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Sample records for ada programming language

  1. Ada--Programming Language of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, David

    1983-01-01

    Ada is a programing language developed for the Department of Defense, with a registered trademark. It was named for Ada Augusta, coworker of Charles Babbage and the world's first programer. The Department of Defense hopes to prevent variations and to establish Ada as a consistent, standardized language. (MNS)

  2. Health Care and ADA Language Education Programs. Cooperative Demonstration Program: High Technology. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A project implemented cooperative training programs in the three occupational areas: ADA computer language use; respiratory therapy technician; and hospital pharmacy technician. The project's purpose was to demonstrate high technology training programs for adults as a cooperative effort among the West Virginia Department of Education, local…

  3. Parallel programming with Ada

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, J.

    1988-01-01

    To the human programmer the ease of coding distributed computing is highly dependent on the suitability of the employed programming language. But with a particular language it is also important whether the possibilities of one or more parallel architectures can efficiently be addressed by available language constructs. In this paper the possibilities are discussed of the high-level language Ada and in particular of its tasking concept as a descriptional tool for the design and implementation of numerical and other algorithms that allow execution of parts in parallel. Language tools are explained and their use for common applications is shown. Conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of several Ada concepts.

  4. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  5. Benchmark Lisp And Ada Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria; Galant, David; Lim, Raymond; Stutz, John; Gibson, J.; Raghavan, B.; Cheesema, P.; Taylor, W.

    1992-01-01

    Suite of nonparallel benchmark programs, ELAPSE, designed for three tests: comparing efficiency of computer processing via Lisp vs. Ada; comparing efficiencies of several computers processing via Lisp; or comparing several computers processing via Ada. Tests efficiency which computer executes routines in each language. Available for computer equipped with validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system.

  6. Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chedrawi, Lutfi

    1986-01-01

    An artist acquires all the necessary tools before painting a scene. In the same analogy, a software engineer needs the necessary tools to provide their design with the proper means for implementation. Ada provide these tools. Yet, as an artist's painting needs a brochure to accompany it for further explanation of the scene, an Ada design also needs a document along with it to show the design in its detailed structure and hierarchical order. Ada could be self-explanatory in small programs not exceeding fifty lines of code in length. But, in a large environment, ranging from thousands of lines and above, Ada programs need to be well documented to be preserved and maintained. The language used to specify an Ada document is called Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL). This language sets some rules to help derive a well formatted Ada detailed design document. The rules are defined to meet the needs of a project manager, a maintenance team, a programmer and a systems designer. The design document templates, the document extractor, and the rules set forth by the ASDL are explained in detail.

  7. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  8. Research, development, training, and education using the Ada programming language. Final report, 1 September 1987-31 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.C.

    1989-07-16

    The primary goal of this activity was to conduct research in the application and development of Ada, and in broader terms the objectives were as follows: (1) To develop numerical algorithms for parallel processing using the Ada language; (2) To develop new methodologies in reusing Ada software; (3) To solve select problems in applied mathematics using MACSYMA and Ada; (4) Simulate the interactions of nodes in a network using Ada; (5) To increase the cadre of educations available to provide Ada training by conducting Ada workshops for Norfolk State University faculty and staff; (6) To develop a series of in-class and individualized modules addressing Ada programming using computer-assisted instruction; and (7) To disseminate research and computer-aided instruction modules to other minority institutions through computer networking, workshops, and lecture series.

  9. Knowledge, programming, and programming cultures: LISP, C, and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The results of research 'Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems' are presented. The purpose of the research was to compare Ada to other programming languages. The report focuses on the programming languages Ada, C, and Lisp, the programming cultures that surround them, and the programming paradigms they support.

  10. An Ada programming support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyrrill, AL; Chan, A. David

    1986-01-01

    The toolset of an Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) being developed at North American Aircraft Operations (NAAO) of Rockwell International, is described. The APSE is resident on three different hosts and must support developments for the hosts and for embedded targets. Tools and developed software must be freely portable between the hosts. The toolset includes the usual editors, compilers, linkers, debuggers, configuration magnagers, and documentation tools. Generally, these are being supplied by the host computer vendors. Other tools, for example, pretty printer, cross referencer, compilation order tool, and management tools were obtained from public-domain sources, are implemented in Ada and are being ported to the hosts. Several tools being implemented in-house are of interest, these include an Ada Design Language processor based on compilable Ada. A Standalone Test Environment Generator facilitates test tool construction and partially automates unit level testing. A Code Auditor/Static Analyzer permits the Ada programs to be evaluated against measures of quality. An Ada Comment Box Generator partially automates generation of header comment boxes.

  11. First International Conference on Ada (R) Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed include: test and verification; environment issues; distributed Ada issues; life cycle issues; Ada in Europe; management/training issues; common Ada interface set; and run time issues.

  12. Ada programming guidelines for deterministic storage management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have established that a program can be written in the Ada language such that the program's storage management requirements are determinable prior to its execution. Specific guidelines for ensuring such deterministic usage of Ada dynamic storage requirements are described. Because requirements may vary from one application to another, guidelines are presented in a most-restrictive to least-restrictive fashion to allow the reader to match appropriate restrictions to the particular application area under investigation.

  13. Comparing host and target environments for distributed Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulk, Mark C.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language provides a means of specifying logical concurrency by using multitasking. Extending the Ada multitasking concurrency mechanism into a physically concurrent distributed environment which imposes its own requirements can lead to incompatibilities. These problems are discussed. Using distributed Ada for a target system may be appropriate, but when using the Ada language in a host environment, a multiprocessing model may be more suitable than retargeting an Ada compiler for the distributed environment. The tradeoffs between multitasking on distributed targets and multiprocessing on distributed hosts are discussed. Comparisons of the multitasking and multiprocessing models indicate different areas of application.

  14. Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Debates about the selection of programming languages often produce cultural collisions that are not easily resolved. This is especially true in the case of Ada and knowledge based programming. The construction of programming tools provides a desirable alternative for resolving the conflict.

  15. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  16. The Adam language: Ada extended with support for multiway activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The Adam language is an extension of Ada that supports multiway activities, which are cooperative activities involving two or more processes. This support is provided by three new constructs: diva procedures, meet statements, and multiway accept statements. Diva procedures are recursive generic procedures having a particular restrictive syntax that facilitates translation for parallel computers. Meet statements and multiway accept statements provide two ways to express a multiway rendezvous, which is an n-way rendezvous generalizing Ada's 2-way rendezvous. While meet statements tend to have simpler rules than multiway accept statements, the latter approach is a more straightforward extension of Ada. The only nonnull statements permitted within meet statements and multiway accept statements are calls on instantiated diva procedures. A call on an instantiated diva procedure is also permitted outside a multiway rendezvous; thus sequential Adam programs using diva procedures can be written. Adam programs are translated into Ada programs appropriate for use on parallel computers.

  17. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  18. Translation and execution of distributed Ada programs - Is it still Ada?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Buzzard, Gregory D.; Krishnan, Padmanabhan

    1987-01-01

    Some of the fundamental issues and tradeoffs for distributed execution systems for the Ada language are examined. Steps that need to be taken to deal with heterogeneity of addressing program objects, of processing resources, and of the individual processor environment are considered. The ways in which program elements can be assigned are examined in the context of four issues: implied remote object access, object visibility and recursive execution, task termination problems, and distributed types.

  19. A distributed programming environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Peter; Mcdonnell, Tom; Mcfarland, Gregory; Timmins, Lawrence J.; Litke, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Despite considerable commercial exploitation of fault tolerance systems, significant and difficult research problems remain in such areas as fault detection and correction. A research project is described which constructs a distributed computing test bed for loosely coupled computers. The project is constructing a tool kit to support research into distributed control algorithms, including a distributed Ada compiler, distributed debugger, test harnesses, and environment monitors. The Ada compiler is being written in Ada and will implement distributed computing at the subsystem level. The design goal is to provide a variety of control mechanics for distributed programming while retaining total transparency at the code level.

  20. Transformation of ADA programs into silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organick, E. I.; Lindstrom, G.; Smith, D. K.; Subrahmany; Carter, T.

    1982-03-01

    This report outlines the beginning steps taken in an integrated research effort toward the development of a methodology, and supporting systems, for transforming Ada programs, or program units, (directly) into corresponding VLSI systems. The time seems right to expect good results. The need is evident; special purpose systems should be realistic alternatives where simplicity, speed, reliability, and security ae dominant factors. Success in this research can lead to attractive options for embedded system applications. Ada programs can be regarded as ensembles of machines, one per program unit (module), which in turn may be mapped directly into corresponding VLSI structures on one or more chips with interconnecting (packet switched or other) communication nets. The research reported here is part of a five-year plan, the first year of which focuses on 'proving' the concepts through a realistic demonstration of methodology for a specific example Ada program (a silicon representation of part or all of the DoD Standard Internet Protocol, IP, initially expressed in Ada). Implicit in these objectives is the development of a set of hardware structuring paradigms (rewrite rules) whose application can ensure that transformation steps between levels of abstraction in the design process are well structured in order to preserve the integrity and, where possible, the clarity of the original Ada specification. Some paradigms, but of course not all, lead to highly efficient implementations.

  1. Paranoia.Ada: A diagnostic program to evaluate Ada floating-point arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjermstad, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Many essential software functions in the mission critical computer resource application domain depend on floating point arithmetic. Numerically intensive functions associated with the Space Station project, such as emphemeris generation or the implementation of Kalman filters, are likely to employ the floating point facilities of Ada. Paranoia.Ada appears to be a valuabe program to insure that Ada environments and their underlying hardware exhibit the precision and correctness required to satisfy mission computational requirements. As a diagnostic tool, Paranoia.Ada reveals many essential characteristics of an Ada floating point implementation. Equipped with such knowledge, programmers need not tremble before the complex task of floating point computation.

  2. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  3. Development of an Ada programming support environment database SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database) administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD) was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities which are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. SEAD data is organized into five major areas: information regarding education and training resources which are relevant to the life cycle of Ada-based software engineering projects such as those in the Space Station program; research publications relevant to NASA projects such as the Space Station Program and conferences relating to Ada technology; the latest progress reports on Ada projects completed or in progress both within NASA and throughout the free world; Ada compilers and other commercial products that support Ada software development; and reusable Ada components generated both within NASA and from elsewhere in the free world. This classified listing of reusable components shall include descriptions of tools, libraries, and other components of interest to NASA. Sources for the data include technical newletters and periodicals, conference proceedings, the Ada Information Clearinghouse, product vendors, and project sponsors and contractors.

  4. Ada Run Time Support Environments and a common APSE Interface Set. [Ada Programming Support Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.

  5. Languages for artificial intelligence: Implementing a scheduler in LISP and in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1988-01-01

    A prototype scheduler for space experiments originally programmed in a dialect of LISP using some of the more traditional techniques of that language, was recast using an object-oriented LISP, Common LISP with Flavors on the Symbolics. This object-structured version was in turn partially implemented in Ada. The Flavors version showed a decided improvement in both speed of execution and readability of code. The recasting into Ada involved various practical problems of implementation as well as certain challenges of reconceptualization in going from one language to the other. Advantages were realized, however, in greater clarity of the code, especially where more standard flow of control was used. This exercise raised issues about the influence of programming language on the design of flexible and sensitive programs such as schedule planners, and called attention to the importance of factors external to the languages themselves such as system embeddedness, hardware context, and programmer practice.

  6. Classic-Ada(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  7. On-line upgrade of program modules using AdaPT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    One purpose of our research is the investigation of the effectiveness and expressiveness of AdaPT, a set of language extensions to Ada 83, for distributed systems. As a part of that effort, we are now investigating the subject of replacing, e.g. upgrading, software modules while the software system remains in operation. The AdaPT language extensions provide a good basis for this investigation for several reasons: they include the concept of specific, self-contained program modules which can be manipulated; support for program configuration is included in the language; and although the discussion will be in terms of the AdaPT language, the AdaPT to Ada 83 conversion methodology being developed as another part of this project will provide a basis for the application of our findings to Ada 83 and Ada 9X systems. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the basic mechanisms of the replacement process. With this purpose in mind, we will avoid including issues whose presence would obscure these basic mechanisms by introducing additional, unrelated concerns. Thus, while replacement in the presence of real-time deadlines, heterogeneous systems, and unreliable networks is certainly a topic of interest, we will first gain an understanding of the basic processes in the absence of such concerns. The extension of the replacement process to more complex situations can be made later. A previous report established an overview of the module replacement problem, a taxonomy of the various aspects of the replacement process, and a solution to one case in the replacement taxonomy. This report provides solutions to additional cases in the replacement process taxonomy: replacement of partitions with state and replacement of nodes. The solutions presented here establish the basic principles for module replacement. Extension of these solutions to other more complicated cases in the replacement taxonomy is direct, though requiring substantial work beyond the available funding.

  8. Paranoia.Ada: Sample output reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Paranoia.Ada is a program to diagnose floating point arithmetic in the context of the Ada programming language. The program evaluates the quality of a floating point arithmetic implementation with respect to the proposed IEEE Standards P754 and P854. Paranoia.Ada is derived from the original BASIC programming language version of Paranoia. The Paranoia.Ada replicates in Ada the test algorithms originally implemented in BASIC and adheres to the evaluation criteria established by W. M. Kahan. Paranoia.Ada incorporates a major structural redesign and employs applicable Ada architectural and stylistic features.

  9. Ada style guide (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, Edwin V.; Agresti, William; Ferry, Daniel; Lavallee, David; Maresca, Paul; Nelson, Robert; Quimby, Kelvin; Rosenberg, Jacob; Roy, Daniel; Shell, Allyn

    1987-01-01

    Ada is a programming language of considerable expressive power. The Ada Language Reference Manual provides a thorough definition of the language. However, it does not offer sufficient guidance on the appropriate use of Ada's powerful features. For this reason, the Goddard Space Flight Center Ada User's Group has produced this style guide which addresses such program style issues. The guide covers three areas of Ada program style: the structural decomposition of a program; the coding and the use of specific Ada features; and the textural formatting of a program.

  10. Deploying expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1989-01-01

    As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

  11. STGT program: Ada coding and architecture lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usavage, Paul; Nagurney, Don

    1992-01-01

    STGT (Second TDRSS Ground Terminal) is currently halfway through the System Integration Test phase (Level 4 Testing). To date, many software architecture and Ada language issues have been encountered and solved. This paper, which is the transcript of a presentation at the 3 Dec. meeting, attempts to define these lessons plus others learned regarding software project management and risk management issues, training, performance, reuse, and reliability. Observations are included regarding the use of particular Ada coding constructs, software architecture trade-offs during the prototyping, development and testing stages of the project, and dangers inherent in parallel or concurrent systems, software, hardware, and operations engineering.

  12. Programming in a proposed 9X distributed Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    The studies of the proposed Ada 9X constructs for distribution, now referred to as AdaPT are reported. The goals for this time period were to revise the chosen example scenario and to begin studying about how the proposed constructs might be implemented. The example scenario chosen is the Submarine Combat Information Center (CIC) developed by IBM for the Navy. The specification provided by IBM was preliminary and had several deficiencies. To address these problems, some changes to the scenario specification were made. Some of the more important changes include: (1) addition of a system database management function; (2) addition of a fourth processing unit to the standard resources; (3) addition of an operator console interface function; and (4) removal of the time synchronization function. To implement the CIC scenario in AdaPT, the decided strategy were publics, partitions, and nodes. The principle purpose for implementing the CIC scenario was to demonstrate how the AdaPT constructs interact with the program structure. While considering ways that the AdaPt constructs might be translated to Ada 83, it was observed that the partition construct could reasonably be modeled as an abstract data type. Although this gives a useful method of modeling partitions, it does not at all address the configuration aspects on the node construct.

  13. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in an increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. The Automated Reasoning Tool-Ada (ART-Ada), an Ada expert system tool, is explained. ART-Ada allows applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom program and the U.S. Air Force.

  14. Principles of programming languages: design

    SciTech Connect

    MacLennan, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    An excellent pedagogically oriented text on programming languages in which principles are emphasized more than details, methods more than results, and semantics more than syntax. Many chapter exercises, uniquely constructed and worded. Contents: Emphasis on efficiency: FORTRAN. Elegance and generality: ALGOL-60. Syntactic issues: ALGOL-60. Modularity and data abstraction: ADA. List processing LISP. Object-oriented programming. SMALLTALK. Logic programming: PROLOG. INDEX.

  15. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing) of Ada: The development of a program analysis environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1988-01-01

    A history of the Query Utility Environment for Software Testing (QUEST)/Ada is presented. A fairly comprehensive literature review which is targeted toward issues of Ada testing is given. The definition of the system structure and the high level interfaces are then presented. The design of the three major components is described. The QUEST/Ada IORL System Specifications to this point in time are included in the Appendix. A paper is also included in the appendix which gives statistical evidence of the validity of the test case generation approach which is being integrated into QUEST/Ada.

  16. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  17. Introduction to Image Algebra Ada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.

    1991-07-01

    Image Algebra Ada (IAA) is a superset of the Ada programming language designed to support use of the Air Force Armament Laboratory's image algebra in the development of computer vision application programs. The IAA language differs from other computer vision languages is several respects. It is machine independent, and an IAA translator has been implemented in the military standard Ada language. Its image operands and operations can be used to program a range of both low- and high-level vision algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the image algebra constructs supported in IAA and describes the embodiment of these constructs in the IAA extension of Ada. Examples showing the use of IAA for a range of computer vision tasks are given. The design of IAA as a superset of Ada and the implementation of the initial translator in Ada represent critical choices. The authors discuss the reasoning behind these choices as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Implementation strategies associated with the use of Ada as an implementation language for IAA are also discussed. While one can look on IAA as a program design language (PDL) for specifying Ada programs, it is useful to consider IAA as a separate language superset of Ada. This admits the possibility of directly translating IAA for implementation on special purpose architectures. This paper explores strategies for porting IAA to various architectures and notes the critical language and implementation features for porting to different architectures.

  18. Managing Ada development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language was developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense to address the soaring costs associated with software development and maintenance. Ada is powerful, and yet to take full advantage of its power, it is sufficiently complex and different from current programming approaches that there is considerable risk associated with committing a program to be done in Ada. There are also few programs of any substantial size that have been implemented using Ada that may be studied to determine those management methods that resulted in a successful Ada project. The items presented are the author's opinions which have been formed as a result of going through an experience software development. The difficulties faced, risks assumed, management methods applied, and lessons learned, and most importantly, the techniques that were successful are all valuable sources of management information for those managers ready to assume major Ada developments projects.

  19. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  20. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) Ada, an Ada Expert system tool is described. ART-Ada allow applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  1. Software issues involved in code translation of C to Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooi, Robert; Giarratano, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    It is often thought that translation of one programming language to another is a simple solution that can be used to extend the software life span or in rehosting software to another environment. The possible problems are examined as are the advantages and disadvantages of direct machine or human code translation versus that of redesign and rewrite of the software. The translation of the expert system language called C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) which is written in C, to Ada, will be used as a case study of the problems that are encountered.

  2. An approach to distributed execution of Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, R. A.; Krishnan, P.; Theriault, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intelligent control of the Space Station will require the coordinated execution of computer programs across a substantial number of computing elements. It will be important to develop large subsets of these programs in the form of a single program which executes in a distributed fashion across a number of processors. A translation strategy for distributed execution of Ada programs in which library packages and subprograms may be distributed is described. A preliminary version of the translator is operational. Simple data objects (no records or arrays as yet), subprograms, and static tasks may be referenced remotely.

  3. Ada technology support for NASA-GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of the Ada programming language and environments to perform directorate functions was reviewed. The Mission and Data Operations Directorate Network (MNET) conversion effort was chosen as the first task for evaluation and assistance. The MNET project required the rewriting of the existing Network Control Program (NCP) in the Ada programming language. The DEC Ada compiler running on the VAX under WMS was used for the initial development efforts. Stress tests on the newly delivered version of the DEC Ada compiler were performed. The new Alsys Ada compiler was purchased for the IBM PC AT. A prevalidated version of the compiler was obtained. The compiler was then validated.

  4. Timing issues in the distributed execution of Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines, in the context of distributed execution, the meaning of Ada constructs involving time. In the process, unresolved questions of interpretation and problems with the implementation of a consistent notion of time across a network are uncovered. It is observed that there are two Ada mechanisms that can involve a distributed sense of time: the conditional entry call, and the timed entry call. It is shown that a recent interpretation by the Language Maintenance Committee resolves the questions for the conditional entry calls but results in an anomaly for timed entry calls. A detailed discussion of alternative implementations for the timed entry call is made, and it is aruged that: (1) timed entry calls imply a common sense of time between the machines holding the calling and called tasks; and (2) the measurement of time for the expiration of the delay and the decision of whether or not to perform the rendezvous should be made on the machine holding the called task. The need to distinguish the unreadiness of the called task from timeouts caused by network failure is pointed out. Finally, techniques for realizing a single sense of time across the distributed system (at least to within an acceptable degree of uncertainty) are also discussed.

  5. ART-Ada design project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. An Ada based expert system tool is described called ART-Ada, which was built to support research into the language and methodological issues of expert systems in Ada. ART-Ada allows applications of an existing expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada based inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  6. The computerization of programming: Ada (R) lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struble, Dennis D.

    1986-01-01

    One of the largest systems yet written in Ada has been constructed. This system is the Intermetrics Ada compiler. Many lessons have been learned during the implementation of this Ada compiler. Some of these lessons, concentrating on those lessons relevant to large system implementations are described. The characteristics of the Ada compiler implementation project at Intermetrics are also described. Some specific experiences during the implementation are pointed out.

  7. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada. Final Report, 1 Jun. 1990 - 30 Sep. 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.H. II.

    1991-09-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  8. Using Ada: The deeper challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language and the associated Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) and Ada Run Time Environment (ARTE) provide the potential for significant life-cycle cost reductions in computer software development and maintenance activities. The Ada programming language itself is standardized, trademarked, and controlled via formal validation procedures. Though compilers are not yet production-ready as most would desire, the technology for constructing them is sufficiently well known and understood that time and money should suffice to correct current deficiencies. The APSE and ARTE are, on the other hand, significantly newer issues within most software development and maintenance efforts. Currently, APSE and ARTE are highly dependent on differing implementer concepts, strategies, and market objectives. Complex and sophisticated mission-critical computing systems require the use of a complete Ada-based capability, not just the programming language itself; yet the range of APSE and ARTE features which must actually be utilized can vary significantly from one system to another. As a consequence, the need to understand, objectively evaluate, and select differing APSE and ARTE capabilities and features is critical to the effective use of Ada and the life-cycle efficiencies it is intended to promote. It is the selection, collection, and understanding of APSE and ARTE which provide the deeper challenges of using Ada for real-life mission-critical computing systems. Some of the current issues which must be clarified, often on a case-by-case basis, in order to successfully realize the full capabilities of Ada are discussed.

  9. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.; Carlisle, Homer W.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H.; Deason, William H.; Haga, Kevin D.; Huggins, John R.; Keleher, William R. A.; Starke, Benjamin B.; Weyrich, Orville R.

    1989-01-01

    A unit level, Ada software module testing system, called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada), is described. The project calls for the design and development of a prototype system. QUEST/Ada design began with a definition of the overall system structure and a description of component dependencies. The project team was divided into three groups to resolve the preliminary designs of the parser/scanner: the test data generator, and the test coverage analyzer. The Phase 1 report is a working document from which the system documentation will evolve. It provides history, a guide to report sections, a literature review, the definition of the system structure and high level interfaces, descriptions of the prototype scope, the three major components, and the plan for the remainder of the project. The appendices include specifications, statistics, two papers derived from the current research, a preliminary users' manual, and the proposal and work plan for Phase 2.

  10. Ada issues in implementing ART-Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Due to the Ada mandate of a number of government agencies, interest in deploying expert systems such as Ada has increased. Recently, several Ada-based expert system tools have been developed. According to a recent benchmark report, these tools do not perform as well as similar tools written in C. While poorly implemented Ada compilers contribute to the poor benchmark result, some fundamental problems of the Ada language itself have been uncovered. Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the deployment of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force.

  11. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  12. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  13. Extensions of ADA for SIMD parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.; Siegel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to program SIMD (single instruction stream-multiple data stream) parallel machines used for tasks such as speech and image processing, a language with explicit parallel constructs is often desirable. The language ADA, developed by the Department of Defense, is used as a basis for such a language. Extensions of ADA which allow the user to specify such things as interprocessor communications and activation of processors are proposed. 25 references.

  14. Software unit testing in Ada environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    A validation procedure for the Ada binding of the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) is being developed. PRIOR Data Sciences is also producing a version of the GKS written in Ada. These major software engineering projects will provide an opportunity to demonstrate a sound approach for software testing in an Ada environment. The GKS/Ada validation capability will be a collection of test programs and data, and test management guidelines. These products will be used to assess the correctness, completeness, and efficiency of any GKS/Ada implementation. The GKS/Ada developers will be able to obtain the validation software for their own use. It is anticipated that this validation software will eventually be taken over by an independent standards body to provide objective assessments of GKS/Ada implementations, using an approach similar to the validation testing currently applied to Ada compilers. In the meantime, if requested, this validation software will be used to assess GKS/Ada products. The second project, implementation of GKS using the Ada language, is a conventional software engineering tasks. It represents a large body of Ada code and has some interesting testing problems associated with automatic testing of graphics routines. Here the normal test practices which include automated regression testing, independent quality assistance, test configuration management, and the application of software quality metrics will be employed. The software testing methods emphasize quality enhancement and automated procedures. Ada makes some aspects of testing easier, and introduces some concerns. These issues are addressed.

  15. Space languages: Solving the classic scheduling problem in Ada and Lisp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephen; Hays, Dan; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of programming languages is best seen while evaluating similar systems. The strengths and weaknesses of both languages were investigated as the scheduler was being implemented. Some features used in both languages shall be object-oriented paradigms, parallel programming, search and production heuristics, and other classical artificial intelligence implementations.

  16. Transforming AdaPT to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how the main features of the proposed Ada language extensions intended to support distribution, and offered as possible solutions for Ada9X can be implemented by transformation into standard Ada83. We start by summarizing the features proposed in a paper (Gargaro et al, 1990) which constitutes the definition of the extensions. For convenience we have called the language in its modified form AdaPT which might be interpreted as Ada with partitions. These features were carefully chosen to provide support for the construction of executable modules for execution in nodes of a network of loosely coupled computers, but flexibly configurable for different network architectures and for recovery following failure, or adapting to mode changes. The intention in their design was to provide extensions which would not impact adversely on the normal use of Ada, and would fit well in style and feel with the existing standard. We begin by summarizing the features introduced in AdaPT.

  17. Ada education in a software life-cycle context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, Anne J.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the experience gained from a comprehensive educational program undertaken at The Charles Stark Draper Lab. to introduce the Ada language and to transition modern software engineering technology into the development of Ada and non-Ada applications is described. Initially, a core group, which included manager, engineers and programmers, received training in Ada. An Ada Office was established to assume the major responsibility for training, evaluation, acquisition and benchmarking of tools, and consultation on Ada projects. As a first step in this process, and in-house educational program was undertaken to introduce Ada to the Laboratory. Later, a software engineering course was added to the educational program as the need to address issues spanning the entire software life cycle became evident. Educational efforts to date are summarized, with an emphasis on the educational approach adopted. Finally, lessons learned in administering this program are addressed.

  18. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  19. Software engineering and Ada in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Don

    1986-01-01

    Modern software engineering promises significant reductions in software costs and improvements in software quality. The Ada language is the focus for these software methodology and tool improvements. The IBM FSD approach, including the software engineering practices that guide the systematic design and development of software products and the management of the software process are examined. The revised Ada design language adaptation is revealed. This four level design methodology is detailed including the purpose of each level, the management strategy that integrates the software design activity with the program milestones, and the technical strategy that maps the Ada constructs to each level of design. A complete description of each design level is provided along with specific design language recording guidelines for each level. Finally, some testimony is offered on education, tools, architecture, and metrics resulting from project use of the four level Ada design language adaptation.

  20. The development of an Ada programming support environment database: SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database), user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    This is a manual for users of the Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD). SEAD was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities that are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce the duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. The manual describes the organization of the data in SEAD, the user interface from logging in to logging out, and concludes with a ten chapter tutorial on how to use the information in SEAD. Two appendices provide quick reference for logging into SEAD and using the keyboard of an IBM 3270 or VT100 computer terminal.

  1. C++ Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  2. Ada and software management in NASA: Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Recent NASA missions have required software systems that are larger, more complex, and more critical than NASA software systems of the past. The Ada programming language and the software methods and support environments associated with it are seen as potential breakthroughs in meeting NASA's software requirements. The findings of a study by the Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG) are presented. The study was chartered to perform three tasks: (1) assess the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities; (2) assess the infrastructure (standards, policies, and internal organizations) supporting software management and the Ada activities; and (3) present an Ada implementation and use strategy appropriate for NASA over the next 5 years.

  3. Artificial Intelligence in ADA: Pattern-Directed Processing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeker, Larry H.; And Others

    To demonstrate to computer programmers that the programming language Ada provides superior facilities for use in artificial intelligence applications, the three papers included in this report investigate the capabilities that exist within Ada for "pattern-directed" programming. The first paper (Larry H. Reeker, Tulane University) is designed to…

  4. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  5. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Design phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda

    1988-01-01

    The software engineering issues related to the use of the Ada programming language during the design phase of an Ada project are analyzed. Discussion shows how an evolving understanding of these issues is reflected in the design processes of three generations of Ada projects.

  6. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  7. Software engineering and the role of Ada: Executive seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to introduce the basic terminology and concepts of software engineering and Ada. The life cycle model is reviewed. The application of the goals and principles of software engineering is applied. An introductory understanding of the features of the Ada language is gained. Topics addressed include: the software crises; the mandate of the Space Station Program; software life cycle model; software engineering; and Ada under the software engineering umbrella.

  8. GRASP/Ada (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada): The development of a program analysis environment for Ada. Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1990-01-01

    The study, formulation, and generation of structures for Ada (GRASP/Ada) are discussed in this second phase report of a three phase effort. Various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized with focus on reverse engineering. The overall goal is to provide the foundation for a CASE (computer-aided software design) environment in which reverse engineering and forward engineering (development) are tightly coupled. Emphasis is on a subset of architectural diagrams that can be generated automatically from source code with the control structure diagram (CSD) included for completeness.

  9. Ada/POSIX binding: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    NASA is seeking an operating system interface definition (OSID) for the Space Station Program (SSP) in order to take advantage of the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products available today and the many that are expected in the future. NASA would also like to avoid the reliance on any one source for operating systems, information system, communication system, or instruction set architecture. The use of the Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX) is examined as a possible solution to this problem. Since Ada is already the language of choice for SSP, the question of an Ada/POSIX binding is addressed. The intent of the binding is to provide access to the POSIX standard operation system (OS) interface and environment, by which application portability of Ada applications will be supported at the source code level. A guiding principle of Ada/POSIX binding development is a clear conformance of the Ada interface with the functional definition of POSIX. The interface is intended to be used by both application developers and system implementors. The objective is to provide a standard that allows a strictly conforming application source program that can be compiled to execute on any conforming implementation. Special emphasis is placed on first providing those functions and facilities that are needed in a wide variety of commercial applications

  10. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  11. ART/Ada and CLIPS/Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Although they have reached a point of commercial viability, expert systems were originally developed in artificial intelligence (AI) research environments. Many of the available tools still work best in such environments. These environments typically utilize special hardware such as LISP machines and relatively unfamiliar languages such as LISP or Prolog. Space Station applications will require deep integration of expert system technology with applications developed in conventional languages, specifically Ada. The ability to apply automation to Space Station functions could be greatly enhanced by widespread availability of state-of-the-art expert system tools based on Ada. Although there have been some efforts to examine the use of Ada for AI applications, there are few, if any, existing products which provide state-of-the-art AI capabilities in an Ada tool. The goal of the ART/Ada Design Project is to conduct research into the implementation in Ada of state-of-the-art hybrid expert systems building tools (ESBT's). This project takes the following approach: using the existing design of the ART-IM ESBT as a starting point, analyze the impact of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design; redesign the system in Ada; and analyze its performance. The research project will attempt to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future Space Station Freedom projects. During Phase 1 of the project, initial requirements analysis, design, and implementation of the kernel subset of ART-IM functionality was completed. During Phase 2, the effort has been focused on the implementation and performance analysis of several versions with increasing functionality. Since production quality ART/Ada tools will not be available for a considerable time, and additional subtask of this project will be the completion of an Ada version of the CLIPS expert system shell developed by NASA

  12. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  13. Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is currently field testing a set of instructional materials for teaching English language speaking and listening skills in preschool and first grade classes. The Oral Language Program (OLP) is directed at providing non-English speaking youngsters with a fluent, independent speaking ability in…

  14. Language Resource Centers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Language Resource Centers (LRC) program provides grants to institutions of higher education to establish, strengthen, and operate resource centers that serve to improve the nation's capacity to teach and learn foreign languages. Eligible applicants are institutions of higher education. Duration of the grant is four years. Center activities…

  15. Transmitter data collection using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A data collection system installed on the 400 kilowatt X-band transmitter of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is described. The data collection system is built around the off-the-shelf IEEE 488 instrumentation, linked with fiber optics, controlled by an inexpensive computer, and uses software written in the Ada language. The speed and accuracy of the system is discussed, along with programming techniques used for both data collection and reduction.

  16. Compiling knowledge-based systems specified in KEE to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Feldman, Roy D.

    1991-01-01

    The first year of the PrKAda project is recounted. The primary goal was to develop a system for delivering Artificial Intelligence applications developed in the ProKappa system in a pure-Ada environment. The following areas are discussed: the ProKappa core and ProTalk programming language; the current status of the implementation; the limitations and restrictions of the current system; and the development of Ada-language message handlers in the ProKappa environment.

  17. Parallel Ada benchmarks for the SVMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of parallel processing paradigm to design and develop faster and more reliable computers appear to clearly mark the future of information processing. NASA started the development of such an architecture: the Spaceborne VHSIC Multi-processor System (SVMS). Ada will be one of the languages used to program the SVMS. One of the unique characteristics of Ada is that it supports parallel processing at the language level through the tasking constructs. It is important for the SVMS project team to assess how efficiently the SVMS architecture will be implemented, as well as how efficiently Ada environment will be ported to the SVMS. AUTOCLASS II, a Bayesian classifier written in Common Lisp, was selected as one of the benchmarks for SVMS configurations. The purpose of the R and D effort was to provide the SVMS project team with the version of AUTOCLASS II, written in Ada, that would make use of Ada tasking constructs as much as possible so as to constitute a suitable benchmark. Additionally, a set of programs was developed that would measure Ada tasking efficiency on parallel architectures as well as determine the critical parameters influencing tasking efficiency. All this was designed to provide the SVMS project team with a set of suitable tools in the development of the SVMS architecture.

  18. ADA and multi-microprocessor real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.; Collins, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of a high-order programming language for a real-time distributed network simulation is described. The additional problem of implementing a language on a possibly changing network is addressed. The recently designed language ADA (trademarked by DoD) was chosen since it provides the best model of the underlying application to be simulated.

  19. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  20. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

  1. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  2. Study of the Alsys implementation of the Catalogue of Interface Features and Options for the Ada language for 80386 Unix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, James S.; Barnes, Michael J.; Ostermiller, Daniel L.

    1993-01-01

    A set of programs was written to test the functionality and performance of the Alsys Ada implementation of the Catalogue of Interface Features and Options (CIFO), a set of optional Ada packages for real-time applications. No problems were found with the task id, preemption control, or shared-data packages. Minor problems were found with the dispatching control, dynamic priority, events, non-waiting entry call, semaphore, and scheduling packages. The Alsys implementation is derived mostly from Release 2 of the CIFO standard, but includes some of the features of Release 3 and some modifications unique to Alsys. Performance measurements show that the semaphore and shared-data features are an order-of-magnitude faster than the same mechanisms using an Ada rendezvous. The non-waiting entry call is slightly faster than a standard rendezvous. The existence of errors in the implementation, the incompleteness of the documentation from the published standard impair the usefulness of this implementation. Despite those short-comings, the Alsys CIFO implementation might be of value in the development of real-time applications.

  3. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  4. Selection and Use of General-Purpose Programming Languages--Overview. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cugini, John V.

    This study presents a review of selection factors for the seven major general-purpose programming languages: Ada, BASIC, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, and PL/I. The factors covered include not only the logical operations within each language, but also the advantages and disadvantages stemming from the current computing environment, e.g., software…

  5. The programming language EFL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  6. Programming Languages for Microprocessor Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, James A.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests criteria for choosing a programing language in courseware development. Authoring languages (PILOT, TUTOR, BASIC, and PASCAL) are compared; driver programs' compilers and interpreters are discussed; and the tasks of an authoring system are presented. (RAO)

  7. Programmed Instruction and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article first takes some characteristics of language and suggests that the nature of language makes it, intrinsically, unsuitable to treatment by a fully programmed course. Second, it takes programming and suggests what aspects of language might be assigned to programmed instruction. (Author/LG)

  8. Java Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Java seminar covers the fundamentals of Java programming language. No prior programming experience is required for participation in the seminar. The first part of the seminar covers introductory concepts in Java programming including data types (integer, character, ..), operators, functions and constants, casts, input, output, control flow, scope, conditional statements, and arrays. Furthermore, introduction to Object-Oriented programming in Java, relationships between classes, using packages, constructors, private data and methods, final instance fields, static fields and methods, and overloading are explained. The second part of the seminar covers extending classes, inheritance hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, abstract classes, protected access. The seminar conclude by introducing interfaces, properties of interfaces, interfaces and abstract classes, interfaces and cailbacks, basics of event handling, user interface components with swing, applet basics, converting applications to applets, the applet HTML tags and attributes, exceptions and debugging.

  9. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  10. Toward real-time performance benchmarks for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Russell M.; Duchesneau, Louis; Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Schultze, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    The issue of real-time performance measurements for the Ada programming language through the use of benchmarks is addressed. First, the Ada notion of time is examined and a set of basic measurement techniques are developed. Then a set of Ada language features believed to be important for real-time performance are presented and specific measurement methods discussed. In addition, other important time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time system are also identified and measurement techniques developed. The measurement techniques are applied to the language and run-time system features and the results are presented.

  11. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. F.; Knight, J. C.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1983-01-01

    The issues involved in the use of the programming language Ada on distributed systems are discussed. The effects of Ada programs on hardware failures such as loss of a processor are emphasized. It is shown that many Ada language elements are not well suited to this environment. Processor failure can easily lead to difficulties on those processors which remain. As an example, the calling task in a rendezvous may be suspended forever if the processor executing the serving task fails. A mechanism for detecting failure is proposed and changes to the Ada run time support system are suggested which avoid most of the difficulties. Ada program structures are defined which allow programs to reconfigure and continue to provide service following processor failure.

  12. An AdaBoost Using a Weak-Learner Generating Several Weak-Hypotheses for Large Training Data of Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakura, Tomoya; Okamoto, Seishi; Asakawa, Kazuo

    AdaBoost is a method to create a final hypothesis by repeatedly generating a weak hypothesis in each training iteration with a given weak learner. AdaBoost-based algorithms are successfully applied to several tasks such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), OCR, and so on. However, learning on the training data consisting of large number of samples and features requires long training time. We propose a fast AdaBoost-based algorithm for learning rules represented by combination of features. Our algorithm constructs a final hypothesis by learning several weak-hypotheses at each iteration. We assign a confidence-rated value to each weak-hypothesis while ensuring a reduction in the theoretical upper bound of the training error of AdaBoost. We evaluate our methods with English POS tagging and text chunking. The experimental results show that the training speed of our algorithm are about 25 times faster than an AdaBoost-based learner, and about 50 times faster than Support Vector Machines with polynomial kernel on the average while maintaining state-of-the-art accuracy.

  13. Formal methods in the design of Ada 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David

    1995-01-01

    Formal, mathematical methods are most useful when applied early in the design and implementation of a software system--that, at least, is the familiar refrain. I will report on a modest effort to apply formal methods at the earliest possible stage, namely, in the design of the Ada 95 programming language itself. This talk is an 'experience report' that provides brief case studies illustrating the kinds of problems we worked on, how we approached them, and the extent (if any) to which the results proved useful. It also derives some lessons and suggestions for those undertaking future projects of this kind. Ada 95 is the first revision of the standard for the Ada programming language. The revision began in 1988, when the Ada Joint Programming Office first asked the Ada Board to recommend a plan for revising the Ada standard. The first step in the revision was to solicit criticisms of Ada 83. A set of requirements for the new language standard, based on those criticisms, was published in 1990. A small design team, the Mapping Revision Team (MRT), became exclusively responsible for revising the language standard to satisfy those requirements. The MRT, from Intermetrics, is led by S. Tucker Taft. The work of the MRT was regularly subject to independent review and criticism by a committee of distinguished Reviewers and by several advisory teams--for example, the two User/Implementor teams, each consisting of an industrial user (attempting to make significant use of the new language on a realistic application) and a compiler vendor (undertaking, experimentally, to modify its current implementation in order to provide the necessary new features). One novel decision established the Language Precision Team (LPT), which investigated language proposals from a mathematical point of view. The LPT applied formal mathematical analysis to help improve the design of Ada 95 (e.g., by clarifying the language proposals) and to help promote its acceptance (e.g., by identifying a

  14. A proposed classification scheme for Ada-based software products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernosek, Gary J.

    1986-01-01

    As the requirements for producing software in the Ada language become a reality for projects such as the Space Station, a great amount of Ada-based program code will begin to emerge. Recognizing the potential for varying levels of quality to result in Ada programs, what is needed is a classification scheme that describes the quality of a software product whose source code exists in Ada form. A 5-level classification scheme is proposed that attempts to decompose this potentially broad spectrum of quality which Ada programs may possess. The number of classes and their corresponding names are not as important as the mere fact that there needs to be some set of criteria from which to evaluate programs existing in Ada. An exact criteria for each class is not presented, nor are any detailed suggestions of how to effectively implement this quality assessment. The idea of Ada-based software classification is introduced and a set of requirements from which to base further research and development is suggested.

  15. An Elementary Language Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Valerie

    A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…

  16. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented. PMID:22132053

  17. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  18. Structuring the formal definition of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Kurt W.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the formal definition of Ada are described. At present, a difficult subset of Ada has been defined and the experience gained so far by this work is reported. Currently, the work continues towards the formal definition of the Ada language.

  19. Compiling knowledge-based systems from KEE to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Bock, Conrad; Feldman, Roy

    1990-01-01

    The dominant technology for developing AI applications is to work in a multi-mechanism, integrated, knowledge-based system (KBS) development environment. Unfortunately, systems developed in such environments are inappropriate for delivering many applications - most importantly, they carry the baggage of the entire Lisp environment and are not written in conventional languages. One resolution of this problem would be to compile applications from complex environments to conventional languages. Here the first efforts to develop a system for compiling KBS developed in KEE to Ada (trademark). This system is called KATYDID, for KEE/Ada Translation Yields Development Into Delivery. KATYDID includes early prototypes of a run-time KEE core (object-structure) library module for Ada, and translation mechanisms for knowledge structures, rules, and Lisp code to Ada. Using these tools, part of a simple expert system was compiled (not quite automatically) to run in a purely Ada environment. This experience has given us various insights on Ada as an artificial intelligence programming language, potential solutions of some of the engineering difficulties encountered in early work, and inspiration on future system development.

  20. Ada training evaluation and recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Robert; Stark, Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper documents the Ada training experiences and recommendations of the Gamma Ray Observatory dynamics simulator Ada development team. A two month Ada training program for software developers is recommended which stresses the importance of teaching design methodologies early, as well as the use of certain training aids such as videotaped lectures and computer-aided instruction. Furthermore, a separate training program for managers is recommended, so that they may gain a better understanding of modified review products and resource allocation associated with Ada projects.

  1. Benchmarks of programming languages for special purposes in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoebel, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    Although Ada is likely to be chosen as the principal programming language for the Space Station, certain needs, such as expert systems and robotics, may be better developed in special languages. The languages, LISP and Prolog, are studied and some benchmarks derived. The mathematical foundations for these languages are reviewed. Likely areas of the space station are sought out where automation and robotics might be applicable. Benchmarks are designed which are functional, mathematical, relational, and expert in nature. The coding will depend on the particular versions of the languages which become available for testing.

  2. Ada software productivity prototypes: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Malhotra, Shan

    1988-01-01

    A case study of the impact of Ada on a Command and Control project completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is given. The data for this study was collected as part of a general survey of software costs and productivity at JPL and other NASA sites. The task analyzed is a successful example of the use of rapid prototyping as applied to command and control for the U.S. Air Force and provides the U.S. Air Force Military Airlift Command with the ability to track aircraft, air crews and payloads worldwide. The task consists of a replicated database at several globally distributed sites. The local databases at each site can be updated within seconds after changes are entered at any one site. The system must be able to handle up to 400,000 activities per day. There are currently seven sites, each with a local area network of computers and a variety of user displays; the local area networks are tied together into a single wide area network. Using data obtained for eight modules, totaling approximately 500,000 source lines of code, researchers analyze the differences in productivities between subtasks. Factors considered are percentage of Ada used in coding, years of programmer experience, and the use of Ada tools and modern programming practices. The principle findings are the following. Productivity is very sensitive to programmer experience. The use of Ada software tools and the use of modern programming practices are important; without such use Ada is just a large complex language which can cause productivity to decrease. The impact of Ada on development effort phases is consistent with earlier reports at the project level but not at the module level.

  3. Programming languages for circuit design.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  4. Syntactic adaptability of programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, V.V.

    1994-11-01

    Development of programming languages has to contend with a variety of conflicting criteria. Moreover, as in any other creative field, it is not always possible to arrive at a clear formulation of these criteria. Nevertheless, one of the main criteria is problem orientation, be it numerical algorithms, database management, simulation of hydraulic systems, or other applications. Idealizing, we can say that the programming language is based on a model of the application domain. This model may vary in its scope, covering some aspects of the application domain and ignoring others. Thus, for one application domain we may have a whole spectrum of models and correspondingly a whole spectrum of languages. Some are special-purpose languages designed for a specific class of problems, others are more general. Both special-purpose and general-purpose languages have definite advantages and find their own clientele, who are willing to ignore their shortcomings.

  5. Toward the efficient implementation of expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the development of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert system applications for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force. Additional information is given on dynamic memory allocation.

  6. Transforming AdaPT to Ada9x

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Volz, Richard A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.

    1993-01-01

    How the concepts of AdaPT can be transformed into programs using the object oriented features proposed in the preliminary mapping for Ada9x are described. Emphasizing, as they do, the importance of data types as units of program, these features match well with the development of partitions as translations into Abstract Data Types which was exploited in the Ada83 translation covered in report R3. By providing a form of polymorphic type, the Ada83 version also gives support for the conformant partition idea which could be achieved in Ada83 only by using UNCHECKED CONVERSIONS. It is assumed that the reader understands AdaPT itself, but the translation into Ada83 is briefly reviewed, by applying it to a small example. This is then used to show how the same translation would be achieved in the 9x version. It is important to appreciate that the distribution features which are proposed in current mapping are not used or discussed in any detail, as those are not well matched to the AdaPT approach. Critical evaluation and comparison of these approaches is given in a separate report.

  7. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMMED MATERIALS--1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIKS, ALFRED I.

    A LIST OF 26 FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IS PRESENTED. THE LIST INCLUDES SUCH INFORMATION AS PRICE, COMPLETION TIME, STUDENT LEVEL AND FORMAT OF EACH PROGRAM AND AN "ATOMY" INDEX. "ATOMY" IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF FRAMES PER HOUR AND THE INDEX IS USED TO PROVIDE SOME INDICATION OF THE DEGREE OF FRACTIONATION OR ATOMIZATION OF THE COURSE CONTENT.…

  8. Computer graphics: Programmers's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS). Language bindings (Part 3. Ada). Category: Software standard. Subcategory: Graphics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benigni, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The publication announces the adoption of the American National Standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System, ANSI X3.144-1988, as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). The standard specifies the control and data interchange between an application program and its graphic support system. It provides a set of functions and programming language bindings, (or toolbox package) for the definition, display and modification of two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) graphical data. In addition, the standard supports highly interactive processing and geometric articulation, multi-level or hierarchical graphics data, and rapid modification of both the graphics data and the relationships between the graphical data. The purpose of the standard is to promote portability of graphics application programs between different installations.

  9. Programming languages: a grand tour

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Abrahams, P.W.; Edwards, D.J.; Hart, T.P.; Levin, M.

    1983-01-01

    The LISP language is designed primarily for symbolic data processing. It has been used for symbolic calculations in differential and integral calculus, electrical circuit theory, mathematical logic, game playing, and other fields of artificial intelligence. LISP is a formal mathematical language. It is therefore possible to give a concise yet complete description of it. Such is the purpose of the first section of the manual. Other sections describe ways of using LISP to advantage and explain extensions of the language which make it a convenient programming system.

  10. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  11. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1992-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation of Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAS 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3, the prototype was evaluated by software engineering students at Auburn University and then updated with significant enhancements to the user interface including editing capabilities. Version 3.2 of the prototype was prepared for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  12. NASA-evolving to Ada: Five-year plan. A plan for implementing recommendations made by the Ada and software management assessment working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    At their March 1988 meeting, members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Information Resources Management (IRM) Council expressed concern that NASA may not have the infrastructure necessary to support the use of Ada for major NASA software projects. Members also observed that the agency has no coordinated strategy for applying its experiences with Ada to subsequent projects (Hinners, 27 June 1988). To deal with these problems, the IRM Council chair appointed an intercenter Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG). They prepared a report (McGarry et al., March 1989) entitled, 'Ada and Software Management in NASA: Findings and Recommendations'. That report presented a series of recommendations intended to enable NASA to develop better software at lower cost through the use of Ada and other state-of-the-art software engineering technologies. The purpose here is to describe the steps (called objectives) by which this goal may be achieved, to identify the NASA officials or organizations responsible for carrying out the steps, and to define a schedule for doing so. This document sets forth four goals: adopt agency-wide software standards and policies; use Ada as the programming language for all mission software; establish an infrastructure to support software engineering, including the use of Ada, and to leverage the agency's software experience; and build the agency's knowledge base in Ada and software engineering. A schedule for achieving the objectives and goals is given.

  13. Multi-Language Programs. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio-Papadaki, Evienia; Matsalia, Joan; Bowie, Paula; Wardle, Francis; Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles on multi-language programs in early childhood education: "Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Language Acquisition Theories" (Evienia Papadaki-D'Onofrio); "Training and Supporting Caregivers Who Speak a Language Different from Those in Their Community" (Joan Matsalia and Paula Bowie); "Language Immersion Programs for Young…

  14. A survey of functional programming language principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  15. Which Programming Language is Right for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Wayne

    1984-01-01

    Describes the strengths and weaknesses of four programing languages (Logo, PILOT, BASIC, Pascal) in terms of the tasks to be performed (task environment), capabilities of the language (programing environment), and skills user wants to develop (user environment). (JN)

  16. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered.

  17. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  18. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  19. The repository-based software engineering program: Redefining AdaNET as a mainstream NASA source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Repository-based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is described to inform and update senior NASA managers about the program. Background and historical perspective on software reuse and RBSE for NASA managers who may not be familiar with these topics are provided. The paper draws upon and updates information from the RBSE Concept Document, baselined by NASA Headquarters, Johnson Space Center, and the University of Houston - Clear Lake in April 1992. Several of NASA's software problems and what RBSE is now doing to address those problems are described. Also, next steps to be taken to derive greater benefit from this Congressionally-mandated program are provided. The section on next steps describes the need to work closely with other NASA software quality, technology transfer, and reuse activities and focuses on goals and objectives relative to this need. RBSE's role within NASA is addressed; however, there is also the potential for systematic transfer of technology outside of NASA in later stages of the RBSE program. This technology transfer is discussed briefly.

  20. The English Language in the School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert F., Ed.

    The 22 papers in this publication, drawn from the 1963 and 1964 NCTE Spring Institutes on Language, Linguistics, and School Programs, concentrate on the relevance of recent scholarship for English language programs in elementary and secondary schools. Language theory is the focus of articles by Harold B. Allen, Sumner Ives, Albert H. Marckwardt,…

  1. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  2. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  3. Ada and the rapid development lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforrest, Lloyd; Gref, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    JPL is under contract, through NASA, with the US Army to develop a state-of-the-art Command Center System for the US European Command (USEUCOM). The Command Center System will receive, process, and integrate force status information from various sources and provide this integrated information to staff officers and decision makers in a format designed to enhance user comprehension and utility. The system is based on distributed workstation class microcomputers, VAX- and SUN-based data servers, and interfaces to existing military mainframe systems and communication networks. JPL is developing the Command Center System utilizing an incremental delivery methodology called the Rapid Development Methodology with adherence to government and industry standards including the UNIX operating system, X Windows, OSF/Motif, and the Ada programming language. Through a combination of software engineering techniques specific to the Ada programming language and the Rapid Development Approach, JPL was able to deliver capability to the military user incrementally, with comparable quality and improved economies of projects developed under more traditional software intensive system implementation methodologies.

  4. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  5. The comparison and selection of programming languages for high energy physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the issues surrounding the comparison and selection of a programming language to be used in high energy physics software applications. The evaluation method used was specifically devised to address the issues of particular importance to high energy physics (HEP) applications, not just the technical features of the languages considered. The method assumes a knowledge of the requirements of current HEP applications, the data-processing environments expected to support these applications and relevant non-technical issues. The languages evaluated were Ada, C, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 99 (formerly 8X), Pascal and PL/1. Particular emphasis is placed upon the past, present and anticipated future role of FORTRAN in HEP software applications. Upon examination of the technical and practical issues, conclusions are reached and some recommendations are made regarding the role of FORTRAN and other programming languages in the current and future development of HEP software. 54 refs.

  6. ADA Restroom Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) creates for designing school restrooms. The issues of mobility and circulation of users are addressed. Some of the dimension requirements required by the ADA are listed. (GR)

  7. Hierarchical Ada robot programming system (HARPS)- A complete and working telerobot control system based on the NASREM model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, Stephen; Green, Tom; Cofer, Sue; Sauerwein, Tim

    1989-01-01

    HARPS is a telerobot control system that can perform some simple but useful tasks. This capability is demonstrated by performing the ORU exchange demonstration. HARPS is based on NASREM (NASA Standard Reference Model). All software is developed in Ada, and the project incorporates a number of different CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools. NASREM was found to be a valid and useful model for building a telerobot control system. Its hierarchical and distributed structure creates a natural and logical flow for implementing large complex robust control systems. The ability of Ada to create and enforce abstraction enhanced the implementation of such control systems.

  8. Proceedings of the First NASA Ada Users' Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ada has the potential to be a part of the most significant change in software engineering technology within NASA in the last twenty years. Thus, it is particularly important that all NASA centers be aware of Ada experience and plans at other centers. Ada activity across NASA are covered, with presenters representing five of the nine major NASA centers and the Space Station Freedom Program Office. Projects discussed included - Space Station Freedom Program Office: the implications of Ada on training, reuse, management and the software support environment; Johnson Space Center (JSC): early experience with the use of Ada, software engineering and Ada training and the evaluation of Ada compilers; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC): university research with Ada and the application of Ada to Space Station Freedom, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, the Aero-Assist Flight Experiment and the Secure Shuttle Data System; Lewis Research Center (LeRC): the evolution of Ada software to support the Space Station Power Management and Distribution System; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): the creation of a centralized Ada development laboratory and current applications of Ada including the Real-time Weather Processor for the FAA; and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC): experiences with Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) project and the implications of GSFC experience for Ada use in NASA. Despite the diversity of the presentations, several common themes emerged from the program: Methodology - NASA experience in general indicates that the effective use of Ada requires modern software engineering methodologies; Training - It is the software engineering principles and methods that surround Ada, rather than Ada itself, which requires the major training effort; Reuse - Due to training and transition costs, the use of Ada may initially actually decrease productivity, as was clearly found at GSFC; and real-time work at LeRC, JPL and GSFC shows

  9. HOW A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM WORKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN ALLEN, ROACH

    A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM INCLUDING SPELLING, LISTENING, READING, WRITING, AND SPEAKING IS DISCUSSED. THE TEACHER HELPS EACH CHILD BECOME INCREASINGLY SENSITIVE TO HIS ENVIRONMENT AND SUCCEED THROUGH A VARIETY OF LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES. TWENTY LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES ARE GROUPED INTO THREE CATEGORIES TO AID THE TEACHER IN SELECTING APPROPRIATE…

  10. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  11. Computer Languages: A Practical Guide to the Chief Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Peter C.

    All the most commonly-used high-level computer languages are discussed in this book. An introductory discussion provides an overview of the basic components of a digital computer, the general planning of a computer programing problem, and the various types of computer languages. Each chapter is self-contained, emphasizes those features of a…

  12. Research Issues and Language Program Direction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilenman, L. Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of papers is divided into two parts. After "Introduction" (L. Kathy Heilenman), Part 1, "Research and Language Program Directors: The Relationship," includes "Research Domains and Language Program Direction" (Bill VanPatten); "Language Program Direction and the Modernist Agenda" (Celeste Kinginger); "The Research-Pedagogy Interface…

  13. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  14. Flight program language requirements. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Government-sponsored study and development efforts were directed toward design and implementation of high level programming languages suitable for future aerospace applications. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of language requirements was synthesized from these activities.

  15. Computer Programming Languages for Health Care

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Joseph T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of standard high level programming languages for medical computing. It recommends that U.S. Government agencies having health care missions implement coordinated policies that encourage the use of existing standard languages and the development of new ones, thereby enabling them and the medical computing community at large to share state-of-the-art application programs. Examples are based on a model that characterizes language and language translator influence upon the specification, development, test, evaluation, and transfer of application programs.

  16. Laboratory automation in a functional programming language.

    PubMed

    Runciman, Colin; Clare, Amanda; Harkness, Rob

    2014-12-01

    After some years of use in academic and research settings, functional languages are starting to enter the mainstream as an alternative to more conventional programming languages. This article explores one way to use Haskell, a functional programming language, in the development of control programs for laboratory automation systems. We give code for an example system, discuss some programming concepts that we need for this example, and demonstrate how the use of functional programming allows us to express and verify properties of the resulting code.

  17. US Directory of Foreign Language Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    The preparation of a directory of foreign language education programs was a response to the lack of an information source for location or curricular content of programs in foreign language pedagogy, and followed the lead of other associations in the United States and abroad in compiling such information. Despite having developed guidelines for…

  18. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  19. School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming" serves as a starting point to plan for and implement language programming. It provides a general overview; suggests practical strategies for working with students, parents, teachers and the surrounding community; and includes details on areas to address in selecting and…

  20. Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.

  1. Parallel Ada implementation of a multiple-model Kalman-filter tracking system: a software engineering approach. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, W.J.

    1989-03-01

    The success of the Strategic Defense Initiative depends directly on significant advances in both computer hardware and software development technologies. Parallel architectures and the Ada programming language have advantages that make them candidates for use in SDI command and control computer systems. This thesis examines those advantages in the context of an SDI-type application: implementation of a Kalman-filter tracking system. This research consists of three parts. The first is a set of software engineering guidelines developed for use in creating parallel designs suitable for implementation in Ada. These guidelines cover the design process from initial problem analysis to final detailed design. Methods of problem decomposition are discussed, as are language partitioning strategies. Justification is provided for using the Ada task construct for process boundaries, and Ada multitasking design issues are reviewed. A parallel software design methodology is also described.

  2. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  3. Development of an Ada package library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Bruce; Broido, Michael

    1986-01-01

    A usable prototype Ada package library was developed and is currently being evaluated for use in large software development efforts. The library system is comprised of an Ada-oriented design language used to facilitate the collection of reuse information, a relational data base to store reuse information, a set of reusable Ada components and tools, and a set of guidelines governing the system's use. The prototyping exercise is discussed and the lessons learned from it have led to the definition of a comprehensive tool set to facilitate software reuse.

  4. A small evaluation suite for Ada compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, Randy; Roy, Daniel M.

    1986-01-01

    After completing a small Ada pilot project (OCC simulator) for the Multi Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) at Goddard last year, the use of Ada to develop OCCs was recommended. To help MSOCC transition toward Ada, a suite of about 100 evaluation programs was developed which can be used to assess Ada compilers. These programs compare the overall quality of the compilation system, compare the relative efficiencies of the compilers and the environments in which they work, and compare the size and execution speed of generated machine code. Another goal of the benchmark software was to provide MSOCC system developers with rough timing estimates for the purpose of predicting performance of future systems written in Ada.

  5. Awakening the Languages. Challenges of Enduring Language Programs: Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Mary S.; Naranjo, Tessie; Nicholas, Sheilah; Slaughter, Inee; Yamamoto, Akira; Zepeda, Ofelia

    The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) collaborates with indigenous language communities to combat language decline. ILI facilitates community-based language programs, increases public awareness of language endangerment, and disseminates information on language preservation and successful language revitalization programs. In response to numerous…

  6. Implementation of and Ada real-time executive: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, James D.; Burton, Bruce A.; Koppes, Mary R.

    1986-01-01

    Current Ada language implementations and runtime environments are immature, unproven and are a key risk area for real-time embedded computer system (ECS). A test-case environment is provided in which the concerns of the real-time, ECS community are addressed. A priority driven executive is selected to be implemented in the Ada programming language. The model selected is representative of real-time executives tailored for embedded systems used missile, spacecraft, and avionics applications. An Ada-based design methodology is utilized, and two designs are considered. The first of these designs requires the use of vendor supplied runtime and tasking support. An alternative high-level design is also considered for an implementation requiring no vendor supplied runtime or tasking support. The former approach is carried through to implementation.

  7. Simulation of the space station information system in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flexible Ada Simulation Tool (FAST) is a discrete event simulation language which is written in Ada. FAST has been used to simulate a number of options for ground data distribution of Space Station payload data. The fact that Ada language is used for implementation has allowed a number of useful interactive features to be built into FAST and has facilitated quick enhancement of its capabilities to support new modeling requirements. General simulation concepts are discussed, and how these concepts are implemented in FAST. The FAST design is discussed, and it is pointed out how the used of the Ada language enabled the development of some significant advantages over classical FORTRAN based simulation languages. The advantages discussed are in the areas of efficiency, ease of debugging, and ease of integrating user code. The specific Ada language features which enable these advances are discussed.

  8. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  9. Experiments with Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, D.; Mcclimens, M.; Agresti, W.

    1985-01-01

    A 1200-line Ada source code project simulating the most basic functions of an operations control center was developed. We selected George Cherry's Process Abstraction Methodology for Embedded Large Applications (PAMELA) and DEC's Ada Compilation System (ACS) under VAX/VMS to build the software from requirements to acceptance test. The system runs faster than its FORTRAN implementation and was produced on schedule and under budget with an overall productivity in excess of 30 lines of Ada source code per day.

  10. Reading and Language. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer; Sullivan, Mark

    The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of two modules for the reading and language instruction classes of the program.…

  11. The Dynamics of Language Program Direction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P., Ed.

    This collection papers begins with "Introduction: The Dynamics of Successful Leadership in Foreign Language Programs," then features the following: "The Undergraduate Program: Autonomy and Empowerment" (Wilga M. Rivers); "TA Supervision: Are We Preparing a Future Professoriate?" (Cathy Pons); "Applied Scholarship in Foreign Languages: A Program of…

  12. Ada (trademark) projects at NASA. Runtime environment issues and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.; Wilke, Randall W.

    1988-01-01

    Ada practitioners should use this document to discuss and establish common short term requirements for Ada runtime environments. The major current Ada runtime environment issues are identified through the analysis of some of the Ada efforts at NASA and other research centers. The runtime environment characteristics of major compilers are compared while alternate runtime implementations are reviewed. Modifications and extensions to the Ada Language Reference Manual to address some of these runtime issues are proposed. Three classes of projects focusing on the most critical runtime features of Ada are recommended, including a range of immediately feasible full scale Ada development projects. Also, a list of runtime features and procurement issues is proposed for consideration by the vendors, contractors and the government.

  13. Proceedings of the third international IEEE conference on Ada applications and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on software applications. Topics include: An interleaving symbolic execution approach for the formal verification of Ada programs with tasking, fault-tolerant Ada software, object-oriented frameworks for Ada, and generating multitasking Ada programs from high-level specifications.

  14. Righting the ADA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans with disabilities feel that a series of negative court decisions is reducing their status to that of "second-class citizens," a status that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was supposed to remedy forever. In this report, the National Council on Disability (NCD), which first proposed the enactment of an ADA and developed the…

  15. Applied Computer Technology in Cree and Naskapi Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancewicz, Bill; MacKenzie, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the parameters for the application of computer technology in Cree and Naskapi language programs, and shows that the deliberate and structured introduction of these technologies to indigenous language programs can facilitate indigenous language stabilization and development. (Author/VWL)

  16. Ada(R) Test and Verification System (ATVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelich, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The Ada Test and Verification System (ATVS) functional description and high level design are completed and summarized. The ATVS will provide a comprehensive set of test and verification capabilities specifically addressing the features of the Ada language, support for embedded system development, distributed environments, and advanced user interface capabilities. Its design emphasis was on effective software development environment integration and flexibility to ensure its long-term use in the Ada software development community.

  17. The Language Improvement Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Rena; Vallone, Kerren

    Two English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) curricula for hotel employees are outlined. The first is limited-English-proficient (LEP) housekeeping staff. It contains notes on initial background and needs assessment, assessment results, course logistics and project design, course content, evaluation, and results. The 60-hour beginning-level curriculum…

  18. ELAPSE - NASA AMES LISP AND ADA BENCHMARK SUITE: EFFICIENCY OF LISP AND ADA PROCESSING - A SYSTEM EVALUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    One area of research of the Information Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center is devoted to the analysis and enhancement of processors and advanced computer architectures, specifically in support of automation and robotic systems. To compare systems' abilities to efficiently process Lisp and Ada, scientists at Ames Research Center have developed a suite of non-parallel benchmarks called ELAPSE. The benchmark suite was designed to test a single computer's efficiency as well as alternate machine comparisons on Lisp, and/or Ada languages. ELAPSE tests the efficiency with which a machine can execute the various routines in each environment. The sample routines are based on numeric and symbolic manipulations and include two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations, Cholesky decomposition and substitution, Gaussian elimination, high-level data processing, and symbol-list references. Also included is a routine based on a Bayesian classification program sorting data into optimized groups. The ELAPSE benchmarks are available for any computer with a validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system. Of the 18 routines that comprise ELAPSE, provided within this package are 14 developed or translated at Ames. The others are readily available through literature. The benchmark that requires the most memory is CHOLESKY.ADA. Under VAX/VMS, CHOLESKY.ADA requires 760K of main memory. ELAPSE is available on either two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes (standard distribution) or a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. The contents of the diskettes are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The ELAPSE benchmarks were written in 1990. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  19. PROGRAMMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, HARLAN

    THE PROCESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARE EXAMINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, WHICH IS THE BASIS OF PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. DISCUSSION OF FORMAL REPERTOIRES COVERS THE USE OF SUCH CONDITIONING METHODS AS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER, STIMULUS GENERALIZATION, RESPONSE GENERALIZATION, AND…

  20. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  1. The BLAZE language: A parallel language for scientific programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, Blaze, is described. Blaze contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus Blaze should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with onceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of Blaze is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in Blaze code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of Blaze are described and shows how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  2. The BLAZE language - A parallel language for scientific programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Van Rosendale, John

    1987-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, BLAZE, is described. BLAZE contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus BLAZE should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with conceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of BLAZE is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in BLAZE code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of BLAZE are described and it is shown how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  3. Programming language for computations in the Interkosmos program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K.

    1975-01-01

    The programming system for Intercosmos data processing, based on the structural programming theory, which considers a program as an ordered set of standardized elementary parts, from which the user programs are automatically generated, is described. The programs are comprised of several modules, which are briefly summarized. The general structure of the programming system is presented in a block diagram. A programming control language developed to formulate the problem quickly and completely is presented along with basic symbols which are characteristic of the Intercosmos programming system.

  4. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  5. Natural language understanding and logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.

  6. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  7. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  8. Assessing Foreign Language Proficiency of Undergraduates. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teschner, Richard V., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: "Foreign Language Testing Today: Issues in Language Program Direction" (Frank Nuessel); "Assessing the Problems of Assessment" (M. Peter Hagiwara); "Testing in Foreign Language Programs and Testing Programs in Foreign Language Departments: Reflections and Recommendations" (Elizabeth B. Bernhardt and Craig…

  9. An Ada Linear-Algebra Software Package Modeled After HAL/S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Lawson, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    New avionics software written more easily. Software package extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to those of HAL/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as Space Station flight software. In addition to built-in functions of HAL/S, package incorporates quaternion functions used in Space Shuttle and Galileo projects and routines from LINPAK solving systems of equations involving general square matrices. Contains two generic programs: one for floating-point computations and one for integer computations. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.

  10. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  11. Do students' programming skills depend on programming language?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Radovanović, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Bachelor studies in Computer Science at our department in the last decades cover several successive core courses in programming: Introduction to Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms 1 and 2, Operating Systems and Compiler Construction. For a long time our intention was not to insist on the realization of subjects in a specific programming language, but to put emphasis on abstract reasoning and appropriate data structures and algorithms. Also, to avoid teaching different languages and programming environments, we decided to use one good educational language - Modula-2. In the last several years we were under different kinds of pressure to change the language. Starting from the last school-year we decided to adopt Java within the introductory programming course, using the imperative approach first. Some comparisons of students' advancements and success between Modula-2 and Java generations are presented in the paper. The results of the analytical evaluation indicate that the choice of the first programming language does not have a deep influence to students' success at the course.

  12. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.

    PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…

  13. Programming as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Justin

    2005-01-01

    Standard methods of teaching an introductory course in computer science, designed to introduce computer programming as a tool for mathematicians and engineers at the university level, are unnecessarily complicated and difficult. They lack a common thread that unifies each unit of material and frequently make use of mathematical notation, technical…

  14. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  15. English Language Teachers as Program Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannacito, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    An administrator, broadly conceived, is a person who has authority to lead and manage people, practices, materials, and policies in an educational unit. Dan Tannacito shows teachers the pathway to becoming English language program administrators (ELPAs) and the myriad benefits they can derive. Most may be surprised to see that they are already on…

  16. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  17. A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

    APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

  18. The WRITEACOURSE Language: Programming Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Mary; And Others

    WRITEACOURSE is a programing language for man-computer interactions. It was originally designed for writing computer assisted instruction courses, but it can also be used to control a remote terminal in a variety of applications which involve display and editing of characters. It is not suited for applications which use the computer as an…

  19. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  20. The Dual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Olague, Natalie; Rogers, David

    This guide offers a framework to facilitate the planning process for dual language programs, assuming at least a basic working knowledge of the central characteristics and essential features of dual language models. It provides an overview of the various models that serve linguistically diverse student populations, defining the term dual language…

  1. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  2. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  3. Using the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) to Benchmark College Programs/Courses and Language Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Lucy; Stawychny, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a process developed by the Language Training Centre at Red River College (RRC) to use the Canadian language benchmarks in analyzing the language levels used in programs and courses at RRC to identify appropriate entry-level language proficiency and the levels that second language students need in order to meet college or university…

  4. Flexible language constructs for large parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, Matthew; Schnabel, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the research described is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (MIMD) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data), SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression of the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. An overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner is given. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. An overview of the language and discussion of some of the critical implementation details is given.

  5. Flexible Language Constructs for Large Parallel Programs

    DOE PAGES

    Rosing, Matt; Schnabel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this article is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (multiple instruction multiple data [MIMD]) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include single instruction multiple data (SIMD), single program multiple data (SPMD), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression ofmore » the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. In this article, we give an overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. In this article, we give an overview of the language and discuss some of the critical implementation details.« less

  6. A programming language for composable DNA circuits

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing. PMID:19535415

  7. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  8. The BASIC Instructional Program: Conversion into MAINSAIL Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report summarizes the rewriting of the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP) (a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language) from SAIL (a programming language available only on PDP-10 computers) into MAINSAIL (a language designed for portability on a broad class of computers). Four sections contain (1) a…

  9. Software and the future of programming languages.

    PubMed

    Aho, Alfred V

    2004-02-27

    Although software is the key enabler of the global information infrastructure, the amount and extent of software in use in the world today are not widely understood, nor are the programming languages and paradigms that have been used to create the software. The vast size of the embedded base of existing software and the increasing costs of software maintenance, poor security, and limited functionality are posing significant challenges for the software R&D community.

  10. DEC Ada interface to Screen Management Guidelines (SMG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laomanachareon, Somsak; Lekkos, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    DEC's Screen Management Guidelines are the Run-Time Library procedures that perform terminal-independent screen management functions on a VT100-class terminal. These procedures assist users in designing, composing, and keeping track of complex images on a video screen. There are three fundamental elements in the screen management model: the pasteboard, the virtual display, and the virtual keyboard. The pasteboard is like a two-dimensional area on which a user places and manipulates screen displays. The virtual display is a rectangular part of the terminal screen to which a program writes data with procedure calls. The virtual keyboard is a logical structure for input operation associated with a physical keyboard. SMG can be called by all major VAX languages. Through Ada, predefined language Pragmas are used to interface with SMG. These features and elements of SMG are briefly discussed.

  11. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  12. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

  13. A LISP-Ada connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworski, Allan; Lavallee, David; Zoch, David

    1987-01-01

    The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using Ada for expert systems and the implementation of an expert-friendly interface which supports knowledge entry. In the Ford LISP-Ada Connection (FLAC) system LISP and Ada are used in ways which complement their respective capabilities. Future investigation will concentrate on the enhancement of the expert knowledge entry/debugging interface and on the issues associated with multitasking and real-time expert systems implementation in Ada.

  14. A Cooperative Bilingual Language Program for Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuroth-Gimbrone, Cindy; Logiodice, Colleen M.

    1992-01-01

    Briefly describes a program that sought to improve the written English skills of deaf adolescents' whose first language was American Sign Language, focusing on first-language skills, metalinguistic skills, translating skills, lexical matching across languages, translation of syntactical structures, and recognition of the importance of the…

  15. AdaNET phase 0 support for the AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) management system prototype. Catalog of available reusable software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The Ada Software Repository is a public-domain collection of Ada software and information. The Ada Software Repository is one of several repositories located on the SIMTEL20 Defense Data Network host computer at White Sands Missile Range, and available to any host computer on the network since 26 November 1984. This repository provides a free source for Ada programs and information. The Ada Software Repository is divided into several subdirectories. These directories are organized by topic, and their names and a brief overview of their topics are contained. The Ada Software Repository on SIMTEL20 serves two basic roles: to promote the exchange and use (reusability) of Ada programs and tools (including components) and to promote Ada education.

  16. Foreign Language K-12. Program Evaluation 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools foreign language program for K-12 is described and evaluated. The evaluation report focuses on six areas, including: (1) school district mission and philosophy of foreign language instruction; (2) context (state policies and standards, foreign language program overview and enrollment, fiber-optic communication…

  17. Award-Winning Foreign Language Programs: Prescriptions for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, William D.; Hammond, Sandra B.

    The study reviews 50 foreign language programs in the United States that are said to be both inspirational and useful for providing concrete information about the creation and preservation of successful language programs. The programs cited are exemplary and can serve as models for educators and administrators to study and visit. Program selection…

  18. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  19. Effective Reading Programs for English Language Learners and Other Language-Minority Students: Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    What reading programs have been proven to help English language learners succeed in reading? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on achievement effects of reading programs for English language learners and other language minority students in the elementary grades. The research summarized in this article shows how much remains to be done…

  20. Investigating Principals' Knowledge and Perceptions of Second Language Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padron, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined principals' knowledge and perceptions of second language programs for English language learners (ELLs) operating in their schools. An open-ended survey and in-depth interviews were used to examine elementary school principals' knowledge of the second language programs implemented at their schools. The survey asked principals…

  1. Artificial intelligence programming languages for computer aided manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Samet, H.; Rosenberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    Eight Artificial Intelligence programming languages (SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, CONNIVER, MLISP, POP-2, AL, and QLISP) are presented and surveyed, with examples of their use in an automated shop environment. Control structures are compared, and distinctive features of each language are highlighted. A simple programming task is used to illustrate programs in SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, and CONNIVER. The report assumes reader knowledge of programming concepts, but not necessarily of the languages surveyed.

  2. Software engineering and Ada (Trademark) training: An implementation model for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    The choice of Ada for software engineering for projects such as the Space Station has resulted in government and industrial groups considering training programs that help workers become familiar with both a software culture and the intricacies of a new computer language. The questions of how much time it takes to learn software engineering with Ada, how much an organization should invest in such training, and how the training should be structured are considered. Software engineering is an emerging, dynamic discipline. It is defined by the author as the establishment and application of sound engineering environments, tools, methods, models, principles, and concepts combined with appropriate standards, guidelines, and practices to support computing which is correct, modifiable, reliable and safe, efficient, and understandable throughout the life cycle of the application. Neither the training programs needed, nor the content of such programs, have been well established. This study addresses the requirements for training for NASA personnel and recommends an implementation plan. A curriculum and a means of delivery are recommended. It is further suggested that a knowledgeable programmer may be able to learn Ada in 5 days, but that it takes 6 to 9 months to evolve into a software engineer who uses the language correctly and effectively. The curriculum and implementation plan can be adapted for each NASA Center according to the needs dictated by each project.

  3. Applying Ada to Beech Starship avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, David W.

    1986-01-01

    As Ada solidified in its development, it became evident that it offered advantages for avionics systems because of it support for modern software engineering principles and real time applications. An Ada programming support environment was developed for two major avionics subsystems in the Beech Starship. The two subsystems include electronic flight instrument displays and the flight management computer system. Both of these systems use multiple Intel 80186 microprocessors. The flight management computer provides flight planning, navigation displays, primary flight display of checklists and other pilot advisory information. Together these systems represent nearly 80,000 lines of Ada source code and to date approximately 30 man years of effort. The Beech Starship avionics systems are in flight testing.

  4. A Programming Language Environment for the Unassisted Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. G.; Ince, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the computing environment and command language for a new programing language called OUSBASIC which is designed to enable naive users to interact usefully, with little assistance, with a computer system. (Author/CHC)

  5. A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrol, D.

    1986-01-01

    Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)

  6. Supporting image algebra in the Matlab programming language for compression research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Wilson, Joseph N.; Hayden, Eric T.

    2009-08-01

    Image algebra is a rigorous, concise notation that unifies linear and nonlinear mathematics in the image domain. Image algebra was developed under DARPA and US Air Force sponsorship at University of Florida for over 15 years beginning in 1984. Image algebra has been implemented in a variety of programming languages designed specifically to support the development of image processing and computer vision programs. The University of Florida has been associated with implementations supporting the languages FORTRAN, Ada, Lisp, and C++. The latter implementation involved the implementation of a class library, iac++, that supported image algebra programming in C++. Since image processing and computer vision are generally performed with operands that are array-based, the MatlabTM programming language is ideal for implementing the common subset of image algebra. Objects include sets and set operations, images and operations on images, as well as templates and image-template convolution operations. This implementation has been found to be useful for research in data, image, and video compression, as described herein. Due to the widespread acceptance of the Matlab programming language in the computing community, this new implementation offers exciting possibilities for supporting a large group of users. The control over an object's computational resources provided to the algorithm designer by Matlab means that the image algebra Matlab (IAM) library can employ versatile representations for the operands and operations of the algebra. In this paper, we first outline the purpose and structure of image algebra, then present IAM notation in relationship to the preceding (IAC++) implementation. We then provide examples to show how IAM is more convenient and more readily supports efficient algorithm development. Additionally, we show how image algebra and IAM can be employed in compression algorithm development and analysis.

  7. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  8. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  9. Going Global: Can Dual-Language Programs Save Bilingual Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Manka M.; Park, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, we extend the cautionary tales regarding dual-language programs raised by several scholars by considering the interface of such programs with global education. We consider the possible pitfalls of uncritically framing dual-language programs within the global education movement in the United States, especially in light of how…

  10. Elementary World Language Programs: Current Existence and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    School districts across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have recognized the need for elementary world language programs. The intention of this research was to determine if school districts across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are utilizing elementary world language programs and discover the type of program models being applied. Additionally,…

  11. Language Programs at Villababel High: Rethinking Ideologies of Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Laura; Relano Pastor, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores language ideologies underlying two language programs implemented in one secondary school in Madrid (Spain). The Spanish for newcomers immersion program ("Aula de Enlace") is aimed at immigrant origin students who do not know or have a poor command of Spanish; and the Spanish-English bilingual program targets students from…

  12. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…

  13. AdaNET executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The goal of AdaNET is to transfer existing and emerging software engineering technology from the Federal government to the private sector. The views and perspectives of the current project participants on long and short term goals for AdaNET; organizational structure; resources and returns; summary of identified AdaNET services; and the summary of the organizational model currently under discussion are presented.

  14. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  15. Oral Language Disorders Program. Language Is a Group Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Joel; And Others

    The paper describes the Oral Language Disorders Classroom (OLDC), an approach providing intensive speech and language therapy and academic support to students with severe communication disorders in a primary classroom setting. The OLDC emphasizes preparation for quick return to the regular classroom. General school curriculum is modified and…

  16. A Generative CAI Monitor For Teaching Machine-Language Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Sumner E.

    An effective generative computer-assisted instructional system designed to teach basic machine language computer programing is now available. The system--known as Machine Language Teacher (MALT)--is implemented on an IBM 360 with numerous 2741 remote terminals giving student access. It teaches the machine language of the Simulated Educational…

  17. Measuring Ada as a software development technology in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment is in progress to measure the effectiveness of Ada in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center flight dynamics software development environment. The experiment features the parallel development of software in FORTRAN and Ada. The experiment organization, objectives, and status are discussed. Experiences with an Ada training program and data from the development of a 5700-line Ada training exercise are reported.

  18. Language and Man: An Exploratory Foreign-Language Program for Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Marilyn; And Others

    These materials constitute an exploratory program for grade 6 Spanish and French. Introductory units contain sample lessons, suggested activities, and test items. These units are entitled: (1) Language in Indiana; (2) How Languages Operate; (3) Detecting Meaning: Aztec Dialect; (4) How Words Came to Be and Mean What They Do; (5) Language Is Sound;…

  19. Language and Man: An Exploratory Foreign-Language Program for Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Marilyn; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents a program introducing sixth-grade children to the study of language, of languages other than English, and specifically of French. An initial section includes a variety of activities designed to interest students in the study of language, its peculiarties, complexities, and importance in life. Prior to the first…

  20. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  1. Native Language Arts-English as a Second Language Program for Optional Assignment Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Rhoda

    The Native Language Arts English as a Second Language Program for Optional Assignment Pupils in New York City was designed for economically disadvantaged students whose native language was not English and whose ability to read and write in English and, in some cases their own tongue was not adequate to permit them any degree of success in school.…

  2. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  3. Ada and software management in NASA: Symposium/forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The promises of Ada to improve software productivity and quality, and the claims that a transition to Ada would require significant changes in NASA's training programs and ways of doing business were investigated. The study assesses the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities. A series of industry representatives (Computer Sciences Corporation, General Electric Aerospace, McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company, TRW, Lockheed, and Boeing) reviewed the recommendations and assessed their impact from the Company's perspective. The potential effects on NASA programs were then discussed.

  4. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  5. Real-Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time multiprocessor programming language (RTMPL) has been developed to provide for high-order programming of real-time simulations on systems of distributed computers. RTMPL is a structured, engineering-oriented language. The RTMPL utility supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations and types by generating assembly language programs according to user-specified targeting information. Many programming functions are assumed by the utility (e.g., data transfer and scaling) to reduce the programming chore. This manual describes RTMPL from a user's viewpoint. Source generation, applications, utility operation, and utility output are detailed. An example simulation is generated to illustrate many RTMPL features.

  6. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  7. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras (Ensayo metodologico) (Programming Foreign Languages [A Methodological Study])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Stresses the importance of language laboratories and other technical devices used in foreign language teaching, particularly in programed language instruction. Illustrates, by means of taxonomies, the various stages a foreign language learning program should follow. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  8. Intensive Language and Culture Orientation Program for Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setliff, Rebecca J.; Taft, Lori A.

    The Language and Culture Institute of the University of Pittsburgh has developed a 13-week program of pre-assignment training for engineers given corporate assignments in Japan. The Institute offers the corporations three components in this intensive seminar: program administration, language training, and culture training. The program…

  9. Foreign Language Teaching Programs for Microcomputers: A Volume of Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culley, Gerald R., Ed.; Mulford, George W., Ed.

    Teachers and supervisors of foreign language programs from 29 high schools in six states provide reviews of foreign language microcomputer courseware. Evaluations of the 25 programs for French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish are based on: (1) quality of content; (2) relevance to subject area; (3) suitability to computer medium; (4)…

  10. Guide to Conducting a Language Immersion/Homestay Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Susan; Killelea, Frances

    This handbook, designed to assist foreign language teachers in planning and executing a language immersion/homestay program for their students, is based on a successful program in Switzerland undertaken by Northport (New York) High School French teachers in 1980. The material is presented in three parts: (1) preparation of the exchange, including…

  11. Writing Scale Development and Use within a Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Developing assessments within a program can create more useful measures of our students' language. This includes rating scales used in performance assessments such as writing or speaking tests. This article describes the process of development, use, and revision of a writing placement scale by teachers in an intensive English language program. To…

  12. An Ada run-time control architecture for telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and Ada language implementation of a process-level run-time control subystem for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot system. The concept of run-time control in a combined robot-teleoperation environment is examined and the telerobot system at JPL is described. An Ada language implementation of the JPL Telerobot Run-Time Controller (RTC) is described by highlighting the functional behavior of the subsystem, defining the internal modules, and providing a functional flow time sequence of internal module activity.

  13. Language constructs and runtime systems for compositional parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.

    1995-03-01

    In task-parallel programs, diverse activities can take place concurrently, and communication and synchronization patterns are complex and not easily predictable. Previous work has identified compositionality as an important design principle for task-parallel programs. In this paper, we discuss alternative approaches to the realization of this principle. We first provide a review and critical analysis of Strand, an early compositional programming language. We examine the strengths of the Strand approach and also its weaknesses, which we attribute primarily to the use of a specialized language. Then, we present an alternative programming language framework that overcomes these weaknesses. This framework uses simple extensions to existing sequential languages (C++ and Fortran) and a common runtime system to provide a basis for the construction of large, task-parallel programs. We also discuss the runtime system techniques required to support these languages on parallel and distributed computer systems.

  14. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  15. The implementation and use of ADA on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware. A new linguistic construct, the colloquy, is introduced which solves the problems identified in an earlier proposal, the conversation. It was shown that the colloquy is at least as powerful as recovery blocks, but it is also as powerful as all the other language facilities proposed for other situations requiring backward error recovery: recovery blocks, deadlines, generalized exception handlers, traditional conversations, s-conversations, and exchanges. The major features that distinguish the colloquy are described. Sample programs that were written, but not executed, using the colloquy show that extensive backward error recovery can be included in these programs simply and elegantly. These ideas are being implemented in an experimental Ada test bed.

  16. QUEST/Ada: Query utility environment for software testing of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1989-01-01

    Results of research and development efforts are presented for Task 1, Phase 2 of a general project entitled, The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. A prototype of the QUEST/Ada system was developed to collect data to determine the effectiveness of the rule-based testing paradigm. The prototype consists of five parts: the test data generator, the parser/scanner, the test coverage analyzer, a symbolic evaluator, and a data management facility, known as the Librarian. These components are discussed at length. Also presented is an experimental design for the evaluations, an overview of the project, and a schedule for its completion.

  17. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  18. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  19. A high-order language for a system of closely coupled processing elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.; Collins, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research reported in this paper was occasioned by the requirements on part of the Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) project under way at NASA Lewis Research Center. The RTDS simulation scheme employs a network of CPUs running lock-step cycles in the parallel computations of jet airplane simulations. Their need for a high order language (HOL) that would allow non-experts to write simulation applications and that could be implemented on a possibly varying network can best be fulfilled by using the programming language Ada. We describe how the simulation problems can be modeled in Ada, how to map a single, multi-processing Ada program into code for individual processors, regardless of network reconfiguration, and why some Ada language features are particulary well-suited to network simulations.

  20. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  1. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  2. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigted. A distributed system, programmed entirely in Ada, was studied to assess the use of individual tasks without concern for the processor used. Continued development and testing of the fault tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada to cope with the failures of interest; design of approaches to fault tolerant software in real time systems, and the integration of these ideas into Ada; and the preparation of various papers and presentations were discussed.

  3. Assessment and Evaluation in Whole Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill, Ed.

    Intended for practioners, this book discusses many of the critical questions being asked about the role of whole language in schools. The book not only examines the growing research base that supports whole language, but also offers practical and realistic suggestions for tackling the many thorny issues involved in the assessment and evaluation of…

  4. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  5. A Formal Language Selection Process for Introductory Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kevin R.; Chao, Joseph T.; Ottaway, Thomas A.; Chang, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The selection of a programming language for introductory courses has long been an informal process involving faculty evaluation, discussion, and consensus. As the number of faculty, students, and language options grows, this process becomes increasingly unwieldy. As it stands, the process currently lacks structure and replicability. Establishing a…

  6. A Perspective of Oral Language Development in Federal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caragonne, Kay Jagoda

    Two basic reasons for including Oral Language Development in the instructional program are (1) to prepare students for reading instruction, and (2) to teach students how to communicate effectively in real-life situations. A child is expected to have had five or six years oral practice in a language before learning to read. When children have…

  7. A Statewide Professional Development Program for California Foreign Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Albert S.; Padilla, Amado M.; Sung, Hyekyung; Silva, Duarte M.

    2004-01-01

    The California Foreign Language Project (CFLP), established in 1988, is a voluntary professional development program designed to improve and expand elementary, secondary, and postsecondary foreign language teaching in California. CFLP consists of nine regional sites that work in conjunction with a central office to increase professional…

  8. A Bi-Modality Approach to Language Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsothorn, Achara

    1988-01-01

    A summer intensive English language course is described that is offered by the Chulalongkorn University Language Institute (CULI) in Thailand to university instructors and government officials. A writing program, which constitutes one-fourth of the entire course, consists of 10 units incorporating main functions and topics of English use found in…

  9. Educational Priorities for Language Arts Programs: A Comparative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swander, Alice Jane

    To determine the priorities that linguists and educators stress as essential to the development of positive language arts programs, numerous works by selected linguists and educators were read. Letters were also sent to major publishing companies requesting complimentary copies of current elementary language arts textbook series for evaluation.…

  10. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 2 report: Detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    Various issues are studied in the context of the design of an Ada based expert system building tool. Using an existing successful design as a starting point, the impact is analyzed of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design, the Ada system is redesigned, and its performance is analyzed using both complexity-theoretic and empirical techniques. The algorithms specified in the overall design are refined, resolving and documenting any open design issues, identifying each system module, documenting the internal architecture and control logic, and describing the primary data structures involved in the module.

  11. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  12. Languages for Specific Purposes Curriculum in the Context of Chinese-Language Flagship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Madeline K.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of how the Language Flagship Program integrates languages for specific purposes (LSP) components into its broader mission of having students graduate with Superior Level linguistic proficiency and cultural competence, thus being well equipped to function as global professionals in the major of their choice. Turning…

  13. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others

    LOGO is a programming language developed at Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., specifically for use in teaching. It provides the student with a set of numerical and symbolic primitives as elements for gradually building extended, complex program structures. The building of these structures is facilitated by a procedure-oriented programming heuristic…

  14. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    The All Day Kindergarten Program was instituted in the Columbus Public Schools in January, 1972, for the purpose of providing a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. The 1982-83 program goal was that the average language/reading growth of pupils in program attendance for at least 80 percent of the instructional period…

  15. Creating a Speech-Language Pathology Assistant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrecht, Georgia, Ed.; Stimley, Mark, Ed.

    This document consists of 11 short articles about the development of the Associate of Science degree program for speech-language pathology assistants (SLPAs) at Indiana State University. The three sections address the program's background, course planning, and program implementation, respectively. Individual articles are: (1) "Top 10 List of…

  16. Integrating programming features with an algebraic modeling language for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fourer, R.; Gay, D.

    1994-12-31

    In describing optimization models to a computer, programming is best avoided. In using models as part of a larger scheme, however, programs must be written to specify how information is passed between models. We describe a programming environment for this purpose that has been integrated with the AMPL modeling language.

  17. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  18. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  19. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  20. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  1. On a programming language for graph algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

  2. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and...

  3. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  4. A report on NASA software engineering and Ada training requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn B.; Svabek, L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's software engineering and Ada skill base are assessed and information that may result in new models for software engineering, Ada training plans, and curricula are provided. A quantitative assessment which reflects the requirements for software engineering and Ada training across NASA is provided. A recommended implementation plan including a suggested curriculum with associated duration per course and suggested means of delivery is also provided. The distinction between education and training is made. Although it was directed to focus on NASA's need for the latter, the key relationships to software engineering education are also identified. A rationale and strategy for implementing a life cycle education and training program are detailed in support of improved software engineering practices and the transition to Ada.

  5. Towards an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2012-09-01

    Scala and its multi-threaded model based on actors represent an excellent framework for developing purely reactive agents. This paper presents an early research on extending Scala with declarative programming constructs, which would result in a new agent-oriented programming language suitable for developing more advanced, BDI agent architectures. The main advantage the new language over many other existing solutions for programming BDI agents is a natural and straightforward integration of imperative and declarative programming constructs, fitted under a single development framework.

  6. Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts.

  7. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  8. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  9. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  10. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  11. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  12. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada): The development of a prgram analysis environment for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of research and development efforts are described for Task one, Phase two of a general project entitled The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. The scope of this task includes the design and development of a prototype system for testing Ada software modules at the unit level. The system is called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada). The prototype for condition coverage provides a platform that implements expert system interaction with program testing. The expert system can modify data in the instrument source code in order to achieve coverage goals. Given this initial prototype, it is possible to evaluate the rule base in order to develop improved rules for test case generation. The goals of Phase two are the following: (1) to continue to develop and improve the current user interface to support the other goals of this research effort (i.e., those related to improved testing efficiency and increased code reliable); (2) to develop and empirically evaluate a succession of alternative rule bases for the test case generator such that the expert system achieves coverage in a more efficient manner; and (3) to extend the concepts of the current test environment to address the issues of Ada concurrency.

  13. Blackfeet Language Coloring Book. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth, Comp.

    A part of the Blackfeet Indian Heritage Project, this coloring book features 21 pages of pictures of animal and plant life, foods, and numbers. Arranged in alphabetical order, the pictures are accompanied with their names printed in both the English and Blackfeet languages. The reverse side of each page is left blank to give the student room to…

  14. Othering in an English Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss how the administrators and local teachers in a Turkish university English language centre perceive others in the institution. I present interview data to illustrate processes of "Othering", whereby a group constructs a shared, Us-Them representation of another group. The data show that administrators and local teachers…

  15. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  16. Multiprocessor performance modeling with ADAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.; Andrews, Asa M.

    1989-01-01

    A graph managing strategy referred to as the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) appears useful for the time-optimized execution of application algorithm graphs in embedded multiprocessors and for the performance prediction of graph designs. This paper reports the modeling of ATAMM in the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) to make an independent verification of ATAMM's performance prediction capability and to provide a user framework for the evaluation of arbitrary algorithm graphs. Following an overview of ATAMM and its major functional rules are descriptions of the ADAS model of ATAMM, methods to enter an arbitrary graph into the model, and techniques to analyze the simulation results. The performance of a 7-node graph example is evaluated using the ADAS model and verifies the ATAMM concept by substantiating previously published performance results.

  17. HAL/S - The programming language for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a higher order language and system, now operational, adopted by NASA for programming Space Shuttle on-board software. Program reliability is enhanced through language clarity and readability, modularity through program structure, and protection of code and data. Salient features of HAL/S include output orientation, automatic checking (with strictly enforced compiler rules), the availability of linear algebra, real-time control, a statement-level simulator, and compiler transferability (for applying HAL/S to additional object and host computers). The compiler is described briefly.

  18. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    This document provides the final evaluation report of the language development component of the Columbus, Ohio, Public Schools' Chapter 1 All-Day Kindergarten Program for 1989-1990. The overall goal of the program was to prepare underachieving kindergarten children for first grade. A total of 17 teachers in 17 elementary schools participated in…

  19. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    An evaluation was made of the language development component of Columbus, Ohio's All Day Kindergarten Program (ADKP). The ADKP was instituted in Columbus' public schools in January, 1972, to provide a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. The overall goal of the program was to prepare pupils for first grade by providing…

  20. Library Literacy Programs for English Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Eileen; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest summarizes the history of public libraries and library literacy programs; describes current delivery models; and discusses initiatives in library literacy, profiling one successful public library program that serves adult English language learners and their families. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  1. American Sign Language: An Innovative Middle School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Karen

    2009-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) began at Seminole Middle School in August 2007 as part of the program, D.E.C.A.L (Division of Communication and Law), the brainchild of principal, Dr. Kris Black. Her goal was to offer a program that would entice advanced middle school students from around Broward County to Seminole and the hook she used to entice them…

  2. Maryland Adult English as a Second Language Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Adult Continuing Education Section.

    This document is an official statement of the State of Maryland, outlining in detail the state's adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program standards. The standards are not specific instructional standards, but rather overall guidelines for identifying and improving major components of quality adult ESL programs. The document has three…

  3. Commercial Video Programs: A Component to Enhance Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, H. A.

    After the passage of a resolution by the South Dakota Board of Regents to place greater emphasis on the study of foreign language, Northern State College introduced commercial video programs in Spanish for classroom use. After installing a parabolic antenna and the other necessary equipment, the department selected and edited a series of programs,…

  4. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  5. An English Language Program for Wives of International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Shirley E.

    The curriculum, administration, staffing, facilities, and funding of a college English-as-a-Second-Language program for the wives of foreign students are described. The program is intended to reduce feelings of isolation and facilitate the adjustment of women whose student husbands are busy with the academic and social routines of the university.…

  6. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  7. Language Development Component, Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Ed; And Others

    This report evaluates the 1982-83 Compensatory Language Experience and Reading Program (CLEAR), which served 5392 Ohio students, grades K-8, whose reading skills achievement was at or below the 36th percentile. The program featured individual or small group instruction. Instructional techniques and materials based on skill-centered objectives were…

  8. The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration FALCON Program in Chinese Language at Cornell University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John

    The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration (FALCON) program was designed for students who need an intensive program in Chinese to make them proficient enough for graduate study. Using L1, FALCON teaches students to express adult concepts in L2. Since good writing requires a great degree of proficiency, it is neglected initially for the sake of a…

  9. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  10. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  11. Requirements for a geometry programming language for CFD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Arvel E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of typical problems faced by the aerodynamicist in using computational fluid dynamics are presented to illustrate the need for a geometry programming language. The overall requirements for such a language are illustrated by examples from the Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS). Some of the problems in building such a system are also reviewed along with suggestions as to what to look for when evaluating new software problems.

  12. Review guidelines for software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems: Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, M.; Decker, D.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Dinsmore, G.; Koch, S.

    1997-10-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada83 and Ada95; C and C++; International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Ladder Logic, Sequential Function Charts, Structured Text, and Function Block Diagrams; Pascal; and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.

  13. The Influences of Indigenous Heritage Language Education on Students and Families in a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luning, Rebecca J. I.; Yamauchi, Lois A.

    2010-01-01

    Papahana Kaiapuni is a K-12 public school program in which the Hawaiian language is the medium of instruction. In 1987, parents and language activists started the program in response to the dwindling number of speakers that resulted from a nearly century-long ban on the indigenous language. This study examined how participation in this indigenous…

  14. Do They Make a Difference? The Impact of English Language Programs on Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on second language (L2) students studying in Canadian universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008; Fox, 2005, 2009). This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. The researchers identified…

  15. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  16. A Whole Language Program for Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Kathleen; And Others

    Preparing Refugees for Elementary Programs (PREP) is a federal program to prepare young refugee children for further learning in the United States. Findings from current research on how children learn to speak, read, and write were used to design the curriculum. All children receive 18 weeks of full-time instruction, during which their parents…

  17. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  18. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  19. State prisons are covered by ADA, 7th Circuit rules.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    Prison inmate [name removed] sued the Indiana Department of Corrections, claiming it violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by denying him access to education programs, the library, and the dining hall because he is blind. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the district court's decision to dismiss the case based on the grounds that the ADA does not apply to prison inmates. The court held that the Department of Corrections cannot exclude an inmate with a disability from prison programs unless the accommodation caused an undue burden on the system. PMID:11364516

  20. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  1. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  2. A design for a reusable Ada library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litke, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A goal of the Ada language standardization effort is to promote reuse of software, implying the existence of substantial software libraries and the storage/retrieval mechanisms to support them. A searching/cataloging mechanism is proposed that permits full or partial distribution of the database, adapts to a variety of searching mechanisms, permits a changine taxonomy with minimal disruption, and minimizes the requirement of specialized cataloger/indexer skills. The important observation is that key words serve not only as indexing mechanism, but also as an identification mechanism, especially via concatenation and as support for a searching mechanism. By deliberately separating these multiple uses, the modifiability and ease of growth that current libraries require, is achieved.

  3. Lessons learned in creating spacecraft computer systems: Implications for using Ada (R) for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomayko, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five years of spacecraft onboard computer development have resulted in a better understanding of the requirements for effective, efficient, and fault tolerant flight computer systems. Lessons from eight flight programs (Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, Mariner, Voyager, and Galileo) and three reserach programs (digital fly-by-wire, STAR, and the Unified Data System) are useful in projecting the computer hardware configuration of the Space Station and the ways in which the Ada programming language will enhance the development of the necessary software. The evolution of hardware technology, fault protection methods, and software architectures used in space flight in order to provide insight into the pending development of such items for the Space Station are reviewed.

  4. Transparent Ada rendezvous in a fault tolerant distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racine, Roger

    1986-01-01

    There are many problems associated with distributing an Ada program over a loosely coupled communication network. Some of these problems involve the various aspects of the distributed rendezvous. The problems addressed involve supporting the delay statement in a selective call and supporting the else clause in a selective call. Most of these difficulties are compounded by the need for an efficient communication system. The difficulties are compounded even more by considering the possibility of hardware faults occurring while the program is running. With a hardware fault tolerant computer system, it is possible to design a distribution scheme and communication software which is efficient and allows Ada semantics to be preserved. An Ada design for the communications software of one such system will be presented, including a description of the services provided in the seven layers of an International Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnect (OSI) model communications system. The system capabilities (hardware and software) that allow this communication system will also be described.

  5. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  6. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Charlie, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This feature issue focuses on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), with articles discussing provisions of the ADA and its impact on people with developmental disabilities. Articles have the following titles and authors: "The ADA: What Does It Mean for People with Developmental Disabilities?" (Deborah L. McFadden and Edward P. Burke); "The…

  7. Modern Foreign Languages: A Four-Year Program [and] a Six-Year Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladu, Tora; And Others

    Four- and six-year language programs emphasizing the development of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, and cultural understanding are outlined in this guide. Major sections cover guiding principles in the development of the foreign language curriculum, teaching techniques, and evaluation. Subclassified materials include coverage…

  8. Fast Track: A Language Arts Program for Middle School Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jean

    2008-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a pseudonym for an accelerated, advanced language arts program for verbally gifted and high potential students in grades 6-8. The critical thinking model used for "Fast Track" was gleaned from Coalition of Essential Schools founder Ted Sizer's Habits of Mind: significance, evidence, connections, perspective, and supposition, as…

  9. Running the Gauntlet of an Indigenous Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greymorning, Stephen

    This personal narrative of an Arapaho teacher compares the development of an indigenous language program to running the gauntlet. On the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming), Arapaho instruction was introduced in reservation schools during the late 1970s. By 1984, it was taught in grades K-12, but for only 15 minutes per day. Although recordings of…

  10. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    The language development component of Columbus, Ohio's All Day Kindergarten Program (ADKP) was evaluated. The ADKP was instituted in Columbus' public schools in January, 1972, to provide a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. In the 1988-89 school year, 18 teachers served in 18 elementary schools that were eligible for…

  11. PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING--PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED DURING THE PAST 6 YEARS IN SELF-INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES HAVE LED RESEARCHERS TO CONCLUDE THAT TOTAL PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION SEEMS PRODUCTIVE ONLY IN CASES WHERE THE TERMINAL BEHAVIOR TO BE ACHIEVED IS VERY LIMITED. EXPERIMENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT IT IS MOST USEFUL IN MODULES AT EARLY LEVELS FOR TEACHING…

  12. Language for Survival: A Model Study-Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Thomas; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In 1971 the College of the Holy Cross (Minnesota) set up a summer language and cultural program in Cuernavaca, Mexico for their students of Spanish. After intensive grammar in the classroom students are sent out on "survival" situations involving verbal communication with Mexicans in the market place, schools, prisons, etc. (SC)

  13. Accountability and Criterion Referenced Testing in Modern Foreign Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struth, Johann F.

    The nature of educational accountability, seen as an organized, systematized process of self-evaluation, and a review of available standardized tests for foreign language programs are examined in this paper. Teacher accountability is seen to rely exclusively on the judgement of the teacher and administration within the school itself. The author…

  14. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

  15. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; Papert, Seymour A.

    2011-01-01

    Formal mathematical methods remain, for most high school students, mysterious, artificial and not a part of their regular intuitive thinking. The authors develop some themes that could lead to a radically new approach. According to this thesis, the teaching of programming languages as a regular part of academic progress can contribute effectively…

  16. Languages for Specific Purposes. Program Design and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Ronald, Ed.; Palmer, Joe Darwin, Ed.

    This collection of research on curriculum and program development in languages for special purposes (LSP) contains the following papers: (1) "LSP Curriculum Development--From Policy to Practice," by Ronald Mackay and Maryse Bosquet; (2) "The Problem of Needs Assessment in English for Specific Purposes: Some Theoretical and Practical…

  17. A Teachers' Manual to Accompany the Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeback, Robert T.

    This document is the teachers' manual for use with the Oral Language Program, a 1-year set ot daily lessons of roughly 25 minutes each designed to help five- to seven-year-old children who do not speak English, or who speak dialects of English that offer significant structural competition with the standard dialects, to become proficient speakers…

  18. Tutorial on Generalized Programming Language s and Systems. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasana, Paul J., Ed.; Shank, Russell, Ed.

    This instructor's manual is a comparative analysis and review of the various computer programing languages currently available and their capabilities for performing text manipulation, information storage, and data retrieval tasks. Based on materials presented at the 1967 Convention of the American Society for Information Science, the manual…

  19. Toward Useful Program Evaluation in College Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M., Ed.; Davis, John McE., Ed.; Sinicrope, Castle, Ed.; Watanabe, Yukiko, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume reports on innovative, useful evaluation work conducted within U.S. college foreign language programs. An introductory chapter scopes out the territory, reporting key findings from research into the concerns, impetuses, and uses for evaluation that FL educators identify. Seven chapters then highlight examples of evaluations conducted…

  20. The FORCE - A highly portable parallel programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    This paper explains why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory multiprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low-level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high-level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared-memory multiprocessor executing them.

  1. The FORCE: A highly portable parallel programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    Here, it is explained why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory microprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared memory multiprocessor executing them.

  2. Language Is the Key: A Multilingual Language Building Program for Young Children. Training Manual To Accompany the Video Programs: Talking and Books [and] Talking and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notari-Syverson, Angela; Madddox, Mary; Lim, Young Sook; Cole, Kevin

    This educational program, comprised of a training manual and 2 accompanying videotapes (each about 25 minutes long), is designed to develop language skills in young children with language disorders and/or children from minority backgrounds. The program model is based on the following principles: (1) early language is critical to later academic…

  3. The Development of an Indigenous Knowledge Program in a New Zealand Maori-Language Immersion School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Barbara; Papa, Rahui

    2005-01-01

    In 1985, Te Wharekura o Rakaumangamanga initiated a Maori-language immersion program for children ages 5 through 18. In recent years, a program based on Waikato-Tainui tribal epistemology has been incorporated into the language immersion program. This article describes the community context and the language immersion and tribal knowledge programs.…

  4. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  5. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  6. The Effect of the English Language Learner Pull out Program on Primary Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penke, Heidi T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the English Language Learner (ELL) pull out program on student achievement. Schools are facing the unprecedented challenge to educate a multicultural and multilingual student body with varied abilities and backgrounds of learning. The independent variables in this study were the…

  7. More than Words, A Way of Life: Language Restoration Programs Reach beyond Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskus, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In North America, and worldwide, Indigenous languages are disappearing at an alarming rate. There are, however, models of success for language revitalization in immersion language programs, usually found in tribal colleges and universities. Whether the language learners are tribal college students greeting one another in their native language,…

  8. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada were investigated in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern. In particular, the focus was on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors are being executed, and that failures may occur in the software and underlying hardware. A secondary interest is in the performance of Ada systems and how that performance can be gauged reliably. Primary activities included: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; development of a refined approach to recovery that was applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  9. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  10. A Comparison of String Handling in Four Programming Languages. Technical Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Carol Loeb

    Character string handling in the programing languages SNOBOL 4, TRAC, APL, and PL/I are compared. The first two of these are representatives of string processing languages, while the latter two represent general purpose programing languages. A description of each language is given and examples of string handling problems coded in the four…

  11. Multiple-Language Program Assessment: Learners' Perspectives on First- and Second-Year College Foreign Language Programs and Their Implications for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Gladys M.; Matsuzawa, Chie

    2007-01-01

    A pilot study was designed to examine student perspectives on the first two years of the foreign language program at an east coast college. The study addresses key areas of foreign language teaching and learning in terms of goals and objectives, effectiveness of instruction and instructional approach, and student suggestions for improvement. The…

  12. Robot Independent Programming Environment and Language

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, Charleene

    1995-04-05

    RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment which facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. The robot work cell is modeled using software objects and supports model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, robust communications and graphical interfaces for robot system control. The objects include robots, sensors, end effectors, workpieces, NC machines and various other devices. A set of generic classes is defined to represent these objects, and the interfaces to them become RIPL.

  13. Robot Independent Programming Environment and Language

    1995-04-05

    RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment which facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. The robot work cell is modeled using software objects and supports model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, robust communications and graphical interfaces for robot system control. The objects include robots, sensors, end effectors, workpieces, NC machines and various other devices. Amore » set of generic classes is defined to represent these objects, and the interfaces to them become RIPL.« less

  14. The programming language HAL: A specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  15. The ADA and Persons with Cognitive Disabilities. Trainer's Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

    This comprehensive trainer's guide and participant manual are designed to provide a planning process through which training programs on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its implications for persons with cognitive disabilities can be developed and delivered in a systematic way. Module 1 of the trainer's guide, "Planning and…

  16. System testing of a production Ada (trademark) project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seigle, Jeffrey; Esker, Linda; Shi, Ying-Liang

    1990-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that utilize its features has a strong impact on all phases of the software development project lifecycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The teams found some qualitative differences between the system test phases of the two projects. Although planning for system testing and conducting of tests were not generally affected by the use of Ada, the solving of problems found in system testing was generally facilitated by Ada constructs and design methodology. Most problems found in system testing were not due to difficulty with the language or methodology but to lack of experience with the application.

  17. Cellular segregation and engulfment simulations using the cell programming language.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P

    1995-09-01

    In developmental biology, modeling and simulation play an important role in understanding cellular interactions. In this paper a simple language, the Cell Programming Language (CPL), is suggested for writing programs that describe this behavior. Using these programs, it is possible to simulate and visualize intercellular behavior. CPL is used to model cellular segregation based upon the differential adhesion hypothesis. Results indicate that a high degree of segregation can be produced in a mixture of cells by allowing random motion. The engulfment of a tissue by a less adhesive tissue is also observed when the two tissues are placed in contact. Both these simulations utilize only local interactions and random motion of cells. Earlier simulations used long-range interactions to observe similar effects. The present simulations prove that random motion of cells can produce long-range effects.

  18. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A concept for a more intuitive and graphically based Computation (Comp) Builder was developed. The Graphical Comp Builder Prototype was developed, which is an X Window based graphical tool that allows the user to build Comps using graphical symbols. Investigation was conducted to determine the availability and suitability of the Ada programming language for the development of future control center type software. The Space Station Freedom Project identified Ada as the desirable programming language for the development of Space Station Control Center software systems.

  19. A Classroom-Home Language Intervention Program for Preschool Children "At Risk" for Language/Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Paul E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Institute Preschool Project developed a successful classroom-home language intervention program for mildly to mildly-to-moderately language-impaired preschool children. An overview of the project, its rationale, and its results in terms of positive change in families and children are described. This volume is designed to…

  20. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an EFL Program at a Colombian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdoba Zúñiga, Eulices

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative…

  1. Multitasking kernel for the C and Fortran programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, E.D. III

    1984-09-01

    A multitasking kernel for the C and Fortran programming languages which runs on the Unix operating system is presented. The kernel provides a multitasking environment which serves two purposes. The first is to provide an efficient portable environment for the coding, debugging and execution of production multiprocessor programs. The second is to provide a means of evaluating the performance of a multitasking program on model multiprocessors. The performance evaluation features require no changes in the source code of the application and are implemented as a set of compile and run time options in the kernel.

  2. Extensive set of macros for structured programing in OS/360 assembly language (STRCMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Development of consistent assembly language structured programming techniques has been enhanced by use of assembly macros developed for structured programing. Set of macros was written for IBM OS/360 Assembly language.

  3. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  4. An Ada implementation of the network manager for the advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail A.

    1986-01-01

    From an implementation standpoint, the Ada language provided many features which facilitated the data and procedure abstraction process. The language supported a design which was dynamically flexible (despite strong typing), modular, and self-documenting. Adequate training of programmers requires access to an efficient compiler which supports full Ada. When the performance issues for real time processing are finally addressed by more stringent requirements for tasking features and the development of efficient run-time environments for embedded systems, the full power of the language will be realized.

  5. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? 39.130 Section 39.130 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE... implement Language Development programs that demonstrate the positive effects of Native language programs...

  6. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  7. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    PubMed

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  8. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  9. A Multicultural Awareness Program To Improve Language and Thinking Skills to a Group of Language Deficient Preschool Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamura, Marilyn T.

    This practicum project exposed seven preschool students with language deficiencies to multicultural experiences and strategies, resulting in improvements in both language and thinking skills. The children were included in a regular preschool program serving low-income families. The program was based on a multicultural awareness curriculum which…

  10. Advanced Foreign Language Learning: A Challenge to College Programs. Issues in Language Program Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi, Ed.; Maxim, Hiram H., Ed.

    This book includes the following chapters: "Literacy and Advanced Foreign Language Learning: Rethinking he Curriculum" (Richard G. Kern); "A Template for Advanced Learner Tasks: Staging Genre Reading and Cultural Literacy Through the Precis" (Janet Swaffar); "Fostering Advanced L2 Literacy: A Genre-Based, Cognitive Approach" (Heidi Byrnes,…

  11. 101 Ways To Market Your Language Program: A Practical Guide for Language Schools and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    This book provides 101 ideas and strategies to empower overall marketing efforts: (1) "Put On Your Thinking Cap" (e.g., define the problem before marketing it, set reasonable goals, and create a niche); (2) "Secrets to Boost Your Marketing Power" (e.g., emphasize the benefits, check out the competition, and sell oneself in as many languages as…

  12. Towards the Automatic Generation of Programmed Foreign-Language Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Joseph A.

    The purpose of this report is to describe a set of programs which either perform certain tasks useful in the generation of programed foreign-language instructional material or facilitate the writing of such task-oriented programs by other researchers. The programs described are these: (1) a PDP-10 assembly language program for the selection from a…

  13. Programming language supporting first-class parallel environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannathan, S.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis presents a new programming model called the symmetric model in which the representation of programs is identical to the representation of data: to specify a computation, one defines a data structure. This data structure possesses the semantics of a first-class naming environment-it defines a scope and can be used to affect the evaluation environment of other expressions. A new programming language is presented called Symmetric Lisp, based on the symmetric model. Program structures in Symmetric Lisp are considered non-strict: a program's components may be examined even as its other elements continue to evaluate. The first part of the thesis investigates the interaction of non-strictness with first-class naming environments. The second part of the thesis discusses the compilation and implementation of Symmetric Lisp. An extended type inference system is presented for first-class environments that can be used to infer the proper evaluation environment of identifiers found within the scope of environment-yielding expressions. A translation of Symmetric Lisp into a high-level data flow language is presented.

  14. ART/Ada design project, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An Ada-Based Expert System Building Tool Design Research Project was conducted. The goal was to investigate various issues in the context of the design of an Ada-based expert system building tool. An attempt was made to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future projects. The current status of the project is described by introducing an operational prototype, ART/Ada. How the project was conducted is explained. The performance of the prototype is analyzed and compared with other related works. Future research directions are suggested.

  15. Why the Intercultural Matters to Language Teaching and Learning: An Orientation to the ILTLP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela; Crichton, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning in Practice (ILTLP) Project is a large scale, national professional learning program designed to extend the understanding and practice of language teachers with regard to intercultural language learning. The latter is an orientation to language learning that underpins the National Statement and Plan…

  16. Cost/Benefit Evaluation of Three English Language Training Programs for Potential Navy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, William M.; And Others

    As part of its plans to recruit Hispanic personnel who speak English as a second language, the U.S. Navy will have to provide English language training as well as technical training to prepare these personnel for fleet duty. A cost/benefit analysis was conducted of three English language training programs: the English Technical Language School…

  17. A Proposal for a CA-Integrated English Language Teacher Education Program in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive framework for a Conversation Analysis (CA) informed English language teacher education program in Turkey. By reviewing recent studies in CA, Critical Reflective Practice, Teacher Language Awareness and language teacher education in general; the author calls for a more effective language teacher education program…

  18. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigated. In particular, the concept that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware was examined. Progress is discussed for the following areas: continued development and testing of the fault-tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada so that it might more easily cope with the failure of interest; and design of new approaches to fault-tolerant software in real-time systems, and integration of these ideas into Ada.

  19. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Preservice Teacher Education Program at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center on the Foreign Language Teaching Beliefs of Preservice Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Preservice foreign-language teachers are adults with well-established beliefs. They start teacher-education programs with traditional beliefs about language teaching reflecting their own experiences. The field of foreign-language teaching, however, underwent a paradigm shift from grammar-based to communicative foreign-language instruction.…

  20. Proceedings of the 2nd NASA Ada User's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Several presentations, mostly in viewgraph form, on various topics relating to Ada applications are given. Topics covered include the use of Ada in NASA, Ada and the Space Station, the software support environment, Ada in the Software Engineering Laboratory, Ada at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Flight Telerobotic Servicer, and lessons learned in prototyping the Space Station Remote Manipulator System control.

  1. Vector-matrix-quaternion, array and arithmetic packages: All HAL/S functions implemented in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Kwong, David D.

    1986-01-01

    The HAL/S avionics programmers have enjoyed a variety of tools built into a language tailored to their special requirements. Ada is designed for a broader group of applications. Rather than providing built-in tools, Ada provides the elements with which users can build their own. Standard avionic packages remain to be developed. These must enable programmers to code in Ada as they have coded in HAL/S. The packages under development at JPL will provide all of the vector-matrix, array, and arithmetic functions described in the HAL/S manuals. In addition, the linear algebra package will provide all of the quaternion functions used in Shuttle steering and Galileo attitude control. Furthermore, using Ada's extensibility, many quaternion functions are being implemented as infix operations; equivalent capabilities were never implemented in HAL/S because doing so would entail modifying the compiler and expanding the language. With these packages, many HAL/S expressions will compile and execute in Ada, unchanged. Others can be converted simply by replacing the implicit HAL/S multiply operator with the Ada *. Errors will be trapped and identified. Input/output will be convenient and readable.

  2. Learning Through Survival: An Approach to Foreign Language Teaching. A Program Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Claudia S.; Reilly, Joseph T. M.

    A foreign travel program for eighth grade French language students from Shoreham, New York was developed to provide language speaking practice in Quebec, Canada. The program was designed to allow students to spend as much time as possible speaking the language and interacting with the people. The following "survival through speaking" activities…

  3. Teaching English Language Arts to Francophone Program Students, Grades 3 to 9: Bridging the Francais and English Language Arts (ELA) Programs of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This document is the first in a 3-part collection titled "Teaching English Language Arts (ELA) to Francophone Program Students" to be used primarily by ELA teachers in their efforts to ensure that francophone program students build on their established French language skills when learning English. It is designed to show that a strong correlation…

  4. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  5. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  6. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  7. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  8. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  9. Expanding ADA coverage to employee benefit plans: recent judicial and administrative developments.

    PubMed

    Mook, J R

    1995-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act has been heralded as the Emancipation Proclamation for persons with disabilities. The purpose of the law is to provide nothing less than a "clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities." Precisely how the nondiscrimination principles of the ADA will be applied to an employer's provision of health benefits to its employees has been the subject of much debate since the Act's passage in 1990. Although the statutory language and the legislative history support a limited application of the ADA to benefits issues, recent court decisions and enforcement actions by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission indicate that the ADA may have a much more profound impact in the area of benefits plan design and administration. Moreover, as benefits administrators take a much more active role in managing health care decisions, the ADA may become a vehicle for legal challenges to those decisions that affect the disabled. PMID:10172245

  10. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed. PMID:25264401

  11. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed. PMID:25264401

  12. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  13. Teaching Practices and Language Use in Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Programs in a Large Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer; Steele, Jennifer; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers look to two-way dual language immersion as one of the most promising options to close achievement gaps for English learners. However, the programs' effectiveness depends on the quality of their implementation. This article reports on a large-scale study of the implementation of dual language immersion across a…

  14. Introductory Computer Programming Course Teaching Improvement Using Immersion Language, Extreme Programming, and Education Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Rubio, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Teaching computer programming to freshmen students in Computer Sciences and other Information Technology areas has been identified as a complex activity. Different approaches have been studied looking for the best one that could help to improve this teaching process. A proposed approach was implemented which is based in the language immersion…

  15. A Program Evaluation of the Language Lab™: Response to Intervention Program for Teaching Grammar, Vocabulary, and Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, JoAnn; Richardson, Martha; Jones, Don

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation study addressed the struggle of local elementary school speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in a school district to provide evidence-based intervention in language for students below grade level as required by the U.S. Department of Education. Recently, Language Lab™ was published to address the needs of oral language…

  16. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  17. Toward a molecular programming language for algorithmic self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitz, Matthew John

    Self-assembly is the process whereby relatively simple components autonomously combine to form more complex objects. Nature exhibits self-assembly to form everything from microscopic crystals to living cells to galaxies. With a desire to both form increasingly sophisticated products and to understand the basic components of living systems, scientists have developed and studied artificial self-assembling systems. One such framework is the Tile Assembly Model introduced by Erik Winfree in 1998. In this model, simple two-dimensional square 'tiles' are designed so that they self-assemble into desired shapes. The work in this thesis consists of a series of results which build toward the future goal of designing an abstracted, high-level programming language for designing the molecular components of self-assembling systems which can perform powerful computations and form into intricate structures. The first two sets of results demonstrate self-assembling systems which perform infinite series of computations that characterize computably enumerable and decidable languages, and exhibit tools for algorithmically generating the necessary sets of tiles. In the next chapter, methods for generating tile sets which self-assemble into complicated shapes, namely a class of discrete self-similar fractal structures, are presented. Next, a software package for graphically designing tile sets, simulating their self-assembly, and debugging designed systems is discussed. Finally, a high-level programming language which abstracts much of the complexity and tedium of designing such systems, while preventing many of the common errors, is presented. The summation of this body of work presents a broad coverage of the spectrum of desired outputs from artificial self-assembling systems and a progression in the sophistication of tools used to design them. By creating a broader and deeper set of modular tools for designing self-assembling systems, we hope to increase the complexity which is

  18. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Reynolds, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which the hardware components are assumed to be unreliable is investigated. The possibility that a distributed system can be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processor they are executing on, and that failures can occur in the underlying hardware is considered. The reduced cost of computer hardware and the advantages of distributed processing (for example, increased reliability through redundancy and greater flexibility) indicate that many aerospace computer systems can be distributed. The use of Ada and distributed systems is a good combination for aerospace embedded systems.

  19. Ada compiler evaluation on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the work in progress to select the Ada compilers for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Software Support Environment (SSE) project. The purpose of the SSE Ada compiler evaluation team is to establish the criteria, test suites, and benchmarks to be used for evaluating Ada compilers for the mainframes, workstations, and the realtime target for flight- and ground-based computers. The combined efforts and cooperation of the customer, subcontractors, vendors, academia and SIGAda groups made it possible to acquire the necessary background information, benchmarks, test suites, and criteria used.

  20. Spanish-Language Community-Based Mental Health Treatment Programs, Policy-Required Language-Assistance Programming, and Mental Health Treatment Access Among Spanish-Speaking Clients

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California’s Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Methods. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997–2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. Results. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P < .05). However, the increase was insufficient to significantly reduce language-related disparities. Conclusions. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services. PMID:23865663

  1. Your Foreign Language Program: Telling It--and Showing It--Like It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    A sound and slide show was produced at Parchment (Michigan) High School to show the community foreign language learning in their own school system. The program was designed to portray the nature of the local foreign language program and to increase support for and enrollment in the program. (Author/SW)

  2. School Readiness Language Development Program: A Teacher Survey Report. Publication No. 701, Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padi-Sandamela, Ambition; Maddahian, Ebrahim

    The School Readiness Language Development Program (SRLDP) is one of several programs developed in response to a court order to racially integrate the Los Angeles Unified School District (California). The program, developed for schools with high proportions of minority students, includes oral language development opportunities for 4 year-olds, a…

  3. Children Learning Computer Programming: Experiments with Languages, Curricula and Programmable Devices. Technical Report No. 250.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyer, S. A.; Cannara, A. B.

    An experiment was conducted to study how children, aged 10-15 years, learn concepts relevant to computer programing and how they learn modern programing languages. The implicit educational goal was to teach thinking strategies through the medium of programing concepts and their applications. The computer languages Simper and Logo were chosen…

  4. Options and Perspectives: A Sourcebook of Innovative Foreign Language Programs in Action, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, F. William D.; Honig, Lucille J.

    This report presents information on 51 current innovative foreign language projects and programs for grades K-12. Information was collected by means of a year-long, national survey of continuing language programs, which involved announcements in journals, newsletters, and other publications; form letters to program supervisors; an ERIC search; a…

  5. Standing Strong: Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School Japanese Language and Culture Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…

  6. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance analysis was begin on the Ada implementations. The goal is to supply the system designer with tools that will allow a rational decision to be made about whether a particular implementation can support a given application early in the design cycle. Primary activities were: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; preparation and presentation of a paper at the 1987 Washington DC Ada Symposium; development of a refined approach to recovery that is presently being applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  7. Accommodating Diverse Language Needs within an Intensive English Language Program: A Study of the English Language Institute at Alaska Pacific University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Patricia Diane Palmer

    The English Language Institute (ELI) at Alaska Pacific University provides an intensive academic program designed primarily to prepare foreign students for successful participation in undergraduate or graduate programs. Students from the local international community have also been admitted to the program. These students have motivations, language…

  8. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  9. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  10. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program 1992-1993. Ohio Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie; And Others

    This report describes the All Day Kindergarten (ADK) Program undertaken at 18 elementary schools in Columbus, Ohio, and presents an evaluation of the language development component of the program. ADK provides an extra half day of instruction, using a language-based curriculum to reinforce the skills, concepts, and educational experiences taught…

  11. What about a simple language? Analyzing the difficulties in learning to program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomäki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16 19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a “simple” language to a more “advanced” one, by following up on eight students, who learned programming in Python before moving on to Java.Our results suggest that a simple language gives rise to fewer syntax errors as well as logic errors. The qualitative part of our study did not reveal any disadvantages from having learned to program in a simple language when moving on to a more complex one. This suggests that not only can a simple language be used when introducing programming as a general skill, but also when providing basic skills to future professionals in the field.

  12. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada (a trade mark of the US Dept. of Defense) in distributed environments in which the hardware are assumed to be unreliable were investigated. The possibility that a distributed system is programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on and failures occurring in the underlying hardware were examined.

  13. Middle School Foreign Language Programs: Excellence for All Students in 2000 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    Most states have only a 2-year foreign-language requirement for college-bound students. Two 1999 federal initiatives--the Foreign Language Education Improvement Amendments and the Educational Excellence for All Children Act--provide support for expanding foreign-language education opportunities. Four exemplary Georgia middle-school programs are…

  14. Assessing a Foreign Language Program Through Proper Use of Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, John F.

    This talk delivered at the 1967 annual meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages examines a statistically-oriented assessment of the foreign language program at Tucson, Arizona. The text includes reprints of 25 transparencies used, largely drawn from the results of two groups of tests: (1) the Modern Language Association…

  15. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  16. Cover to Cover: A Guide to Foreign Language Programs, Instruction and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    The guide is intended as a resource for North Carolina teachers and administrators concerning second language education. Part 1 offers a rationale for second language education, and provides specific reasons for studying French, German, Latin, Spanish, and uncommonly taught languages. Part 2 describes instructional program models for elementary…

  17. Leadership Practice in Elementary School Dual Language Programs: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Joanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Research in effective programming for English language learners has demonstrated the efficacy of dual language education as a model for closing persistent achievement gaps for this growing population of students. With goals of high academic achievement, linguistic proficiency in two languages, and cross-cultural proficiency, dual language…

  18. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  19. Funding Policy for Language Programs = Politique de financement des programmes de langue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This policy statement, presented in both English and French, describes the funding support available for heritage language and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for K-12 students in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The two parts of the statement, headed "Heritage Language Instruction" and "ESL for Students with Limited Proficiency in…

  20. The English Language Learner Program Survey for Principals. REL 2014-027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    REL Northeast & Islands at Education Development Center, in partnership with the English Language Learners Alliance, has developed a new survey tool--The English Language Learner Program Survey for Principals--to help state education departments collect consistent data on the education of English language learner students. Designed for school…

  1. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh VU; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.; Mccoy, Daniel J.; Giarratano, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS 5.1 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming provides representation of knowledge by use of heuristics. Object-oriented programming enables modeling of complex systems as modular components. Procedural programming enables CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Working with CLIPS 5.1, one can develop expert-system software by use of rule-based programming only, object-oriented programming only, procedural programming only, or combinations of the three.

  2. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  3. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Boris; Louhimo, Riku; Ikonen, Elina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing) that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir. PMID:27711123

  4. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  5. A Parallel Vector Machine for the PM Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2016-04-01

    PM is a new programming language which aims to make the writing of computational geoscience models on parallel hardware accessible to scientists who are not themselves expert parallel programmers. It is based around the concept of communicating operators: language constructs that enable variables local to a single invocation of a parallelised loop to be viewed as if they were arrays spanning the entire loop domain. This mechanism enables different loop invocations (which may or may not be executing on different processors) to exchange information in a manner that extends the successful Communicating Sequential Processes idiom from single messages to collective communication. Communicating operators avoid the additional synchronisation mechanisms, such as atomic variables, required when programming using the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) paradigm. Using a single loop invocation as the fundamental unit of concurrency enables PM to uniformly represent different levels of parallelism from vector operations through shared memory systems to distributed grids. This paper describes an implementation of PM based on a vectorised virtual machine. On a single processor node, concurrent operations are implemented using masked vector operations. Virtual machine instructions operate on vectors of values and may be unmasked, masked using a Boolean field, or masked using an array of active vector cell locations. Conditional structures (such as if-then-else or while statement implementations) calculate and apply masks to the operations they control. A shift in mask representation from Boolean to location-list occurs when active locations become sufficiently sparse. Parallel loops unfold data structures (or vectors of data structures for nested loops) into vectors of values that may additionally be distributed over multiple computational nodes and then split into micro-threads compatible with the size of the local cache. Inter-node communication is accomplished using

  6. Rehosting and retargeting an Ada compiler: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ray

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a plan for rehosting and retargeting the Air Force Armaments Lab. Ada cross compiler. This compiler was validated in Sept. 1985 using ACVC 1.6, is written in Pascal, is hosted on a CDC Cyber 170, and is targeted to an embedded Zilog Z8002. The study was performed to determine the feasibility, cost, time, and tasks required to retarget the compiler to a DEC VAX 11/78x and rehost it to an embedded U.S. Navy AN/UYK-44 computer. Major tasks identified were rehosting the compiler front end, rewriting the back end (code generator), translating the run time environment from Z8002 assembly language to AN/UYK-44 assembly language, and developing a library manager.

  7. Integrating English as a Second Language into Special Education Teacher Personnel Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Hudson, Roxanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Preparing educators who are culturally responsive and prepared to meet the needs of English-language learners is a national priority. Consequently, many teacher preparation programs are being encouraged to include English as a second-language content in their programs of study. The following case study describes the development and implementation…

  8. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a "simple"…

  9. Do Bilingual Education Programs Inhibit English Language Achievement? A Report on an Illinois Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramonian, K.; And Others

    The English language achievement of 213 Spanish speaking students in grades K-3, who receive English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the context of a bilingual program, is compared to that of 104 similar students who receive ESL instruction within the traditional school program, in order to probe whether enrollment in a bilingual program…

  10. English as a Second Language Program: A Support System for the Basal Reading Series. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John H., Jr.; And Others

    The language program guide explains the theoretical basis and the instructional objectives of the approach to developing English language proficiency, supporting the Houghton Mifflin Reading Series and the Ginn 360 Series. The first of three sections describes the theoretical considerations and the philosophy of the program; it provides…

  11. Language Immersion Programs for Young Children? Yes . . . but Proceed with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderman, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    A dual immersion program in Chinese and English at the 3e International School in Beijing is helping children become fluent in both languages, even though many students spoke neither language when they entered the school. Children enter the program as young as two years old. Studies indicate that bilingual children have higher levels of cognitive…

  12. A Guide for Developing Language Arts Curricula (A Plan for Program Development). Bulletin No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, Martha, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for use by local schools in developing language arts programs, this guide presents a sequence of skill development for each of four areas of interest: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. The first part of the guide relates the principles of building a language arts program, discusses the development of communication skills, and…

  13. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  14. A Visual Approach to Programming Language Internationalization: An Arabic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Khalid A.; Citrin, Wayne V.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment supporting the thesis that visual languages are well-suited for computer programmers whose native languages are not English, analyzing the particular problems of Arabic speakers in comprehending Pascal program structures. A visual programming environment is presented in which all syntactic and nearly all semantic information…

  15. Promoting Success for Dual Language Learners: The Essential Role of Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Louis; Frey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education programs in California have a crucial role to play in preparing dual language learners to enter kindergarten with the skills they need to succeed in school and beyond. The reason is simple: there are more dual language learners under the age of 5 in early childhood education programs in California than anywhere else in…

  16. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  17. An Evaluation of the DISTAR Language I Program at Seymour Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.

    During 1972-73, the Direct Instructional System for Teaching and Remediation (DISTAR) Language I Program, a series of instructional programs developed to teach children the basic skills and concepts in reading, arithmetic, and language, was used in two of the three kindergarten classes at Seymour Elementary School. The three kindergarten classes…

  18. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  19. Toward a Renewed Focus. Literacy in Early Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    This article promotes literacy as a a powerful tool for learning new language. Although learners frequently think of comprehensible input as language that is heard, comprehensible input from print can also be accessed. Research has shown that reading has a powerful impact on language learning: much of the vocabulary that educated adults know has…

  20. Demands and Opportunities: Analyzing Academic Language in a First Grade Dual Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Academic language, the register necessary to be successful in school, has been widely studied in recent years. Researchers have devoted much energy to defining the construct of academic language and identifying ways that teachers can support students--particularly those learning two languages simultaneously--as they develop it. Several scholars…

  1. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender,…

  2. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    PubMed

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  3. Run-time implementation issues for real-time embedded Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Ruth A.

    1986-01-01

    A motivating factor in the development of Ada as the department of defense standard language was the high cost of embedded system software development. It was with embedded system requirements in mind that many of the features of the language were incorporated. Yet it is the designers of embedded systems that seem to comprise the majority of the Ada community dissatisfied with the language. There are a variety of reasons for this dissatisfaction, but many seem to be related in some way to the Ada run-time support system. Some of the areas in which the inconsistencies were found to have the greatest impact on performance from the standpoint of real-time systems are presented. In particular, a large part of the duties of the tasking supervisor are subject to the design decisions of the implementer. These include scheduling, rendezvous, delay processing, and task activation and termination. Some of the more general issues presented include time and space efficiencies, generic expansions, memory management, pragmas, and tracing features. As validated compilers become available for bare computer targets, it is important for a designer to be aware that, at least for many real-time issues, all validated Ada compilers are not created equal.

  4. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  5. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  6. An Evaluation Framework and Comparative Analysis of the Widely Used First Programming Languages

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  7. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  8. An informal introduction to programming data processing problems in a functional language

    SciTech Connect

    Senichkin, V.I.

    1994-07-01

    The basic idea behind the proposed language CORAL (Conceptual Recursive Applicative Language) is that of functional programming and the functional model of data. The type system of the language includes abstraction, classification, generalization, and aggregation. The set of built-in type constructors makes it possible to describe set-theoretic operations over extensional types. The basis functions are defined as functions over lists, which are the only form of data organization in the language. The computational model of the language, which is based on notions of polymorphism and inheritance and treats data types as objects, is adequate to the needs of data processing in applications with complex relations between objects.

  9. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  10. A database management capability for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Arvola; Danberg, SY; Fox, Stephen; Landers, Terry; Nori, Anil; Smith, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The data requirements of mission critical defense systems have been increasing dramatically. Command and control, intelligence, logistics, and even weapons systems are being required to integrate, process, and share ever increasing volumes of information. To meet this need, systems are now being specified that incorporate data base management subsystems for handling storage and retrieval of information. It is expected that a large number of the next generation of mission critical systems will contain embedded data base management systems. Since the use of Ada has been mandated for most of these systems, it is important to address the issues of providing data base management capabilities that can be closely coupled with Ada. A comprehensive distributed data base management project has been investigated. The key deliverables of this project are three closely related prototype systems implemented in Ada. These three systems are discussed.

  11. A Program Evaluation Process to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellante, Donna; Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The process of program evaluation was utilized to evaluate the education program, provide information to make decisions on its ability to comply with mandates from the state education department, and develop or improve the program to meet the goals of the new initiative to meet the needs of English language learners. The program evaluation process…

  12. Atomic Data and Modelling for Fusion: the ADAS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, H. P.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    The paper is an update on the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, ADAS, since ICAM-DATA06 and a forward look to its evolution in the next five years. ADAS is an international project supporting principally magnetic confinement fusion research. It has participant laboratories throughout the world, including ITER and all its partner countries. In parallel with ADAS, the ADAS-EU Project provides enhanced support for fusion research at Associated Laboratories and Universities in Europe and ITER. OPEN-ADAS, sponsored jointly by the ADAS Project and IAEA, is the mechanism for open access to principal ADAS atomic data classes and facilitating software for their use. EXTENDED-ADAS comprises a variety of special, integrated application software, beyond the purely atomic bounds of ADAS, tuned closely to specific diagnostic analyses and plasma models. The current scientific content and scope of these various ADAS and ADAS related activities are briefly reviewed. These span a number of themes including heavy element spectroscopy and models, charge exchange spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy and special features which provide a broad baseline of atomic modelling and support. Emphasis will be placed on `lifting the fundamental data baseline'—a principal ADAS task for the next few years. This will include discussion of ADAS and ADAS-EU coordinated and shared activities and some of the methods being exploited.

  13. 6th Circuit: insurance policies are not covered by the ADA.

    PubMed

    1997-08-22

    The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) does not cover the products that an insurer offers. The ADA only covers the physical premises of an insurance company. The court also ruled that the ADA does not mandate equality in employer-provider insurance coverage between people with varying types of disabilities. According to the court, the ADA only requires that all eligible employees be able to enroll in the plan. The case was brought by [name removed], a former employee of Schering-Plough Corporation, who complained that the long-term disability plan sponsored by the company and operated by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, violated the ADA. The plan limited mental illness disability benefits to two years but did not place a similar cap on physical conditions. The ruling, binding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan, contradicts earlier opinions which held that insurance products are subject to Title III of the ADA. The ruling states that Title III does not control the content of a long-term disability policy offered by an employer. Previous precedents set by the 1st Circuit Court in 1994 that had been viewed as protecting persons living with AIDS (PWAs) from discrimination in insurance programs and products were rejected by this ruling.

  14. Symbolic programming language in molecular multicenter integral problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safouhi, Hassan; Bouferguene, Ahmed

    It is well known that in any ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculation, the major task involves the computation of molecular integrals, among which the computation of three-center nuclear attraction and Coulomb integrals is the most frequently encountered. As the molecular system becomes larger, computation of these integrals becomes one of the most laborious and time-consuming steps in molecular systems calculation. Improvement of the computational methods of molecular integrals would be indispensable to further development in computational studies of large molecular systems. To develop fast and accurate algorithms for the numerical evaluation of these integrals over B functions, we used nonlinear transformations for improving convergence of highly oscillatory integrals. These methods form the basis of new methods for solving various problems that were unsolvable otherwise and have many applications as well. To apply these nonlinear transformations, the integrands should satisfy linear differential equations with coefficients having asymptotic power series in the sense of Poincaré, which in their turn should satisfy some limit conditions. These differential equations are very difficult to obtain explicitly. In the case of molecular integrals, we used a symbolic programming language (MAPLE) to demonstrate that all the conditions required to apply these nonlinear transformation methods are satisfied. Differential equations are obtained explicitly, allowing us to demonstrate that the limit conditions are also satisfied.

  15. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems. PMID:27128855

  16. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  17. Knowledge representation into Ada parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Babikyan, Carol; Harper, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The Knowledge Representation into Ada Parallel Processing project is a joint NASA and Air Force funded project to demonstrate the execution of intelligent systems in Ada on the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory fault-tolerant parallel processor (FTPP). Two applications were demonstrated - a portion of the adaptive tactical navigator and a real time controller. Both systems are implemented as Activation Framework Objects on the Activation Framework intelligent scheduling mechanism developed by Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The implementations, results of performance analyses showing speedup due to parallelism and initial efficiency improvements are detailed and further areas for performance improvements are suggested.

  18. Learning and comprehension of BASIC and natural language computer programming by novices

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching novices to program in Natural Language as a prerequisite for learning BASIC, and the learning and comprehension processes for Natural Language and BASIC computer-programming languages. Three groups of computer-naive subjects participated in five self-paced learning sessions; in each sessions, subjects solved a series of programming problems with immediate feedback. Twenty-four subjects learned to solve BASIC programming problems (BASIC group) for all five sessions, 23 subjects learned to solve corresponding Natural Language programming problems for all five sessions (Natural Language group), and 23 subjects learned to solve Natural Language programming problems for three sessions and then transferred to BASIC for the two sessions (Transfer group). At the end of the fifth session, all subjects completed a post-test which required the subjects to use their programming knowledge in a new way. Results indicated that the Natural Language trained subjects had complete transfer to BASIC, as indicated by no overall difference in comprehension time or accuracy for final BASIC sessions (i.e., sessions four and five) for the Transfer and BASIC groups. In addition, there was an interaction between group and session on accuracy, in which the Transfer group increased its accuracy at a faster rate than the BASIC group.

  19. Dual Language Programs as a Strand within a Secondary School: Dilemmas of School Organization and the TWI Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester J.; Bearse, Carol I.

    2014-01-01

    Dual language (DL) programs aim to create additive bilingual learning environments where the dominant language and the minority language are given equal status at the program, curricular, and instructional level. While several studies have documented the effectiveness of DL programs and classroom-based practices, few have considered how the…

  20. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices...

  1. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices...

  2. Review guidelines on software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Koch, S.; Tai, A.; Wendelboe, D.

    1996-06-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada, C/C++, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Logic, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Sequential Function Charts, Pascal, and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.s

  3. Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects.

  4. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  5. Visual Education and the Language Arts: Toward the Incorporation of Visual Concepts and Skills in the Secondary Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David Robert

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rationale for and to organize sequences of visual education concepts and skills that could function as a part of a secondary language arts program embodying the approaches of James Moffett. The literature on visual education was studied to identify those factors related specifically to professional…

  6. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  7. The Integration of Language and Content: Form-Focused Instruction in a Content-Based Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    This comparative, classroom-based study investigated the effect and effectiveness of introducing a focus on form approach to a content-based, occupation-specific language program for adults. Thirty-six adults in two classes participated in a 10-week study. One group of 16 adults received content-based instruction that included a focus on form…

  8. Tools for Language Programs. ICEM Technical Information Bulletin No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezard, M.; Bourguignon, C.

    This overview of available technologies and how they can be used in teaching languages is divided into three sections. The first, "Multimedia Inputs," examines digitized multimedia tools and their role in language courses, electronic books, encyclopedias and dictionaries, and games, and takes a closer look at "unimedia" products and audiovisual…

  9. Influences of Globalization on K-12 Language Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of globalization on K-12 language teacher education at Northern Arizona University (NAU) in terms of multilingual practices in the US, with reference to an English-only-state, Arizona. This study explored influences of globalization on K-12 language education practices in the US through teacher…

  10. Foreign Language Anxiety in a New English Program in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanielian, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…

  11. The Effect of Afterschool Program Participation on English Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Rebecca; Gurantz, Oded; Norman, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    In the past quarter century, the nation's K-12 public schools have experienced a large influx of students who speak languages other than English. Research has shown that many factors affect how English learner (EL) students acquire English language skills, including their preparation before entering U.S. schools, their out-of-school environments,…

  12. Power within Blended Language Learning Programs in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Don; Gruba, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within…

  13. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  14. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine <0.09μmol/L, adenosine <1.61μmol/L). We also developed a second tier test to distinguish true positives from false positives and improve the positive predictive value of an initial abnormal result. In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program.

  15. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  16. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  17. Using ADA Tasks to Simulate Operating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  18. The Courts, the ADA, and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, David D.

    2005-01-01

    Litigation influences what goes on in the classroom. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), other statutes, and legal precedent have defined reasonable restrictions on what qualifies as a handicap. Still, universities tend to go overboard--out of ignorance, and influenced by a culture that seems to champion every conceivable victim--in…

  19. Teaching an Algonkian Language as a Second Language: A Core Program for Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Ten units of first grade language instruction are presented in English, as a course guide for teachers who are expected to use only an Algonkian language in the classroom. The units, which are thematically titled (e.g. "The Little House"), cover two to four weeks' teaching time each. Classroom activities involve a variety of realia. Parallel to…

  20. Teaching an Algonkian Language as a Second Language: A Core Program for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Ten units of kindergarten language instruction are presented in English, as a course guide for teachers who are expected to use only an Algonkian language in the classroom. The units, which are thematically titled (e.g. "Let's Eat Together"), cover two to four weeks' teaching time each. Classroom activities involve a variety of realia. Parallel to…

  1. Efficient Ada multitasking on a RISC register window architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.

  2. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  3. Foreign Language/Intercultural Program. You and I (Kindergarten). DS Manual 2650.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guides for foreign language and intercultural education programs in United States dependents schools overseas provide instructional ideas designed to promote learning about the language and culture of the host nation. The series, covering kindergarten through eighth grade, was written by host nation teachers, classroom teachers, and…

  4. Students' Perceptions of Bilingualism in Spanish and Mandarin Dual Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research documents students' outcomes in dual language (DL) programs, but there is little examination of students' perceptions of bilingualism and its impact on students' cognitive functioning and social relationships, especially with comparative studies across different target languages and student backgrounds. This study, which…

  5. LaREC: Language through Recreation. A Handbook for Program Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Dana; Koester, Allison

    This handbook was prepared for use by the various ethnic associations in Canada whose members want to find effective means of helping their children learn or maintain their ancestral language. The program described involves the use of recreational activities for language instruction, based on the theory that the nature of and motivation for…

  6. Foreign Language/Intercultural Program. Your World and Mine (Sixth Grade). DS Manual 2650.6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guides for foreign language and intercultural education programs in United States dependents schools overseas provide instructional ideas designed to promote learning about the language and culture of the host nation. The series, covering kindergarten through eighth grade, was written by host nation teachers, classroom teachers, and…

  7. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-5 Chinese Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Shoufen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to provide a comprehensive data-driven evaluation of a Chinese language Immersion Program (CIP) for the stakeholders. CIP was implemented in 2006 with a goal for students to become proficient in the Chinese language and develop increased cultural awareness while reaching at least the same level of academic…

  8. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  9. Policies and Practices regarding Students with Accents in Speech-Language Pathology Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Erika S.; Crowley, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathology (SLP) training programs are the initial gateway for nonnative speakers of English to join the SLP profession. An anonymous web-based survey in New York State examined policies and practices implemented when SLP students have foreign accents in English or in other languages. Responses were elicited from 530 students and 28…

  10. A Center for Accelerated Learning: A Training Program for Elementary and Secondary Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Audrey; And Others

    A discussion of accelerated learning in language instruction gives a sample lesson, discusses the methodology used, and summarizes the results of a language teacher training program using the method. The approach is based on recognition and development of brain hemisphere functions to make learning faster and more effective. The sample lesson is a…

  11. Unique Effects of a Family Literacy Program on the Early Reading Development of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Sarah; Platt, Amy; Pelletier, Janette

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study evaluated the effects of a Family Literacy program on the early English reading development of speakers of English as a first language (EL1s) and English language learners (ELLs). The study included a linguistically and culturally diverse sample of 132 kindergarten children and their parents. Families in the…

  12. Undergraduate German Language Program at Middlebury College, Summer 1975. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerd K.

    Current publications do not cease to stress the unfortunate fact that language ernollments are declining; this paper is an exception to the prevailing pessimistic trend. Its aim is to describe the success of the first and second year German language courses taught at Middlebury College during the summer of 1975. This was an intensive program with…

  13. A Critical Multicultural Analysis of a Romanian Textbook Taught in Elementary International Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This case study proposes a critical multicultural analysis of a Romanian language textbook used for instructing students in grades one and two in the Elementary Language International Program (ELIP) in Toronto public schools in Ontario, Canada. Based on an analysis developed from Fairclough and Parker's criteria, this paper determined stereotypes…

  14. Foreign Language/Intercultural Program. Appendix. DS Manual 2650.9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guides for foreign language and intercultural education programs in United States dependents schools overseas provide instructional ideas designed to promote learning about the language and culture of the host nation. The series, covering kindergarten through eighth grade, was written by host nation teachers, classroom teachers, and…

  15. Motivators for Demotivators Affecting English Language Acquisition of Saudi Preparatory Year Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry; Alsamani, Abdulaziz Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the demotivating factors that discourage Preparatory Year Program (PYP) students from learning the English language. It also proposes and tests the effectiveness of a set of academic and administrative approaches on enhancing English language acquisition of 102 Saudi PYP Students taking an EFL summer course in the…

  16. Three Methods for Language Acquisition: Total Physical Response; the Tomatis Program; Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Total Physical Response is a strategy for learning second languages developed by James J. Asher. The Tomatis program, developed in France by Alfred Tomatis, is a method for treating dyslexia and communication problems and is also used for teaching basic elements of foreign languages. Suggestology is a psychotherapeutic system based on yogic…

  17. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  18. Programmed Instruction in Foreign Language Teaching. Report of Second Annual Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Mary, Ed.; Serafino, Robert, Ed.

    Dr. Simon Belasco's paper "Programmed Instruction and the Psychology of Second Language Learning" explores basic assumptions held by curriculum designers and teachers concerning the possibility of second language acquisition in an artificial, unicultural, and contrived classroom environment. Concepts relating to scope and sequence, New Key…

  19. Preschool Second-Language Acquisition: A Parent Involvement Program To Reinforce Classroom Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goren, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Describes the creation of a flexible and varied family-school partnership for second-language learning at a Montessori preschool. Highlights how the program provided students with an opportunity to participate in second-language learning in an optimal environment while providing parents access to home-based activities that were in concert with…

  20. The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

  1. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  2. Cognitive Style and Achievement in Imperative and Functional Programming Language Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, J. Paul, Jr.; Munsinger, Brita

    This paper investigates the relationship between learning style and programming achievement in two paradigms: imperative and functional. An imperative language achieves its effect by changing the value of variables by means of assignment statements while functional languages rely on evaluation of expressions rather than side-effects. Learning…

  3. Effects of a Professional Development Program on Classroom Practices and Outcomes for Latino Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia; Castro, Dina C.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the Nuestros Ninos professional development program on classroom practices and child outcomes related to language development and early literacy skills in both English and Spanish. Fifty-five teachers and 193 Latino dual language learners (DLLs) enrolled in the North Carolina…

  4. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  5. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  6. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  7. Evaluation of a School District's English as a Second Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolland, Kathy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of the English as a Second Language (ESL) program provided to the English Language Learners (ELLs) in elementary and middle schools in one local school district. The study evaluated two factors: model of service provided and teacher effectiveness. The models of service provided were a push-in model and a…

  8. Implementation of Ada protocols on Mil-STD-1553 B data bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhman, Smil; Rosemberg, Flavia

    1986-01-01

    Standardization activity of data communication in avionic systems started in 1968 for the purpose of total system integration and the elimination of heavy wire bundles carrying signals between various subassemblies. The growing complexity of avionic systems is straining the capabilities of MIL-STD-1553 B (first issued in 1973), but a much greater challenge to it is posed by Ada, the standard language adopted for real-time, computer embedded-systems. Hardware implementation of Ada communication protocols in a contention/token bus or token ring network is proposed. However, during the transition period when the current command/response multiplex data bus is still flourishing and the development environment for distributed multi-computer Ada systems is as yet lacking, a temporary accomodation of the standard language with the standard bus could be very useful and even highly desirable. By concentrating all status informtion and decisions at the bus controller, it was found to be possible to construct an elegant and efficient harware impelementation of the Ada protocols at the bus interface. This solution is discussed.

  9. Using a visual programming language to bridge the cognitive gap between a novice's mental model and program code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bryan J.

    Current research suggests that many students do not know how to program very well at the conclusion of their introductory programming course. We believe that a reason novices have such difficulties learning programming is because engineering novices often learn through a lecture format where someone with programming knowledge lectures to novices, the novices attempt to absorb the content, and then reproduce it during exams. By primarily appealing to programming novices who prefer to understand visually, we research whether programming novices understand programming better if computer science concepts are presented using a visual programming language than if these programs are presented using a text-based programming language. This method builds upon previous research that suggests that most engineering students are visual learners, and we propose that using a flow-based visual programming language will address some of the most important and difficult topics to novices of programming. We use an existing flow-model tool, RAPTOR, to test this method, and share the program understanding results using this theory.

  10. The Rhythm of Language: Fostering Oral and Listening Skills in Singapore Pre-School Children through an Integrated Music and Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda; Chong, Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a year-long integrated language and music program (the Expressive Language and Music Project) to enhance Singaporean kindergartners' English oral-language competency. Found that the natural communicative setting and creative use of resources and activities based on the Orff and Kodaly approaches facilitated language…

  11. Exploring the Synergy between Science Literacy and Language Literacy with English Language Learners: Lessons Learned within a Sustained Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrejo, David J.; Reinhartz, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five elementary teachers participated in a yearlong professional development (PD) program whose goal was to foster science content learning while promoting language literacy for English Language Learners (ELL). The researchers utilized an explanatory design methodology to determine the degree to which science and language literacy…

  12. Cognitive characteristics of learning Java, an object-oriented programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Garry Lynn

    Industry and Academia are moving from procedural programming languages (e.g., COBOL) to object-oriented programming languages, such as Java for the Internet. Past studies in the cognitive aspects of programming have focused primarily on procedural programming languages. Some of the languages used have been Pascal, C, Basic, FORTAN, and COBOL. Object-oriented programming (OOP) represents a new paradigm for computing. Industry is finding that programmers are having difficulty shifting to this new programming paradigm. This instruction in OOP is currently starting in colleges and universities across the country. What are the cognitive aspects for this new OOP language Java? When is a student developmentally ready to handle the cognitive characteristics of the OOP language Java? Which cognitive teaching style is best for this OOP language Java? Questions such as the aforementioned are the focus of this research Such research is needed to improve understanding of the learning process and identify students' difficulties with OOP methods. This can enhance academic teaching and industry training (Scholtz, 1993; Sheetz, 1997; Rosson, 1990). Cognitive development as measured by the Propositional Logic Test, cognitive style as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator, and physical hemispheric dominance as measured by a self-report survey were obtained from thirty-six university students studying Java programming. Findings reveal that physical hemispheric dominance is unrelated to cognitive and programming language variables. However, both procedural and object oriented programming require Piaget's formal operation cognitive level as indicated by the Propositional Logic Test. This is consistent with prior research A new finding is that object oriented programming also requires formal operation cognitive level. Another new finding is that object oriented programming appears to be unrelated to hemispheric cognitive style as indicated by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI

  13. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  14. Foreign Language Education in Elementary Schools: Revitalizing and Maintaining a Workable Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Rachel Elaine

    A discussion of foreign languages in elementary schools (FLES) includes both historical and current overviews of FLES in the United States and makes recommendations for development of FLES programs. The historical review looks at program design and methods during the 1950s and 1960s and the successes and failures of program types and approaches.…

  15. Early Childhood Language-Centered Intervention Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Lavin, Claire

    This report evaluates the Early Childhood Language-Centered Intervention Program in New York City Public Schools. The program was designed to promote the development of preschool handicapped students in a variety of areas. The program objective proposed that the target students would show statistically significant improvement at the .05 level in…

  16. Developing Programs for Intercultural Language Learning: Insights from Project Team Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Feedback provided by ILTLP Project team members to participants in Phase 1 is analysed to provide insights into the process of developing programs. The questions provide a starting point for considering current programming practices in developing units of work and long- term programs to support intercultural language learning.

  17. Assessing Students' Language Proficiency: A New Model of Study Abroad Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that integrates an at-home preparation intensive summer program with a short-term, study abroad summer program to increase students' Chinese-language proficiency, cultural awareness, and personal career development. The results indicate that the at-home preparation program can build students' self-esteem and…

  18. Design and Implementation of an English as a Second Language Program in a Bilingual College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Clara Virgen

    This dissertation focuses on the development of a complete English as a Second Language (ESL) program for a bilingual college-level curriculum. It includes the theoretical basis, the linguistic sociological, and self-oriented goals, the personnel and funding needed for the program and the relationship of the program to the surrounding community.…

  19. Towards Promoting Biliteracy and Academic Achievement: Educational Programs for High School Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The Latino student presently faces many obstacles to achieve educational equity and excellence at the high school level. This article examines academic programming for Latino middle and high school English language learners (ELLs) and provides recommendations for addressing programming that promotes biliteracy policy and programming as a valued…

  20. Integrating Foreign Languages and International Exchanges in a Graduate Program of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Michael; Sheehan, David

    The integration of foreign language education and international exchange into a French graduate program in business administration is discussed. The 3-year program results in the equivalent of a master's degree in management. The historical, educational, cultural, and socio-political factors in development of the program are reviewed, and key…