphism in two clans of different ethnic origin living in one village for generations. Arsenism morbidity in Miao clan P was significantly lower than in the neighbouring Han clan G1 (5.9 vs. 32.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06-0.27, P < 0.0001). No sex differences were confirmed inside both clans. Analyses of the environmental samples indicated that Miao clan P members were exposed to higher amounts of arsenic via inhalation and food ingestion. Hair and urine samples also proved a higher arsenic body burden in ethnic Miao individuals. No corresponding differences by sex were found. Higher frequencies of combined mutant genotype G/G1578 and A/G1578 (OR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.34-9.54, P < 0.0001) and of mutant allele G1578 (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 2.00-5.18, P < 0.0001) were detected in diagnosed arsenism patients than in non-diseased individuals. The Miao individuals showed a lower percentage of combined mutant genotypes (30.6 vs. 52.7%, OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84, P=0.015) as well as of mutant allele G1578 (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88, P=0.017) than their Han neighbours. Conclusions Genetic predisposition influences dermal arsenism toxicity. The GSTP1 A1578G (IIe105Val) status might be a susceptibility factor for arsenic-related skin lesions.

  11. Drug-loaded PLGA-mPEG microparticles as treatment for atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuibin; Nie, Lei; Zou, Peng; Suo, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of mizolastine-loaded microparticles as therapy for atopic dermatitis. Microparticles have been researched for decades as a controlled-release drug delivery system, but seldom been used as treatment for skin disease. In this research, we induced dermatitis in BALB/c mice model by repeated topical application of dinitrofluorobenzene and compared the mizolastine microparticles injection and daily mizolastine injection treatment. The results showed that the mizolastine microparticles treatments significantly inhibited ear thickness and dermatitis index in dermatitis model compared with the dermatitis mice without treatment, showing a similar curative effect compared with daily mizolastine injection treatment, and the improvement continued for several days. Inflammatory cells infiltration into the ears and the plasma level of immunoglobulin E were also suppressed by mizolastine microparticles according to the histopathology analysis. In conclusion, the results suggested that drug-loaded microparticles could be a proper candidate for the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:25539424

  12. Histopathologic findings and diagnostic difficulties posed with use of escharotic agents for treatment of skin lesions: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anna M; Helm, Klaus F

    2008-04-01

    Escharotic agents have been used as alternative therapy for treatment of skin cancer and skin problems for centuries. Internet web sites such as online health product stores and eBay have made them widely available to the general public. The use of these agents carries risk of incomplete removal of tumor, damage of surrounding healthy tissues and marked scarring with poor cosmetic outcome. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with history of moles and self-treatment with an escharotic agent containing bloodroot in order to document the histopathologic findings of topical bloodroot treatment and to show the clinical consequences that may occur in the unsuspecting public. To the best of our knowledge, the histological features following use of bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) have not yet been documented. PMID:18333901

  13. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis in the context of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Is histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis in SLE associated with skin lesions?

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kang, M S; Yoon, B Y; Kim, D Y; Cho, S K; Bae, S C; Her, M Y

    2011-07-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL), or Kikuchi's disease, is a benign and self-limiting lymphadenopathy that typically affects young Asian females. It presents with lymphadenopathy, usually cervical, accompanied by fever, chills and leukopenia. Although the association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and HNL is rare, the number of reports of HNL in SLE patients is increasing. We present nine cases of HNL in patients with SLE. Among the seven patients with diverse skin manifestations, three had skin manifestations that were histologically compatible with SLE. A review of previous reports in the literature showed that cutaneous involvement was commonly found in HNL in association with SLE. In the patients who had simultaneous onset of both diseases, lupus flare-ups were commonly observed. We suggest that HNL in SLE patients is associated with cutaneous manifestations. This report contributes to our understanding of the relationship between these diseases. PMID:21562017

  14. Histopathologic findings and diagnostic difficulties posed with use of escharotic agents for treatment of skin lesions: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anna M; Helm, Klaus F

    2008-04-01

    Escharotic agents have been used as alternative therapy for treatment of skin cancer and skin problems for centuries. Internet web sites such as online health product stores and eBay have made them widely available to the general public. The use of these agents carries risk of incomplete removal of tumor, damage of surrounding healthy tissues and marked scarring with poor cosmetic outcome. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with history of moles and self-treatment with an escharotic agent containing bloodroot in order to document the histopathologic findings of topical bloodroot treatment and to show the clinical consequences that may occur in the unsuspecting public. To the best of our knowledge, the histological features following use of bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) have not yet been documented.

  15. Behavioral abnormalities in APPSwe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD-like pathology: comparative analysis across multiple behavioral domains.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Flores, Abigail Y; Xu, Guilian; Borchelt, David R

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunction in cognitive and noncognitive domains with clinical diagnosis based on multiple neuropsychological tests. Here, we evaluated cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in 2 age cohorts (8 and 14 months at the start of the study) of APPSwe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice that model AD-like amyloidosis. We used a battery of tests that included fear-conditioned context and tone memories, swimming activity, and orientation to a proximal cue in a visible platform water maze test and burrowing and nest building activity. To compare the performance of mice across all tests, we used z-score normalization of data. The analyses revealed that the behavior of the transgenic mice was significantly compromised in cognitive as well as in noncognitive domains. Combining scores across multiple behavioral tests produced an integrated index characterizing the overall phenotypic abnormality in this model of AD-like amyloidosis. Assessing multiple behavioral domains provides a broader view of the breadth of impairments in multiple behavioral systems. Greater implementation of such approaches could enable reliable and clinically predictive evaluation of therapeutics in mouse models of amyloidosis.

  16. Coadminstration of L. major amastigote class I nuclease (rLmaCIN) with LPD nanoparticles delays the progression of skin lesion and the L. major dissemination to the spleen in BALB/c mice-based experimental setting.

    PubMed

    Fakhraee, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Alavizadeh, Seyedeh Hoda; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Chavoshian, Omid; Khamesipour, Ali; Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2016-07-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by eukaryotic single-celled Leishmania species, the developmental program of which relies upon blood-feeding adult female sand flies and their dominant mammal blood sources, namely wild rodents in area where human beings exert more or less transient activities. The recourse to model rodents - namely laboratory mice such as C57BL/6 mice - has allowed extracted the immune signatures that account for the healing of the transient cutaneous lesion that develops at the site where Leishmania major promastigotes were delivered. Indeed, if the latter mice are exposed to a second inoculum of L. major promastigotes, no lesion will develop in the secondary skin site remodeled as a niche for a low size intracellular L. major amastigote population. Moreover, IFN-γ dominates over IL-10 in the supernatant of cultures of PBMCs -prepared from blood sampled from human beings who healed from a cutaneous lesion- and incubated with L. major class I Nuclease LmaCIN, a protein highly expressed in the cell-cycling amastigote population which is dominant by macrophages. Altogether, these datasets were strong incentive to promote research aimed to design and monitor efficacy of L. major amastigote protein-based vaccines in pre-clinical settings. Using L. major enzyme class I nuclease (LmaCIN) expressed in the L. major cell-cycling amastigote population hosted by macrophages, BALB/c mice were immunized three times with either rLmaCIN plus LPD nanoparticles (LPD-rLmaCIN), or rLmaCIN-CpG DNA or free rLmaCIN and dextrose. The following parameters: footpad swelling, splenic L. major load, L. major binding IgGs and cytokine profiles of rLmaCIN- reactive T lymphocytes were then compared. Once coadminstered with LPD, rLmaCIN allow BALB/c mice to display delayed onset of skin lesion at the challenge inoculation site and delayed L. major dissemination from the challenged site to the spleen. Thus, the LPD-rLmaCIN is shown to display some promising

  17. Arsenic Exposure at Low-to-Moderate Levels and Skin Lesions, Arsenic Metabolism, Neurological Functions, and Biomarkers for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases: Review of Recent Findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35–75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 µg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10–300 µg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 µg/L, mean 99 µg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention. PMID:19371619

  18. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 {mu}g/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 {mu}g/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 {mu}g/L, mean 99 {mu}g/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  19. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (>300 microg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 microg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominantly at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 microg/L, mean 99 microg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention. PMID:19371619

  20. Four cases of Japanese patients with psoriatic arthritis in whom effective treatments by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α drugs were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging together with improvement of skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Yonenaga, Takenori; Saeki, Hidehisa; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Fukuchi, Osamu; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Mitsuha; Ito, Toshihiro; Yanaba, Koichi; Tojyo, Shinjiro; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    Because psoriatic skin lesions of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) usually precede the onset of joint symptom, dermatologists are in an ideal position to screen and find individuals with PsA early in the disease course. There have been no reports from the dermatology field evaluating the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α drugs on joint disorders using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in PsA patients. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effectiveness of MRI in the evaluation of anti-TNF-α drugs on joint disease of Japanese PsA patients. Data were collected from four adult Japanese male PsA patients. MRI of the affected hand was performed at baseline and 1-7 months after infliximab or adalimumab treatment. T1 -weighted gadolinium-enhanced images with fat suppression were acquired in the coronal, sagittal and/or axial planes. We determined the apparent improvement of synovitis, periarticular inflammation, tenosynovitis and/or bone marrow edema by MRI after anti-TNF-α treatments in all the patients together with the improvement of skin lesions. We also determined in one patient that these symptoms detected by MRI before treatment were alleviated within 1 month and had disappeared 6 months after treatment, suggesting the potentially early detection of the effect of anti-TNF-α drugs on joint disease. We present four cases of Japanese patients with PsA in whom effective treatments by anti-TNF-α drugs were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MRI. This imaging enables dermatologists and radiologists to assess and monitor early inflammatory changes, and to grant PsA patients earlier access to modern treatment such as biologics.

  1. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Gamble, Mary; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Argos, Maria; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2009-09-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (>300 microg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 microg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominantly at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 microg/L, mean 99 microg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  2. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  3. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  4. Skin lesions in envenoming by cnidarians (Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish): etiology and severity of accidents on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Silveira, Fábio Lang da; Migotto, Alvaro Esteves

    2010-01-01

    This work attempts to establish dermatological identification patterns for Brazilian cnidarian species and a probable correlation with envenoming severity. In an observational prospective study, one hundred and twenty-eight patients from the North Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil were seen between 2002 and 2008. About 80% of these showed only local effects (erythema, edema, and pain) with small, less than 20 cm, oval or round skin marks and impressions from small tentacles. Approximately 20% of the victims had long, more than 20 cm, linear and crossed marks with frequent systemic phenomena, such as malaise, vomiting, dyspnea, and tachycardia. The former is compatible with the common hydromedusa from Southeast and Southern Brazil (Olindias sambaquiensis). The long linear marks with intense pain and systemic phenomena are compatible with envenoming by the box jellyfish Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and the hydrozoan Portuguese man-of-war (Physalis physalis). There was an association between skin marks and probable accident etiology. This simple observation rule can be indicative of severity, as the Cubozoa Class (box jellyfish) and Portuguese man-of-war cause the most severe accidents. In such cases, medical attention, including intensive care, is important, as the systemic manifestations can be associated with death. PMID:20305955

  5. Skin lesions in envenoming by cnidarians (Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish): etiology and severity of accidents on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Silveira, Fábio Lang da; Migotto, Alvaro Esteves

    2010-01-01

    This work attempts to establish dermatological identification patterns for Brazilian cnidarian species and a probable correlation with envenoming severity. In an observational prospective study, one hundred and twenty-eight patients from the North Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil were seen between 2002 and 2008. About 80% of these showed only local effects (erythema, edema, and pain) with small, less than 20 cm, oval or round skin marks and impressions from small tentacles. Approximately 20% of the victims had long, more than 20 cm, linear and crossed marks with frequent systemic phenomena, such as malaise, vomiting, dyspnea, and tachycardia. The former is compatible with the common hydromedusa from Southeast and Southern Brazil (Olindias sambaquiensis). The long linear marks with intense pain and systemic phenomena are compatible with envenoming by the box jellyfish Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and the hydrozoan Portuguese man-of-war (Physalis physalis). There was an association between skin marks and probable accident etiology. This simple observation rule can be indicative of severity, as the Cubozoa Class (box jellyfish) and Portuguese man-of-war cause the most severe accidents. In such cases, medical attention, including intensive care, is important, as the systemic manifestations can be associated with death.

  6. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  7. Periplogenin induces necroptotic cell death through oxidative stress in HaCaT cells and ameliorates skin lesions in the TPA- and IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Song, Zhen-Bo; Bao, Yong-Li; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Huang, Yan-Xin; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease that inconveniences many patients. Considering the side effects and drug resistance of the current therapy, it is urgent to discover more effective and safer anti-psoriatic drugs. In the present study, we screened over 250 traditional Chinese medicine compounds for their ability to inhibit the cell viability of cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes, a psoriasis-relevant in vitro model, and found that periplogenin was highly effective. Mechanistic studies revealed that apoptosis and autophagy were not induced by periplogenin in HaCaT cells. However, periplogenin caused PI to permeate into cells, increased lactate LDH release and rapidly increased the number of necrotic cells. Additionally, the typical characteristics of necrosis were observed in the periplogenin-treated HaCaT cells. Notably, the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1 and NSA were able to rescue the cells from necrotic cell death, supporting that necroptosis was involved in periplogenin-induced cell death. Furthermore, the ROS levels were elevated in the periplogenin-treated cells, NAC (an antioxidant) and Nec-1 could inhibit the ROS levels, and NAC could attenuate necroptotic cell death, indicating that the periplogenin-induced necroptotic cell death was mediated by oxidative stress. More importantly, in the murine models of TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and IMQ-induced skin inflammation, topical administration of periplogenin ameliorated skin lesions and inflammation. In sum, our results indicate, for the first time, that periplogenin is a naturally occurring compound with potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo, making it a promising candidate for future drug research. PMID:26850986

  8. Periplogenin induces necroptotic cell death through oxidative stress in HaCaT cells and ameliorates skin lesions in the TPA- and IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Song, Zhen-Bo; Bao, Yong-Li; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Huang, Yan-Xin; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease that inconveniences many patients. Considering the side effects and drug resistance of the current therapy, it is urgent to discover more effective and safer anti-psoriatic drugs. In the present study, we screened over 250 traditional Chinese medicine compounds for their ability to inhibit the cell viability of cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes, a psoriasis-relevant in vitro model, and found that periplogenin was highly effective. Mechanistic studies revealed that apoptosis and autophagy were not induced by periplogenin in HaCaT cells. However, periplogenin caused PI to permeate into cells, increased lactate LDH release and rapidly increased the number of necrotic cells. Additionally, the typical characteristics of necrosis were observed in the periplogenin-treated HaCaT cells. Notably, the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1 and NSA were able to rescue the cells from necrotic cell death, supporting that necroptosis was involved in periplogenin-induced cell death. Furthermore, the ROS levels were elevated in the periplogenin-treated cells, NAC (an antioxidant) and Nec-1 could inhibit the ROS levels, and NAC could attenuate necroptotic cell death, indicating that the periplogenin-induced necroptotic cell death was mediated by oxidative stress. More importantly, in the murine models of TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and IMQ-induced skin inflammation, topical administration of periplogenin ameliorated skin lesions and inflammation. In sum, our results indicate, for the first time, that periplogenin is a naturally occurring compound with potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo, making it a promising candidate for future drug research.

  9. Multi-glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. ameliorates imiquimod-induced skin lesions through a STAT3-dependent mechanism involving the inhibition of Th17-mediated inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingxia; Di, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xin; Liang, Daiying; Zhang, Guangzhong; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Multi-glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) possesses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, and has been used as a traditional treatment for psoriasis for many years, although the underlying immunological mechanisms remain poorly understood. The T helper (Th)17 cell response is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Th17 cells are implicated in the mechanism of pathogenesis of imiquimod (IMQ)-induced skin inflammation. Using a mouse model, we demonstrated that GTW protected mice from developing psoriasis-like lesions induced by topical IMQ administration. This protection was associated with significantly decreased mRNA levels of Th17 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in mouse skin samples as well as fewer IL-17-secreting splenic CD4+ lymphocytes in IMQ-exposed mice. There were no significant effects on the proportion of CD4+ interferon (IFN)-γ+ T cells, CD4+IL-4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the spleen cells. Taken together with the unchanged mRNA levels of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ, Th2 cytokine IL-4 and Treg cytokine IL-10 in IMQ-exposed mouse skin following GTW administration, our findings suggest that the immunosuppressive effect of GTW in psoriasis is exerted mainly on Th17 cells, rather than on Th1, Th2 or Treg cells. Furthermore, we showed that GTW suppressed Th17 function through the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. These results have the potential to pave the way for the use of GTW as an agent for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27431437

  10. A Luciferase-Expressing Leishmania braziliensis Line That Leads to Sustained Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Allows Monitoring of Miltefosine Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Adriano C.; Oliveira, Jordana C.; Espada, Caroline R.; Reimão, Juliana Q.; Trinconi, Cristiana T.; Uliana, Silvia R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania braziliensis is the most prevalent species isolated from patients displaying cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, there are difficulties for studying L. braziliensis pathogenesis or response to chemotherapy in vivo due to the natural resistance of most mouse strains to infection with these parasites. The aim of this work was to develop an experimental set up that could be used to assess drug efficacy against L. braziliensis. The model was tested using miltefosine. Methodology/Principal Findings A L. braziliensis line, originally isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, was passaged repeatedly in laboratory rodents and further genetically manipulated to express luciferase. Once collected from a culture of parasites freshly transformed from amastigotes, 106 wild type or luciferase-expressing stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated subcutaneously in young BALB/c mice or golden hamsters. In both groups, sustained cutaneous lesions developed at the site of inoculation, no spontaneous self- healing being observed 4 months post-inoculation, if left untreated. Compared to the wild type line features, no difference was noted for the luciferase-transgenic line. Infected animals were treated with 5 or 15 mg/kg/day miltefosine orally for 15 days. At the end of treatment, lesions had regressed and parasites were not detected. However, relapses were observed in animals treated with both doses of miltefosine. Conclusions/Significance Here we described experimental settings for a late-healing model of cutaneous leishmaniasis upon inoculation of a luciferase-expressing L. braziliensis line that can be applied to drug development projects. These settings allowed the monitoring of the transient efficacy of a short-term miltefosine administration. PMID:27144739

  11. [LCT (lipocolloid technology) in lesions of venous etiology].

    PubMed

    López, Justo Rueda; Bueno, Ana Maria Muñoz; Perejamo, Montserrat Arboix; Fornells, Manuel Gago; González, R Fernando García; Gómez, Teresa Segovia; Palmero, Albert Guerrero; Sauvadet, Anne

    2005-02-01

    This article reports on a spanish study to evaluate the effectiveness of dressings using a Technology Lipido-Colloid to treat skin lesions with "Urgotul". Has been included 18 of this 60 lesions were leg ulcers. We have decided to focus our analysis in these difficult to treat chronic wounds. This study noted better results in relation to the evolution of these lesions and in the quality of life for these patients who suffered these lesions in terms of pain control, skin deterioration or lesions in the same spot related to changing dressings, and an improvement in the skin nearby the lesion.

  12. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  13. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  14. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  15. Comet Lesions in Patients with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Tatlıpınar, Sinan; Şahan, Berna; Altunsoy, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a genetic multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. Basic fundoscopic findings in PXE result from Bruch’s membrane involvement. The most important fundoscopic findings are angioid streaks. Other significant ocular findings are peau d’orange appearance, optic disc drusen, pattern dystrophy-like macular appearance, comet lesions, and choroidal neovascularization. Comet lesions are a pathognomonic ocular finding for PXE. The presence of both angioid streaks in the fundus and typical skin lesions should alert clinicians to PXE. Herein, we present two PXE cases with comet lesions. PMID:27800246

  16. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:26010758

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Sulforaphane on Cholinergic Neurons in Mice with Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jingzhu; Fang, Lingduo; Li, Xi; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Wanying; An, Li

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are unavailable. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane (an activator of NF-E2-related factor 2) on mice with AD-like lesions induced by combined administration of aluminum and d-galactose. Step-down-type passive avoidance tests showed sulforaphane ameliorated cognitive impairment in AD-like mice. Immunohistochemistry results indicated sulforaphane attenuated cholinergic neuron loss in the medial septal and hippocampal CA1 regions in AD-like mice. However, spectrophotometry revealed no significant difference in acetylcholine level or the activity of choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase in the cerebral cortex among groups of control and AD-like mice with and without sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane significantly increased the numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive neurons in the subventricular and subgranular zones in AD-like mice which were significantly augmented compared with controls. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed significantly lower aluminum levels in the brains of sulforaphane-treated AD-like mice than in those that did not receive sulforaphane treatment. In conclusion, sulforaphane ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits by reducing cholinergic neuron loss in the brains of AD-like mice, and the mechanism may be associated with neurogenesis and aluminum load reduction. These findings suggest that phytochemical sulforaphane has potential application in AD therapeutics. PMID:25196440

  18. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  19. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines. PMID:26815859

  20. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4–8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer’s patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines. PMID:26815859

  1. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  2. Preventing and managing skin tears: a review.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mary J

    2007-01-01

    Skin tears are an increasingly common problem in frail elders, and the wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nurse must be knowledgeable regarding both prevention and management of these lesions. A literature review was conducted to identify current concepts regarding management of skin tears. Articles reviewed provided numerous suggested interventions and protocols. Recurring themes were prevention of skin tears whenever possible and management of existing lesions with products that manage the exudate, maintain a moist surface, and prevent additional trauma.

  3. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process. PMID:25315722

  4. The effects of skin disease on the penetration kinetics of hydrocortisone through canine skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrom, Liisa A; Cross, Sheree E; Mills, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of allergic skin disease on the penetration kinetics of hydrocortisone through canine skin in vitro. Full-thickness lesional and nonlesional (normal) skin was removed from the dorsal lumbosacral and dorsocaudal thoracic regions, respectively, of five canine cadavers. The dogs were suspected of having flea allergy dermatitis based on their distribution and types of skin lesions. Nonlesional skin was confirmed to be histologically normal, and the histopathology of the lesional skin was consistent with allergic dermatitis. Excised skin was clipped, mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells, and the transdermal penetration of a saturated, radiolabelled hydrocortisone solution was measured over 30 h. When the penetration data for all five dogs were pooled, a restricted (or residual) maximal likelihood mixed model predicted that the permeability coefficient and pseudosteady-state flux of hydrocortisone was more than twice as great (95% confidence interval 1.55-2.71 times as great; P < 0.0001) through lesional compared with nonlesional skin. There was no significant difference in the lag time for hydrocortisone penetration through lesional compared with nonlesional skin of the dogs. This study has confirmed that the transdermal penetration of hydrocortisone may be altered, typically increased twofold, but could be as high as 10-fold, through lesional compared with nonlesional skin of dogs with suspected flea allergy dermatitis. This is likely to be affected by variables such as disease severity, concurrent infections and interindividual differences in skin characteristics.

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  6. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  7. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  8. Leprous lesion presents enrichment of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo Es; Costa, Patrícia S; Ávila, Marcelo P; Suhadolnik, Maria Luíza S; Reis, Mariana P; Salgado, Ana Paula C; Lima, Mário Fr; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa Ma

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that remains a major challenge to public health in endemic countries. Increasing evidence has highlighted the importance of microbiota for human general health and, as such, the study of skin microbiota is of interest. But while studies are continuously revealing the complexity of human skin microbiota, the microbiota of leprous cutaneous lesions has not yet been characterized. Here we used Sanger and massively parallel small sub-unit rRNA (SSU) rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the microbiota of leprous lesions, and studied how it differs from the bacterial skin composition of healthy individuals previously described in the literature. Taxonomic analysis of leprous lesions revealed main four phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. There were considerable differences in the distribution of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, with the first two phyla enriched and the other markedly diminished in the leprous lesions, when compared with healthy skin. Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus, resident and abundant in healthy skin, were underrepresented in skin from leprous lesions. Most of the taxa found in skin from leprous lesions are not typical in human skin and potentially pathogenic, with the Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera being overrepresented. Our data suggest significant shifts of the microbiota with emergence and competitive advantage of potentially pathogenic bacteria over skin resident taxa. PMID:25918684

  9. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  10. Adenolipoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Del Agua, C; Felipo, F

    2004-10-15

    Adenolipoma of the skin is an unusual variant of lipoma recently described by Hitchcock et al. and characterized by the presence of normal eccrine sweat glands within a lipoma. We report a case and review the literature. A 45-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing, painless nodule on the thigh, clinically considered to be lipoma. Microscopically it comprised an adipose-tissue proliferation with a single eccrine secretory coil and associated duct in the periphery and in the center of the nodule. This benign lesion has been termed adenolipoma because of the presence of adipose tissue and eccrine glands. It probably represents only a histological curiosity in which the eccrine glands are entrapped by the adipose proliferation. Adenolipoma of the skin is a distinct lesion that can occur in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue.

  11. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  12. Down-regulation of TGF-b1, TGF-b receptor 2, and TGF-b-associated microRNAs, miR-20a and miR-21, in skin lesions of sulfur mustard-exposed Iranian war veterans.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Mohadeseh; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Noorani, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mojtaba; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) affects divergent cellular pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory responses. SM-induced lesions in skin include late-onset hyper-pigmentation, xerosis, and atrophy. It seems that TGF-b signaling pathway is a major player for SM pathogenesis. Here, we have employed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to evaluate the expression alterations of all TGF-b variants and their receptors in skin biopsies obtained from 10 Iran-Iraq war veterans. Using specific LNA primers, the expression alteration of a TGF-bR2 regulator, miR-20a, and TGF-b downstream target, miR-21, was also assessed in the same samples Our real-time PCR data revealed a significant down-regulation of TGF-b1 and TGF-bR2, the major mediators of TGF-b signaling pathway, in skin biopsies of SM-exposed patients (p = 0.0015 and p = 0.0115, respectively). Down-regulation of TGF-b signaling pathway seems to contribute in severe inflammation observed in SM-exposed patients' tissues. MiR-20a and miR-21, as two important TGF-b associated microRNAs (miRNAs), were also down-regulated in SM-exposed skin lesions, compared to those of control group (p = 0.0003). Based on our findings, these miRNAs could be directly or indirectly involve in the pathogenesis of SM. Altogether, our data suggest the suitability of TGF-b1, TGF-bR2, as well as miR-20a and miR-21 as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of SM-exposed patients. PMID:26498464

  13. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management. PMID:25192328

  14. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management.

  15. Lesion presenting with a “blue amber” pattern

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarello, Calogero; Peccerillo, Francesca; Zucchi, Alfredo; Tortorella, Rocco Giuseppe; Ricci, Roberto; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Feliciani, Claudio; Di Nuzzo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a spindle cell neoplasm with low metastatic potential but high tendency to recur after surgery. Because of the rarity of this lesion and its aspecific clinical features, AFX could be easily misdiagnosed and undertreated by many clinicians who encounter them. Dermoscopy represents a valuable tool for easily assessing skin lesions, even though histological examination is required for final diagnosis. We report a case of a cheek lesion with dermoscopic “blue amber pattern”, easily recognisable and not observed in others skin tumours, which could represent an additional feature useful in differentiating this tumour from other skin neoplasms. PMID:27803916

  16. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  18. Skin tears.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  19. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  20. A mobile system for skin cancer diagnosis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yanliang; Tang, Jinshan

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a mobile system for aiding doctors in skin cancer diagnosis and other persons in skin cancer monitoring. The basic idea is to use image retrieval techniques to help the users to find the similar skin cancer cases stored in a database by using smart phones. The query image can be taken by a smart phone from a patient or can be uploaded from other resources. The shapes of the skin lesions are used for matching two skin lesions, which are segmented from skin images using the skin lesion extraction method developed in 1. The features used in the proposed system are obtained by Fourier descriptor. A prototype application has been developed and can be installed in an iPhone. In this application, the iPhone users can use the iPhone as a diagnosis tool to find the potential skin lesions in a persons' skin and compare the skin lesions detected by the iPhone with the skin lesions stored in a database in a remote server.

  1. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  2. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  3. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  4. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  5. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  6. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagómez, G; Pabón, J; Calderón, O; Elío, D; Pérez, J; Martínez, M; Patiño, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterología Boliviano Japonés and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions.

  7. [The usefulness of protective creams on fragile and aged skin].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, Justo; Guerrero Palmero, Alberto; Muñoz Bueno, Ana Maria; Esquius i Carbonell, Jacint; Rosell Moreno, Carmen

    2005-06-01

    The ADDERMIS protective cream has these properties: it prevents skin maceration, exercises a regenerative effect, has bacteriostatic and bactericide activity, possesses a noted anti-inflammatory effect and reduces the risk of mycotic infections. Its application is indicated for use in cases of: skin lesions, such as bed sores or leg ulcers, which require the use of a barrier product; dermatitis lesions in zones of skin folds or due to diaper use; to prevent friction zones; fragile skin; peeling, zones where cracks in the skin appear...and to use for cases of incontinence when diapers are required.

  8. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  9. Spontaneous and antiviral-induced cutaneous lesions in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Grigorescu, Ioana; Dumitrascu, Dan Lucian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe spontaneous, or interferon (IFN)- or immunization-induced skin lesions in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of all the papers presenting case reports of dermatological lesions in patients with chronic HBV infection was carried out. We included only patients with histologically proven skin lesions that appeared in the normal course of hepatitis B infection, or after immunization for hepatitis B or antiviral treatment. RESULTS: We found 44 papers on this topic, reporting 151 cases. About 2% of patients with hepatitis B infection, mainly men, presented with skin lesions. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B, vasculitis and essential mixed cryoglobulinemia seemed to be the most frequent skin lesion (53.3%), followed by papular changes, rashes and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, skin carcinoma and Henoch-Schönlein purpura were rare. IFN treatment seemed to be effective against HBV-associated and immunoglobulin-complex-mediated disease (vasculitis). Two cutaneous lesions (lichen planus and granuloma annulare) were described after hepatitis B vaccination. Systemic lupus and lupus-like lesions were the most frequently encountered lesions after antiviral treatment. Immunosuppressive and steroid therapy ameliorates lichen planus lesions in 50% of cases. CONCLUSION: Vasculitis was the most frequent spontaneous skin lesion found in chronic hepatitis B. Lichen planus was most frequent after immunization and lupus/lupus-like lesions after IFN. PMID:25400473

  10. [An infant with a suspicious lesion on her abdomen].

    PubMed

    Hundscheid, Tim; Schott, Dina A; Vissers-Croughs, Karen J M

    2015-01-01

    A six-month-old female girl presented with a lesion on her right hemi-abdomen. The lesion occurred after she visited her father, who just came out of prison. Therefore, child abuse was suspected. A skin culture showed Staphylococcus aureus. The diagnosis was 'impetigo vulgaris'. Treatment with local antibiotics was successful. PMID:25873220

  11. [An infant with a suspicious lesion on her abdomen].

    PubMed

    Hundscheid, Tim; Schott, Dina A; Vissers-Croughs, Karen J M

    2015-01-01

    A six-month-old female girl presented with a lesion on her right hemi-abdomen. The lesion occurred after she visited her father, who just came out of prison. Therefore, child abuse was suspected. A skin culture showed Staphylococcus aureus. The diagnosis was 'impetigo vulgaris'. Treatment with local antibiotics was successful.

  12. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  13. A Review of Acne in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common conditions for which all patients, including those with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI), seek dermatological care. The multifactorial pathogenesis of acne appears to be the same in ethnic patients as in Caucasians. However, there is controversy over whether certain skin biology characteristics, such as sebum production, differ in ethnic patients. Clinically, acne lesions can appear the same as those seen in Caucasians; however, histologically, all types of acne lesions in African Americans can be associated with intense inflammation including comedones, which can also have some degree of inflammation. It is the sequelae of the disease that are the distinguishing characteristics of acne in skin of color, namely postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloidal or hypertrophic scarring. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne in skin of color. PMID:20725545

  14. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  15. Skin diseases following a Christmas tree pattern.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Andreas; Eames, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Pattern analysis of skin lesions is an art and a key competence of every dermatologist. Three major line patterns cover the human body-the dermatomes or Head zones, the nevoid lines of Blaschko, and the relaxed skin tension lines, or Langer lines. Head zones represent skin areas innervated from the same sensory neuronal segment or spinal nerve zone. Blaschko lines are borderlines of epidermal aberration caused by genetic mosaicism occurring in the early stages of embryogenesis. Langer lines show the direction of the lowest naturally occurring skin tension, and its thoracodorsal manifestation is the Christmas tree pattern. Here we review clinical aspects of pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides, stage 2 syphilis, exanthematic Kaposi sarcoma, exanthematic psoriasis, Leser-Trelat syndrome, and other primary skin diseases with a Christmas tree pattern. Secondary skin diseases, such as herpes zoster or indeterminate cell histiocytosis, may follow this pattern if they are linked to a primary skin disease by the Wolf isotopic response.

  16. Tail docking and the rearing of heavy pigs: the role played by gender and the presence of straw in the control of tail biting. Blood parameters, behaviour and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Annalisa; Di Martino, Guido; Bonfanti, Lebana; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Schiavon, Eliana; Marangon, Stefano; Gottardo, Flaviana

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated whether the specific heavy pig rearing context allowed the fattening of undocked pigs without an outbreak of tail biting. At the same time, gender and straw availability (small amounts) were considered to understand their possible interactions with tail presence in the display of tail biting. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design was adopted to test the effects of these factors on blood parameters, behaviour and tail/ear lesions. Few interactions among factors were detected. Undocked pigs showed lower cortisol (P<0.02), lying behaviour (P<0.001), and higher risk of tail/ear biting (weeks 3 and 9), but lower risk of tail lesions (week 14). Straw increased the motivation for exploring (P<0.001), reduced serum haptoglobin (P<0.001) and the risk for tail biting (weeks 3, 9, 18) and ear biting (weeks 3, 9). Results highlight the importance of straw as an environmental enrichment and seem to indicate that fattening undocked heavy pigs is possible. PMID:23876332

  17. Arsenic carcinogenesis in the skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2006-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is a world public health issue. Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers in lung, urinary bladder, kidney, liver and skin in a dose-response relationship. Oxidative stress, chromosomal abnormality and altered growth factors are possible modes of action in arsenic carcinogenesis. Arsenic tends to accumulate in the skin. Skin hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis have long been known to be the hallmark signs of chronic As exposure. There are significant associations between these dermatological lesions and risk of skin cancer. The most common arsenic-induced skin cancers are Bowen's disease (carcinoma in situ), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD) is able to transform into invasive BCC and SCC. Individuals with As-BD are considered for more aggressive cancer screening in the lung and urinary bladder. As-BD provides an excellent model for studying the early stages of chemical carcinogenesis in human beings. Arsenic exposure is associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and DNA aneuploidy in both cultured keratinocytes and As-BD lesions. These cellular abnormalities relate to the p53 dysfunction induced by arsenic. The characteristic clinical figures of arsenic-induced skin cancer are: (i) occurrence on sun-protected areas of the body; (ii) multiple and recrudescent lesions. Both As and UVB are able to induce skin cancer. Arsenic treatment enhances the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and clastogenicity of UV in mammalian cells. Both As and UVB induce apoptosis in keratinocytes by caspase-9 and caspase-8 signaling, respectively. Combined UVB and As treatments resulted in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects by stimulating both caspase pathways in the keratinocytes. UVB irradiation inhibited mutant p53 and ki-67 expression, as well as increased in the number of apoptotic cells in As-BD lesions which resulted in an

  18. Skin chromphore mapping by means of a modified video-microscope for skin malformation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, Amina; Rubins, Uldis; Lihacova, Ilze; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-09-01

    Many spectral imaging devices are commercially available and used to detect certain skin pathology; however an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analisys of skin. Multispectral device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. Possibilities to map skin chromophores using a modified low-cost digital video-microscope is discussed. It was adapted for an advanced skin microscopy and used for detailed spectral analysis of skin. The device comprises CMOS digital imaging sensor, four-colour LED illumination system and image acquisition optics. The main goal is to obtain a set of spectral images of the skin area of interest for further conversion into maps of the main skin chromophores.

  19. Warfarin skin necrosis mimicking calciphylaxis in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Eun; Byeon, Seonggyu; Kim, Hee Kyung; Moon, Seong Mi; Moon, Ji Hoon; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Byung-Jae; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Huh, Wooseong; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Oh, Ha Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-03-01

    Warfarin skin necrosis (WSN) is an infrequent complication of warfarin treatment and is characterized by painful ulcerative skin lesions that appear a few days after the start of warfarin treatment. Calciphylaxis also appears as painful skin lesions caused by tissue injury resulting from localized ischemia caused by calcification of small- to medium-sized vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report on a patient who presented with painful skin ulcers on the lower extremities after the administration of warfarin after a valve operation. Calciphylaxis was considered first because of the host factors; eventually, the skin lesions were diagnosed as WSN by biopsy. The skin lesions improved after warfarin discontinuation and short-term steroid therapy. Most patients with end-stage renal disease have some form of cardiovascular disease and some require temporary or continual warfarin treatment. It is important to differentiate between WSN and calciphylaxis in patients with painful skin lesions. PMID:27069859

  20. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  1. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  2. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  6. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  7. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  8. Fistulizing Crohn's Disease Presenting After Surgery on a Perianal Lesion.

    PubMed

    Singer, Andrew A M; Gadepalli, Samir K; Eder, Sally J; Adler, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Perianal skin lesions, such as skin tags, can be an early presenting sign of Crohn's disease. Surgical intervention on these lesions may increase the risk of fistula development and lead to worse outcomes. This case series examined 8 patients who underwent surgical intervention on what appeared to be benign perianal skin lesions, only to reveal fistulas leading to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. This patient population comprised 20% of all pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who had perianal fistula present at diagnosis. The initial type of perianal lesion varied from case to case and included skin tags, hemorrhoids, and perianal abscesses. All of the patients had other presenting features that, in retrospect, may have been attributed to Crohn's disease. None presented solely with a perianal lesion. Four patients had weight loss or growth failure. Most of the remainder had abnormal laboratory test results. These findings should raise the awareness of primary care providers that perianal lesions can be the first presenting sign of possible Crohn's disease in otherwise healthy appearing children. Such children should undergo a thorough evaluation for Crohn's disease before surgical intervention on perianal lesions because surgical procedures may be associated with worse outcomes.

  9. Automatic Classification of Specific Melanocytic Lesions Using Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, Joanna; Kłeczek, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Different computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed to increase the specificity and sensitivity of melanoma detection. Although such computer programs are developed for different diagnostic algorithms, to the best of our knowledge, a system to classify different melanocytic lesions has not been proposed yet. Method. In this research we present a new approach to the classification of melanocytic lesions. This work is focused not only on categorization of skin lesions as benign or malignant but also on specifying the exact type of a skin lesion including melanoma, Clark nevus, Spitz/Reed nevus, and blue nevus. The proposed automatic algorithm contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and selection as well as classification. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 300 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed approach classified most of the melanocytic lesions correctly. Conclusions. A proposed system can not only help to precisely diagnose the type of the skin mole but also decrease the amount of biopsies and reduce the morbidity related to skin lesion excision. PMID:26885520

  10. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  11. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is fundamental to a successful treatment. Changes in the shape, including the relief, of skin lesions are an indicator of a possible malignity. Optical microtopographic inspection of skin lesions can be used to identify diagnostic patterns of benign and malign skin' lesions. Statistical parameters like the mean roughness (Ra) may allow the discrimination between different types of lesions and degree of malignity. Fractal analysis of bi-dimensional and 3D images of skin lesions can validate or complement that assessment by calculation of its fractal dimensions (FD). On the study herein reported the microtopographic inspection of the skin lesions were performed using the optical triangulation based microtopographer developed at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, MICROTOP.03.MFC. The patients that participated in this research work were men and women older than 15 years with the clinical and histopathology diagnoses of: melanoma, basocellular carcinoma, epidermoide carcinoma, actinic keratosis, keratoacantosis and benign nevus. Latex impressions of the lesions were taken and microtopographically analyzed. Characteristic information for each type of studied lesion was obtained. For melanoma it was observed that on the average these tumors present an increased roughness of around 67 percent compared to the roughness of the healthy skin. This feature allows the distinction from other tumors as basocellular carcinoma (were the roughness increase was in the average of 49 percent) and benign lesions as the epidermoide cyst (37 percent) or the seborrhea keratosis (4 percent). Tumor size and roughness are directly proportional to the grade of malignality. The characterization of the fractal geometry of 2D (histological slides) and 3D images of skin lesions was performed by obtaining its FD evaluated by means of the Box counting method. Results obtained showed that the average fractal dimension of histological slide images (FDh

  12. Pityriasis rosea with palmoplantar plaque lesions.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, I

    2005-01-01

    Pityriasis rosea is a skin disease characterized by sharply defined pruritic red patches covered by fine scales. It affects mostly adolescent and young adults. Typical lesions usually affect the trunk in a Christmas-tree pattern. The eruption usually resolves after 6 weeks but symptomatic treatment may be needed. Two patients are reported with classic presentation of pityriasis rosea except for the unusual associated palmoplantar lesions; both patients had negative RPR (with dilutions) and MHA-TP. They responded to 2-week courses of either oral erythromycin or Clarithromycin with complete resolution.

  13. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  14. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  15. Example Based Lesion Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2016-01-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  16. Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure.

    PubMed

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Davoudi, Seyed M; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Panahi, Yunes; Dowlati, Yahya

    2011-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide: SM), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917. Despite prohibition of its production and use by international conventions, it has been used in several conflicts. More than 100,000 soldiers and civilians were injured due to SM exposure during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The acute skin lesions consist of erythema, edema, and blisters. Skin xerosis and pruritus, pigmentation disorders, scars, and cherry angiomas are among the most common long-term skin lesions after contact with SM. Although SM is a well-known carcinogenic substance, skin cancers are rarely reported.

  17. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

  18. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches.

  19. Oral mucosal manifestations in some genodermatoses: correlation with cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Hammerschmidt, Mariana; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The clinical picture of several genetic skin diseases may include the presence of oral mucosal lesions. These manifestations, however, have not been granted much attention in most dermatological publications. In this article, we fully review the oral mucosal lesions of tuberous sclerosis, dyskeratosis congenita, lipoidoproteinosis, Cowden disease, Darier's disease and pachyonychya congenita and compare these with their respective cutaneous lesions. Some dental aspects are discussed as well. This unifying approach may allow a better understanding of these oral lesions, avoiding obscure nomenclature and classification. PMID:24001555

  20. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of benign and malignant cutaneous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Troyanova, P. P.; Stoyanova, V. P.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2005-04-01

    The goals of this work were investigation of pigmented skin lesions by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from malignant and benign skin lesions after excitation with nitrogen laser at 337 nm, namely: benign nevi, dysplastic nevi, malignant melanoma (MM), keratopapilloma, base-cell papilloma and base-cell carcinoma, as well as from healthy skin areas near to the lesion that were used posteriori to reveal changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra. Initially lesions were classified by ABCD-dermatscopic method. All suspicious lesions were excised and were investigated histologically. Spectrum of healthy skin consists of one main maximum at 470-500 nm spectral region and secondary maxima at in the regions round 400 and 440 nm. In the cases of nevi and melanoma significant decrease of fluorescence intensity, which correlated with the type of pigment lesion was observed. This reduction of the signal is related to the accumulation of melanin in the lesions that re-absorb strongly the fluorescence from native skin fluorophores in whole visible spectral region. In cases of papilloma and base-cell carcinoma an intensity decrease was also observed, related to accumulation of pigments in these cutaneous lesions. An relative increase of the fluorescence peak at 440 nm were registered in the case of base-cell carcinoma, and appearance of green fluorescence, related to increase of keratin content in benign papilloma lesions were detected. The results, obtained in this investigation of the different pigment lesions could be used for better comprehension of the skin optical properties. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the human skin are very prominent for early diagnosis and differentiation of cutaneous diseases and gives a wide range of possibilities related to real-time determination of existing pathological condition.

  2. Crohn’s disease and skin

    PubMed Central

    Gravina, AG; Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Romano, F; Miranda, A; Sgambato, D; Dallio, M; Ruocco, V; Loguercio, C

    2015-01-01

    Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease potentially involving any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Extra-intestinal manifestations may occur in 6%–40% of patients, and disorders of the skin are among the most common. This manuscript will review skin manifestations associated to Crohn’s disease, with a particular focus on lesions associated to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. PMID:27087942

  3. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  4. Spectrum of superficial nerve-related tumor and tumor-like lesions: MRI features.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Lee, Pearlene P; Strome, Glenn M; Suh, Kyung Jin; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-04-01

    Superficial soft-tissue masses arising from skin appendages, metastasis, and inflammatory lesions have been widely reported. However, nerve-related superficial mass-like lesions other than peripheral nerve sheath tumors are less commonly described. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss the entire spectrum of these lesions and also outline a systemic diagnostic approach.

  5. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  6. Noncontact monitoring of vascular lesion phototherapy efficiency by RGB multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Kuzmina, Ilona; Berzina, Anna; Valeine, Lauma; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-12-01

    A prototype low-cost RGB imaging system consisting of a commercial RGB CMOS sensor, RGB light-emitting diode ring light illuminator, and a set of polarizers was designed and tested for mapping the skin erythema index, in order to monitor skin recovery after phototherapy of vascular lesions, such as hemangiomas and telangiectasias. The contrast of erythema index (CEI) was proposed as a parameter for quantitative characterization of vascular lesions. Skin recovery was characterized as a decrease of the CEI value relative to the value before the treatment. This approach was clinically validated by examining 31 vascular lesions before and after phototherapy.

  7. Dermatologic conditions in skin of color: part II. Disorders occurring predominately in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Roopal V; Patterson, Stavonnie

    2013-06-15

    Several skin conditions are more common in persons with skin of color, including dermatosis papulosa nigra, pseudofolliculitis barbae, acne keloidalis nuchae, and keloids. Dermatosis papulosa nigra is a common benign condition characterized by skin lesions that do not require treatment, although several options are available for removal to address cosmetic concerns. Pseudofolliculitis barbae occurs as a result of hair removal. Altering shaving techniques helps prevent lesions from recurring. In acne keloidalis nuchae, keloidal lesions are found on the occipital scalp and posterior neck. Early treatment with steroids, antibiotics, and retinoids prevents progression. A key part of the management of keloids is prevention. First-line medical therapy includes intralesional steroid injections. The distinct structure of the hair follicle in blacks results in hair care practices that can lead to common scalp disorders. For example, chemical relaxers decrease the strength of hair and may cause breakage. Better patient education, with early diagnosis and treatment, often leads to better outcomes.

  8. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  9. Bacillary angiomatosis presenting as a soft-tissue tumor without skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Schinella, R A; Greco, M A

    1990-05-01

    A patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection presented with a soft-tissue mass which histologically and clinically mimicked an angiosarcoma. Ultrastructural study, however, revealed bacteria identical to those seen in cutaneous bacillary angiomatosis, but the patient had no skin lesions. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of soft tissue involvement by bacillary angiomatosis without the presence of skin lesions.

  10. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  11. [Combined polyurethane foam and hydrogel dressing. Outcome in lesions of diverse etiology].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, Justo; Arboix Perejamo, Montserrat; Muñoz Bueno, Ana Maria; Rosell Moreno, Carmen; Blanco Blanco, Joan; Ballester Torralba, Jordi; Gago Fornells, Manuel; García González, R Fernando

    2004-11-01

    The authors present an observational evaluation on the effectiveness of a dressing included in the Indafoam brand for treatment of skin lesions due to different etiology which have an acute or chronic diagnosis; the authors include some very valuable information for professionals who use combined polyurethane foam and hydrogel dressings in their daily practice. Due to their composition, these dressings may be considered combined dressings having only one structure which maintains a stable temperature at the lesion site; these dressings have a high absorption capacity which prevents maceration of the skin surrounding lesions and protects lesions from contamination by exogenous germs.

  12. [A girl with a painful red skin].

    PubMed

    Bakker, M E C Mariëlle; Oberndorff, Karin M E J

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with increasing erythroderma since one day in combination with impetigo vulgaris. As exfoliative lesions and bullae developed within hours, the patient was diagnosed with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. She was successfully treated with flucloxacillin. PMID:23369814

  13. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  14. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  15. Classification of infrared spectra from skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Crowson, A. Neil; Toole, John W. P.; Mantsch, Henry H.; Jackson, Michael

    2000-05-01

    The clinical differential diagnosis of skin tumors is an often-challenging task, to which the probing of skin with mid- and near-infrared (IR) light may be contributory. The development of objective methods for the analysis of IR spectra remains a major hurdle to developing clinically useful applications. The authors highlight different processing methods for IR spectra from skin biopsies and in-vivo skin tumors. Spectroscopic maps of biopsies of basal cell, squamous cell and melanocytic neoplasms were objectively grouped into distinct clusters that corresponded with tumor, epidermis, dermis, follicle and fat. Normal and abnormal skin components were located within maps using a search engine based upon linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In all instances, areas of tumor were distinct from normal tissue in biopsies. In-vivo, near-IR spectroscopy and LDA allowed discrimination between benign and malignant skin lesions with a high degree of accuracy. We conclude that IR spectroscopy has significant diagnostic promise in the skin cancer arena. The analytical methods described can now be used to create a powerful classification scheme in which to detect skin tumor cells within biopsied and living skin.

  16. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  17. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, James; Galea, Samuel; Galea, Joseph; Schembri, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man on warfarin for aortic valve replacement presented with recurrent episodes of melaena. An initial oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was normal, as were red cell scanning and colonoscopy. It was a third OGD that revealed the cause of the melaena—a vascular lesion in the duodenum, at the junction between D1 and D2. An extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion was diagnosed, and the lesion was injected with epinephrine and tattooed. Over the following months, episodes of bleeding recurred despite further attempts at injection. Percutaneous radiologically assisted embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery, and eventually duodenotomy and oversuturing of the lesion were performed to no avail. The patient has undergone over 10 endoscopies, and has received over 70 units of packed red cells to date, since his initial presentation 6 years ago. Attempts to stop the bleeding permanently have been difficult, highlighting the complexity of managing such a lesion. PMID:25216921

  18. [Skin diseases in travellers returning from tropical countries].

    PubMed

    Blum, Johannes; Pletscher, Martin

    2013-06-01

    The most frequently observed skin lesions in travellers returning from tropical countries are insect bite reactions, bacterial skin diseases, creeping eruption and allergic reactions. The article describes these most relevant diseases and their differential diagnosis focussing on the diseases, which are potentially dangerous and which should not be missed, such as resistant staphylococci, chancre of rickettsia or sleeping sickness, cutaneous leishmaniasis or worms, which are not limited to the skin.

  19. Identifying Risk Factors Using a Skin Cancer Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Etzkorn, Jeremy Robert; Parikh, Rajiv Prakash; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Law, Kimberly; Davis, Ashley H.; Rawal, Bhupendra; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane L.; Rendina, Lois E.; Zager, Jonathan S.; Lien, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer continues to increase. To detect lesions at an earlier phase in their progression, skin cancer screening programs have been advocated by some. However, the effectiveness of skin cancer screening and the ideal population that these screenings should target have yet to be firmly established. This study details the relationship of a group of well-known risk factors with presumptive diagnoses in a large series of individuals self-referred for free skin cancer screening. Methods Data obtained during 2007 to 2010 from a descriptive cross-sectional study skin cancer screening program are presented. Participant history was recorded using standardized medical history forms prior to skin examination. Screeners conducted a skin examination varying from whole-body to limited areas (per participant preference) and recorded diagnoses. Diagnoses were assigned to the nonmelanoma cancer (NMC) or suspicious pigmented lesion group for analysis. Results A presumptive diagnosis of NMC was associated with male sex, age ≥ 50 years, personal history of skin cancer, lower skin phototype, increased sunscreen use, and increased chronic sun exposure (all P values ≤ .0001). After controlling for skin phototype, increased sunscreen use was not associated with a presumptive diagnosis of NMC (P = .96). Presumptive diagnosis of a suspicious pigmented lesion was associated with a reported history of “changing mole” (P < .0001) and negatively associated with age ≥ 50 years (P < .0001) and a personal history of skin cancer (P = .0119). Conclusions Several known risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer correlated with a presumptive diagnosis of NMC. The yield of presumptive atypical pigmented lesions was increased in participants aged < 50 years, supporting the notion that this population may benefit from screening. PMID:24077401

  20. Environmental and occupational skin diseases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Lee, C H; Jee, S H; Ho, C K; Guo, Y L

    2001-11-01

    This presentation focuses on the four most important skin diseases in Taiwan thought to be of environmental and/or occupational origin. The majority of work-related dermatoses are contact dermatitis patients. Among occupational contact dermatitis patients, 58.5% involved irritant and 41.5%, allergic dermatitis. Electronics, hairdressing, medical practice, and construction were the most important occupations causing contact dermatitis. An endemic occurrence of chronic arsenism causing hyperpigmentation, keratosis, and cancer has been reported in Taiwan. Arsenical skin cancers present as multiple lesions at different disease stages. The skin cancers are usually found in non-sun-exposed areas. UVB exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of arsenical cancers; this may explain its non-sun-exposed nature. An outbreak of premalignant and malignant skin lesions was reported among paraquat manufacturers in 1985. The skin lesions were mainly distributed over the sun-exposed areas. Photodamage and photocarcinogenesis revealed a strong association with exposure to bipyridines among paraquat manufacturers. In 1979, a mass poisoning occurred in Taiwan from cooking oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Over 60% of patients were in grades O-II by the Japanese classification. The blood PCB levels of the Taiwanese patients were found to be higher than those of the Yusho subjects.

  1. [Significance and possibilities of histopathologic diagnosis in breed-specific skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Teifke, J P; Löhr, C V; Käufer-Weiss, I; Weiss, E

    1998-07-01

    An increasing number of punch biopsies is submitted for histopathology. Results are often disappointing for the veterinary pathologist as well as the referring veterinarian. Inappropriate timing of sampling, selection and preparation of the biopsy site, type of biopsy, biopsy technique and fixation as well as incomplete histories often contribute to insufficient diagnosis and interpretation of skin lesions. The introduction of this review gives an overview of the requirements for a satisfying evaluation of skin lesions and the limits of diagnostic histopathology on skin samples, especially punch biopsies. The second part summarizes more frequent dermatohistopathological diagnoses according to the pattern analysis of skin lesions, using examples of skin diseases with breed predisposition. Among the described skin lesions are the dermatoses associated with endocrine dysfunction, cutaneous mucinosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like syndrome, alopecia of color mutants, dermatomyositis, granulomatous sebadentitis, Malassezia dermatitis, pyoderma and atopic dermatitis. PMID:9710933

  2. Tinea versicolor in dark-skinned individuals.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Riaz, Fauzia; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we review the salient features of tinea versicolor and describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathology of this mycosis in dark-skinned individuals. Tinea versicolor is caused by an overgrowth of the Malassezia genus. It manifests clinically as asymptomatic hypopigmented macules, hyperpigmented macules, or a combination of the two. Under light microscopy, Malassezia presents as a dimorphic fungus - in both the hyphal and yeast form. Most clinicians have found that the majority of dark-skinned patients present solely with hypopigmented lesions. Under light microscopy, lesions on dark skin involved with tinea versicolor tend to have a thicker stratum corneum, more tonofilaments in the granulosum, and more sequestered melanosomes. Differential diagnosis includes confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis alba, and vitiligo. Tinea versicolor can be successfully managed in most cases with topical antifungal treatments. Cases of recurrence, such as those seen in immunocompromised patients, may necessitate scheduled oral or topical therapy. PMID:24320140

  3. Skin Keratins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  4. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  5. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  6. Retinal lesions in septicemia.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, M; Barnea, Y; Geyer, O; Siegman-Igra, Y

    1993-12-15

    We explored the association between septicemia and specific retinal lesions in a prospective controlled study. Hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, or Roth's spots were found in 24 of 101 septicemic patients (24%), compared to four of 99 age- and gender-matched control patients (4%) (P = .0002). There was no significant association between types of organisms or focus of infection and the presence of specific lesions. Histologic examination of affected eyes disclosed cytoid bodies in the nerve fiber layer without inflammation. A definite association between septicemia and retinal lesions was found and indicates the need for routine ophthalmoscopy in septicemic patients. PMID:8250076

  7. Automated colour identification in melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Sabbaghi, S; Aldeen, M; Garnavi, R; Varigos, G; Doliantis, C; Nicolopoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Colour information plays an important role in classifying skin lesion. However, colour identification by dermatologists can be very subjective, leading to cases of misdiagnosis. Therefore, a computer-assisted system for quantitative colour identification is highly desirable for dermatologists to use. Although numerous colour detection systems have been developed, few studies have focused on imitating the human visual perception of colours in melanoma application. In this paper we propose a new methodology based on QuadTree decomposition technique for automatic colour identification in dermoscopy images. Our approach mimics the human perception of lesion colours. The proposed method is trained on a set of 47 images from NIH dataset and applied to a test set of 190 skin lesions obtained from PH2 dataset. The results of our proposed method are compared with a recently reported colour identification method using the same dataset. The effectiveness of our method in detecting colours in dermoscopy images is vindicated by obtaining approximately 93% accuracy when the CIELab1 colour space is used. PMID:26736928

  8. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinoma ) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as ... Mosby; 2010:chap 100. Read More Cancer Histoplasmosis Lichen planus Squamous cell skin cancer Update Date 11/ ...

  9. Green tea and skin--anticarcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, H; Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R

    1994-01-01

    Because of its special aroma, green tea is a popular beverage consumed by some human populations worldwide. In recent years, many laboratory studies have shown that in a variety of animal tumor bioassay systems the administration of green tea, specifically the polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea leaves (green tea polyphenols), affords protection against cancer induction. In mouse skin tumor bioassay systems, topical application of green tea polyphenols to skin has been shown to result in protection against a) 3-methylcholanthrene-induced skin tumorigenicity, b) 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin tumor initiation, c) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and other tumor promoters caused tumor promotion in DMBA-initiated skin, and d) benzoyl peroxide- and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide caused enhanced malignant progression of nonmalignant lesions. Green tea extract has also been shown to cause partial regression of established skin papillomas in mouse. Similarly, chronic oral feeding of green tea polyphenols or water extract of green tea has also been shown to result in the protection against both chemical carcinogen- and ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin tumorigenicity. Collectively these data suggest that green tea possesses significant chemopreventive effect against each stage of carcinogenesis, and that it may be useful against inflammatory responses associated with the exposure of skin to chemical tumor promoters as well as to solar radiation. Available data regarding the mechanism by which green tea affords these diversified effects is discussed.

  10. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    PubMed Central

    Papacostas, Lindsey J.; Henderson, Andrew; Choong, Keat; Sowden, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole. PMID:25893164

  11. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Papacostas, Lindsey J; Henderson, Andrew; Choong, Keat; Sowden, David

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole. PMID:25893164

  12. Acute nontraumatic liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Caremani, Marcello; Tacconi, Danilo; Lapini, Laura

    2013-11-26

    The principal conditions requiring emergency/urgent intervention in patients with nontraumatic liver lesions are hemorrhage (with or without tumor rupture), rupture of hydatid cysts (with or without infection), complications arising from liver abscesses or congenital liver cysts, rupture related to peliosis hepatis, and in rare cases spontaneous hemorrhage. This article examines each of these conditions, its appearance on ultrasound (the first-line imaging method of choice for assessing any urgent nontraumatic liver lesion) and indications for additional imaging studies.

  13. [Osteoarticular lesions from parachuting].

    PubMed

    Orso, C A; Valbonesi, L; Calabrese, B F; D'Onofrio, S

    1990-01-01

    Based on personal experience gained in a parachuting centre (Pescara Aero-club) from 1975 up to 1988, the authors report their evaluation on chronic and acute osteoarticular lesions. The review of the cases was not based on the incidence of the lesions nor on their characteristics, normally found in common traumatology, but it was related to the dynamics of the trauma during the landing and to painful syndromes following a prolonged parachuting activity.

  14. Noninvasive methods for determining lesion depth from vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Braue, Ernest H; Graham, John S; Doxzon, Bryce F; Hanssen, Kelly A; Lumpkin, Horace L; Stevenson, Robert S; Deckert, Robin R; Dalal, Stephen J; Mitcheltree, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Before sulfur mustard (HD) injuries can be effectively treated, assessment of lesion depth must occur. Accurate depth assessment is important because it dictates how aggressive treatment needs to be to minimize or prevent cosmetic and functional deficits. Depth of injury typically is assessed by physical examination. Diagnosing very superficial and very deep lesions is relatively easy for the experienced burn surgeon. Lesions of intermediate depth, however, are often problematic in determining the need for grafting. This study was a preliminary evaluation of two noninvasive bioengineering methodologies, laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICGFI), to determine their ability to accurately diagnose depth of sulfur mustard lesions in a weanling swine model. Histological evaluation was used to assess the accuracy of the imaging techniques in determining burn depth. Six female weanling swine (8-12 kg) were exposed to 400 microl of neat sulfur mustard on six ventral sites for 2, 8, 30, or 60 minutes. This exposure regimen produced lesions of varying depths from superficial to deep dermal. Evaluations of lesion depth using the bioengineering techniques were conducted at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. After euthanasia at 72 hours after exposure, skin biopsies were taken from each site and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin histological evaluation to determine the true depth of the lesion. Results demonstrated that LDPI and ICGFI were useful tools to characterize skin perfusion and provided a good estimate of HD lesion depth. Traditional LDPI and the novel prototype ICGFI instrumentation used in this study produced images of blood flow through skin lesions, which provided a useful assessment of burn depth. LDPI and ICGFI accurately predicted the need for aggressive treatment (30- and 60-minute HD lesions) and nonaggressive treatment (2- and 8-minute HD lesions) for the lesions generated in this study. Histological

  15. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back. PMID:27648383

  16. Laser treatment for skin disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima; Cepulis, Vytautas; Ponomarev, Igor V.

    1996-12-01

    The correct selection of patients is the most difficult part of the laser treatment. Since 1985 the total number of patients treated by us using different laser systems was 1544. High power lasers: Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers were used by us for surgical treatment. Low power lasers: Helium-Neon, Copper vapor, gold vapor and dye lasers were applied by us to PDT or to treatment of port wine hemangiomas. this paper reports our efforts in selecting the patients with different skin lesions for the treatment with different laser systems.

  17. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back. PMID:27648383

  18. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back.

  19. Easy-interactive and quick psoriasis lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guoli; He, Bei; Yang, Wenming; Shu, Chang

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes an interactive psoriasis lesion segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Psoriasis is an incurable skin disease and affects large population in the world. PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) is the gold standard utilized by dermatologists to monitor the severity of psoriasis. Computer aid methods of calculating PASI are more objective and accurate than human visual assessment. Psoriasis lesion segmentation is the basis of the whole calculating. This segmentation is different from the common foreground/background segmentation problems. Our algorithm is inspired by GrabCut and consists of three main stages. First, skin area is extracted from the background scene by transforming the RGB values into the YCbCr color space. Second, a rough segmentation of normal skin and psoriasis lesion is given. This is an initial segmentation given by thresholding a single gaussian model and the thresholds are adjustable, which enables user interaction. Third, two GMMs, one for the initial normal skin and one for psoriasis lesion, are built to refine the segmentation. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Unusual Features of Rosacea in Saudi Females with Dark Skin

    PubMed Central

    Al Balbeesi, Amal Omar; Halawani, Mona R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the clinical presentation of rosacea among darker-skinned ethnic groups is scarce. This article presents the clinical spectrum of rosacea in Saudi female patients with differences highlighted according to skin types. Methods Female patients diagnosed with rosacea at the dermatology clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February 2010 and May 2011 were studied prospectively. Data collected included demographics, duration of the disease, personal history of any atopic disorder, aggravating factors, cutaneous and ocular symptoms, the presence of migraine, Helicobacter pylori infection, skin phototypes, and the clinical types and severity of rosacea. Results Fifty patients consented to join the study: 20 (40%) were patients with skin type 4, 9 (18%) had skin type 5, and 21 (42%) had skin type 6. The cheeks, glabella, and chin were involved in 26 (52%) patients. Extrafacial lesions affecting chest, back, and ears were identified in 7 patients (14%). Severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was diagnosed in 21 patients (42%): skin type 4 comprised 50%, higher than the incidences for skin type 5 (22%) and skin type 6 (42.9%). The severe papulopustular subtype of rosacea was noted in 7 patients (14.0%), affecting 20% with skin type 4 and 14% with skin type 6. Severity of the erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular subtypes of rosacea was not significantly associated with skin type (P=0.5691 and P=0.7740, respectively). Conclusion This study addresses the growing interest in skin diseases in dark-skinned individuals. Rosacea is one of the skin disorders that had always been described for fair-skinned populations, but our results indicate that darker-skinned individuals also can be affected by rosacea and the clinical presentation is similar to that seen in patients with fair skin. PMID:25249796

  1. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

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    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...