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Sample records for ada source code

  1. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  2. STGT program: Ada coding and architecture lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usavage, Paul; Nagurney, Don

    1992-01-01

    STGT (Second TDRSS Ground Terminal) is currently halfway through the System Integration Test phase (Level 4 Testing). To date, many software architecture and Ada language issues have been encountered and solved. This paper, which is the transcript of a presentation at the 3 Dec. meeting, attempts to define these lessons plus others learned regarding software project management and risk management issues, training, performance, reuse, and reliability. Observations are included regarding the use of particular Ada coding constructs, software architecture trade-offs during the prototyping, development and testing stages of the project, and dangers inherent in parallel or concurrent systems, software, hardware, and operations engineering.

  3. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  4. Experiments with Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, D.; Mcclimens, M.; Agresti, W.

    1985-01-01

    A 1200-line Ada source code project simulating the most basic functions of an operations control center was developed. We selected George Cherry's Process Abstraction Methodology for Embedded Large Applications (PAMELA) and DEC's Ada Compilation System (ACS) under VAX/VMS to build the software from requirements to acceptance test. The system runs faster than its FORTRAN implementation and was produced on schedule and under budget with an overall productivity in excess of 30 lines of Ada source code per day.

  5. THE SOURCE OF ADA'S DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will cover topics including the potential recharge area for Byrd's Mill Spring, the variability in discharge rates and the susceptibility of the ground water to contamination by various sources.

  6. Deploying expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1989-01-01

    As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

  7. ART-Ada design project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. An Ada based expert system tool is described called ART-Ada, which was built to support research into the language and methodological issues of expert systems in Ada. ART-Ada allows applications of an existing expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada based inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  8. Translating expert system rules into Ada code with validation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee; Duckworth, R. James; Green, Peter; Michalson, Bill; Gosselin, Dave; Nainani, Krishan; Pease, Adam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this ongoing research and development program is to develop software tools which enable the rapid development, upgrading, and maintenance of embedded real-time artificial intelligence systems. The goals of this phase of the research were to investigate the feasibility of developing software tools which automatically translate expert system rules into Ada code and develop methods for performing validation and verification testing of the resultant expert system. A prototype system was demonstrated which automatically translated rules from an Air Force expert system was demonstrated which detected errors in the execution of the resultant system. The method and prototype tools for converting AI representations into Ada code by converting the rules into Ada code modules and then linking them with an Activation Framework based run-time environment to form an executable load module are discussed. This method is based upon the use of Evidence Flow Graphs which are a data flow representation for intelligent systems. The development of prototype test generation and evaluation software which was used to test the resultant code is discussed. This testing was performed automatically using Monte-Carlo techniques based upon a constraint based description of the required performance for the system.

  9. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  10. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1992-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation of Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAS 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3, the prototype was evaluated by software engineering students at Auburn University and then updated with significant enhancements to the user interface including editing capabilities. Version 3.2 of the prototype was prepared for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  11. Software issues involved in code translation of C to Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooi, Robert; Giarratano, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    It is often thought that translation of one programming language to another is a simple solution that can be used to extend the software life span or in rehosting software to another environment. The possible problems are examined as are the advantages and disadvantages of direct machine or human code translation versus that of redesign and rewrite of the software. The translation of the expert system language called C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) which is written in C, to Ada, will be used as a case study of the problems that are encountered.

  12. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  13. Classic-Ada(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  14. Generic Ada code in the NASA space station command, control and communications environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougall, D. P.; Vollman, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of efforts to apply powerful Ada constructs to the formatted message handling process are described. The goal of these efforts was to extend the state-of-technology in message handling while at the same time producing production-quality, reusable code. The first effort was initiated in September, 1984 and delivered in April, 1985. That product, the Generic Message Handling Facility, met initial goals, was reused, and is available in the Ada Repository on ARPANET. However, it became apparent during its development that the initial approach to building a message handler template was not optimal. As a result of this initial effort, several alternate approaches were identified, and research is now on-going to identify an improved product. The ultimate goal is to be able to instantly build a message handling system for any message format given a specification of that message format. The problem lies in how to specify the message format, and one that is done, how to use that information to build the message handler. Message handling systems and message types are described. The initial efforts, its results and its shortcomings are detailed. The approach now being taken to build a system which will be significantly easier to implement, and once implemented, easier to use, is described. Finally, conclusions are offered.

  15. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  16. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  17. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  18. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  19. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  20. An Ada programming support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyrrill, AL; Chan, A. David

    1986-01-01

    The toolset of an Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) being developed at North American Aircraft Operations (NAAO) of Rockwell International, is described. The APSE is resident on three different hosts and must support developments for the hosts and for embedded targets. Tools and developed software must be freely portable between the hosts. The toolset includes the usual editors, compilers, linkers, debuggers, configuration magnagers, and documentation tools. Generally, these are being supplied by the host computer vendors. Other tools, for example, pretty printer, cross referencer, compilation order tool, and management tools were obtained from public-domain sources, are implemented in Ada and are being ported to the hosts. Several tools being implemented in-house are of interest, these include an Ada Design Language processor based on compilable Ada. A Standalone Test Environment Generator facilitates test tool construction and partially automates unit level testing. A Code Auditor/Static Analyzer permits the Ada programs to be evaluated against measures of quality. An Ada Comment Box Generator partially automates generation of header comment boxes.

  1. Ada/POSIX binding: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    NASA is seeking an operating system interface definition (OSID) for the Space Station Program (SSP) in order to take advantage of the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products available today and the many that are expected in the future. NASA would also like to avoid the reliance on any one source for operating systems, information system, communication system, or instruction set architecture. The use of the Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX) is examined as a possible solution to this problem. Since Ada is already the language of choice for SSP, the question of an Ada/POSIX binding is addressed. The intent of the binding is to provide access to the POSIX standard operation system (OS) interface and environment, by which application portability of Ada applications will be supported at the source code level. A guiding principle of Ada/POSIX binding development is a clear conformance of the Ada interface with the functional definition of POSIX. The interface is intended to be used by both application developers and system implementors. The objective is to provide a standard that allows a strictly conforming application source program that can be compiled to execute on any conforming implementation. Special emphasis is placed on first providing those functions and facilities that are needed in a wide variety of commercial applications

  2. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada. Final Report, 1 Jun. 1990 - 30 Sep. 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.H. II.

    1991-09-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  3. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  4. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program (SAP) automatically gathers and reports statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program. Provisions are made for weighting each statistic, providing user with overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, are gathered on module-by-module basis. Overall summed statistics are accumulated for complete input source file.

  5. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P.

    1984-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

  6. Managing Ada development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language was developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense to address the soaring costs associated with software development and maintenance. Ada is powerful, and yet to take full advantage of its power, it is sufficiently complex and different from current programming approaches that there is considerable risk associated with committing a program to be done in Ada. There are also few programs of any substantial size that have been implemented using Ada that may be studied to determine those management methods that resulted in a successful Ada project. The items presented are the author's opinions which have been formed as a result of going through an experience software development. The difficulties faced, risks assumed, management methods applied, and lessons learned, and most importantly, the techniques that were successful are all valuable sources of management information for those managers ready to assume major Ada developments projects.

  7. Syndrome source coding and its universal generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A universal generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly-effective, distortionless, coding of source ensembles.

  8. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  9. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  10. Applying Ada to Beech Starship avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, David W.

    1986-01-01

    As Ada solidified in its development, it became evident that it offered advantages for avionics systems because of it support for modern software engineering principles and real time applications. An Ada programming support environment was developed for two major avionics subsystems in the Beech Starship. The two subsystems include electronic flight instrument displays and the flight management computer system. Both of these systems use multiple Intel 80186 microprocessors. The flight management computer provides flight planning, navigation displays, primary flight display of checklists and other pilot advisory information. Together these systems represent nearly 80,000 lines of Ada source code and to date approximately 30 man years of effort. The Beech Starship avionics systems are in flight testing.

  11. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.; Teuben, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL moved to a new location in 2010, and has over 300 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://asterisk.apod.com/viewforum.php?f=35) has on average added 19 new codes per month; we encourage scientists to submit their codes for inclusion. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of its new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This presentation covers the history of the ASCL and examines the current state and benefits of the ASCL, the means of and requirements for including codes, and outlines its future plans.

  12. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  13. A proposed classification scheme for Ada-based software products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernosek, Gary J.

    1986-01-01

    As the requirements for producing software in the Ada language become a reality for projects such as the Space Station, a great amount of Ada-based program code will begin to emerge. Recognizing the potential for varying levels of quality to result in Ada programs, what is needed is a classification scheme that describes the quality of a software product whose source code exists in Ada form. A 5-level classification scheme is proposed that attempts to decompose this potentially broad spectrum of quality which Ada programs may possess. The number of classes and their corresponding names are not as important as the mere fact that there needs to be some set of criteria from which to evaluate programs existing in Ada. An exact criteria for each class is not presented, nor are any detailed suggestions of how to effectively implement this quality assessment. The idea of Ada-based software classification is introduced and a set of requirements from which to base further research and development is suggested.

  14. Parallel programming with Ada

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, J.

    1988-01-01

    To the human programmer the ease of coding distributed computing is highly dependent on the suitability of the employed programming language. But with a particular language it is also important whether the possibilities of one or more parallel architectures can efficiently be addressed by available language constructs. In this paper the possibilities are discussed of the high-level language Ada and in particular of its tasking concept as a descriptional tool for the design and implementation of numerical and other algorithms that allow execution of parts in parallel. Language tools are explained and their use for common applications is shown. Conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of several Ada concepts.

  15. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  16. GRASP/Ada (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada): The development of a program analysis environment for Ada. Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1990-01-01

    The study, formulation, and generation of structures for Ada (GRASP/Ada) are discussed in this second phase report of a three phase effort. Various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized with focus on reverse engineering. The overall goal is to provide the foundation for a CASE (computer-aided software design) environment in which reverse engineering and forward engineering (development) are tightly coupled. Emphasis is on a subset of architectural diagrams that can be generated automatically from source code with the control structure diagram (CSD) included for completeness.

  17. Ada style guide (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, Edwin V.; Agresti, William; Ferry, Daniel; Lavallee, David; Maresca, Paul; Nelson, Robert; Quimby, Kelvin; Rosenberg, Jacob; Roy, Daniel; Shell, Allyn

    1987-01-01

    Ada is a programming language of considerable expressive power. The Ada Language Reference Manual provides a thorough definition of the language. However, it does not offer sufficient guidance on the appropriate use of Ada's powerful features. For this reason, the Goddard Space Flight Center Ada User's Group has produced this style guide which addresses such program style issues. The guide covers three areas of Ada program style: the structural decomposition of a program; the coding and the use of specific Ada features; and the textural formatting of a program.

  18. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  19. Ada software productivity prototypes: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Malhotra, Shan

    1988-01-01

    A case study of the impact of Ada on a Command and Control project completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is given. The data for this study was collected as part of a general survey of software costs and productivity at JPL and other NASA sites. The task analyzed is a successful example of the use of rapid prototyping as applied to command and control for the U.S. Air Force and provides the U.S. Air Force Military Airlift Command with the ability to track aircraft, air crews and payloads worldwide. The task consists of a replicated database at several globally distributed sites. The local databases at each site can be updated within seconds after changes are entered at any one site. The system must be able to handle up to 400,000 activities per day. There are currently seven sites, each with a local area network of computers and a variety of user displays; the local area networks are tied together into a single wide area network. Using data obtained for eight modules, totaling approximately 500,000 source lines of code, researchers analyze the differences in productivities between subtasks. Factors considered are percentage of Ada used in coding, years of programmer experience, and the use of Ada tools and modern programming practices. The principle findings are the following. Productivity is very sensitive to programmer experience. The use of Ada software tools and the use of modern programming practices are important; without such use Ada is just a large complex language which can cause productivity to decrease. The impact of Ada on development effort phases is consistent with earlier reports at the project level but not at the module level.

  20. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  1. Ada issues in implementing ART-Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Due to the Ada mandate of a number of government agencies, interest in deploying expert systems such as Ada has increased. Recently, several Ada-based expert system tools have been developed. According to a recent benchmark report, these tools do not perform as well as similar tools written in C. While poorly implemented Ada compilers contribute to the poor benchmark result, some fundamental problems of the Ada language itself have been uncovered. Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the deployment of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force.

  2. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  3. Software unit testing in Ada environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    A validation procedure for the Ada binding of the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) is being developed. PRIOR Data Sciences is also producing a version of the GKS written in Ada. These major software engineering projects will provide an opportunity to demonstrate a sound approach for software testing in an Ada environment. The GKS/Ada validation capability will be a collection of test programs and data, and test management guidelines. These products will be used to assess the correctness, completeness, and efficiency of any GKS/Ada implementation. The GKS/Ada developers will be able to obtain the validation software for their own use. It is anticipated that this validation software will eventually be taken over by an independent standards body to provide objective assessments of GKS/Ada implementations, using an approach similar to the validation testing currently applied to Ada compilers. In the meantime, if requested, this validation software will be used to assess GKS/Ada products. The second project, implementation of GKS using the Ada language, is a conventional software engineering tasks. It represents a large body of Ada code and has some interesting testing problems associated with automatic testing of graphics routines. Here the normal test practices which include automated regression testing, independent quality assistance, test configuration management, and the application of software quality metrics will be employed. The software testing methods emphasize quality enhancement and automated procedures. Ada makes some aspects of testing easier, and introduces some concerns. These issues are addressed.

  4. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada): The development of a prgram analysis environment for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of research and development efforts are described for Task one, Phase two of a general project entitled The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. The scope of this task includes the design and development of a prototype system for testing Ada software modules at the unit level. The system is called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada). The prototype for condition coverage provides a platform that implements expert system interaction with program testing. The expert system can modify data in the instrument source code in order to achieve coverage goals. Given this initial prototype, it is possible to evaluate the rule base in order to develop improved rules for test case generation. The goals of Phase two are the following: (1) to continue to develop and improve the current user interface to support the other goals of this research effort (i.e., those related to improved testing efficiency and increased code reliable); (2) to develop and empirically evaluate a succession of alternative rule bases for the test case generator such that the expert system achieves coverage in a more efficient manner; and (3) to extend the concepts of the current test environment to address the issues of Ada concurrency.

  5. Present state of the SOURCES computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, E. F.

    2002-01-01

    In various stages of development for over two decades, the SOURCES computer code continues to calculate neutron production rates and spectra from four types of problems: homogeneous media, two-region interfaces, three-region interfaces and that of a monoenergetic alpha particle beam incident on a slab of target material. Graduate work at the University of Missouri - Rolla, in addition to user feedback from a tutorial course, provided the impetus for a variety of code improvements. Recently upgraded to version 4B, initial modifications to SOURCES focused on updates to the 'tape5' decay data library. Shortly thereafter, efforts focused on development of a graphical user interface for the code. This paper documents the Los Alamos SOURCES Tape1 Creator and Library Link (LASTCALL) and describes additional library modifications in more detail. Minor improvements and planned enhancements are discussed.

  6. Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chedrawi, Lutfi

    1986-01-01

    An artist acquires all the necessary tools before painting a scene. In the same analogy, a software engineer needs the necessary tools to provide their design with the proper means for implementation. Ada provide these tools. Yet, as an artist's painting needs a brochure to accompany it for further explanation of the scene, an Ada design also needs a document along with it to show the design in its detailed structure and hierarchical order. Ada could be self-explanatory in small programs not exceeding fifty lines of code in length. But, in a large environment, ranging from thousands of lines and above, Ada programs need to be well documented to be preserved and maintained. The language used to specify an Ada document is called Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL). This language sets some rules to help derive a well formatted Ada detailed design document. The rules are defined to meet the needs of a project manager, a maintenance team, a programmer and a systems designer. The design document templates, the document extractor, and the rules set forth by the ASDL are explained in detail.

  7. Source code management with version control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arraki, Kenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Developing and maintaining software is an important part of astronomy research. As time progresses projects can move in unexpected directions or simply last longer than expected. Making changes to software can quickly result in many different versions of the code, wanting to return to a previous lost version, and problems sharing updated code with others. It is simple to update and collaboratively edit source code when you use version control software. This short talk will highlight the version control softwares svn, git, and hg for use with local and remote software repositories. In addition I will touch on using GitHub and BitBucket as excellent ways to share your code using an online interface.

  8. Transforming AdaPT to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how the main features of the proposed Ada language extensions intended to support distribution, and offered as possible solutions for Ada9X can be implemented by transformation into standard Ada83. We start by summarizing the features proposed in a paper (Gargaro et al, 1990) which constitutes the definition of the extensions. For convenience we have called the language in its modified form AdaPT which might be interpreted as Ada with partitions. These features were carefully chosen to provide support for the construction of executable modules for execution in nodes of a network of loosely coupled computers, but flexibly configurable for different network architectures and for recovery following failure, or adapting to mode changes. The intention in their design was to provide extensions which would not impact adversely on the normal use of Ada, and would fit well in style and feel with the existing standard. We begin by summarizing the features introduced in AdaPT.

  9. Documentation generator application for VHDL source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting VHDL source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary VHDL codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part three which describes the VHDL application. VHDL is used for behavioral description of the Optoelectronic system.

  10. Syndrome-source-coding and its universal generalization. [error correcting codes for data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A 'universal' generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly effective distortionless coding of source ensembles. Two examples are given, comparing the performance of noiseless universal syndrome-source-coding to (1) run-length coding and (2) Lynch-Davisson-Schalkwijk-Cover universal coding for an ensemble of binary memoryless sources.

  11. Software Model Checking Without Source Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaki, Sagar; Ivers, James

    2009-01-01

    We present a framework, called AIR, for verifying safety properties of assembly language programs via software model checking. AIR extends the applicability of predicate abstraction and counterexample guided abstraction refinement to the automated verification of low-level software. By working at the assembly level, AIR allows verification of programs for which source code is unavailable-such as legacy and COTS software-and programs that use features-such as pointers, structures, and object-orientation-that are problematic for source-level software verification tools. In addition, AIR makes no assumptions about the underlying compiler technology. We have implemented a prototype of AIR and present encouraging results on several non-trivial examples.

  12. ADA Restroom Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) creates for designing school restrooms. The issues of mobility and circulation of users are addressed. Some of the dimension requirements required by the ADA are listed. (GR)

  13. ART/Ada and CLIPS/Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Although they have reached a point of commercial viability, expert systems were originally developed in artificial intelligence (AI) research environments. Many of the available tools still work best in such environments. These environments typically utilize special hardware such as LISP machines and relatively unfamiliar languages such as LISP or Prolog. Space Station applications will require deep integration of expert system technology with applications developed in conventional languages, specifically Ada. The ability to apply automation to Space Station functions could be greatly enhanced by widespread availability of state-of-the-art expert system tools based on Ada. Although there have been some efforts to examine the use of Ada for AI applications, there are few, if any, existing products which provide state-of-the-art AI capabilities in an Ada tool. The goal of the ART/Ada Design Project is to conduct research into the implementation in Ada of state-of-the-art hybrid expert systems building tools (ESBT's). This project takes the following approach: using the existing design of the ART-IM ESBT as a starting point, analyze the impact of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design; redesign the system in Ada; and analyze its performance. The research project will attempt to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future Space Station Freedom projects. During Phase 1 of the project, initial requirements analysis, design, and implementation of the kernel subset of ART-IM functionality was completed. During Phase 2, the effort has been focused on the implementation and performance analysis of several versions with increasing functionality. Since production quality ART/Ada tools will not be available for a considerable time, and additional subtask of this project will be the completion of an Ada version of the CLIPS expert system shell developed by NASA

  14. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  15. A small evaluation suite for Ada compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, Randy; Roy, Daniel M.

    1986-01-01

    After completing a small Ada pilot project (OCC simulator) for the Multi Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) at Goddard last year, the use of Ada to develop OCCs was recommended. To help MSOCC transition toward Ada, a suite of about 100 evaluation programs was developed which can be used to assess Ada compilers. These programs compare the overall quality of the compilation system, compare the relative efficiencies of the compilers and the environments in which they work, and compare the size and execution speed of generated machine code. Another goal of the benchmark software was to provide MSOCC system developers with rough timing estimates for the purpose of predicting performance of future systems written in Ada.

  16. Astronomy education and the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL) is an online registry of source codes used in refereed astrophysics research. It currently lists nearly 1,200 codes and covers all aspects of computational astrophysics. How can this resource be of use to educators and to the graduate students they mentor? The ASCL serves as a discovery tool for codes that can be used for one's own research. Graduate students can also investigate existing codes to see how common astronomical problems are approached numerically in practice, and use these codes as benchmarks for their own solutions to these problems. Further, they can deepen their knowledge of software practices and techniques through examination of others' codes.

  17. Adaptive Source Coding Schemes for Geometrically Distributed Integer Alphabets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K-M.; Smyth, P.

    1993-01-01

    Revisit the Gallager and van Voorhis optimal source coding scheme for geometrically distributed non-negative integer alphabets and show that the various subcodes in the popular Rice algorithm can be derived from the Gallager and van Voorhis code.

  18. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 3 report: Test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The plan is described for the integrated testing and benchmark of Phase Ada based ESBT Design Research Project. The integration testing is divided into two phases: (1) the modules that do not rely on the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator are tested before the Ada Generator is implemented; and (2) all modules are integrated and tested with the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator. Its performance and size as well as its functionality is verified in this phase. The target platform is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAX stations running the VMS operating system.

  19. A distributed programming environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Peter; Mcdonnell, Tom; Mcfarland, Gregory; Timmins, Lawrence J.; Litke, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Despite considerable commercial exploitation of fault tolerance systems, significant and difficult research problems remain in such areas as fault detection and correction. A research project is described which constructs a distributed computing test bed for loosely coupled computers. The project is constructing a tool kit to support research into distributed control algorithms, including a distributed Ada compiler, distributed debugger, test harnesses, and environment monitors. The Ada compiler is being written in Ada and will implement distributed computing at the subsystem level. The design goal is to provide a variety of control mechanics for distributed programming while retaining total transparency at the code level.

  20. Development of an Ada programming support environment database SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database) administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD) was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities which are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. SEAD data is organized into five major areas: information regarding education and training resources which are relevant to the life cycle of Ada-based software engineering projects such as those in the Space Station program; research publications relevant to NASA projects such as the Space Station Program and conferences relating to Ada technology; the latest progress reports on Ada projects completed or in progress both within NASA and throughout the free world; Ada compilers and other commercial products that support Ada software development; and reusable Ada components generated both within NASA and from elsewhere in the free world. This classified listing of reusable components shall include descriptions of tools, libraries, and other components of interest to NASA. Sources for the data include technical newletters and periodicals, conference proceedings, the Ada Information Clearinghouse, product vendors, and project sponsors and contractors.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Source Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Vaccaro, John A.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Andersson, Erika; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2003-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of Schumacher’s quantum noiseless coding theorem. Our experiment employs a sequence of single photons, each of which represents three qubits in terms of eight spatial and polarization modes. We initially prepare each photon in one of a set of eight nonorthogonal code word states corresponding to the value of a block of three binary letters. We use quantum coding to compress this quantum data into a two-qubit quantum channel and then uncompress the two-qubit channel to restore the original data with a fidelity approaching the theoretical limit.

  2. Righting the ADA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans with disabilities feel that a series of negative court decisions is reducing their status to that of "second-class citizens," a status that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was supposed to remedy forever. In this report, the National Council on Disability (NCD), which first proposed the enactment of an ADA and developed the…

  3. Data processing with microcode designed with source coding

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, James A; Morrison, Steven E

    2013-05-07

    Programming for a data processor to execute a data processing application is provided using microcode source code. The microcode source code is assembled to produce microcode that includes digital microcode instructions with which to signal the data processor to execute the data processing application.

  4. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: http://www.ascl.net/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Wallin, J. F.

    1999-05-01

    Submissions are invited to the newly formed Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). Original codes that have generated significant results for any paper published in a refereed astronomy or astrophysics journal are eligible for inclusion in ASCL. All submissions and personalized correspondence will be handled electronically. ASCL will not claim copyright on any of its archived codes, but will not archive codes without permission from the copyright owners. ASCL archived source codes will be indexed on the World Wide Web and made freely available for non-commercial purposes. Many results reported in astrophysics are derived though the writing and implementation of source codes. Small or large, few source codes are ever made publicly available. Because of the effort involved in the creation of scientific codes and their impact in astrophysics, we have created a site which archives and distribute codes which were used in astrophysical publications. Goals in the creation of ASCL include increasing the availability, falsifiability, and utility of source codes important to astrophysicists. ASCL is an experimental concept in its formative year - its value will be assessed from author response and user feedback in one years' time.

  5. ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

  6. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in an increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. The Automated Reasoning Tool-Ada (ART-Ada), an Ada expert system tool, is explained. ART-Ada allows applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom program and the U.S. Air Force.

  7. MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping : source code.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2004-10-01

    We present the source code for three MATLAB classes for manipulating tensors in order to allow fast algorithm prototyping. A tensor is a multidimensional or Nway array. This is a supplementary report; details on using this code are provided separately in SAND-XXXX.

  8. Statistical physics, optimization and source coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechhina, Riccardo

    2005-06-01

    The combinatorial problem of satisfying a given set of constraints that depend on N discrete variables is a fundamental one in optimization and coding theory. Even for instances of randomly generated problems, the question ``does there exist an assignment to the variables that satisfies all constraints?'' may become extraordinarily difficult to solve in some range of parameters where a glass phase sets in. We shall provide a brief review of the recent advances in the statistical mechanics approach to these satisfiability problems and show how the analytic results have helped to design a new class of message-passing algorithms -- the survey propagation (SP) algorithms -- that can efficiently solve some combinatorial problems considered intractable. As an application, we discuss how the packing properties of clusters of solutions in randomly generated satisfiability problems can be exploited in the design of simple lossy data compression algorithms.

  9. The FORTRAN static source code analyzer program (SAP) system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Merwarth, P.; Oneill, M.; Goorevich, C.; Waligora, S.

    1982-01-01

    A source code analyzer program (SAP) designed to assist personnel in conducting studies of FORTRAN programs is described. The SAP scans FORTRAN source code and produces reports that present statistics and measures of statements and structures that make up a module. The processing performed by SAP and of the routines, COMMON blocks, and files used by SAP are described. The system generation procedure for SAP is also presented.

  10. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  11. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) Ada, an Ada Expert system tool is described. ART-Ada allow applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  12. Using ADA Tasks to Simulate Operating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  13. Toward the Automated Generation of Components from Existing Source Code

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Yi, Q; Kumfert, G; Epperly, T; Dahlgren, T; Schordan, M; White, B

    2004-12-02

    A major challenge to achieving widespread use of software component technology in scientific computing is an effective migration strategy for existing, or legacy, source code. This paper describes initial work and challenges in automating the identification and generation of components using the ROSE compiler infrastructure and the Babel language interoperability tool. Babel enables calling interfaces expressed in the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL) to be implemented in, and called from, an arbitrary combination of supported languages. ROSE is used to build specialized source-to-source translators that (1) extract a SIDL interface specification from information implicit in existing C++ source code and (2) transform Babel's output to include dispatches to the legacy code.

  14. Streamlined Genome Sequence Compression using Distributed Source Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Feng; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We aim at developing a streamlined genome sequence compression algorithm to support alternative miniaturized sequencing devices, which have limited communication, storage, and computation power. Existing techniques that require heavy client (encoder side) cannot be applied. To tackle this challenge, we carefully examined distributed source coding theory and developed a customized reference-based genome compression protocol to meet the low-complexity need at the client side. Based on the variation between source and reference, our protocol will pick adaptively either syndrome coding or hash coding to compress subsequences of changing code length. Our experimental results showed promising performance of the proposed method when compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm (GRS). PMID:25520552

  15. A LISP-Ada connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworski, Allan; Lavallee, David; Zoch, David

    1987-01-01

    The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using Ada for expert systems and the implementation of an expert-friendly interface which supports knowledge entry. In the Ford LISP-Ada Connection (FLAC) system LISP and Ada are used in ways which complement their respective capabilities. Future investigation will concentrate on the enhancement of the expert knowledge entry/debugging interface and on the issues associated with multitasking and real-time expert systems implementation in Ada.

  16. Benchmark Lisp And Ada Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria; Galant, David; Lim, Raymond; Stutz, John; Gibson, J.; Raghavan, B.; Cheesema, P.; Taylor, W.

    1992-01-01

    Suite of nonparallel benchmark programs, ELAPSE, designed for three tests: comparing efficiency of computer processing via Lisp vs. Ada; comparing efficiencies of several computers processing via Lisp; or comparing several computers processing via Ada. Tests efficiency which computer executes routines in each language. Available for computer equipped with validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system.

  17. Using cryptology models for protecting PHP source code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevremović, Aleksandar; Ristić, Nenad; Veinović, Mladen

    2013-10-01

    Protecting PHP scripts from unwanted use, copying and modifications is a big issue today. Existing solutions on source code level are mostly working as obfuscators, they are free, and they are not providing any serious protection. Solutions that encode opcode are more secure, but they are commercial and require closed-source proprietary PHP interpreter's extension. Additionally, encoded opcode is not compatible with future versions of interpreters which imply re-buying encoders from the authors. Finally, if extension source-code is compromised, all scripts encoded with that solution are compromised too. In this paper, we will present a new model for free and open-source PHP script protection solution. Protection level provided by the proposed solution is equal to protection level of commercial solutions. Model is based on conclusions from use of standard cryptology models for analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the existing solutions, when a scripts protection is seen as secure communication channel in the cryptology.

  18. Coded source neutron imaging at the PULSTAR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Ziyu; Mishra, Kaushal; Hawari, Ayman; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2011-01-01

    A neutron imaging facility is located on beam-tube No.5 of the 1-MW PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State University. An investigation of high resolution imaging using the coded source imaging technique has been initiated at the facility. Coded imaging uses a mosaic of pinholes to encode an aperture, thus generating an encoded image of the object at the detector. To reconstruct the image data received by the detector, the corresponding decoding patterns are used. The optimized design of coded mask is critical for the performance of this technique and will depend on the characteristics of the imaging beam. In this work, a 34 x 38 uniformly redundant array (URA) coded aperture system is studied for application at the PULSTAR reactor neutron imaging facility. The URA pattern was fabricated on a 500 ?m gadolinium sheet. Simulations and experiments with a pinhole object have been conducted using the Gd URA and the optimized beam line.

  19. Supporting Source Code Comprehension during Software Evolution and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhindawi, Nouh

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problems of program comprehension to support the evolution of large-scale software systems. The research concerns how software engineers locate features and concepts along with categorizing changes within very large bodies of source code along with their versioned histories. More specifically, advanced Information…

  20. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  1. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  2. Codes for sound-source location in nontonotopic auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Middlebrooks, J C; Xu, L; Eddins, A C; Green, D M

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated two hypothetical codes for sound-source location in the auditory cortex. The topographical code assumed that single neurons are selective for particular locations and that sound-source locations are coded by the cortical location of small populations of maximally activated neurons. The distributed code assumed that the responses of individual neurons can carry information about locations throughout 360 degrees of azimuth and that accurate sound localization derives from information that is distributed across large populations of such panoramic neurons. We recorded from single units in the anterior ectosylvian sulcus area (area AES) and in area A2 of alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. Results obtained in the two areas were essentially equivalent. Noise bursts were presented from loudspeakers spaced in 20 degrees intervals of azimuth throughout 360 degrees of the horizontal plane. Spike counts of the majority of units were modulated >50% by changes in sound-source azimuth. Nevertheless, sound-source locations that produced greater than half-maximal spike counts often spanned >180 degrees of azimuth. The spatial selectivity of units tended to broaden and, often, to shift in azimuth as sound pressure levels (SPLs) were increased to a moderate level. We sometimes saw systematic changes in spatial tuning along segments of electrode tracks as long as 1.5 mm but such progressions were not evident at higher sound levels. Moderate-level sounds presented anywhere in the contralateral hemifield produced greater than half-maximal activation of nearly all units. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis of a topographic code. We used an artificial-neural-network algorithm to recognize spike patterns and, thereby, infer the locations of sound sources. Network input consisted of spike density functions formed by averages of responses to eight stimulus repetitions. Information carried in the responses of single units permitted reasonable estimates of sound-source

  3. Simulation of the space station information system in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flexible Ada Simulation Tool (FAST) is a discrete event simulation language which is written in Ada. FAST has been used to simulate a number of options for ground data distribution of Space Station payload data. The fact that Ada language is used for implementation has allowed a number of useful interactive features to be built into FAST and has facilitated quick enhancement of its capabilities to support new modeling requirements. General simulation concepts are discussed, and how these concepts are implemented in FAST. The FAST design is discussed, and it is pointed out how the used of the Ada language enabled the development of some significant advantages over classical FORTRAN based simulation languages. The advantages discussed are in the areas of efficiency, ease of debugging, and ease of integrating user code. The specific Ada language features which enable these advances are discussed.

  4. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  5. Source-Code Instrumentation and Quantification of Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Havelund, Klaus; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) is making quantified programmatic assertions over programs that otherwise are not annotated to receive these assertions. Varieties of AOP systems are characterized by which quantified assertions they allow, what they permit in the actions of the assertions (including how the actions interact with the base code), and what mechanisms they use to achieve the overall effect. Here, we argue that all quantification is over dynamic events, and describe our preliminary work in developing a system that maps dynamic events to transformations over source code. We discuss possible applications of this system, particularly with respect to debugging concurrent systems.

  6. AdaNET phase 0 support for the AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) management system prototype. Catalog of available reusable software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The Ada Software Repository is a public-domain collection of Ada software and information. The Ada Software Repository is one of several repositories located on the SIMTEL20 Defense Data Network host computer at White Sands Missile Range, and available to any host computer on the network since 26 November 1984. This repository provides a free source for Ada programs and information. The Ada Software Repository is divided into several subdirectories. These directories are organized by topic, and their names and a brief overview of their topics are contained. The Ada Software Repository on SIMTEL20 serves two basic roles: to promote the exchange and use (reusability) of Ada programs and tools (including components) and to promote Ada education.

  7. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  8. Verification test calculations for the Source Term Code Package

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R S; Wooton, R O; Alexander, C A; Curtis, L A; Cybulskis, P; Gieseke, J A; Jordan, H; Lee, K W; Nicolosi, S L

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the reasonableness of the Source Term Code Package (STCP) results. Hand calculations have been performed spanning a wide variety of phenomena within the context of a single accident sequence, a loss of all ac power with late containment failure, in the Peach Bottom (BWR) plant, and compared with STCP results. The report identifies some of the limitations of the hand calculation effort. The processes involved in a core meltdown accident are complex and coupled. Hand calculations by their nature must deal with gross simplifications of these processes. Their greatest strength is as an indicator that a computer code contains an error, for example that it doesn't satisfy basic conservation laws, rather than in showing the analysis accurately represents reality. Hand calculations are an important element of verification but they do not satisfy the need for code validation. The code validation program for the STCP is a separate effort. In general the hand calculation results show that models used in the STCP codes (e.g., MARCH, TRAP-MELT, VANESA) obey basic conservation laws and produce reasonable results. The degree of agreement and significance of the comparisons differ among the models evaluated. 20 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. The Need for Vendor Source Code at NAS. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Russell; Acheson, Steve; Blaylock, Bruce; Brock, David; Cardo, Nick; Ciotti, Bob; Poston, Alan; Wong, Parkson; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Facility has a long standing practice of maintaining buildable source code for installed hardware. There are two reasons for this: NAS's designated pathfinding role, and the need to maintain a smoothly running operational capacity given the widely diversified nature of the vendor installations. NAS has a need to maintain support capabilities when vendors are not able; diagnose and remedy hardware or software problems where applicable; and to support ongoing system software development activities whether or not the relevant vendors feel support is justified. This note provides an informal history of these activities at NAS, and brings together the general principles that drive the requirement that systems integrated into the NAS environment run binaries built from source code, onsite.

  10. Integrity and security in an Ada runtime environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    A review is provided of the Formal Methods group discussions. It was stated that integrity is not a pure mathematical dual of security. The input data is part of the integrity domain. The group provided a roadmap for research. One item of the roadmap and the final position statement are closely related to the space shuttle and space station. The group's position is to use a safe subset of Ada. Examples of safe sets include the Army Secure Operating System and the Penelope Ada verification tool. It is recommended that a conservative attitude is required when writing Ada code for life and property critical systems.

  11. SAP- FORTRAN STATIC SOURCE CODE ANALYZER PROGRAM (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manteufel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP, was developed to automatically gather statistics on the occurrences of statements and structures within a FORTRAN program and to provide for the reporting of those statistics. Provisions have been made for weighting each statistic and to provide an overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, are gathered on a module by module basis. Overall summed statistics are also accumulated for the complete input source file. SAP accepts as input syntactically correct FORTRAN source code written in the FORTRAN 77 standard language. In addition, code written using features in the following languages is also accepted: VAX-11 FORTRAN, IBM S/360 FORTRAN IV Level H Extended; and Structured FORTRAN. The SAP program utilizes two external files in its analysis procedure. A keyword file allows flexibility in classifying statements and in marking a statement as either executable or non-executable. A statistical weight file allows the user to assign weights to all output statistics, thus allowing the user flexibility in defining the figure of complexity. The SAP program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS and on an IBM 370 series computer under MVS. The SAP program was developed in 1978 and last updated in 1985.

  12. SAP- FORTRAN STATIC SOURCE CODE ANALYZER PROGRAM (DEC VAX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP, was developed to automatically gather statistics on the occurrences of statements and structures within a FORTRAN program and to provide for the reporting of those statistics. Provisions have been made for weighting each statistic and to provide an overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, are gathered on a module by module basis. Overall summed statistics are also accumulated for the complete input source file. SAP accepts as input syntactically correct FORTRAN source code written in the FORTRAN 77 standard language. In addition, code written using features in the following languages is also accepted: VAX-11 FORTRAN, IBM S/360 FORTRAN IV Level H Extended; and Structured FORTRAN. The SAP program utilizes two external files in its analysis procedure. A keyword file allows flexibility in classifying statements and in marking a statement as either executable or non-executable. A statistical weight file allows the user to assign weights to all output statistics, thus allowing the user flexibility in defining the figure of complexity. The SAP program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS and on an IBM 370 series computer under MVS. The SAP program was developed in 1978 and last updated in 1985.

  13. AdaNET executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The goal of AdaNET is to transfer existing and emerging software engineering technology from the Federal government to the private sector. The views and perspectives of the current project participants on long and short term goals for AdaNET; organizational structure; resources and returns; summary of identified AdaNET services; and the summary of the organizational model currently under discussion are presented.

  14. Ada training evaluation and recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Robert; Stark, Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper documents the Ada training experiences and recommendations of the Gamma Ray Observatory dynamics simulator Ada development team. A two month Ada training program for software developers is recommended which stresses the importance of teaching design methodologies early, as well as the use of certain training aids such as videotaped lectures and computer-aided instruction. Furthermore, a separate training program for managers is recommended, so that they may gain a better understanding of modified review products and resource allocation associated with Ada projects.

  15. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  16. Introduction to Image Algebra Ada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.

    1991-07-01

    Image Algebra Ada (IAA) is a superset of the Ada programming language designed to support use of the Air Force Armament Laboratory's image algebra in the development of computer vision application programs. The IAA language differs from other computer vision languages is several respects. It is machine independent, and an IAA translator has been implemented in the military standard Ada language. Its image operands and operations can be used to program a range of both low- and high-level vision algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the image algebra constructs supported in IAA and describes the embodiment of these constructs in the IAA extension of Ada. Examples showing the use of IAA for a range of computer vision tasks are given. The design of IAA as a superset of Ada and the implementation of the initial translator in Ada represent critical choices. The authors discuss the reasoning behind these choices as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Implementation strategies associated with the use of Ada as an implementation language for IAA are also discussed. While one can look on IAA as a program design language (PDL) for specifying Ada programs, it is useful to consider IAA as a separate language superset of Ada. This admits the possibility of directly translating IAA for implementation on special purpose architectures. This paper explores strategies for porting IAA to various architectures and notes the critical language and implementation features for porting to different architectures.

  17. Robust video transmission with distributed source coded auxiliary channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajun; Majumdar, Abhik; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2009-12-01

    We propose a novel solution to the problem of robust, low-latency video transmission over lossy channels. Predictive video codecs, such as MPEG and H.26x, are very susceptible to prediction mismatch between encoder and decoder or "drift" when there are packet losses. These mismatches lead to a significant degradation in the decoded quality. To address this problem, we propose an auxiliary codec system that sends additional information alongside an MPEG or H.26x compressed video stream to correct for errors in decoded frames and mitigate drift. The proposed system is based on the principles of distributed source coding and uses the (possibly erroneous) MPEG/H.26x decoder reconstruction as side information at the auxiliary decoder. The distributed source coding framework depends upon knowing the statistical dependency (or correlation) between the source and the side information. We propose a recursive algorithm to analytically track the correlation between the original source frame and the erroneous MPEG/H.26x decoded frame. Finally, we propose a rate-distortion optimization scheme to allocate the rate used by the auxiliary encoder among the encoding blocks within a video frame. We implement the proposed system and present extensive simulation results that demonstrate significant gains in performance both visually and objectively (on the order of 2 dB in PSNR over forward error correction based solutions and 1.5 dB in PSNR over intrarefresh based solutions for typical scenarios) under tight latency constraints.

  18. Transforming AdaPT to Ada9x

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Volz, Richard A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.

    1993-01-01

    How the concepts of AdaPT can be transformed into programs using the object oriented features proposed in the preliminary mapping for Ada9x are described. Emphasizing, as they do, the importance of data types as units of program, these features match well with the development of partitions as translations into Abstract Data Types which was exploited in the Ada83 translation covered in report R3. By providing a form of polymorphic type, the Ada83 version also gives support for the conformant partition idea which could be achieved in Ada83 only by using UNCHECKED CONVERSIONS. It is assumed that the reader understands AdaPT itself, but the translation into Ada83 is briefly reviewed, by applying it to a small example. This is then used to show how the same translation would be achieved in the 9x version. It is important to appreciate that the distribution features which are proposed in current mapping are not used or discussed in any detail, as those are not well matched to the AdaPT approach. Critical evaluation and comparison of these approaches is given in a separate report.

  19. Documentation generator application for MatLab source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting MatLab source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary MatLab codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part two which describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena.

  20. Development of parallel DEM for the open source code MFIX

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Tafti, Danesh

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents the development of a parallel Discrete Element Method (DEM) solver for the open source code, Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) based on the domain decomposition method. The performance of the code was evaluated by simulating a bubbling fluidized bed with 2.5 million particles. The DEM solver shows strong scalability up to 256 processors with an efficiency of 81%. Further, to analyze weak scaling, the static height of the fluidized bed was increased to hold 5 and 10 million particles. The results show that global communication cost increases with problem size while the computational cost remains constant. Further, the effects of static bed height on the bubble hydrodynamics and mixing characteristics are analyzed.

  1. A bit allocation method for sparse source coding.

    PubMed

    Kaaniche, Mounir; Fraysse, Aurélia; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an efficient bit allocation strategy for subband-based image coding systems. More specifically, our objective is to design a new optimization algorithm based on a rate-distortion optimality criterion. To this end, we consider the uniform scalar quantization of a class of mixed distributed sources following a Bernoulli-generalized Gaussian distribution. This model appears to be particularly well-adapted for image data, which have a sparse representation in a wavelet basis. In this paper, we propose new approximations of the entropy and the distortion functions using piecewise affine and exponential forms, respectively. Because of these approximations, bit allocation is reformulated as a convex optimization problem. Solving the resulting problem allows us to derive the optimal quantization step for each subband. Experimental results show the benefits that can be drawn from the proposed bit allocation method in a typical transform-based coding application.

  2. Using Ada: The deeper challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language and the associated Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) and Ada Run Time Environment (ARTE) provide the potential for significant life-cycle cost reductions in computer software development and maintenance activities. The Ada programming language itself is standardized, trademarked, and controlled via formal validation procedures. Though compilers are not yet production-ready as most would desire, the technology for constructing them is sufficiently well known and understood that time and money should suffice to correct current deficiencies. The APSE and ARTE are, on the other hand, significantly newer issues within most software development and maintenance efforts. Currently, APSE and ARTE are highly dependent on differing implementer concepts, strategies, and market objectives. Complex and sophisticated mission-critical computing systems require the use of a complete Ada-based capability, not just the programming language itself; yet the range of APSE and ARTE features which must actually be utilized can vary significantly from one system to another. As a consequence, the need to understand, objectively evaluate, and select differing APSE and ARTE capabilities and features is critical to the effective use of Ada and the life-cycle efficiencies it is intended to promote. It is the selection, collection, and understanding of APSE and ARTE which provide the deeper challenges of using Ada for real-life mission-critical computing systems. Some of the current issues which must be clarified, often on a case-by-case basis, in order to successfully realize the full capabilities of Ada are discussed.

  3. A thermal neutron source imager using coded apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, P.E.; Forman, L.; Selcow, E.C.

    1995-08-01

    To facilitate the process of re-entry vehicle on-site inspections, it would be useful to have an imaging technique which would allow the counting of deployed multiple nuclear warheads without significant disassembly of a missile`s structure. Since neutrons cannot easily be shielded without massive amounts of materials, they offer a means of imaging the separate sources inside a sealed vehicle. Thermal neutrons carry no detailed spectral information, so their detection should not be as intrusive as gamma ray imaging. A prototype device for imaging at close range with thermal neutrons has been constructed using an array of {sup 3}He position-sensitive gas proportional counters combined with a uniformly redundant coded aperture array. A sealed {sup 252}Cf source surrounded by a polyethylene moderator is used as a test source. By means of slit and pinhole experiments, count rates of image-forming neutrons (those which cast a shadow of a Cd aperture on the detector) are compared with the count rates for background neutrons. The resulting ratio, which limits the available image contrast, is measured as a function of distance from the source. The envelope of performance of the instrument is defined by the contrast ratio, the angular resolution, and the total count rate as a function of distance from the source. These factors will determine whether such an instrument could be practical as a tool for treaty verification.

  4. Utilities for master source code distribution: MAX and Friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    MAX is a program for the manipulation of FORTRAN master source code (MSC). This is a technique by which one maintains one and only one master copy of a FORTRAN program under a program developing system, which for MAX is assumed to be VAX/VMS. The master copy is not intended to be directly compiled. Instead it must be pre-processed by MAX to produce compilable instances. These instances may correspond to different code versions (for example, double precision versus single precision), different machines (for example, IBM, CDC, Cray) or different operating systems (i.e., VAX/VMS versus VAX/UNIX). The advantage os using a master source is more pronounced in complex application programs that are developed and maintained over many years and are to be transported and executed on several computer environments. The version lag problem that plagues many such programs is avoided by this approach. MAX is complemented by several auxiliary programs that perform nonessential functions. The ensemble is collectively known as MAX and Friends. All of these programs, including MAX, are executed as foreign VAX/VMS commands and can easily be hidden in customized VMS command procedures.

  5. Mental disabilities under the ADA: a management rights approach.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J J; Kulick, F B; Creighton, M K

    1995-01-01

    While numerous sources have focused on employee rights and employer obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act, this article will emphasize employer rights with respect to mental disabilities under the ADA. Specifically, it addresses the ADA's definition of "mental disability," the right of employers to screen job applicants in spite of the ADA, the conditions under which an employer may require an employee to undergo a "fitness for duty" examination, and the limits of the duty to "reasonably accommodate" an employee with a mental disability.

  6. Joint source-channel coding with allpass filtering source shaping for image transmission over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianfei; Chen, Chang W.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a fixed-length robust joint source- channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over noisy channels. Three channel models are studied: binary symmetric channels (BSC) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels for memoryless channels, and Gilbert-Elliott channels (GEC) for bursty channels. We derive, in this research, an explicit operational rate-distortion (R-D) function, which represents an end-to-end error measurement that includes errors due to both quantization and channel noise. In particular, we are able to incorporate the channel transition probability and channel bit error rate into the R-D function in the case of bursty channels. With the operational R-D function, bits are allocated not only among different subsources, but also between source coding and channel coding so that, under a fixed transmission rate, an optimum tradeoff between source coding accuracy and channel error protection can be achieved. This JSCC scheme is also integrated with allpass filtering source shaping to further improve the robustness against channel errors. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve not only high PSNR performance, but also excellent perceptual quality. Compared with the state-of-the-art JSCC schemes, this proposed scheme outperforms most of them especially when the channel mismatch occurs.

  7. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  8. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  9. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  10. SOURCES: a code for calculating (alpha,n), spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron sources and spectra.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W B; Perry, R T; Charlton, W S; Parish, T A; Shores, E F

    2005-01-01

    SOURCES is a computer code that determines neutron production rates and spectra from (alpha,n) reactions, spontaneous fission and delayed neutron emission owing to the decay of radionuclides in homogeneous media, interface problems and three-region interface problems. The code is also capable of calculating the neutron production rates due to (alpha,n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of alpha particles incident on a slab of target material. The (alpha,n) spectra are calculated using an assumed isotropic angular distribution in the centre-of-mass system with a library of 107 nuclide decay alpha-particle spectra, 24 sets of measured and/or evaluated (alpha,n) cross sections and product nuclide level branching fractions, and functional alpha particle stopping cross sections for Z < 106. Spontaneous fission sources and spectra are calculated with evaluated half-life, spontaneous fission branching and Watt spectrum parameters for 44 actinides. The delayed neutron spectra are taken from an evaluated library of 105 precursors. The code outputs the magnitude and spectra of the resultant neutron sources. It also provides an analysis of the contributions to that source by each nuclide in the problem. PMID:16381695

  11. Compiling knowledge-based systems from KEE to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Bock, Conrad; Feldman, Roy

    1990-01-01

    The dominant technology for developing AI applications is to work in a multi-mechanism, integrated, knowledge-based system (KBS) development environment. Unfortunately, systems developed in such environments are inappropriate for delivering many applications - most importantly, they carry the baggage of the entire Lisp environment and are not written in conventional languages. One resolution of this problem would be to compile applications from complex environments to conventional languages. Here the first efforts to develop a system for compiling KBS developed in KEE to Ada (trademark). This system is called KATYDID, for KEE/Ada Translation Yields Development Into Delivery. KATYDID includes early prototypes of a run-time KEE core (object-structure) library module for Ada, and translation mechanisms for knowledge structures, rules, and Lisp code to Ada. Using these tools, part of a simple expert system was compiled (not quite automatically) to run in a purely Ada environment. This experience has given us various insights on Ada as an artificial intelligence programming language, potential solutions of some of the engineering difficulties encountered in early work, and inspiration on future system development.

  12. Paranoia.Ada: Sample output reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Paranoia.Ada is a program to diagnose floating point arithmetic in the context of the Ada programming language. The program evaluates the quality of a floating point arithmetic implementation with respect to the proposed IEEE Standards P754 and P854. Paranoia.Ada is derived from the original BASIC programming language version of Paranoia. The Paranoia.Ada replicates in Ada the test algorithms originally implemented in BASIC and adheres to the evaluation criteria established by W. M. Kahan. Paranoia.Ada incorporates a major structural redesign and employs applicable Ada architectural and stylistic features.

  13. Technology Infusion of CodeSonar into the Space Network Ground Segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the applicability of CodeSonar to the Space Network software. CodeSonar is a commercial off the shelf system that analyzes programs written in C, C++ or Ada for defects in the code. Software engineers use CodeSonar results as an input to the existing source code inspection process. The study is focused on large scale software developed using formal processes. The systems studied are mission critical in nature but some use commodity computer systems.

  14. Optimal source codes for geometrically distributed integer alphabets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallager, R. G.; Van Voorhis, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is shown for using the Huffman algorithm indirectly to prove the optimality of a code for an infinite alphabet if an estimate concerning the nature of the code can be made. Attention is given to nonnegative integers with a geometric probability assignment. The particular distribution considered arises in run-length coding and in encoding protocol information in data networks. Questions of redundancy of the optimal code are also investigated.

  15. FLOWTRAN-TF v1.2 source code

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.; Cooper, R.E.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Lee, S.; Smith, F.G. III

    1993-02-01

    The FLOWTRAN-TF code development effort was initiated in early 1989 as a code to monitor production reactor cooling systems at the Savannah River Plant. This report is a documentation of the various codes that make up FLOWTRAN-TF.

  16. FLOWTRAN-TF v1. 2 source code

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S.E.; Cooper, R.E.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Lee, S.; Smith, F.G. III.

    1993-02-01

    The FLOWTRAN-TF code development effort was initiated in early 1989 as a code to monitor production reactor cooling systems at the Savannah River Plant. This report is a documentation of the various codes that make up FLOWTRAN-TF.

  17. Non-uniform Neutron Source Approximation for Iterative Reconstruction of Coded Source Images

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and neutron optics both lack ray focusing capabilities. An x-ray source can be made small and powerful enough to facilitate high-resolution imaging while providing adequate flux. This is not yet possible for neutrons. One remedy is to employ a computational imaging technique such as magnified coded source imaging. The greatest challenge associated with successful reconstruction of high-resolution images from such radiographs is to precisely model the flux distribution for complex non-uniform neutron sources. We have developed a framework based on Monte Carlo simulation and iterative reconstruction that facilitates high- resolution coded source neutron imaging. In this paper, we define a methodology to empirically measure and approximate the flux profile of a non-uniform neutron source, and we show how to incorporate the result within the forward model of an iterative reconstruction algorithm. We assess improvement in image quality by comparing reconstructions based respectively on the new empirical forward model and our previous analytic models.

  18. HELIOS: A new open-source radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Matej; Grosheintz, Luc; Lukas Grimm, Simon; Mendonça, João; Kitzmann, Daniel; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    I present the new open-source code HELIOS, developed to accurately describe radiative transfer in a wide variety of irradiated atmospheres. We employ a one-dimensional multi-wavelength two-stream approach with scattering. Written in Cuda C++, HELIOS uses the GPU’s potential of massive parallelization and is able to compute the TP-profile of an atmosphere in radiative equilibrium and the subsequent emission spectrum in a few minutes on a single computer (for 60 layers and 1000 wavelength bins).The required molecular opacities are obtained with the recently published code HELIOS-K [1], which calculates the line shapes from an input line list and resamples the numerous line-by-line data into a manageable k-distribution format. Based on simple equilibrium chemistry theory [2] we combine the k-distribution functions of the molecules H2O, CO2, CO & CH4 to generate a k-table, which we then employ in HELIOS.I present our results of the following: (i) Various numerical tests, e.g. isothermal vs. non-isothermal treatment of layers. (ii) Comparison of iteratively determined TP-profiles with their analytical parametric prescriptions [3] and of the corresponding spectra. (iii) Benchmarks of TP-profiles & spectra for various elemental abundances. (iv) Benchmarks of averaged TP-profiles & spectra for the exoplanets GJ1214b, HD189733b & HD209458b. (v) Comparison with secondary eclipse data for HD189733b, XO-1b & Corot-2b.HELIOS is being developed, together with the dynamical core THOR and the chemistry solver VULCAN, in the group of Kevin Heng at the University of Bern as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (ESP) [4], which is an open-source project aimed to provide community tools to model exoplanetary atmospheres.-----------------------------[1] Grimm & Heng 2015, ArXiv, 1503.03806[2] Heng, Lyons & Tsai, Arxiv, 1506.05501Heng & Lyons, ArXiv, 1507.01944[3] e.g. Heng, Mendonca & Lee, 2014, ApJS, 215, 4H[4] exoclime.net

  19. An Open Source Embedding Code for the Condensed Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Krishtal, Alisa; Andreussi, Oliviero; Distasio, Robert; Pavanello, Michele

    Work from our group as well as others has shown that for many systems such as molecular aggregates, liquids, and complex layered materials, subsystem Density-Functional Theory (DFT) is capable of immensely reducing the computational cost while providing a better and more intuitive insight into the underlying physics. We developed a massively parallel implementation of Subsystem DFT for the condensed phase into the open-source Quantum ESPRESSO software package. In this talk, we will discuss how we: (1) implemented such a flexible parallel framework aiming at the optimal load balancing; (2) simplified the solution of the electronic structure problem by allowing a fragment specific sampling of the first Brillouin Zone; (3) achieve enormous speedups by solving the electronic structure of each fragment in a unit cell smaller than the supersystem simulation cell, effectively introducing a fragment specific basis set, with no deterioration of the fully periodic simulation. As of March 14, 2016, the code has been released and is available to the public.

  20. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT`S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (``port approximation``). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.

  1. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field ( port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.

  2. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  3. Multiprocessor performance modeling with ADAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.; Andrews, Asa M.

    1989-01-01

    A graph managing strategy referred to as the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) appears useful for the time-optimized execution of application algorithm graphs in embedded multiprocessors and for the performance prediction of graph designs. This paper reports the modeling of ATAMM in the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) to make an independent verification of ATAMM's performance prediction capability and to provide a user framework for the evaluation of arbitrary algorithm graphs. Following an overview of ATAMM and its major functional rules are descriptions of the ADAS model of ATAMM, methods to enter an arbitrary graph into the model, and techniques to analyze the simulation results. The performance of a 7-node graph example is evaluated using the ADAS model and verifies the ATAMM concept by substantiating previously published performance results.

  4. Ada (R) assessment: An important issue within European Columbus Support Technology Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vielcanet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Software will be more important and more critical for Columbus than for any ESA previous project. As a simple comparison, overall software size has been in the range of 100 K source statements for EXOSAT, 500 K for Spacelab, and will probably reach several million lines of code for Columbus (all element together). Based on past experience, the total development cost of software can account for about 10 pct to 15 pct of the total space project development cost. The Ada technology may support the strong software engineering principles needed for Columbus, provided that technology is sufficiently mature and industry plans are meeting the Columbus project schedule. Over the past 3 years, Informatique Internationale has conducted a coherent program based on Ada technology assessment studies and experiments, for ESA and CNES. This specific research and development program benefits from 15 years experience in the field of space software development and is supported by the overall software engineering expertise of the company. The assessment and experiments of Ada software engineering by Informatique Internationale are detailed.

  5. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  6. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  7. Source-channel optimized trellis codes for bitonal image transmission over AWGN channels.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J M; Phamdo, N

    1999-01-01

    We consider the design of trellis codes for transmission of binary images over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. We first model the image as a binary asymmetric Markov source (BAMS) and then design source-channel optimized (SCO) trellis codes for the BAMS and AWGN channel. The SCO codes are shown to be superior to Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 1.1 dB (64-state code, 10(-5) bit error probability), We also show that a simple "mapping conversion" method can be used to improve the performance of Ungerboeck's codes by approximately 0.4 dB (also 64-state code and 10 (-5) bit error probability). We compare the proposed SCO system with a traditional tandem system consisting of a Huffman code, a convolutional code, an interleaver, and an Ungerboeck trellis code. The SCO system significantly outperforms the tandem system. Finally, using a facsimile image, we compare the image quality of an SCO code, an Ungerboeck code, and the tandem code, The SCO code yields the best reconstructed image quality at 4-5 dB channel SNR.

  8. A first collision source method for ATTILA, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete ordinates code

    SciTech Connect

    Wareing, T.A.; Morel, J.E.; Parsons, D.K.

    1998-12-01

    A semi-analytic first collision source method is developed for the transport code, ATTILA, a three-dimensional, unstructured tetrahedral mesh, discrete-ordinates code. This first collision source method is intended to mitigate ray effects due to point sources. The method is third-order accurate, which is the same order of accuracy as the linear-discontinuous spatial differencing scheme used in ATTILA. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the first collision source method.

  9. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  10. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermek, Dragutin; Novak, Matija

    2016-01-01

    In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student…

  11. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Charlie, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This feature issue focuses on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), with articles discussing provisions of the ADA and its impact on people with developmental disabilities. Articles have the following titles and authors: "The ADA: What Does It Mean for People with Developmental Disabilities?" (Deborah L. McFadden and Edward P. Burke); "The…

  12. Ada--Programming Language of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, David

    1983-01-01

    Ada is a programing language developed for the Department of Defense, with a registered trademark. It was named for Ada Augusta, coworker of Charles Babbage and the world's first programer. The Department of Defense hopes to prevent variations and to establish Ada as a consistent, standardized language. (MNS)

  13. Structuring the formal definition of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Kurt W.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the formal definition of Ada are described. At present, a difficult subset of Ada has been defined and the experience gained so far by this work is reported. Currently, the work continues towards the formal definition of the Ada language.

  14. Joint-source-channel coding scheme for scalable video-coding-based digital video broadcasting, second generation satellite broadcasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kwang-Deok; Chi, Won Sup; Lee, In Ki; Chang, Dae-Ig

    2010-10-01

    We propose a joint-source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme that can provide and sustain high-quality video service in spite of deteriorated transmission channel conditions of the second generation of the digital video broadcasting (DVB-S2) satellite broadcasting service. Especially by combining the layered characteristics of the SVC (scalable video coding) video and the robust channel coding capability of LDPC (low-density parity check) employed for DVB-S2, a new concept of JSCC for digital satellite broadcasting service is developed. Rain attenuation in high-frequency bands such as the Ka band is a major factor for lowering the link capacity in satellite broadcasting service. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a new technology to dynamically manage the rain attenuation by adopting a JSCC scheme that can apply variable code rates for both source and channel coding. For this purpose, we develop a JSCC scheme by combining SVC and LDPC, and prove the performance of the proposed JSCC scheme by extensive simulations where SVC coded video is transmitted over various error-prone channels with AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) patterns in DVB-S2 broadcasting service.

  15. Multicode comparison of selected source-term computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Renier, J.P.; Roddy, J.W.; Ashline, R.C.; Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the predictive capabilities of three radionuclide inventory/depletion computer codes, ORIGEN2, ORIGEN-S, and CINDER-2. The task was accomplished through a series of comparisons of their output for several light-water reactor (LWR) models (i.e., verification). Of the five cases chosen, two modeled typical boiling-water reactors (BWR) at burnups of 27.5 and 40 GWd/MTU and two represented typical pressurized-water reactors (PWR) at burnups of 33 and 50 GWd/MTU. In the fifth case, identical input data were used for each of the codes to examine the results of decay only and to show differences in nuclear decay constants and decay heat rates. Comparisons were made for several different characteristics (mass, radioactivity, and decay heat rate) for 52 radionuclides and for nine decay periods ranging from 30 d to 10,000 years. Only fission products and actinides were considered. The results are presented in comparative-ratio tables for each of the characteristics, decay periods, and cases. A brief summary description of each of the codes has been included. Of the more than 21,000 individual comparisons made for the three codes (taken two at a time), nearly half (45%) agreed to within 1%, and an additional 17% fell within the range of 1 to 5%. Approximately 8% of the comparison results disagreed by more than 30%. However, relatively good agreement was obtained for most of the radionuclides that are expected to contribute the greatest impact to waste disposal. Even though some defects have been noted, each of the codes in the comparison appears to produce respectable results. 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Ada technology support for NASA-GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of the Ada programming language and environments to perform directorate functions was reviewed. The Mission and Data Operations Directorate Network (MNET) conversion effort was chosen as the first task for evaluation and assistance. The MNET project required the rewriting of the existing Network Control Program (NCP) in the Ada programming language. The DEC Ada compiler running on the VAX under WMS was used for the initial development efforts. Stress tests on the newly delivered version of the DEC Ada compiler were performed. The new Alsys Ada compiler was purchased for the IBM PC AT. A prevalidated version of the compiler was obtained. The compiler was then validated.

  17. Transmitter data collection using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A data collection system installed on the 400 kilowatt X-band transmitter of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is described. The data collection system is built around the off-the-shelf IEEE 488 instrumentation, linked with fiber optics, controlled by an inexpensive computer, and uses software written in the Ada language. The speed and accuracy of the system is discussed, along with programming techniques used for both data collection and reduction.

  18. A Line Source Shielding Code for Personal Computers.

    1990-12-22

    Version 00 LINEDOSE computes the gamma-ray dose from a pipe source modeled as a line. The pipe is assumed to be iron and has a concrete shield of arbitrary thickness. The calculation is made for eight source energies between 0.1 and 3.5 MeV.

  19. Learning a multi-dimensional companding function for lossy source coding.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Shin

    2009-09-01

    Although the importance of lossy source coding has been growing, the general and practical methodology for its design has not been completely resolved. The well-known vector quantization (VQ) can represent any fixed-length lossy source coding, but requires too much computation resource. Companding vector quantization (CVQ) can reduce the complexity of non-structured VQ by replacing vector quantization with a set of scalar quantizations and can represent a wide class of practically useful VQs. Although an analytical derivation of optimal CVQ is difficult except for very limited cases, optimization using data samples can be performed instead. Here we propose a CVQ optimization method, which includes bit allocation by a newly derived distortion formula as a generalization of Bennett's formula, and test its validity. We applied the method to transform coding and compared the performance of our CVQ with those of Karhunen-Loëve transformation (KLT)-based coding and non-structured VQ. As a consequence, we found that our trained CVQ outperforms not only KLT-based coding but also non-structured VQ in the case of high bit-rate coding of linear mixtures of uniform sources. We also found that trained CVQ even outperformed KLT-based coding in the low bit-rate coding of a Gaussian source. To highlight the advantages of our approach, we also discuss the degradation of non-structured VQ and the limitations of theoretical analyses which are valid for high bit-rate coding.

  20. Ada and the rapid development lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforrest, Lloyd; Gref, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    JPL is under contract, through NASA, with the US Army to develop a state-of-the-art Command Center System for the US European Command (USEUCOM). The Command Center System will receive, process, and integrate force status information from various sources and provide this integrated information to staff officers and decision makers in a format designed to enhance user comprehension and utility. The system is based on distributed workstation class microcomputers, VAX- and SUN-based data servers, and interfaces to existing military mainframe systems and communication networks. JPL is developing the Command Center System utilizing an incremental delivery methodology called the Rapid Development Methodology with adherence to government and industry standards including the UNIX operating system, X Windows, OSF/Motif, and the Ada programming language. Through a combination of software engineering techniques specific to the Ada programming language and the Rapid Development Approach, JPL was able to deliver capability to the military user incrementally, with comparable quality and improved economies of projects developed under more traditional software intensive system implementation methodologies.

  1. The theoretical limits of source and channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S. J.; Pollara, F.

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical relationship among signal power, distortion, and bandwidth for several source and channel models is presented. The work is intended as a reference for the evaluation of the performance of specific data compression algorithms.

  2. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-01-01

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. PMID:27409616

  3. Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Dongwan; An, Sunshin

    2016-01-01

    Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. PMID:27409616

  4. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  5. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing) of Ada: The development of a program analysis environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1988-01-01

    A history of the Query Utility Environment for Software Testing (QUEST)/Ada is presented. A fairly comprehensive literature review which is targeted toward issues of Ada testing is given. The definition of the system structure and the high level interfaces are then presented. The design of the three major components is described. The QUEST/Ada IORL System Specifications to this point in time are included in the Appendix. A paper is also included in the appendix which gives statistical evidence of the validity of the test case generation approach which is being integrated into QUEST/Ada.

  6. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  7. Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

    2013-08-01

    While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

  8. Open-Source Development of the Petascale Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, G. E.; Andre, B.; Bisht, G.; Johnson, T.; Karra, S.; Lichtner, P. C.; Mills, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Open-source software development has become increasingly popular in recent years. Open-source encourages collaborative and transparent software development and promotes unlimited free redistribution of source code to the public. Open-source development is good for science as it reveals implementation details that are critical to scientific reproducibility, but generally excluded from journal publications. In addition, research funds that would have been spent on licensing fees can be redirected to code development that benefits more scientists. In 2006, the developers of PFLOTRAN open-sourced their code under the U.S. Department of Energy SciDAC-II program. Since that time, the code has gained popularity among code developers and users from around the world seeking to employ PFLOTRAN to simulate thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and biogeochemical processes in the Earth's surface/subsurface environment. PFLOTRAN is a massively-parallel subsurface reactive multiphase flow and transport simulator designed from the ground up to run efficiently on computing platforms ranging from the laptop to leadership-class supercomputers, all from a single code base. The code employs domain decomposition for parallelism and is founded upon the well-established and open-source parallel PETSc and HDF5 frameworks. PFLOTRAN leverages modern Fortran (i.e. Fortran 2003-2008) in its extensible object-oriented design. The use of this progressive, yet domain-friendly programming language has greatly facilitated collaboration in the code's software development. Over the past year, PFLOTRAN's top-level data structures were refactored as Fortran classes (i.e. extendible derived types) to improve the flexibility of the code, ease the addition of new process models, and enable coupling to external simulators. For instance, PFLOTRAN has been coupled to the parallel electrical resistivity tomography code E4D to enable hydrogeophysical inversion while the same code base can be used as a third

  9. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    PubMed

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems.

  10. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    PubMed

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems. PMID:27350484

  11. ART/Ada design project, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An Ada-Based Expert System Building Tool Design Research Project was conducted. The goal was to investigate various issues in the context of the design of an Ada-based expert system building tool. An attempt was made to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future projects. The current status of the project is described by introducing an operational prototype, ART/Ada. How the project was conducted is explained. The performance of the prototype is analyzed and compared with other related works. Future research directions are suggested.

  12. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered.

  13. Comparisons of theoretical limits for source coding with practical compression algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Dolinar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The performance achieved by some specific data compression algorithms is compared with absolute limits prescribed by rate distortion theory for Gaussian sources under the mean square error distortion criterion. These results show the gains available from source coding and can be used as a reference for the evaluation of future compression schemes. Some current schemes perform well, but there is still room for improvement.

  14. IllinoisGRMHD: an open-source, user-friendly GRMHD code for dynamical spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, Zachariah B.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Haas, Roland; Mösta, Philipp; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2015-09-01

    In the extreme violence of merger and mass accretion, compact objects like black holes and neutron stars are thought to launch some of the most luminous outbursts of electromagnetic and gravitational wave energy in the Universe. Modeling these systems realistically is a central problem in theoretical astrophysics, but has proven extremely challenging, requiring the development of numerical relativity codes that solve Einstein's equations for the spacetime, coupled to the equations of general relativistic (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) for the magnetized fluids. Over the past decade, the Illinois numerical relativity (ILNR) group's dynamical spacetime GRMHD code has proven itself as a robust and reliable tool for theoretical modeling of such GRMHD phenomena. However, the code was written ‘by experts and for experts’ of the code, with a steep learning curve that would severely hinder community adoption if it were open-sourced. Here we present IllinoisGRMHD, which is an open-source, highly extensible rewrite of the original closed-source GRMHD code of the ILNR group. Reducing the learning curve was the primary focus of this rewrite, with the goal of facilitating community involvement in the code's use and development, as well as the minimization of human effort in generating new science. IllinoisGRMHD also saves computer time, generating roundoff-precision identical output to the original code on adaptive-mesh grids, but nearly twice as fast at scales of hundreds to thousands of cores.

  15. Proceedings of the 2nd NASA Ada User's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Several presentations, mostly in viewgraph form, on various topics relating to Ada applications are given. Topics covered include the use of Ada in NASA, Ada and the Space Station, the software support environment, Ada in the Software Engineering Laboratory, Ada at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Flight Telerobotic Servicer, and lessons learned in prototyping the Space Station Remote Manipulator System control.

  16. Geophysical analysis for the Ada Tepe region (Bulgaria) - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Petya; Metodiev, Metodi; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Vatseva, Rumiana

    2013-04-01

    According to the current archeological investigations Ada Tepe is the oldest gold mine in Europe with Late Bronze and Early Iron age. It is a typical low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit and is hosted in Maastrichtian-Paleocene sedimentary rocks above a detachment fault contact with underlying Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Ada Tepe (25o.39'E; 41o.25'N) is located in the Eastern Rhodope unit. The region is highly segmented despite the low altitude (470-750 m) due to widespread volcanic and sediment rocks susceptible to torrential erosion during the cold season. Besides the thorough geological exploration focused on identifying cost-effective stocks of mineral resources, a detailed geophysical analysis concernig diferent stages of the gold extraction project was accomplished. We present the main results from the geophysical investigation aimed to clarify the complex seismotectonic setting of the Ada Tepe site region. The overall study methodology consists of collecting, reviewing and estimating geophysical and seismological information to constrain the model used for seismic hazard assessment of the area. Geophysical information used in the present work consists of gravity, geomagnetic and seismological data. Interpretation of gravity data is applied to outline the axes of steep gravity transitions marked as potential axes of faults, flexures and other structures of dislocation. Direct inverse techniques are also utilized to estimate the form and depth of anomalous sources. For the purposes of seismological investigation of the Ada Tepe site region an earthquake catalogue is compiled for the time period 510BC - 2011AD. Statistical parameters of seismicity - annual seismic rate parameter, ?, and the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter exponential relation for Ada Tepe site region, are estimated. All geophysical datasets and derived results are integrated using GIS techniques ensuring interoperability of data when combining, processing and visualizing obtained

  17. Paranoia.Ada: A diagnostic program to evaluate Ada floating-point arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjermstad, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Many essential software functions in the mission critical computer resource application domain depend on floating point arithmetic. Numerically intensive functions associated with the Space Station project, such as emphemeris generation or the implementation of Kalman filters, are likely to employ the floating point facilities of Ada. Paranoia.Ada appears to be a valuabe program to insure that Ada environments and their underlying hardware exhibit the precision and correctness required to satisfy mission computational requirements. As a diagnostic tool, Paranoia.Ada reveals many essential characteristics of an Ada floating point implementation. Equipped with such knowledge, programmers need not tremble before the complex task of floating point computation.

  18. Joint source coding, transport processing, and error concealment for H.323-based packet video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-Fan; Kerofsky, Louis

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to adapt different parameters in H.263 source coding, transport processing and error concealment to optimize end-to-end video quality at different bitrates and packet loss rates for H.323-based packet video. First different intra coding patterns are compared and we show that the contiguous rectangle or square block pattern offers the best performance in terms of video quality in the presence of packet loss. Second, the optimal intra coding frequency is found for different bitrates and packet loss rates. The optimal number of GOB headers to be inserted in the source coding is then determined. The effect of transport processing strategies such as packetization and retransmission is also examined. For packetization, the impact of packet size and the effect of macroblock segmentation to picture quality are investigated. Finally, we show that the dejitter buffering delay can be used to the advantage for packet loss recovery with video retransmission without incurring any extra delay.

  19. Source-optimized irregular repeat accumulate codes with inherent unequal error protection capabilities and their application to scalable image transmission.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching-Fu; Xiong, Zixiang; Narayanan, Krishna R

    2006-07-01

    The common practice for achieving unequal error protection (UEP) in scalable multimedia communication systems is to design rate-compatible punctured channel codes before computing the UEP rate assignments. This paper proposes a new approach to designing powerful irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) codes that are optimized for the multimedia source and to exploiting the inherent irregularity in IRA codes for UEP. Using the end-to-end distortion due to the first error bit in channel decoding as the cost function, which is readily given by the operational distortion-rate function of embedded source codes, we incorporate this cost function into the channel code design process via density evolution and obtain IRA codes that minimize the average cost function instead of the usual probability of error. Because the resulting IRA codes have inherent UEP capabilities due to irregularity, the new IRA code design effectively integrates channel code optimization and UEP rate assignments, resulting in source-optimized channel coding or joint source-channel coding. We simulate our source-optimized IRA codes for transporting SPIHT-coded images over a binary symmetric channel with crossover probability p. When p = 0.03 and the channel code length is long (e.g., with one codeword for the whole 512 x 512 image), we are able to operate at only 9.38% away from the channel capacity with code length 132380 bits, achieving the best published results in terms of average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Compared to conventional IRA code design (that minimizes the probability of error) with the same code rate, the performance gain in average PSNR from using our proposed source-optimized IRA code design is 0.8759 dB when p = 0.1 and the code length is 12800 bits. As predicted by Shannon's separation principle, we observe that this performance gain diminishes as the code length increases. PMID:16830898

  20. Vector-matrix-quaternion, array and arithmetic packages: All HAL/S functions implemented in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Kwong, David D.

    1986-01-01

    The HAL/S avionics programmers have enjoyed a variety of tools built into a language tailored to their special requirements. Ada is designed for a broader group of applications. Rather than providing built-in tools, Ada provides the elements with which users can build their own. Standard avionic packages remain to be developed. These must enable programmers to code in Ada as they have coded in HAL/S. The packages under development at JPL will provide all of the vector-matrix, array, and arithmetic functions described in the HAL/S manuals. In addition, the linear algebra package will provide all of the quaternion functions used in Shuttle steering and Galileo attitude control. Furthermore, using Ada's extensibility, many quaternion functions are being implemented as infix operations; equivalent capabilities were never implemented in HAL/S because doing so would entail modifying the compiler and expanding the language. With these packages, many HAL/S expressions will compile and execute in Ada, unchanged. Others can be converted simply by replacing the implicit HAL/S multiply operator with the Ada *. Errors will be trapped and identified. Input/output will be convenient and readable.

  1. SOURCES 4C : a code for calculating ([alpha],n), spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron sources and spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W. B.; Perry, R. T.; Shores, E. F.; Charlton, W. S.; Parish, Theodore A.; Estes, G. P.; Brown, T. H.; Arthur, Edward D. ,; Bozoian, Michael; England, T. R.; Madland, D. G.; Stewart, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    SOURCES 4C is a computer code that determines neutron production rates and spectra from ({alpha},n) reactions, spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron emission due to radionuclide decay. The code is capable of calculating ({alpha},n) source rates and spectra in four types of problems: homogeneous media (i.e., an intimate mixture of a-emitting source material and low-Z target material), two-region interface problems (i.e., a slab of {alpha}-emitting source material in contact with a slab of low-Z target material), three-region interface problems (i.e., a thin slab of low-Z target material sandwiched between {alpha}-emitting source material and low-Z target material), and ({alpha},n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of {alpha}-particles incident on a slab of target material. Spontaneous fission spectra are calculated with evaluated half-life, spontaneous fission branching, and Watt spectrum parameters for 44 actinides. The ({alpha},n) spectra are calculated using an assumed isotropic angular distribution in the center-of-mass system with a library of 107 nuclide decay {alpha}-particle spectra, 24 sets of measured and/or evaluated ({alpha},n) cross sections and product nuclide level branching fractions, and functional {alpha}-particle stopping cross sections for Z < 106. The delayed neutron spectra are taken from an evaluated library of 105 precursors. The code provides the magnitude and spectra, if desired, of the resultant neutron source in addition to an analysis of the'contributions by each nuclide in the problem. LASTCALL, a graphical user interface, is included in the code package.

  2. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  3. Development of an Ada package library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Bruce; Broido, Michael

    1986-01-01

    A usable prototype Ada package library was developed and is currently being evaluated for use in large software development efforts. The library system is comprised of an Ada-oriented design language used to facilitate the collection of reuse information, a relational data base to store reuse information, a set of reusable Ada components and tools, and a set of guidelines governing the system's use. The prototyping exercise is discussed and the lessons learned from it have led to the definition of a comprehensive tool set to facilitate software reuse.

  4. 3-D localization of gamma ray sources with coded apertures for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaissas, I.; Papadimitropoulos, C.; Karafasoulis, K.; Potiriadis, C.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Several small gamma cameras for radioguided surgery using CdTe or CdZnTe have parallel or pinhole collimators. Coded aperture imaging is a well-known method for gamma ray source directional identification, applied in astrophysics mainly. The increase in efficiency due to the substitution of the collimators by the coded masks renders the method attractive for gamma probes used in radioguided surgery. We have constructed and operationally verified a setup consisting of two CdTe gamma cameras with Modified Uniform Redundant Array (MURA) coded aperture masks of rank 7 and 19 and a video camera. The 3-D position of point-like radioactive sources is estimated via triangulation using decoded images acquired by the gamma cameras. We have also developed code for both fast and detailed simulations and we have verified the agreement between experimental results and simulations. In this paper we present a simulation study for the spatial localization of two point sources using coded aperture masks with rank 7 and 19.

  5. Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Security Analysis of Large-Scale Source Code and Binary Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2007-08-30

    Many forms of security analysis on large scale applications can be substantially automated but the size and complexity can exceed the time and memory available on conventional desktop computers. Most commercial tools are understandably focused on such conventional desktop resources. This paper presents research work on the parallelization of security analysis of both source code and binaries within our Compass tool, which is implemented using the ROSE source-to-source open compiler infrastructure. We have focused on both shared and distributed memory parallelization of the evaluation of rules implemented as checkers for a wide range of secure programming rules, applicable to desktop machines, networks of workstations and dedicated clusters. While Compass as a tool focuses on source code analysis and reports violations of an extensible set of rules, the binary analysis work uses the exact same infrastructure but is less well developed into an equivalent final tool.

  6. SOURCES 4A: A Code for Calculating (alpha,n), Spontaneous Fission, and Delayed Neutron Sources and Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Madland, D.G.; Arthur, E.D.; Estes, G.P.; Stewart, J.E.; Bozoian, M.; Perry, R.T.; Parish, T.A.; Brown, T.H.; England, T.R.; Wilson, W.B.; Charlton, W.S.

    1999-09-01

    SOURCES 4A is a computer code that determines neutron production rates and spectra from ({alpha},n) reactions, spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron emission due to the decay of radionuclides. The code is capable of calculating ({alpha},n) source rates and spectra in four types of problems: homogeneous media (i.e., a mixture of {alpha}-emitting source material and low-Z target material), two-region interface problems (i.e., a slab of {alpha}-emitting source material in contact with a slab of low-Z target material), three-region interface problems (i.e., a thin slab of low-Z target material sandwiched between {alpha}-emitting source material and low-Z target material), and ({alpha},n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of {alpha}-particles incident on a slab of target material. Spontaneous fission spectra are calculated with evaluated half-life, spontaneous fission branching, and Watt spectrum parameters for 43 actinides. The ({alpha},n) spectra are calculated using an assumed isotropic angular distribution in the center-of-mass system with a library of 89 nuclide decay {alpha}-particle spectra, 24 sets of measured and/or evaluated ({alpha},n) cross sections and product nuclide level branching fractions, and functional {alpha}-particle stopping cross sections for Z < 106. The delayed neutron spectra are taken from an evaluated library of 105 precursors. The code outputs the magnitude and spectra of the resultant neutron source. It also provides an analysis of the contributions to that source by each nuclide in the problem.

  7. Detection and Location of Gamma-Ray Sources with a Modulating Coded Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N.; Stromswold, David C.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Hansen, Randy R.

    2006-01-31

    This paper presents methods of detecting and locating a concelaed nuclear gamma-ray source with a coded aperture mask. Energetic gamma rays readily penetrate moderate amounts of shielding material and can be detected at distances of many meters. The detection of high energy gamma-ray sources is vitally important to national security for several reasons, including nuclear materials smuggling interdiction, monitoring weapon components under treaties, and locating nuclear weapons and materials in the possession terrorist organizations.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transiting planets search Matlab/Octave source code (Ofir+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofir, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Matlab/Octave source code for Optimal BLS is made available here. Detailed descriptions of all inputs and outputs are given by comment lines in the file. Note: Octave does not currently support parallel for loops ("parfor"). Octave users therefore need to change the "parfor" command (line 217 of OptimalBLS.m) to "for". (7 data files).

  9. 50 CFR 23.24 - What code is used to show the source of the specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What code is used to show the source of the specimen? 23.24 Section 23.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  10. 50 CFR 23.24 - What code is used to show the source of the specimen?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What code is used to show the source of the specimen? 23.24 Section 23.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  11. Software engineering and Ada in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Don

    1986-01-01

    Modern software engineering promises significant reductions in software costs and improvements in software quality. The Ada language is the focus for these software methodology and tool improvements. The IBM FSD approach, including the software engineering practices that guide the systematic design and development of software products and the management of the software process are examined. The revised Ada design language adaptation is revealed. This four level design methodology is detailed including the purpose of each level, the management strategy that integrates the software design activity with the program milestones, and the technical strategy that maps the Ada constructs to each level of design. A complete description of each design level is provided along with specific design language recording guidelines for each level. Finally, some testimony is offered on education, tools, architecture, and metrics resulting from project use of the four level Ada design language adaptation.

  12. Phase 1 Validation Testing and Simulation for the WEC-Sim Open Source Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.; Gunawan, B.; Bosma, B.; Simmons, A.; Lomonaco, P.

    2015-12-01

    WEC-Sim is an open source code to model wave energy converters performance in operational waves, developed by Sandia and NREL and funded by the US DOE. The code is a time-domain modeling tool developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the multibody dynamics solver SimMechanics, and solves the WEC's governing equations of motion using the Cummins time-domain impulse response formulation in 6 degrees of freedom. The WEC-Sim code has undergone verification through code-to-code comparisons; however validation of the code has been limited to publicly available experimental data sets. While these data sets provide preliminary code validation, the experimental tests were not explicitly designed for code validation, and as a result are limited in their ability to validate the full functionality of the WEC-Sim code. Therefore, dedicated physical model tests for WEC-Sim validation have been performed. This presentation provides an overview of the WEC-Sim validation experimental wave tank tests performed at the Oregon State University's Directional Wave Basin at Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. Phase 1 of experimental testing was focused on device characterization and completed in Fall 2015. Phase 2 is focused on WEC performance and scheduled for Winter 2015/2016. These experimental tests were designed explicitly to validate the performance of WEC-Sim code, and its new feature additions. Upon completion, the WEC-Sim validation data set will be made publicly available to the wave energy community. For the physical model test, a controllable model of a floating wave energy converter has been designed and constructed. The instrumentation includes state-of-the-art devices to measure pressure fields, motions in 6 DOF, multi-axial load cells, torque transducers, position transducers, and encoders. The model also incorporates a fully programmable Power-Take-Off system which can be used to generate or absorb wave energy. Numerical simulations of the experiments using WEC-Sim will be

  13. Extensions of ADA for SIMD parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.; Siegel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to program SIMD (single instruction stream-multiple data stream) parallel machines used for tasks such as speech and image processing, a language with explicit parallel constructs is often desirable. The language ADA, developed by the Department of Defense, is used as a basis for such a language. Extensions of ADA which allow the user to specify such things as interprocessor communications and activation of processors are proposed. 25 references.

  14. Ada programming guidelines for deterministic storage management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have established that a program can be written in the Ada language such that the program's storage management requirements are determinable prior to its execution. Specific guidelines for ensuring such deterministic usage of Ada dynamic storage requirements are described. Because requirements may vary from one application to another, guidelines are presented in a most-restrictive to least-restrictive fashion to allow the reader to match appropriate restrictions to the particular application area under investigation.

  15. Coded moderator approach for fast neutron source detection and localization at standoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, Jennifer; Lukosi, Eric; Hayward, Jason; Milburn, Robert; Rowan, Allen

    2015-06-01

    Considering the need for directional sensing at standoff for some security applications and scenarios where a neutron source may be shielded by high Z material that nearly eliminates the source gamma flux, this work focuses on investigating the feasibility of using thermal neutron sensitive boron straw detectors for fast neutron source detection and localization. We utilized MCNPX simulations to demonstrate that, through surrounding the boron straw detectors by a HDPE coded moderator, a source-detector orientation-specific response enables potential 1D source localization in a high neutron detection efficiency design. An initial test algorithm has been developed in order to confirm the viability of this detector system's localization capabilities which resulted in identification of a 1 MeV neutron source with a strength equivalent to 8 kg WGPu at 50 m standoff within ±11°.

  16. Parallel Ada benchmarks for the SVMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of parallel processing paradigm to design and develop faster and more reliable computers appear to clearly mark the future of information processing. NASA started the development of such an architecture: the Spaceborne VHSIC Multi-processor System (SVMS). Ada will be one of the languages used to program the SVMS. One of the unique characteristics of Ada is that it supports parallel processing at the language level through the tasking constructs. It is important for the SVMS project team to assess how efficiently the SVMS architecture will be implemented, as well as how efficiently Ada environment will be ported to the SVMS. AUTOCLASS II, a Bayesian classifier written in Common Lisp, was selected as one of the benchmarks for SVMS configurations. The purpose of the R and D effort was to provide the SVMS project team with the version of AUTOCLASS II, written in Ada, that would make use of Ada tasking constructs as much as possible so as to constitute a suitable benchmark. Additionally, a set of programs was developed that would measure Ada tasking efficiency on parallel architectures as well as determine the critical parameters influencing tasking efficiency. All this was designed to provide the SVMS project team with a set of suitable tools in the development of the SVMS architecture.

  17. Toward the efficient implementation of expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the development of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert system applications for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force. Additional information is given on dynamic memory allocation.

  18. Imaging x-ray sources at a finite distance in coded-mask instruments.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Immacolata; Pacciani, Luigi; Lapshov, Igor; Evangelista, Yuri

    2008-07-01

    We present a method for the correction of beam divergence in finite distance sources imaging through coded-mask instruments. We discuss the defocusing artifacts induced by the finite distance showing two different approaches to remove such spurious effects. We applied our method to one-dimensional (1D) coded-mask systems, although it is also applicable in two-dimensional systems. We provide a detailed mathematical description of the adopted method and of the systematics introduced in the reconstructed image (e.g., the fraction of source flux collected in the reconstructed peak counts). The accuracy of this method was tested by simulating pointlike and extended sources at a finite distance with the instrumental setup of the SuperAGILE experiment, the 1D coded-mask x-ray imager onboard the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) mission. We obtained reconstructed images of good quality and high source location accuracy. Finally we show the results obtained by applying this method to real data collected during the calibration campaign of SuperAGILE. Our method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate the imaging response of the experiment, particularly the absorption due to the materials intercepting the line of sight of the instrument and the conversion between detector pixel and sky direction. PMID:18594598

  19. Imaging x-ray sources at a finite distance in coded-mask instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Donnarumma, Immacolata; Pacciani, Luigi; Lapshov, Igor; Evangelista, Yuri

    2008-07-01

    We present a method for the correction of beam divergence in finite distance sources imaging through coded-mask instruments. We discuss the defocusing artifacts induced by the finite distance showing two different approaches to remove such spurious effects. We applied our method to one-dimensional (1D) coded-mask systems, although it is also applicable in two-dimensional systems. We provide a detailed mathematical description of the adopted method and of the systematics introduced in the reconstructed image (e.g., the fraction of source flux collected in the reconstructed peak counts). The accuracy of this method was tested by simulating pointlike and extended sources at a finite distance with the instrumental setup of the SuperAGILE experiment, the 1D coded-mask x-ray imager onboard the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) mission. We obtained reconstructed images of good quality and high source location accuracy. Finally we show the results obtained by applying this method to real data collected during the calibration campaign of SuperAGILE. Our method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate the imaging response of the experiment, particularly the absorption due to the materials intercepting the line of sight of the instrument and the conversion between detector pixel and sky direction.

  20. Imaging x-ray sources at a finite distance in coded-mask instruments.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Immacolata; Pacciani, Luigi; Lapshov, Igor; Evangelista, Yuri

    2008-07-01

    We present a method for the correction of beam divergence in finite distance sources imaging through coded-mask instruments. We discuss the defocusing artifacts induced by the finite distance showing two different approaches to remove such spurious effects. We applied our method to one-dimensional (1D) coded-mask systems, although it is also applicable in two-dimensional systems. We provide a detailed mathematical description of the adopted method and of the systematics introduced in the reconstructed image (e.g., the fraction of source flux collected in the reconstructed peak counts). The accuracy of this method was tested by simulating pointlike and extended sources at a finite distance with the instrumental setup of the SuperAGILE experiment, the 1D coded-mask x-ray imager onboard the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) mission. We obtained reconstructed images of good quality and high source location accuracy. Finally we show the results obtained by applying this method to real data collected during the calibration campaign of SuperAGILE. Our method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate the imaging response of the experiment, particularly the absorption due to the materials intercepting the line of sight of the instrument and the conversion between detector pixel and sky direction.

  1. HELIOS-R: An Ultrafast, Open-Source Retrieval Code For Exoplanetary Atmosphere Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LAVIE, Baptiste

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric retrieval is a growing, new approach in the theory of exoplanet atmosphere characterization. Unlike self-consistent modeling it allows us to fully explore the parameter space, as well as the degeneracies between the parameters using a Bayesian framework. We present HELIOS-R, a very fast retrieving code written in Python and optimized for GPU computation. Once it is ready, HELIOS-R will be the first open-source atmospheric retrieval code accessible to the exoplanet community. As the new generation of direct imaging instruments (SPHERE, GPI) have started to gather data, the first version of HELIOS-R focuses on emission spectra. We use a 1D two-stream forward model for computing fluxes and couple it to an analytical temperature-pressure profile that is constructed to be in radiative equilibrium. We use our ultra-fast opacity calculator HELIOS-K (also open-source) to compute the opacities of CO2, H2O, CO and CH4 from the HITEMP database. We test both opacity sampling (which is typically used by other workers) and the method of k-distributions. Using this setup, we compute a grid of synthetic spectra and temperature-pressure profiles, which is then explored using a nested sampling algorithm. By focusing on model selection (Occam’s razor) through the explicit computation of the Bayesian evidence, nested sampling allows us to deal with current sparse data as well as upcoming high-resolution observations. Once the best model is selected, HELIOS-R provides posterior distributions of the parameters. As a test for our code we studied HR8799 system and compared our results with the previous analysis of Lee, Heng & Irwin (2013), which used the proprietary NEMESIS retrieval code. HELIOS-R and HELIOS-K are part of the set of open-source community codes we named the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (www.exoclime.org).

  2. An adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jen-Lung; Sanei, Saeid; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images is proposed here. In the source coding part, the transmission starts from the region of interest (RoI). The parity length in the channel code varies with respect to both the proximity of the image subblock to the RoI and the channel noise, which is iteratively estimated in the receiver. The overall transmitted data can be controlled by the user (clinician). In the case of medical data transmission, it is vital to keep the distortion level under control as in most of the cases certain clinically important regions have to be transmitted without any visible error. The proposed system significantly reduces the transmission time and error. Moreover, the system is very user friendly since the selection of the RoI, its size, overall code rate, and a number of test features such as noise level can be set by the users in both ends. A MATLAB-based TCP/IP connection has been established to demonstrate the proposed interactive and adaptive progressive transmission system. The proposed system is simulated for both binary symmetric channel (BSC) and Rayleigh channel. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design.

  3. An Adaptive Source-Channel Coding with Feedback for Progressive Transmission of Medical Images

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Jen-Lung; Sanei, Saeid; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2009-01-01

    A novel adaptive source-channel coding with feedback for progressive transmission of medical images is proposed here. In the source coding part, the transmission starts from the region of interest (RoI). The parity length in the channel code varies with respect to both the proximity of the image subblock to the RoI and the channel noise, which is iteratively estimated in the receiver. The overall transmitted data can be controlled by the user (clinician). In the case of medical data transmission, it is vital to keep the distortion level under control as in most of the cases certain clinically important regions have to be transmitted without any visible error. The proposed system significantly reduces the transmission time and error. Moreover, the system is very user friendly since the selection of the RoI, its size, overall code rate, and a number of test features such as noise level can be set by the users in both ends. A MATLAB-based TCP/IP connection has been established to demonstrate the proposed interactive and adaptive progressive transmission system. The proposed system is simulated for both binary symmetric channel (BSC) and Rayleigh channel. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design. PMID:19190770

  4. Beyond the Business Model: Incentives for Organizations to Publish Software Source Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindman, Juho; Juutilainen, Juha-Pekka; Rossi, Matti

    The software stack opened under Open Source Software (OSS) licenses is growing rapidly. Commercial actors have released considerable amounts of previously proprietary source code. These actions beg the question why companies choose a strategy based on giving away software assets? Research on outbound OSS approach has tried to answer this question with the concept of the “OSS business model”. When studying the reasons for code release, we have observed that the business model concept is too generic to capture the many incentives organizations have. Conversely, in this paper we investigate empirically what the companies’ incentives are by means of an exploratory case study of three organizations in different stages of their code release. Our results indicate that the companies aim to promote standardization, obtain development resources, gain cost savings, improve the quality of software, increase the trustworthiness of software, or steer OSS communities. We conclude that future research on outbound OSS could benefit from focusing on the heterogeneous incentives for code release rather than on revenue models.

  5. Ada Run Time Support Environments and a common APSE Interface Set. [Ada Programming Support Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.

  6. CACTI: free, open-source software for the sequential coding of behavioral interactions.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Lisa H; Hallgren, Kevin A; Houck, Jon M; Moyers, Theresa B

    2012-01-01

    The sequential analysis of client and clinician speech in psychotherapy sessions can help to identify and characterize potential mechanisms of treatment and behavior change. Previous studies required coding systems that were time-consuming, expensive, and error-prone. Existing software can be expensive and inflexible, and furthermore, no single package allows for pre-parsing, sequential coding, and assignment of global ratings. We developed a free, open-source, and adaptable program to meet these needs: The CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI). Without transcripts, CACTI facilitates the real-time sequential coding of behavioral interactions using WAV-format audio files. Most elements of the interface are user-modifiable through a simple XML file, and can be further adapted using Java through the terms of the GNU Public License. Coding with this software yields interrater reliabilities comparable to previous methods, but at greatly reduced time and expense. CACTI is a flexible research tool that can simplify psychotherapy process research, and has the potential to contribute to the improvement of treatment content and delivery.

  7. The FORTRAN static source code analyzer program (SAP) user's guide, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Eslinger, S.

    1982-01-01

    The FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer Program (SAP) User's Guide (Revision 1) is presented. SAP is a software tool designed to assist Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) personnel in conducting studies of FORTRAN programs. SAP scans FORTRAN source code and produces reports that present statistics and measures of statements and structures that make up a module. This document is a revision of the previous SAP user's guide, Computer Sciences Corporation document CSC/TM-78/6045. SAP Revision 1 is the result of program modifications to provide several new reports, additional complexity analysis, and recognition of all statements described in the FORTRAN 77 standard. This document provides instructions for operating SAP and contains information useful in interpreting SAP output.

  8. Source-Search Sensitivity of a Large-Area, Coded-Aperture, Gamma-Ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Collins, J W; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W; Smith, E; Woodring, M L

    2004-10-27

    We have recently completed a large-area, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager for use in searching for radiation sources. The instrument was constructed to verify that weak point sources can be detected at considerable distances if one uses imaging to overcome fluctuations in the natural background. The instrument uses a rank-19, one-dimensional coded aperture to cast shadow patterns onto a 0.57 m{sup 2} NaI(Tl) detector composed of 57 individual cubes each 10 cm on a side. These are arranged in a 19 x 3 array. The mask is composed of four-centimeter thick, one-meter high, 10-cm wide lead blocks. The instrument is mounted in the back of a small truck from which images are obtained as one drives through a region. Results of first measurements obtained with the system are presented.

  9. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  10. 76 FR 79065 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR Part 1602 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 900 to 1899, revised as of July 1, 2011, in Part 1602, remove the words ``section 709(c) of title VII or section 107...

  11. A source-channel coding approach to digital image protection and self-recovery.

    PubMed

    Sarreshtedari, Saeed; Akhaee, Mohammad Ali

    2015-07-01

    Watermarking algorithms have been widely applied to the field of image forensics recently. One of these very forensic applications is the protection of images against tampering. For this purpose, we need to design a watermarking algorithm fulfilling two purposes in case of image tampering: 1) detecting the tampered area of the received image and 2) recovering the lost information in the tampered zones. State-of-the-art techniques accomplish these tasks using watermarks consisting of check bits and reference bits. Check bits are used for tampering detection, whereas reference bits carry information about the whole image. The problem of recovering the lost reference bits still stands. This paper is aimed at showing that having the tampering location known, image tampering can be modeled and dealt with as an erasure error. Therefore, an appropriate design of channel code can protect the reference bits against tampering. In the present proposed method, the total watermark bit-budget is dedicated to three groups: 1) source encoder output bits; 2) channel code parity bits; and 3) check bits. In watermark embedding phase, the original image is source coded and the output bit stream is protected using appropriate channel encoder. For image recovery, erasure locations detected by check bits help channel erasure decoder to retrieve the original source encoded image. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme significantly outperforms recent techniques in terms of image quality for both watermarked and recovered image. The watermarked image quality gain is achieved through spending less bit-budget on watermark, while image recovery quality is considerably improved as a consequence of consistent performance of designed source and channel codes.

  12. AN OPEN-SOURCE NEUTRINO RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    O’Connor, Evan

    2015-08-15

    We present an open-source update to the spherically symmetric, general-relativistic hydrodynamics, core-collapse supernova (CCSN) code GR1D. The source code is available at http://www.GR1Dcode.org. We extend its capabilities to include a general-relativistic treatment of neutrino transport based on the moment formalisms of Shibata et al. and Cardall et al. We pay special attention to implementing and testing numerical methods and approximations that lessen the computational demand of the transport scheme by removing the need to invert large matrices. This is especially important for the implementation and development of moment-like transport methods in two and three dimensions. A critical component of neutrino transport calculations is the neutrino–matter interaction coefficients that describe the production, absorption, scattering, and annihilation of neutrinos. In this article we also describe our open-source neutrino interaction library NuLib (available at http://www.nulib.org). We believe that an open-source approach to describing these interactions is one of the major steps needed to progress toward robust models of CCSNe and robust predictions of the neutrino signal. We show, via comparisons to full Boltzmann neutrino-transport simulations of CCSNe, that our neutrino transport code performs remarkably well. Furthermore, we show that the methods and approximations we employ to increase efficiency do not decrease the fidelity of our results. We also test the ability of our general-relativistic transport code to model failed CCSNe by evolving a 40-solar-mass progenitor to the onset of collapse to a black hole.

  13. The NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel microcomputer controller source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. Allen; Balakrishna, S.

    1991-01-01

    The 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) microcomputer based controller has been operating for several thousand hours in a safe and efficient manner. A complete listing is provided of the source codes for the tunnel controller and tunnel simulator. Included also is a listing of all the variables used in these programs. Several changes made to the controller are described. These changes are to improve the controller ease of use and safety.

  14. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  15. Transformation of ADA programs into silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organick, E. I.; Lindstrom, G.; Smith, D. K.; Subrahmany; Carter, T.

    1982-03-01

    This report outlines the beginning steps taken in an integrated research effort toward the development of a methodology, and supporting systems, for transforming Ada programs, or program units, (directly) into corresponding VLSI systems. The time seems right to expect good results. The need is evident; special purpose systems should be realistic alternatives where simplicity, speed, reliability, and security ae dominant factors. Success in this research can lead to attractive options for embedded system applications. Ada programs can be regarded as ensembles of machines, one per program unit (module), which in turn may be mapped directly into corresponding VLSI structures on one or more chips with interconnecting (packet switched or other) communication nets. The research reported here is part of a five-year plan, the first year of which focuses on 'proving' the concepts through a realistic demonstration of methodology for a specific example Ada program (a silicon representation of part or all of the DoD Standard Internet Protocol, IP, initially expressed in Ada). Implicit in these objectives is the development of a set of hardware structuring paradigms (rewrite rules) whose application can ensure that transformation steps between levels of abstraction in the design process are well structured in order to preserve the integrity and, where possible, the clarity of the original Ada specification. Some paradigms, but of course not all, lead to highly efficient implementations.

  16. Proceedings of the First NASA Ada Users' Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ada has the potential to be a part of the most significant change in software engineering technology within NASA in the last twenty years. Thus, it is particularly important that all NASA centers be aware of Ada experience and plans at other centers. Ada activity across NASA are covered, with presenters representing five of the nine major NASA centers and the Space Station Freedom Program Office. Projects discussed included - Space Station Freedom Program Office: the implications of Ada on training, reuse, management and the software support environment; Johnson Space Center (JSC): early experience with the use of Ada, software engineering and Ada training and the evaluation of Ada compilers; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC): university research with Ada and the application of Ada to Space Station Freedom, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, the Aero-Assist Flight Experiment and the Secure Shuttle Data System; Lewis Research Center (LeRC): the evolution of Ada software to support the Space Station Power Management and Distribution System; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): the creation of a centralized Ada development laboratory and current applications of Ada including the Real-time Weather Processor for the FAA; and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC): experiences with Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) project and the implications of GSFC experience for Ada use in NASA. Despite the diversity of the presentations, several common themes emerged from the program: Methodology - NASA experience in general indicates that the effective use of Ada requires modern software engineering methodologies; Training - It is the software engineering principles and methods that surround Ada, rather than Ada itself, which requires the major training effort; Reuse - Due to training and transition costs, the use of Ada may initially actually decrease productivity, as was clearly found at GSFC; and real-time work at LeRC, JPL and GSFC shows

  17. Code System for Calculating Alpha, N; Spontaneous Fission; and Delayed Neutron Sources and Spectra.

    2002-07-18

    Version: 04 SOURCES4C is a code system that determines neutron production rates and spectra from (alpha,n) reactions, spontaneous fission, and delayed neutron emission due to radionuclide decay. In this release the three-region problem was modified to correct several bugs, and new documentation was added to the package. Details are available in the included LA-UR-02-1617 (2002) report. The code is capable of calculating (alpha,n) source rates and spectra in four types of problems: homogeneous media (i.e.,more » an intimate mixture of alpha-emitting source material and low-Z target material), two-region interface problems (i.e., a slab of alpha-emitting source material in contact with a slab of low-Z target material), three-region interface problems (i.e., a thin slab of low-Z target material sandwiched between alpha-emitting source material and low-Z target material), and (alpha,n) reactions induced by a monoenergetic beam of alpha-particles incident on a slab of target material. The process of creating a SOURCES input file (tape1) is streamlined with the Los Alamos SOURCES Tape1 Creator and Library Link (LASTCALL) Version 1. Intended to supplement the SOURCES manual, LASTCALL is a simple graphical user interface designed to minimize common errors made during input. The optional application, LASTCALL, consists of a single dialog window launched from an executable (lastcall.exe) on Windows-based personal computers.« less

  18. Translating an AI application from Lisp to Ada: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria J.

    1991-01-01

    A set of benchmarks was developed to test the performance of a newly designed computer executing both Lisp and Ada. Among these was AutoClassII -- a large Artificial Intelligence (AI) application written in Common Lisp. The extraction of a representative subset of this complex application was aided by a Lisp Code Analyzer (LCA). The LCA enabled rapid analysis of the code, putting it in a concise and functionally readable form. An equivalent benchmark was created in Ada through manual translation of the Lisp version. A comparison of the execution results of both programs across a variety of compiler-machine combinations indicate that line-by-line translation coupled with analysis of the initial code can produce relatively efficient and reusable target code.

  19. A database management capability for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Arvola; Danberg, SY; Fox, Stephen; Landers, Terry; Nori, Anil; Smith, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The data requirements of mission critical defense systems have been increasing dramatically. Command and control, intelligence, logistics, and even weapons systems are being required to integrate, process, and share ever increasing volumes of information. To meet this need, systems are now being specified that incorporate data base management subsystems for handling storage and retrieval of information. It is expected that a large number of the next generation of mission critical systems will contain embedded data base management systems. Since the use of Ada has been mandated for most of these systems, it is important to address the issues of providing data base management capabilities that can be closely coupled with Ada. A comprehensive distributed data base management project has been investigated. The key deliverables of this project are three closely related prototype systems implemented in Ada. These three systems are discussed.

  20. Atomic Data and Modelling for Fusion: the ADAS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, H. P.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    The paper is an update on the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, ADAS, since ICAM-DATA06 and a forward look to its evolution in the next five years. ADAS is an international project supporting principally magnetic confinement fusion research. It has participant laboratories throughout the world, including ITER and all its partner countries. In parallel with ADAS, the ADAS-EU Project provides enhanced support for fusion research at Associated Laboratories and Universities in Europe and ITER. OPEN-ADAS, sponsored jointly by the ADAS Project and IAEA, is the mechanism for open access to principal ADAS atomic data classes and facilitating software for their use. EXTENDED-ADAS comprises a variety of special, integrated application software, beyond the purely atomic bounds of ADAS, tuned closely to specific diagnostic analyses and plasma models. The current scientific content and scope of these various ADAS and ADAS related activities are briefly reviewed. These span a number of themes including heavy element spectroscopy and models, charge exchange spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy and special features which provide a broad baseline of atomic modelling and support. Emphasis will be placed on `lifting the fundamental data baseline'—a principal ADAS task for the next few years. This will include discussion of ADAS and ADAS-EU coordinated and shared activities and some of the methods being exploited.

  1. Knowledge representation into Ada parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Babikyan, Carol; Harper, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The Knowledge Representation into Ada Parallel Processing project is a joint NASA and Air Force funded project to demonstrate the execution of intelligent systems in Ada on the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory fault-tolerant parallel processor (FTPP). Two applications were demonstrated - a portion of the adaptive tactical navigator and a real time controller. Both systems are implemented as Activation Framework Objects on the Activation Framework intelligent scheduling mechanism developed by Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The implementations, results of performance analyses showing speedup due to parallelism and initial efficiency improvements are detailed and further areas for performance improvements are suggested.

  2. Interpreting observations of molecular outflow sources: the MHD shock code mhd_vode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, D. R.; Pineau des Forêts, G.

    2015-06-01

    The planar MHD shock code mhd_vode has been developed in order to simulate both continuous (C) type shock waves and jump (J) type shock waves in the interstellar medium. The physical and chemical state of the gas in steady-state may also be computed and used as input to a shock wave model. The code is written principally in FORTRAN 90, although some routines remain in FORTRAN 77. The documented program and its input data are described and provided as supplementary material, and the results of exemplary test runs are presented. Our intention is to enable the interested user to run the code for any sensible parameter set and to comprehend the results. With applications to molecular outflow sources in mind, we have computed, and are making available as supplementary material, integrated atomic and molecular line intensities for grids of C- and J-type models; these computations are summarized in the Appendices. Appendix tables, a copy of the current version of the code, and of the two model grids are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A63

  3. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  4. An Open-Source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code, and Application to WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Rojo, Patricio M.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Bowman, Matthew O.; Foster, Andrew S.; Stemm, Madison M.; Lust, Nate B.

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric retrievals for solar-system planets typically fit, either with a minimizer or by eye, a synthetic spectrum to high-resolution (Δλ/λ ~ 1000-100,000) data with S/N > 100 per point. In contrast, exoplanet data often have S/N ~ 10 per point, and may have just a few points representing bandpasses larger than 1 um. To derive atmospheric constraints and robust parameter uncertainty estimates from such data requires a Bayesian approach. To date there are few investigators with the relevant codes, none of which are publicly available. We are therefore pleased to announce the open-source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. BART uses a Bayesian phase-space explorer to drive a radiative-transfer model through the parameter phase space, producing the most robust estimates available for the thermal profile and chemical abundances in the atmosphere. We present an overview of the code and an initial application to Spitzer eclipse data for WASP-12b. We invite the community to use and improve BART via the open-source development site GitHub.com. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  5. An Open-Source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code, with Application to WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Rojo, Patricio; Loredo, Thomas J.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Stemm, Madison M.; Lust, Nate B.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric retrievals for solar-system planets typically fit, either with a minimizer or by eye, a synthetic spectrum to high-resolution (Δλ/λ ~ 1000-100,000) data with S/N > 100 per point. In contrast, exoplanet data often have S/N ~ 10 per point, and may have just a few points representing bandpasses larger than 1 um. To derive atmospheric constraints and robust parameter uncertainty estimates from such data requires a Bayesian approach. To date there are few investigators with the relevant codes, none of which are publicly available. We are therefore pleased to announce the open-source Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. BART uses a Bayesian phase-space explorer to drive a radiative-transfer model through the parameter phase space, producing the most robust estimates available for the thermal profile and chemical abundances in the atmosphere. We present an overview of the code and an initial application to Spitzer eclipse data for WASP-12b. We invite the community to use and improve BART via the open-source development site GitHub.com. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  6. Sources of financial pressure and up coding behavior in French public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Irène; Hartmann, Frank G H

    2013-05-01

    Drawing upon role theory and the literature concerning unintended consequences of financial pressure, this study investigates the effects of health care decision pressure from the hospital's administration and from the professional peer group on physician's inclination to engage in up coding. We explore two kinds of up coding, information-related and action-related, and develop hypothesis that connect these kinds of data manipulation to the sources of pressure via the intermediate effect of role conflict. Qualitative data from initial interviews with physicians and subsequent questionnaire evidence from 578 physicians in 14 French hospitals suggest that the source of pressure is a relevant predictor of physicians' inclination to engage in data-manipulation. We further find that this effect is partly explained by the extent to which these pressures create role conflict. Given the concern about up coding in treatment-based reimbursement systems worldwide, our analysis adds to understanding how the design of the hospital's management control system may enhance this undesired type of behavior.

  7. Development of a Field-Aligned Integrated Conductivity Model Using the SAMI2 Open Source Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Kyle; Gearheart, Michael; West, Keith

    2003-03-01

    The SAMI2 open source code is a middle and low latitude ionspheric model developed by the Naval Research Lab for the dual purposes of research and education. At the time of this writing the source code has no component for the integrated magnetic field-aligned conductivity. The dependence of human activities on conditions in the space environment, such as communications, has grown and will continue to do so. With this growth comes higher financial stakes, as changes in the space environment have greater economic impact. In order to minimize the adverse effects of these changes, predictive models are being developed. Among the geophysical parameters that affect communications is the conductivity in the ionosphere. As part of the commitment of Texas A & M Univeristy-Commerce to build a strong undergraduate research program, a team consisting of two students and a faculty mentor are developing a model of the integrated field-aligned conductivity using the SAMI2 code. The current status of the research and preliminary results are presented as well as a summary of future work.

  8. Sources of financial pressure and up coding behavior in French public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Irène; Hartmann, Frank G H

    2013-05-01

    Drawing upon role theory and the literature concerning unintended consequences of financial pressure, this study investigates the effects of health care decision pressure from the hospital's administration and from the professional peer group on physician's inclination to engage in up coding. We explore two kinds of up coding, information-related and action-related, and develop hypothesis that connect these kinds of data manipulation to the sources of pressure via the intermediate effect of role conflict. Qualitative data from initial interviews with physicians and subsequent questionnaire evidence from 578 physicians in 14 French hospitals suggest that the source of pressure is a relevant predictor of physicians' inclination to engage in data-manipulation. We further find that this effect is partly explained by the extent to which these pressures create role conflict. Given the concern about up coding in treatment-based reimbursement systems worldwide, our analysis adds to understanding how the design of the hospital's management control system may enhance this undesired type of behavior. PMID:23477807

  9. Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects.

  10. Dosimetric characterization of an 192Ir brachytherapy source with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Casado, Francisco Javier; García-Pareja, Salvador; Cenizo, Elena; Mateo, Beatriz; Bodineau, Coral; Galán, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations are highly spread and settled practice to calculate brachytherapy sources dosimetric parameters. In this study, recommendations of the AAPM TG-43U1 report have been followed to characterize the Varisource VS2000 (192)Ir high dose rate source, provided by Varian Oncology Systems. In order to obtain dosimetric parameters for this source, Monte Carlo calculations with PENELOPE code have been carried out. TG-43 formalism parameters have been presented, i.e., air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function. Besides, a 2D Cartesian coordinates dose rate in water table has been calculated. These quantities are compared to this source reference data, finding results in good agreement with them. The data in the present study complement published data in the next aspects: (i) TG-43U1 recommendations are followed regarding to phantom ambient conditions and to uncertainty analysis, including statistical (type A) and systematic (type B) contributions; (ii) PENELOPE code is benchmarked for this source; (iii) Monte Carlo calculation methodology differs from that usually published in the way to estimate absorbed dose, leaving out the track-length estimator; (iv) the results of the present work comply with the most recent AAPM and ESTRO physics committee recommendations about Monte Carlo techniques, in regards to dose rate uncertainty values and established differences between our results and reference data. The results stated in this paper provide a complete parameter collection, which can be used for dosimetric calculations as well as a means of comparison with other datasets from this source.

  11. User`s Manual for the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 Computer Codes: Models for Evaluating Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Source Terms (Version 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.; Tharp, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 computer codes calculate source terms (i.e. radionuclide release rates) for performance assessments of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. SOURCE1 is used to simulate radionuclide releases from tumulus-type facilities. SOURCE2 is used to simulate releases from silo-, well-, well-in-silo-, and trench-type disposal facilities. The SOURCE codes (a) simulate the degradation of engineered barriers and (b) provide an estimate of the source term for LLW disposal facilities. This manual summarizes the major changes that have been effected since the codes were originally developed.

  12. Source Term Model for Steady Micro Jets in a Navier-Stokes Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.

    2005-01-01

    A source term model for steady micro jets was implemented into a non-proprietary Navier-Stokes computer code, OVERFLOW. The source term models the mass flow and momentum created by a steady blowing micro jet. The model is obtained by adding the momentum and mass flow created by the jet to the Navier-Stokes equations. The model was tested by comparing with data from numerical simulations of a single, steady micro jet on a flat plate in two and three dimensions. The source term model predicted the velocity distribution well compared to the two-dimensional plate using a steady mass flow boundary condition, which was used to simulate a steady micro jet. The model was also compared to two three-dimensional flat plate cases using a steady mass flow boundary condition to simulate a steady micro jet. The three-dimensional comparison included a case with a grid generated to capture the circular shape of the jet and a case without a grid generated for the micro jet. The case without the jet grid mimics the application of the source term. The source term model compared well with both of the three-dimensional cases. Comparisons of velocity distribution were made before and after the jet and Mach and vorticity contours were examined. The source term model allows a researcher to quickly investigate different locations of individual or several steady micro jets. The researcher is able to conduct a preliminary investigation with minimal grid generation and computational time.

  13. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  14. The Courts, the ADA, and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, David D.

    2005-01-01

    Litigation influences what goes on in the classroom. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), other statutes, and legal precedent have defined reasonable restrictions on what qualifies as a handicap. Still, universities tend to go overboard--out of ignorance, and influenced by a culture that seems to champion every conceivable victim--in…

  15. LENSED: a code for the forward reconstruction of lenses and sources from strong lensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessore, Nicolas; Bellagamba, Fabio; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2016-09-01

    Robust modelling of strong lensing systems is fundamental to exploit the information they contain about the distribution of matter in galaxies and clusters. In this work, we present LENSED, a new code which performs forward parametric modelling of strong lenses. LENSED takes advantage of a massively parallel ray-tracing kernel to perform the necessary calculations on a modern graphics processing unit (GPU). This makes the precise rendering of the background lensed sources much faster, and allows the simultaneous optimisation of tens of parameters for the selected model. With a single run, the code is able to obtain the full posterior probability distribution for the lens light, the mass distribution and the background source at the same time. LENSED is first tested on mock images which reproduce realistic space-based observations of lensing systems. In this way, we show that it is able to recover unbiased estimates of the lens parameters, even when the sources do not follow exactly the assumed model. Then, we apply it to a subsample of the SLACS lenses, in order to demonstrate its use on real data. The results generally agree with the literature, and highlight the flexibility and robustness of the algorithm.

  16. Documentation generator for VHDL and MatLab source codes for photonic and electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a new concept of software dedicated for documenting the source codes written in VHDL and MatLab. The work starts with the analysis of available documentation generators for both programming languages, with an emphasis on the open source solutions. There are presented own solutions which base on the Doxygen program available as a free license with the source code. The supporting tools for parsers building were used like Bison and Flex. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part one which describes the system concept. Part two describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena. Part three describes the VHDL application. VHDL is used for behavioral description of the optoelectronic system. All the proposed approach and application documents big, complex software configurations for large systems.

  17. Phase Contrast Imaging with Coded Apertures Using Laboratory-Based X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatyev, K.; Munro, P. R. T.; Speller, R. D.; Olivo, A.

    2011-09-09

    X-ray phase contrast imaging is a powerful technique that allows detection of changes in the phase of x-ray wavefronts as they pass through a sample. As a result, details not visible in conventional x-ray absorption imaging can be detected. Until recently the majority of applications of phase contrast imaging were at synchrotron facilities due to the availability of their high flux and coherence; however, a number of techniques have appeared recently that allow phase contrast imaging to be performed using laboratory sources. Here we describe a phase contrast imaging technique, developed at University College London, that uses two coded apertures. The x-ray beam is shaped by the pre-sample aperture, and small deviations in the x-ray propagation direction are detected with the help of the detector aperture. In contrast with other methods, it has a much more relaxed requirement for the source size (it works with source sizes up to 100 {mu}m). A working prototype coded-aperture system has been built. An x-ray detector with directly deposited columnar CsI has been used to minimize signal spill-over into neighboring pixels. Phase contrast images obtained with the system have demonstrated its effectiveness for imaging low-absorption materials.

  18. Source Listings for Computer Code SPIRALI Incompressible, Turbulent Spiral Grooved Cylindrical and Face Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walowit, Jed A.; Shapiro, Wibur

    2005-01-01

    This is the source listing of the computer code SPIRALI which predicts the performance characteristics of incompressible cylindrical and face seals with or without the inclusion of spiral grooves. Performance characteristics include load capacity (for face seals), leakage flow, power requirements and dynamic characteristics in the form of stiffness, damping and apparent mass coefficients in 4 degrees of freedom for cylindrical seals and 3 degrees of freedom for face seals. These performance characteristics are computed as functions of seal and groove geometry, load or film thickness, running and disturbance speeds, fluid viscosity, and boundary pressures.

  19. Real-time joint source-channel coding of multiple correlated substream progressive sources for multiple-antenna Rayleigh channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshchian, Masoud; Pearlman, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several methods that divide the original bitstream of an image/video progressive wavelet based source coders into multiple correlated substreams have been proposed. The principle behind transmitting independent multiple substream is to generate multiple descriptions of the source such that the graceful degradation is achieved when transmitted over severe fading channels and lossy packet networks since some of the streams may be recovered. Noting that multiple substream can benefit from multiple independent channel paths, we naturally consider Multi-Input Multi-Output communication systems where we obtain multiple independent fading channels. Depending on several factors including: the number of antennas employed, the transmission energy, the Doppler shift (due to the motion between the transmitter antenna and receiver antennas), the total transmission rate and the distortion-rate (D-R) of the source-there exists an optimal number of balanced substreams and an optimal joint source-channel coding policy such that the expected distortion at the receiver is minimized. In this paper we derive an expected distortion function at the receiver based on all of these parameters and provide a fast real-time numerical technique to find the optimal or near optimal number of balanced substreams to be transmitted. This expected distortion is based on our derivation of the probabilistic loss patterns of a balanced multiple substream progressive source coder. The accuracy of the derived expected distortion estimator is confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulation employing Dent's modification of Jakes' model. By accurately estimating the optimal number of balanced substreams to be transmitted, a substantial gain in visual quality at low and intermediate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained over severely fading channels. At high SNR, the single stream source coder's source efficiency makes it slightly better than the multiple substream source coder. Overall, using our analytic

  20. The computerization of programming: Ada (R) lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struble, Dennis D.

    1986-01-01

    One of the largest systems yet written in Ada has been constructed. This system is the Intermetrics Ada compiler. Many lessons have been learned during the implementation of this Ada compiler. Some of these lessons, concentrating on those lessons relevant to large system implementations are described. The characteristics of the Ada compiler implementation project at Intermetrics are also described. Some specific experiences during the implementation are pointed out.

  1. Knowledge, programming, and programming cultures: LISP, C, and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The results of research 'Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems' are presented. The purpose of the research was to compare Ada to other programming languages. The report focuses on the programming languages Ada, C, and Lisp, the programming cultures that surround them, and the programming paradigms they support.

  2. 49 CFR 37.125 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. 37.125... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.125 ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. Each public entity required to provide complementary paratransit service...

  3. 49 CFR 37.123 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. 37.123... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.123 ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. (a) Public entities required by § 37.121 of this subpart to...

  4. Source Term Model for Vortex Generator Vanes in a Navier-Stokes Computer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.

    2004-01-01

    A source term model for an array of vortex generators was implemented into a non-proprietary Navier-Stokes computer code, OVERFLOW. The source term models the side force created by a vortex generator vane. The model is obtained by introducing a side force to the momentum and energy equations that can adjust its strength automatically based on the local flow. The model was tested and calibrated by comparing data from numerical simulations and experiments of a single low profile vortex generator vane on a flat plate. In addition, the model was compared to experimental data of an S-duct with 22 co-rotating, low profile vortex generators. The source term model allowed a grid reduction of about seventy percent when compared with the numerical simulations performed on a fully gridded vortex generator on a flat plate without adversely affecting the development and capture of the vortex created. The source term model was able to predict the shape and size of the stream-wise vorticity and velocity contours very well when compared with both numerical simulations and experimental data. The peak vorticity and its location were also predicted very well when compared to numerical simulations and experimental data. The circulation predicted by the source term model matches the prediction of the numerical simulation. The source term model predicted the engine fan face distortion and total pressure recovery of the S-duct with 22 co-rotating vortex generators very well. The source term model allows a researcher to quickly investigate different locations of individual or a row of vortex generators. The researcher is able to conduct a preliminary investigation with minimal grid generation and computational time.

  5. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy. PMID:24710398

  6. Rehosting and retargeting an Ada compiler: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ray

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a plan for rehosting and retargeting the Air Force Armaments Lab. Ada cross compiler. This compiler was validated in Sept. 1985 using ACVC 1.6, is written in Pascal, is hosted on a CDC Cyber 170, and is targeted to an embedded Zilog Z8002. The study was performed to determine the feasibility, cost, time, and tasks required to retarget the compiler to a DEC VAX 11/78x and rehost it to an embedded U.S. Navy AN/UYK-44 computer. Major tasks identified were rehosting the compiler front end, rewriting the back end (code generator), translating the run time environment from Z8002 assembly language to AN/UYK-44 assembly language, and developing a library manager.

  7. Effectiveness Evaluation of Skin Covers against Intravascular Brachytherapy Sources Using VARSKIN3 Code

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, H R; Nazempour, A R; Aghamiri, S M R; Hosseini Daghigh, S M; Mowlavi, A A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The most common intravascular brachytherapy sources include 32P, 188Re, 106Rh and 90Sr/90Y. In this research, skin absorbed dose for different covering materials in dealing with these sources were evaluated and the best covering material for skin protection and reduction of absorbed dose by radiation staff was recognized and recommended. Method: Four materials including polyethylene, cotton and two different kinds of plastic were proposed as skin covers and skin absorbed dose at different depths for each kind of the materials was calculated separately using the VARSKIN3 code. Results: The results suggested that for all sources, skin absorbed dose was minimized when using polyethylene. Considering this material as skin cover, maximum and minimum doses at skin surface were related to 90Sr/90Y and 106Rh, respectively. Conclusion: polyethylene was found the most effective cover in reducing skin dose and protecting the skin. Furthermore, proper agreement between the results of VARSKIN3 and other experimental measurements indicated that VRASKIN3 is a powerful tool for skin dose calculations when working with beta emitter sources. Therefore, it can be utilized in dealing with the issue of radiation protection. PMID:25505758

  8. Comparing host and target environments for distributed Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulk, Mark C.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language provides a means of specifying logical concurrency by using multitasking. Extending the Ada multitasking concurrency mechanism into a physically concurrent distributed environment which imposes its own requirements can lead to incompatibilities. These problems are discussed. Using distributed Ada for a target system may be appropriate, but when using the Ada language in a host environment, a multiprocessing model may be more suitable than retargeting an Ada compiler for the distributed environment. The tradeoffs between multitasking on distributed targets and multiprocessing on distributed hosts are discussed. Comparisons of the multitasking and multiprocessing models indicate different areas of application.

  9. Ada and software management in NASA: Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Recent NASA missions have required software systems that are larger, more complex, and more critical than NASA software systems of the past. The Ada programming language and the software methods and support environments associated with it are seen as potential breakthroughs in meeting NASA's software requirements. The findings of a study by the Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG) are presented. The study was chartered to perform three tasks: (1) assess the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities; (2) assess the infrastructure (standards, policies, and internal organizations) supporting software management and the Ada activities; and (3) present an Ada implementation and use strategy appropriate for NASA over the next 5 years.

  10. Homozygosity for a novel adenosine deaminase (ADA) nonsense mutation (Q3>X) in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

    SciTech Connect

    Santisteban, I.; Arrendondo-Vega, F.X.; Kelly, S. |

    1994-09-01

    A Somali girl was diagnosed with ADA-deficient SCID at 7 mo; she responded well to PEG-ADA replacement and is now 3.3 yr old. ADA mRNA was undetectable (Northern) in her cultured T cells, but was present in T cells of her parents and two sibs. All PCR-amplified exon 1 genomic clones from the patient had a C>T transition at bp 7 relative to the start of translation, replacing Gln at codon 3 (AGA) with a termination codon (TGA, Q3>X). Patient cDNA (prepared by RT-PCR with a 5{prime} primer that covered codons 1-7) had a previously described polymorphism, K80>R, but was otherwise normal, indicating that no other coding mutations were present. A predicted new genomic BfaI restriction site was used to establish her homozygosity for Q3>X and to analyze genotypes of family members. We also analyzed the segregation of a variable Alu polyA-associated TAAA repeat (AluVpA) situated 5{prime} of the ADA gene. Three different AluVpA alleles were found, one of which was only present in the father and was not associated with his Q3>X allele. Because the father`s RBCs had only {approximately}15% of normal ADA activity, we analyzed his ADA cDNA. We found a G>A transition at bp 425 that substitutes Gln for Arg142, a solvent-accessible residue, and eliminates a BsmAI site in exon 5. ADA activity of the R142>Q in vitro translation product was 20-25% of wild type ADA translation product, suggesting that R142>Q is a new {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency mutation. As expected, Q3>X mRNA did not yield a detectable in vitro translation product. We conclude that the patient`s father is a compound heterozygote carrying the ADA Q3>X/R142>Q genotype. {open_quote}Partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency unassociated with immunodeficiency is relatively common in individuals of African descent. The present findings and previous observations suggest that {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency may have had an evolutionary advantage.

  11. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  12. Ada education in a software life-cycle context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, Anne J.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the experience gained from a comprehensive educational program undertaken at The Charles Stark Draper Lab. to introduce the Ada language and to transition modern software engineering technology into the development of Ada and non-Ada applications is described. Initially, a core group, which included manager, engineers and programmers, received training in Ada. An Ada Office was established to assume the major responsibility for training, evaluation, acquisition and benchmarking of tools, and consultation on Ada projects. As a first step in this process, and in-house educational program was undertaken to introduce Ada to the Laboratory. Later, a software engineering course was added to the educational program as the need to address issues spanning the entire software life cycle became evident. Educational efforts to date are summarized, with an emphasis on the educational approach adopted. Finally, lessons learned in administering this program are addressed.

  13. Ada (trademark) projects at NASA. Runtime environment issues and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.; Wilke, Randall W.

    1988-01-01

    Ada practitioners should use this document to discuss and establish common short term requirements for Ada runtime environments. The major current Ada runtime environment issues are identified through the analysis of some of the Ada efforts at NASA and other research centers. The runtime environment characteristics of major compilers are compared while alternate runtime implementations are reviewed. Modifications and extensions to the Ada Language Reference Manual to address some of these runtime issues are proposed. Three classes of projects focusing on the most critical runtime features of Ada are recommended, including a range of immediately feasible full scale Ada development projects. Also, a list of runtime features and procurement issues is proposed for consideration by the vendors, contractors and the government.

  14. Multiple-source models for electron beams of a medical linear accelerator using BEAMDP computer code

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Nasrollah; Barati, Amir Hoshang; Rahmatnezhad, Leili

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this work was to develop multiple-source models for electron beams of the NEPTUN 10PC medical linear accelerator using the BEAMDP computer code. Background One of the most accurate techniques of radiotherapy dose calculation is the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of radiation transport, which requires detailed information of the beam in the form of a phase-space file. The computing time required to simulate the beam data and obtain phase-space files from a clinical accelerator is significant. Calculation of dose distributions using multiple-source models is an alternative method to phase-space data as direct input to the dose calculation system. Materials and methods Monte Carlo simulation of accelerator head was done in which a record was kept of the particle phase-space regarding the details of the particle history. Multiple-source models were built from the phase-space files of Monte Carlo simulations. These simplified beam models were used to generate Monte Carlo dose calculations and to compare those calculations with phase-space data for electron beams. Results Comparison of the measured and calculated dose distributions using the phase-space files and multiple-source models for three electron beam energies showed that the measured and calculated values match well each other throughout the curves. Conclusion It was found that dose distributions calculated using both the multiple-source models and the phase-space data agree within 1.3%, demonstrating that the models can be used for dosimetry research purposes and dose calculations in radiotherapy. PMID:24377026

  15. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  16. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  17. Efficient Ada multitasking on a RISC register window architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.

  18. ADaCGH: A Parallelized Web-Based Application and R Package for the Analysis of aCGH Data

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Rueda, Oscar M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Copy number alterations (CNAs) in genomic DNA have been associated with complex human diseases, including cancer. One of the most common techniques to detect CNAs is array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The availability of aCGH platforms and the need for identification of CNAs has resulted in a wealth of methodological studies. Methodology/Principal Findings ADaCGH is an R package and a web-based application for the analysis of aCGH data. It implements eight methods for detection of CNAs, gains and losses of genomic DNA, including all of the best performing ones from two recent reviews (CBS, GLAD, CGHseg, HMM). For improved speed, we use parallel computing (via MPI). Additional information (GO terms, PubMed citations, KEGG and Reactome pathways) is available for individual genes, and for sets of genes with altered copy numbers. Conclusions/Significance ADaCGH represents a qualitative increase in the standards of these types of applications: a) all of the best performing algorithms are included, not just one or two; b) we do not limit ourselves to providing a thin layer of CGI on top of existing BioConductor packages, but instead carefully use parallelization, examining different schemes, and are able to achieve significant decreases in user waiting time (factors up to 45×); c) we have added functionality not currently available in some methods, to adapt to recent recommendations (e.g., merging of segmentation results in wavelet-based and CGHseg algorithms); d) we incorporate redundancy, fault-tolerance and checkpointing, which are unique among web-based, parallelized applications; e) all of the code is available under open source licenses, allowing to build upon, copy, and adapt our code for other software projects. PMID:17710137

  19. Languages for artificial intelligence: Implementing a scheduler in LISP and in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1988-01-01

    A prototype scheduler for space experiments originally programmed in a dialect of LISP using some of the more traditional techniques of that language, was recast using an object-oriented LISP, Common LISP with Flavors on the Symbolics. This object-structured version was in turn partially implemented in Ada. The Flavors version showed a decided improvement in both speed of execution and readability of code. The recasting into Ada involved various practical problems of implementation as well as certain challenges of reconceptualization in going from one language to the other. Advantages were realized, however, in greater clarity of the code, especially where more standard flow of control was used. This exercise raised issues about the influence of programming language on the design of flexible and sensitive programs such as schedule planners, and called attention to the importance of factors external to the languages themselves such as system embeddedness, hardware context, and programmer practice.

  20. MARE2DEM: a 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Kerry

    2016-08-01

    This work presents MARE2DEM, a freely available code for 2-D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data and frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from onshore and offshore surveys. MARE2DEM parameterizes the inverse model using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygons, where unstructured triangular or quadrilateral grids are typically used due to their ease of construction. Unstructured grids provide significantly more geometric flexibility and parameter efficiency than the structured rectangular grids commonly used by most other inversion codes. Transmitter and receiver components located on topographic slopes can be tilted parallel to the boundary so that the simulated electromagnetic fields accurately reproduce the real survey geometry. The forward solution is implemented with a goal-oriented adaptive finite element method that automatically generates and refines unstructured triangular element grids that conform to the inversion parameter grid, ensuring accurate responses as the model conductivity changes. This dual-grid approach is significantly more efficient than the conventional use of a single grid for both the forward and inverse meshes since the more detailed finite element meshes required for accurate responses do not increase the memory requirements of the inverse problem. Forward solutions are computed in parallel with a highly efficient scaling by partitioning the data into smaller independent modeling tasks consisting of subsets of the input frequencies, transmitters and receivers. Non-linear inversion is carried out with a new Occam inversion approach that requires fewer forward calls. Dense matrix operations are optimized for memory and parallel scalability using the ScaLAPACK parallel library. Free parameters can be bounded using a new non-linear transformation that leaves the transformed parameters nearly the same as the original parameters within the bounds, thereby reducing non-linear smoothing effects. Data

  1. MARE2DEM: a 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Kerry

    2016-10-01

    This work presents MARE2DEM, a freely available code for 2-D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data and frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from onshore and offshore surveys. MARE2DEM parametrizes the inverse model using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygons, where unstructured triangular or quadrilateral grids are typically used due to their ease of construction. Unstructured grids provide significantly more geometric flexibility and parameter efficiency than the structured rectangular grids commonly used by most other inversion codes. Transmitter and receiver components located on topographic slopes can be tilted parallel to the boundary so that the simulated electromagnetic fields accurately reproduce the real survey geometry. The forward solution is implemented with a goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method that automatically generates and refines unstructured triangular element grids that conform to the inversion parameter grid, ensuring accurate responses as the model conductivity changes. This dual-grid approach is significantly more efficient than the conventional use of a single grid for both the forward and inverse meshes since the more detailed finite-element meshes required for accurate responses do not increase the memory requirements of the inverse problem. Forward solutions are computed in parallel with a highly efficient scaling by partitioning the data into smaller independent modeling tasks consisting of subsets of the input frequencies, transmitters and receivers. Non-linear inversion is carried out with a new Occam inversion approach that requires fewer forward calls. Dense matrix operations are optimized for memory and parallel scalability using the ScaLAPACK parallel library. Free parameters can be bounded using a new non-linear transformation that leaves the transformed parameters nearly the same as the original parameters within the bounds, thereby reducing non-linear smoothing effects. Data

  2. QUEST/Ada: Query utility environment for software testing of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1989-01-01

    Results of research and development efforts are presented for Task 1, Phase 2 of a general project entitled, The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. A prototype of the QUEST/Ada system was developed to collect data to determine the effectiveness of the rule-based testing paradigm. The prototype consists of five parts: the test data generator, the parser/scanner, the test coverage analyzer, a symbolic evaluator, and a data management facility, known as the Librarian. These components are discussed at length. Also presented is an experimental design for the evaluations, an overview of the project, and a schedule for its completion.

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada

  4. What Does It Take to Develop a Million Lines of Open Source Code?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ramil, Juan; Izquierdo-Cortazar, Daniel; Mens, Tom

    This article presents a preliminary and exploratory study of the relationship between size, on the one hand, and effort, duration and team size, on the other, for 11 Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects with current size ranging between between 0.6 and 5.3 million lines of code (MLOC). Effort was operationalised based on the number of active committers per month. The extracted data did not fit well an early version of the closed-source cost estimation model COCOMO for proprietary software, overall suggesting that, at least to some extent, FLOSS communities are more productive than closed-source teams. This also motivated the need for FLOSS-specific effort models. As a first approximation, we evaluated 16 linear regression models involving different pairs of attributes. One of our experiments was to calculate the net size, that is, to remove any suspiciously large outliers or jumps in the growth trends. The best model we found involved effort against net size, accounting for 79 percent of the variance. This model was based on data excluding a possible outlier (Eclipse), the largest project in our sample. This suggests that different effort models may be needed for certain categories of FLOSS projects. Incidentally, for each of the 11 individual FLOSS projects we were able to model the net size trends with very high accuracy (R 2 ≥ 0.98). Of the 11 projects, 3 have grown superlinearly, 5 linearly and 3 sublinearly, suggesting that in the majority of the cases accumulated complexity is either well controlled or don’t constitute a growth constraining factor.

  5. Robust image transmission using a new joint source channel coding algorithm and dual adaptive OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshchian, Masoud; Cho, Sungdae; Pearlman, William A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of robust image coding and packetization for the purpose of communications over slow fading frequency selective channels and channels with a shaped spectrum like those of digital subscribe lines (DSL). Towards this end, a novel and analytically based joint source channel coding (JSCC) algorithm to assign unequal error protection is presented. Under a block budget constraint, the image bitstream is de-multiplexed into two classes with different error responses. The algorithm assigns unequal error protection (UEP) in a way to minimize the expected mean square error (MSE) at the receiver while minimizing the probability of catastrophic failure. In order to minimize the expected mean square error at the receiver, the algorithm assigns unequal protection to the value bit class (VBC) stream. In order to minimizes the probability of catastrophic error which is a characteristic of progressive image coders, the algorithm assigns more protection to the location bit class (LBC) stream than the VBC stream. Besides having the advantage of being analytical and also numerically solvable, the algorithm is based on a new formula developed to estimate the distortion rate (D-R) curve for the VBC portion of SPIHT. The major advantage of our technique is that the worst case instantaneous minimum peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) does not differ greatly from the averge MSE while this is not the case for the optimal single stream (UEP) system. Although both average PSNR of our method and the optimal single stream UEP are about the same, our scheme does not suffer erratic behavior because we have made the probability of catastrophic error arbitarily small. The coded image is sent via orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) which is a known and increasing popular modulation scheme to combat ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) and impulsive noise. Using dual adaptive energy OFDM, we use the minimum energy necessary to send each bit stream at a

  6. Association of G22A and A4223C ADA1 gene polymorphisms and ADA activity with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Salehabadi, Mahshid; Farimani, Marzieh; Tavilani, Heidar; Ghorbani, Marzieh; Poormonsefi, Faranak; Poorolajal, Jalal; Shafiei, Gholamreza; Ghasemkhani, Neda; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase-1 (ADA1) regulates the concentration of adenosine as the main modulator of oocyte maturation. There is compelling evidence for the association of ADA1 gene polymorphisms with many diseases but the importance of ADA1 polymorphisms in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not been studied before. This study investigates serum total ADA activity (tADA), ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities, and genotype and allele frequencies of G22A and A4223C polymorphisms in healthy and PCOS women. In this case-control study 200 PCOS patients and 200 healthy women were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and the PCR-RFLP technique was used to determine the G22A and A4223C variants. The genotype frequencies were calculated and the association between polymorphic genotypes and enzyme activities were determined. tADA activity was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared with the control group (27.76±6.0 vs. 39.63±7.48, respectively). PCOS patients also showed reduced activity of ADA1 and ADA2. PCOS was not associated with G22A polymorphism whereas AA, AC, and CC genotypes of A4223C polymorphism were found distributed differently between the control and the PCOS women where the C allele showed a strong protective role for PCOS (odds ratio=1.876, p=0.033). The present study for the first time showed that lower ADA activity may be involved in pathogenesis of PCOS by maintaining a higher concentration of adenosine affecting follicular growth. As a novel finding, we also showed great differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of A4223C polymorphism between groups indicating a protective role for C allele against PCOS. AbbreviationsADA: adenosine deaminase PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome PCR-RFLP: polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism tADA: total adenosine deaminase.

  7. Ada(R) Test and Verification System (ATVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelich, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The Ada Test and Verification System (ATVS) functional description and high level design are completed and summarized. The ATVS will provide a comprehensive set of test and verification capabilities specifically addressing the features of the Ada language, support for embedded system development, distributed environments, and advanced user interface capabilities. Its design emphasis was on effective software development environment integration and flexibility to ensure its long-term use in the Ada software development community.

  8. Software engineering and the role of Ada: Executive seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to introduce the basic terminology and concepts of software engineering and Ada. The life cycle model is reviewed. The application of the goals and principles of software engineering is applied. An introductory understanding of the features of the Ada language is gained. Topics addressed include: the software crises; the mandate of the Space Station Program; software life cycle model; software engineering; and Ada under the software engineering umbrella.

  9. Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.

  10. Comparison of TG-43 dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources obtained by three different versions of MCNP codes.

    PubMed

    Zaker, Neda; Zehtabian, Mehdi; Sina, Sedigheh; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used for calculation of the dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources. MCNP4C2, MCNP5, MCNPX, EGS4, EGSnrc, PTRAN, and GEANT4 are among the most commonly used codes in this field. Each of these codes utilizes a cross-sectional library for the purpose of simulating different elements and materials with complex chemical compositions. The accuracies of the final outcomes of these simulations are very sensitive to the accuracies of the cross-sectional libraries. Several investigators have shown that inaccuracies of some of the cross section files have led to errors in 125I and 103Pd parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters of sample brachytherapy sources, calculated with three different versions of the MCNP code - MCNP4C, MCNP5, and MCNPX. In these simulations for each source type, the source and phantom geometries, as well as the number of the photons, were kept identical, thus eliminating the possible uncertainties. The results of these investigations indicate that for low-energy sources such as 125I and 103Pd there are discrepancies in gL(r) values. Discrepancies up to 21.7% and 28% are observed between MCNP4C and other codes at a distance of 6 cm for 103Pd and 10 cm for 125I from the source, respectively. However, for higher energy sources, the discrepancies in gL(r) values are less than 1.1% for 192Ir and less than 1.2% for 137Cs between the three codes. PMID:27074460

  11. ADA (adenosine deaminase) gene therapy enters the competition

    SciTech Connect

    Culliton, B.J.

    1990-08-31

    Around the world, some 70 children are members of a select and deadly club. Born with an immune deficiency so severe that they will die of infection unless their immune systems can be repaired, they have captured the attention of would-be gene therapists who believe that a handful of these kids--the 15 or 20 who lack functioning levels of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA)--could be saved by a healthy ADA gene. A team of gene therapists is ready to put the theory to the test. In April 1987, a team of NIH researchers headed by R. Michael Blaese and W. French Anderson came up with the first formal protocol to introduce a healthy ADA gene into an unhealthy human. After 3 years of line-by-line scrutiny by five review committees, they have permission to go ahead. Two or three children will be treated in the next year, and will be infused with T lymphocytes carrying the gene for ADA. If the experiment works, the ADA gene will begin producing normal amounts of ADA. An interesting feature of ADA deficiency, that makes it ideal for initial gene studies, is that the amount of ADA one needs for a healthy immune system is quite variable. Hence, once inside a patient's T cells, the new ADA gene needs only to express the enzyme in moderate amounts. No precise gene regulation is necessary.

  12. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  13. Assume-Guarantee Verification of Source Code with Design-Level Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Cobleigh, Jamieson M.

    2004-01-01

    Model checking is an automated technique that can be used to determine whether a system satisfies certain required properties. To address the 'state explosion' problem associated with this technique, we propose to integrate assume-guarantee verification at different phases of system development. During design, developers build abstract behavioral models of the system components and use them to establish key properties of the system. To increase the scalability of model checking at this level, we have developed techniques that automatically decompose the verification task by generating component assumptions for the properties to hold. The design-level artifacts are subsequently used to guide the implementation of the system, but also to enable more efficient reasoning at the source code-level. In particular we propose to use design-level assumptions to similarly decompose the verification of the actual system implementation. We demonstrate our approach on a significant NASA application, where design-level models were used to identify; and correct a safety property violation, and design-level assumptions allowed us to check successfully that the property was presented by the implementation.

  14. PyVCI: A flexible open-source code for calculating accurate molecular infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibaev, Marat; Crittenden, Deborah L.

    2016-06-01

    The PyVCI program package is a general purpose open-source code for simulating accurate molecular spectra, based upon force field expansions of the potential energy surface in normal mode coordinates. It includes harmonic normal coordinate analysis and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) algorithms, implemented primarily in Python for accessibility but with time-consuming routines written in C. Coriolis coupling terms may be optionally included in the vibrational Hamiltonian. Non-negligible VCI matrix elements are stored in sparse matrix format to alleviate the diagonalization problem. CPU and memory requirements may be further controlled by algorithmic choices and/or numerical screening procedures, and recommended values are established by benchmarking using a test set of 44 molecules for which accurate analytical potential energy surfaces are available. Force fields in normal mode coordinates are obtained from the PyPES library of high quality analytical potential energy surfaces (to 6th order) or by numerical differentiation of analytic second derivatives generated using the GAMESS quantum chemical program package (to 4th order).

  15. Source coherence impairments in a direct detection direct sequence optical code-division multiple-access system.

    PubMed

    Fsaifes, Ihsan; Lepers, Catherine; Lourdiane, Mounia; Gallion, Philippe; Beugin, Vincent; Guignard, Philippe

    2007-02-01

    We demonstrate that direct sequence optical code- division multiple-access (DS-OCDMA) encoders and decoders using sampled fiber Bragg gratings (S-FBGs) behave as multipath interferometers. In that case, chip pulses of the prime sequence codes generated by spreading in time-coherent data pulses can result from multiple reflections in the interferometers that can superimpose within a chip time duration. We show that the autocorrelation function has to be considered as the sum of complex amplitudes of the combined chip as the laser source coherence time is much greater than the integration time of the photodetector. To reduce the sensitivity of the DS-OCDMA system to the coherence time of the laser source, we analyze the use of sparse and nonperiodic quadratic congruence and extended quadratic congruence codes.

  16. Acoustic Scattering by Three-Dimensional Stators and Rotors Using the SOURCE3D Code. Volume 2; Scattering Plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This second volume of Acoustic Scattering by Three-Dimensional Stators and Rotors Using the SOURCE3D Code provides the scattering plots referenced by Volume 1. There are 648 plots. Half are for the 8750 rpm "high speed" operating condition and the other half are for the 7031 rpm "mid speed" operating condition.

  17. Sharing the Dream: Is the ADA Accommodating All? A Report on the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Michael L.; Jefferson, Tricia; de La Viez, Barbara; Park, Jenny Kim; Reilly, Peter; Quarterman, Bernard

    This report, generated by a Congressional hearing, analyzes the goals intended for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the impact on those it was intended to protect. It also discusses the practical effects of the ADA, recent Supreme Court decisions and judicial trends in ADA enforcement, substance abuse and the ADA, and the ADA's…

  18. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  19. A design for a reusable Ada library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litke, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A goal of the Ada language standardization effort is to promote reuse of software, implying the existence of substantial software libraries and the storage/retrieval mechanisms to support them. A searching/cataloging mechanism is proposed that permits full or partial distribution of the database, adapts to a variety of searching mechanisms, permits a changine taxonomy with minimal disruption, and minimizes the requirement of specialized cataloger/indexer skills. The important observation is that key words serve not only as indexing mechanism, but also as an identification mechanism, especially via concatenation and as support for a searching mechanism. By deliberately separating these multiple uses, the modifiability and ease of growth that current libraries require, is achieved.

  20. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures. PMID:25321094

  1. 49 CFR 37.123 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. 37.123 Section 37.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.123...

  2. The ADA and IDEA Basics: Inclusion of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motwani, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The ADA is a federal civil rights law that was passed in 1990 with the aim of securing equal rights for persons with disabilities in the employment, housing, government, transportation, and public accommodation contexts. It…

  3. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  4. Communication and the ADA (Effective Communication and Accessibility).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.

    This brief fact sheet addresses the following concerns about effective communication and accessibility under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): requirements under the ADA for achieving effective communication (e.g., provision of necessary auxiliary communication aids and services); identification of necessary communication aids and…

  5. Artificial Intelligence in ADA: Pattern-Directed Processing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeker, Larry H.; And Others

    To demonstrate to computer programmers that the programming language Ada provides superior facilities for use in artificial intelligence applications, the three papers included in this report investigate the capabilities that exist within Ada for "pattern-directed" programming. The first paper (Larry H. Reeker, Tulane University) is designed to…

  6. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  7. Translation and execution of distributed Ada programs - Is it still Ada?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Buzzard, Gregory D.; Krishnan, Padmanabhan

    1987-01-01

    Some of the fundamental issues and tradeoffs for distributed execution systems for the Ada language are examined. Steps that need to be taken to deal with heterogeneity of addressing program objects, of processing resources, and of the individual processor environment are considered. The ways in which program elements can be assigned are examined in the context of four issues: implied remote object access, object visibility and recursive execution, task termination problems, and distributed types.

  8. The ADA at three years: a statute in flux.

    PubMed

    Coil, J H; Shapiro, L J

    1996-01-01

    In the three years since the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted, significant developments have occurred in the form of new administrative and judicial interpretations of the Act. The new guidelines and decisions will assist employers in complying with the ambiguous, and sometimes confusing, provisions of the ADA. Recent developments in areas such as the definition of a disability and the permissibility of medical inquiries, along with continuing developments in the areas of mental disabilities and defining reasonable accommodations, give employers insight into the obligations created by the ADA. These developments are a good starting point to understanding the ADA, but there is still a long way to go. This article surveys the recent developments in the law and examines the considerations that have become important to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the courts in interpreting the ADA's provisions.

  9. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  10. Numerical modeling of the Linac4 negative ion source extraction region by 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lettry, J.; Minea, T.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Schmitzer, C.; Midttun, O.; Steyaert, D.

    2013-02-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator Linac4. The source is planned to produce 80 mA of H- with an emittance of 0.25 mm mradN-RMS which is technically and scientifically very challenging. The optimization of the NI source requires a deep understanding of the underling physics concerning the production and extraction of the negative ions. The extraction mechanism from the negative ion source is complex involving a magnetic filter in order to cool down electrons' temperature. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code is used to address this problem. The ONIX is a selfconsistent 3D electrostatic code using Particles-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) approach. It was written to handle the complex boundary conditions between plasma, source walls, and beam formation at the extraction hole. Both, the positive extraction potential (25kV) and the magnetic field map are taken from the experimental set-up, in construction at CERN. This contribution focuses on the modeling of two different extractors (IS01, IS02) of the Linac4 ion sources. The most efficient extraction system is analyzed via numerical parametric studies. The influence of aperture's geometry and the strength of the magnetic filter field on the extracted electron and NI current will be discussed. The NI production of sources based on volume extraction and cesiated surface are also compared.

  11. First International Conference on Ada (R) Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed include: test and verification; environment issues; distributed Ada issues; life cycle issues; Ada in Europe; management/training issues; common Ada interface set; and run time issues.

  12. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  13. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 1 report: Overall design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The design methodology for the ART/Ada project is introduced, and the selected design for ART/Ada is described in detail. The following topics are included: object-oriented design, reusable software, documentation techniques, impact of Ada, design approach, and differences between ART-IM 1.5 and ART/Ada 1.0 prototype. Also, Ada generator and ART/Ada runtime systems are discussed.

  14. EchoSeed Model 6733 Iodine-125 brachytherapy source: Improved dosimetric characterization using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Hadad, K.; Faghihi, R.; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, M.; Naghshnezhad, Z.; Meigooni, A. S.

    2012-08-15

    This study primarily aimed to obtain the dosimetric characteristics of the Model 6733 {sup 125}I seed (EchoSeed) with improved precision and accuracy using a more up-to-date Monte-Carlo code and data (MCNP5) compared to previously published results, including an uncertainty analysis. Its secondary aim was to compare the results obtained using the MCNP5, MCNP4c2, and PTRAN codes for simulation of this low-energy photon-emitting source. The EchoSeed geometry and chemical compositions together with a published {sup 125}I spectrum were used to perform dosimetric characterization of this source as per the updated AAPM TG-43 protocol. These simulations were performed in liquid water material in order to obtain the clinically applicable dosimetric parameters for this source model. Dose rate constants in liquid water, derived from MCNP4c2 and MCNP5 simulations, were found to be 0.993 cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} ({+-}1.73%) and 0.965 cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} ({+-}1.68%), respectively. Overall, the MCNP5 derived radial dose and 2D anisotropy functions results were generally closer to the measured data (within {+-}4%) than MCNP4c and the published data for PTRAN code (Version 7.43), while the opposite was seen for dose rate constant. The generally improved MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulation may be attributed to a more recent and accurate cross-section library. However, some of the data points in the results obtained from the above-mentioned Monte Carlo codes showed no statistically significant differences. Derived dosimetric characteristics in liquid water are provided for clinical applications of this source model.

  15. Production version of the extended NASA-Langley vortex lattice FORTRAN computer program. Volume 2: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, H. E.; Lamar, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The source code for the latest production version, MARK IV, of the NASA-Langley Vortex Lattice Computer Program is presented. All viable subcritical aerodynamic features of previous versions were retained. This version extends the previously documented program capabilities to four planforms, 400 panels, and enables the user to obtain vortex-flow aerodynamics on cambered planforms, flowfield properties off the configuration in attached flow, and planform longitudinal load distributions.

  16. General Purpose Kernel Integration Shielding Code System-Point and Extended Gamma-Ray Sources.

    1981-06-11

    PELSHIE3 calculates dose rates from gamma-emitting sources with different source geometries and shielding configurations. Eight source geometries are provided and are called by means of geometry index numbers. Gamma-emission characteristics for 134 isotopes, attenuation coefficients for 57 elements or shielding materials and Berger build-up parameters for 17 shielding materials can be obtained from a direct access data library by specifying only the appropriate library numbers. A different option allows these data to be read frommore » cards. For extended sources, constant source strengths as well as exponential and Bessel function source strength distributions are allowed in most cases.« less

  17. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  18. Supporting the Cybercrime Investigation Process: Effective Discrimination of Source Code Authors Based on Byte-Level Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskou, Georgia; Stamatatos, Efstathios; Gritzalis, Stefanos

    Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing the source of code left in the system after a cyber attack, authorship disputes, proof of authorship in court, etc. In this paper, we present our approach which is based on byte-level n-gram profiles and is an extension of a method that has been successfully applied to natural language text authorship attribution. We propose a simplified profile and a new similarity measure which is less complicated than the algorithm followed in text authorship attribution and it seems more suitable for source code identification since is better able to deal with very small training sets. Experiments were performed on two different data sets, one with programs written in C++ and the second with programs written in Java. Unlike the traditional language-dependent metrics used by previous studies, our approach can be applied to any programming language with no additional cost. The presented accuracy rates are much better than the best reported results for the same data sets.

  19. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  20. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Ada performance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the Ada Performance Study are described. The methods used are explained. Guidelines for future Ada development efforts are given. The goals and scope of the study are detailed, and the background of Ada development in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is presented. The organization and overall purpose of each test are discussed. The purpose, methods, and results of each test and analyses of these results are given. Guidelines for future development efforts based on the analysis of results from this study are provided. The approach used on the performance tests is discussed.

  1. Applications of an architecture design and assessment system (ADAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, F. Gail; Debrunner, Linda S.; White, Tennis S.

    1988-01-01

    A new Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) tool package is introduced, and a range of possible applications is illustrated. ADAS was used to evaluate the performance of an advanced fault-tolerant computer architecture in a modern flight control application. Bottlenecks were identified and possible solutions suggested. The tool was also used to inject faults into the architecture and evaluate the synchronization algorithm, and improvements are suggested. Finally, ADAS was used as a front end research tool to aid in the design of reconfiguration algorithms in a distributed array architecture.

  2. Ada and software management in NASA: Symposium/forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The promises of Ada to improve software productivity and quality, and the claims that a transition to Ada would require significant changes in NASA's training programs and ways of doing business were investigated. The study assesses the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities. A series of industry representatives (Computer Sciences Corporation, General Electric Aerospace, McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company, TRW, Lockheed, and Boeing) reviewed the recommendations and assessed their impact from the Company's perspective. The potential effects on NASA programs were then discussed.

  3. Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, Tousson R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

  4. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model. PMID:16604671

  5. The Impact of Causality on Information-Theoretic Source and Channel Coding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiyanur, Harikrishna R.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies several problems in information theory where the notion of causality comes into play. Causality in information theory refers to the timing of when information is available to parties in a coding system. The first part of the thesis studies the error exponent (or reliability function) for several communication problems over…

  6. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  7. Pre-coding method and apparatus for multiple source or time-shifted single source data and corresponding inverse post-decoding method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A pre-coding method and device for improving data compression performance by removing correlation between a first original data set and a second original data set, each having M members, respectively. The pre-coding method produces a compression-efficiency-enhancing double-difference data set. The method and device produce a double-difference data set, i.e., an adjacent-delta calculation performed on a cross-delta data set or a cross-delta calculation performed on two adjacent-delta data sets, from either one of (1) two adjacent spectral bands coming from two discrete sources, respectively, or (2) two time-shifted data sets coming from a single source. The resulting double-difference data set is then coded using either a distortionless data encoding scheme (entropy encoding) or a lossy data compression scheme. Also, a post-decoding method and device for recovering a second original data set having been represented by such a double-difference data set.

  8. Pre-coding method and apparatus for multiple source or time-shifted single source data and corresponding inverse post-decoding method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pre-coding method and device for improving data compression performance by removing correlation between a first original data set and a second original data set, each having M members, respectively. The pre-coding method produces a compression-efficiency-enhancing double-difference data set. The method and device produce a double-difference data set, i.e., an adjacent-delta calculation performed on a cross-delta data set or a cross-delta calculation performed on two adjacent-delta data sets, from either one of (1) two adjacent spectral bands coming from two discrete sources, respectively, or (2) two time-shifted data sets coming from a single source. The resulting double-difference data set is then coded using either a distortionless data encoding scheme (entropy encoding) or a lossy data compression scheme. Also, a post-decoding method and device for recovering a second original data set having been represented by such a double-difference data set.

  9. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.; Carlisle, Homer W.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H.; Deason, William H.; Haga, Kevin D.; Huggins, John R.; Keleher, William R. A.; Starke, Benjamin B.; Weyrich, Orville R.

    1989-01-01

    A unit level, Ada software module testing system, called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada), is described. The project calls for the design and development of a prototype system. QUEST/Ada design began with a definition of the overall system structure and a description of component dependencies. The project team was divided into three groups to resolve the preliminary designs of the parser/scanner: the test data generator, and the test coverage analyzer. The Phase 1 report is a working document from which the system documentation will evolve. It provides history, a guide to report sections, a literature review, the definition of the system structure and high level interfaces, descriptions of the prototype scope, the three major components, and the plan for the remainder of the project. The appendices include specifications, statistics, two papers derived from the current research, a preliminary users' manual, and the proposal and work plan for Phase 2.

  10. The Adam language: Ada extended with support for multiway activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The Adam language is an extension of Ada that supports multiway activities, which are cooperative activities involving two or more processes. This support is provided by three new constructs: diva procedures, meet statements, and multiway accept statements. Diva procedures are recursive generic procedures having a particular restrictive syntax that facilitates translation for parallel computers. Meet statements and multiway accept statements provide two ways to express a multiway rendezvous, which is an n-way rendezvous generalizing Ada's 2-way rendezvous. While meet statements tend to have simpler rules than multiway accept statements, the latter approach is a more straightforward extension of Ada. The only nonnull statements permitted within meet statements and multiway accept statements are calls on instantiated diva procedures. A call on an instantiated diva procedure is also permitted outside a multiway rendezvous; thus sequential Adam programs using diva procedures can be written. Adam programs are translated into Ada programs appropriate for use on parallel computers.

  11. A report on NASA software engineering and Ada training requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn B.; Svabek, L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's software engineering and Ada skill base are assessed and information that may result in new models for software engineering, Ada training plans, and curricula are provided. A quantitative assessment which reflects the requirements for software engineering and Ada training across NASA is provided. A recommended implementation plan including a suggested curriculum with associated duration per course and suggested means of delivery is also provided. The distinction between education and training is made. Although it was directed to focus on NASA's need for the latter, the key relationships to software engineering education are also identified. A rationale and strategy for implementing a life cycle education and training program are detailed in support of improved software engineering practices and the transition to Ada.

  12. Applicability of the MCPNX particle transport code for determination of the source correction effect in positron lifetime measurements on thin polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Urban-Klaehn

    2007-09-01

    The method presented herein uses the MCNPX Monte Carlo particle transport code to track individual positrons and other particles through geometry that accounts for the detectors, backing foils, samples and sources with their actual sizes, positions and material characteristics. Polymer material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with different thickness of films served as samples. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and the MCNPX simulation of source correction effects for varied positron sources and different film thicknesses validates the applicability of the MCNPX code.

  13. Designing with Ada for satellite simulation: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Church, V. E.; Card, D. N.; Lo, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    A FORTRAN oriented and an Ada oriented design for the same system are compared to learn whether an essentially different design was produced using Ada. The designs were produced by an experiment that involves the parallel development of software for a spacecraft dynamics simulator. Design differences are identified in the use of abstractions, system structure, and simulator operations. Although the designs were vastly different, this result may be influenced by some special characteristics discussed.

  14. Designing with Ada for satellite simulation: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, William W.; Church, Victor E.; Card, David N.; Lo, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    A FORTRAN-operated and an Ada-oriented design for the same system are compared to learn whether an essentially different design was produced using Ada. The designs were produced by an experiment that involves the parallel development of software for a spacecraft dynamics simulator. Design differences are identified in the use of abstractions, system structure, and simulator operations. Although the designs were significantly different, this result may be influenced by some special characteristics discussed.

  15. Compiling knowledge-based systems specified in KEE to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Feldman, Roy D.

    1991-01-01

    The first year of the PrKAda project is recounted. The primary goal was to develop a system for delivering Artificial Intelligence applications developed in the ProKappa system in a pure-Ada environment. The following areas are discussed: the ProKappa core and ProTalk programming language; the current status of the implementation; the limitations and restrictions of the current system; and the development of Ada-language message handlers in the ProKappa environment.

  16. Programming in a proposed 9X distributed Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    The studies of the proposed Ada 9X constructs for distribution, now referred to as AdaPT are reported. The goals for this time period were to revise the chosen example scenario and to begin studying about how the proposed constructs might be implemented. The example scenario chosen is the Submarine Combat Information Center (CIC) developed by IBM for the Navy. The specification provided by IBM was preliminary and had several deficiencies. To address these problems, some changes to the scenario specification were made. Some of the more important changes include: (1) addition of a system database management function; (2) addition of a fourth processing unit to the standard resources; (3) addition of an operator console interface function; and (4) removal of the time synchronization function. To implement the CIC scenario in AdaPT, the decided strategy were publics, partitions, and nodes. The principle purpose for implementing the CIC scenario was to demonstrate how the AdaPT constructs interact with the program structure. While considering ways that the AdaPt constructs might be translated to Ada 83, it was observed that the partition construct could reasonably be modeled as an abstract data type. Although this gives a useful method of modeling partitions, it does not at all address the configuration aspects on the node construct.

  17. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change. PMID:26708116

  18. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  19. Forward vehicle detection using cluster-based AdaBoost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Yeul-Min; Kim, Whoi-Yul

    2014-10-01

    A camera-based forward vehicle detection method with range estimation for forward collision warning system (FCWS) is presented. Previous vehicle detection methods that use conventional classifiers are not robust in a real driving environment because they lack the effectiveness of classifying vehicle samples with high intraclass variation and noise. Therefore, an improved AdaBoost, named cluster-based AdaBoost (C-AdaBoost), for classifying noisy samples along with a forward vehicle detection method are presented in this manuscript. The experiments performed consist of two parts: performance evaluations of C-AdaBoost and forward vehicle detection. The proposed C-AdaBoost shows better performance than conventional classification algorithms on the synthetic as well as various real-world datasets. In particular, when the dataset has more noisy samples, C-AdaBoost outperforms conventional classification algorithms. The proposed method is also tested with an experimental vehicle on a proving ground and on public roads, ˜62 km in length. The proposed method shows a 97% average detection rate and requires only 9.7 ms per frame. The results show the reliability of the proposed method FCWS in terms of both detection rate and processing time.

  20. kspectrum: an open-source code for high-resolution molecular absorption spectra production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eymet, V.; Coustet, C.; Piaud, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the kspectrum, scientific code that produces high-resolution synthetic absorption spectra from public molecular transition parameters databases. This code was originally required by the atmospheric and astrophysics communities, and its evolution is now driven by new scientific projects among the user community. Since it was designed without any optimization that would be specific to any particular application field, its use could also be extended to other domains. kspectrum produces spectral data that can subsequently be used either for high-resolution radiative transfer simulations, or for producing statistic spectral model parameters using additional tools. This is a open project that aims at providing an up-to-date tool that takes advantage of modern computational hardware and recent parallelization libraries. It is currently provided by Méso-Star (http://www.meso-star.com) under the CeCILL license, and benefits from regular updates and improvements.

  1. Complementary coding optical stealth transmission based on amplified spontaneous emission light source.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Chen, Yinfang; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin; Su, Guorui

    2014-11-17

    Complementary encoder of stealth signal is proposed and demonstrated for coding, modulating and enhancing the privacy of optical stealth transmission. With complementary encoding, the stealth signal carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light keeps the same characteristic to ASE noise and can be concealed well under public channel. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme and show the stealth signal has the same impact on public channel in transmission performance, compared to the ASE noise.

  2. Proceedings of the third international IEEE conference on Ada applications and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on software applications. Topics include: An interleaving symbolic execution approach for the formal verification of Ada programs with tasking, fault-tolerant Ada software, object-oriented frameworks for Ada, and generating multitasking Ada programs from high-level specifications.

  3. Two Arabidopsis orthologs of the transcriptional coactivator ADA2 have distinct biological functions.

    PubMed

    Hark, Amy T; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Pavangadkar, Kanchan A; Rao, Sumana; Gordon, Hillary; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis; Kaldis, Athanasios; Thomashow, Michael F; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2009-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an example of covalent modification of chromatin structure that has the potential to regulate gene expression. Gcn5 is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that associates with the transcriptional coactivator Ada2. In Arabidopsis, two genes encode proteins that resemble yeast ADA2 and share approximately 45% amino acid sequence identity. We previously reported that plants harboring a T-DNA insertion in the ADA2b gene display a dwarf phenotype with developmental defects in several organs. Here we describe T-DNA insertion alleles in the ADA2a gene, which result in no dramatic growth or developmental phenotype. Both ADA2a and ADA2b are expressed in a variety of plant tissues; moreover, expression of ADA2a from a constitutive promoter fails to complement the ada2b-1 mutant phenotype, consistent with the hypothesis that the two proteins have distinct biochemical roles. To further probe the cellular roles of ADA2a and ADA2b, we studied the response of the transcriptional coactivator mutants to abiotic stress. Although ada2b seedlings display hypersensitivity to salt and abscisic acid and altered responses to low temperature stress, the responses of ada2a seedlings to abiotic stress generally parallel those of wildtype plants. Intriguingly, ada2a;ada2b double mutant plants display an intermediate, gcn5-like phenotype, suggesting that ADA2a and ADA2b each work independently with GCN5 to affect genome function in Arabidopsis.

  4. Cultural Diversity and the ADA. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Susanne M.; Hoying, Joyce

    One of a series of guides on implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this guide focuses on cultural diversity and the ADA. First, the major components of the ADA are summarized. This is followed by discussion of employer considerations in addressing cultural diversity issues and implications of the ADA, such as diversity…

  5. Description of a MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus Ada Driver for the LeRC EPS Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the software designed to provide communication between control computers in the NASA Lewis Research Center Electrical Power System Testbed using MIL-STD-1553B. The software drivers are coded in the Ada programming language and were developed on a MSDOS-based computer workstation. The Electrical Power System (EPS) Testbed is a reduced-scale prototype space station electrical power system. The power system manages and distributes electrical power from the sources (batteries or photovoltaic arrays) to the end-user loads. The electrical system primary operates at 120 volts DC, and the secondary system operates at 28 volts DC. The devices which direct the flow of electrical power are controlled by a network of six control computers. Data and control messages are passed between the computers using the MIL-STD-1553B network. One of the computers, the Power Management Controller (PMC), controls the primary power distribution and another, the Load Management Controller (LMC), controls the secondary power distribution. Each of these computers communicates with two other computers which act as subsidiary controllers. These subsidiary controllers are, in turn, connected to the devices which directly control the flow of electrical power.

  6. On the Efficacy of Source Code Optimizations for Cache-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saphir, William C.

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining high performance without machine-specific tuning is an important goal of scientific application programmers. Since most scientific processing is done on commodity microprocessors with hierarchical memory systems, this goal of "portable performance" can be achieved if a common set of optimization principles is effective for all such systems. It is widely believed, or at least hoped, that portable performance can be realized. The rule of thumb for optimization on hierarchical memory systems is to maximize temporal and spatial locality of memory references by reusing data and minimizing memory access stride. We investigate the effects of a number of optimizations on the performance of three related kernels taken from a computational fluid dynamics application. Timing the kernels on a range of processors, we observe an inconsistent and often counterintuitive impact of the optimizations on performance. In particular, code variations that have a positive impact on one architecture can have a negative impact on another, and variations expected to be unimportant can produce large effects. Moreover, we find that cache miss rates - as reported by a cache simulation tool, and confirmed by hardware counters - only partially explain the results. By contrast, the compiler-generated assembly code provides more insight by revealing the importance of processor-specific instructions and of compiler maturity, both of which strongly, and sometimes unexpectedly, influence performance. We conclude that it is difficult to obtain performance portability on modern cache-based computers, and comment on the implications of this result.

  7. On the Efficacy of Source Code Optimizations for Cache-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Saphir, William C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining high performance without machine-specific tuning is an important goal of scientific application programmers. Since most scientific processing is done on commodity microprocessors with hierarchical memory systems, this goal of "portable performance" can be achieved if a common set of optimization principles is effective for all such systems. It is widely believed, or at least hoped, that portable performance can be realized. The rule of thumb for optimization on hierarchical memory systems is to maximize temporal and spatial locality of memory references by reusing data and minimizing memory access stride. We investigate the effects of a number of optimizations on the performance of three related kernels taken from a computational fluid dynamics application. Timing the kernels on a range of processors, we observe an inconsistent and often counterintuitive impact of the optimizations on performance. In particular, code variations that have a positive impact on one architecture can have a negative impact on another, and variations expected to be unimportant can produce large effects. Moreover, we find that cache miss rates-as reported by a cache simulation tool, and confirmed by hardware counters-only partially explain the results. By contrast, the compiler-generated assembly code provides more insight by revealing the importance of processor-specific instructions and of compiler maturity, both of which strongly, and sometimes unexpectedly, influence performance. We conclude that it is difficult to obtain performance portability on modern cache-based computers, and comment on the implications of this result.

  8. Simulation of parameter scaling in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas using the GEM code

    SciTech Connect

    Cluggish, B.; Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2010-02-15

    Although heating power and gas pressure are two of the two of primary experimental ''knobs'' available to users of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, there is still no clear understanding of how they interact in order to provide optimal plasma conditions. FAR-TECH, Inc. has performed a series of simulations with its generalized electron cyclotron resonance ion source model in which the power and pressure were varied over a wide range. Analysis of the numerical data produces scaling laws that predict the plasma parameters as a function of the power and pressure. These scaling laws are in general agreement with experimental data.

  9. Semi-device-independent randomness expansion with partially free random sources using 3 →1 quantum random access code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei; Li, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-09-01

    We have proved that new randomness can be certified by partially free sources using 2 →1 quantum random access code (QRAC) in the framework of semi-device-independent (SDI) protocols [Y.-Q. Zhou, H.-W. Li, Y.-K. Wang, D.-D. Li, F. Gao, and Q.-Y. Wen, Phys. Rev. A 92, 022331 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022331]. To improve the effectiveness of the randomness generation, here we propose the SDI randomness expansion using 3 →1 QRAC and obtain the corresponding classical and quantum bounds of the two-dimensional quantum witness. Moreover, we get the condition which should be satisfied by the partially free sources to successfully certify new randomness, and the analytic relationship between the certified randomness and the two-dimensional quantum witness violation.

  10. ACT-ARA: Code System for the Calculation of Changes in Radiological Source Terms with Time

    1988-02-01

    The program calculates the source term activity as a function of time for parent isotopes as well as daughters. Also, at each time, the "probable release" is produced. Finally, the program determines the time integrated probable release for each isotope over the time period of interest.

  11. Optimization of a photoneutron source based on 10 MeV electron beam using Geant4 Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Boubaker

    2015-10-01

    Geant4 Monte Carlo code has been used to conceive and optimize a simple and compact neutron source based on a 10 MeV electron beam impinging on a tungsten target adjoined to a beryllium target. For this purpose, a precise photonuclear reaction cross-section model issued from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database was linked to Geant4 to accurately simulate the interaction of low energy bremsstrahlung photons with beryllium material. A benchmark test showed that a good agreement was achieved when comparing the emitted neutron flux spectra predicted by Geant4 and Fluka codes for a beryllium cylinder bombarded with a 5 MeV photon beam. The source optimization was achieved through a two stage Monte Carlo simulation. In the first stage, the distributions of the seven phase space coordinates of the bremsstrahlung photons at the boundaries of the tungsten target were determined. In the second stage events corresponding to photons emitted according to these distributions were tracked. A neutron yield of 4.8 × 1010 neutrons/mA/s was obtained at 20 cm from the beryllium target. A thermal neutron yield of 1.5 × 109 neutrons/mA/s was obtained after introducing a spherical shell of polyethylene as a neutron moderator.

  12. Validation and verification of RELAP5 for Advanced Neutron Source accident analysis: Part I, comparisons to ANSDM and PRSDYN codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Ibn-Khayat, M.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-12-01

    As part of verification and validation, the Advanced Neutron Source reactor RELAP5 system model was benchmarked by the Advanced Neutron Source dynamic model (ANSDM) and PRSDYN models. RELAP5 is a one-dimensional, two-phase transient code, developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for reactor safety analysis. Both the ANSDM and PRSDYN models use a simplified single-phase equation set to predict transient thermal-hydraulic performance. Brief descriptions of each of the codes, models, and model limitations were included. Even though comparisons were limited to single-phase conditions, a broad spectrum of accidents was benchmarked: a small loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), a large LOCA, a station blackout, and a reactivity insertion accident. The overall conclusion is that the three models yield similar results if the input parameters are the same. However, ANSDM does not capture pressure wave propagation through the coolant system. This difference is significant in very rapid pipe break events. Recommendations are provided for further model improvements.

  13. Acoustic Scattering by Three-Dimensional Stators and Rotors Using the SOURCE3D Code. Volume 1; Analysis and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a study of rotor and stator scattering using the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. SOURCE3D is a quasi-three-dimensional computer program that uses three-dimensional acoustics and two-dimensional cascade load response theory to calculate rotor and stator modal reflection and transmission (scattering) coefficients. SOURCE3D is at the core of the TFaNS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System), developed for NASA, which provides complete fully coupled (inlet, rotor, stator, exit) noise solutions for turbofan engines. The reason for studying scattering is that we must first understand the behavior of the individual scattering coefficients provided by SOURCE3D, before eventually understanding the more complicated predictions from TFaNS. To study scattering, we have derived a large number of scattering curves for vane and blade rows. The curves are plots of output wave power divided by input wave power (in dB units) versus vane/blade ratio. Some of these plots are shown in this report. All of the plots are provided in a separate volume. To assist in understanding the plots, formulas have been derived for special vane/blade ratios for which wavefronts are either parallel or normal to rotor or stator chords. From the plots, we have found that, for the most part, there was strong transmission and weak reflection over most of the vane/blade ratio range for the stator. For the rotor, there was little transmission loss.

  14. Anode optimization for miniature electronic brachytherapy X-ray sources using Monte Carlo and computational fluid dynamic codes.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Masoud; Safigholi, Habib

    2016-03-01

    A miniature X-ray source has been optimized for electronic brachytherapy. The cooling fluid for this device is water. Unlike the radionuclide brachytherapy sources, this source is able to operate at variable voltages and currents to match the dose with the tumor depth. First, Monte Carlo (MC) optimization was performed on the tungsten target-buffer thickness layers versus energy such that the minimum X-ray attenuation occurred. Second optimization was done on the selection of the anode shape based on the Monte Carlo in water TG-43U1 anisotropy function. This optimization was carried out to get the dose anisotropy functions closer to unity at any angle from 0° to 170°. Three anode shapes including cylindrical, spherical, and conical were considered. Moreover, by Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code the optimal target-buffer shape and different nozzle shapes for electronic brachytherapy were evaluated. The characterization criteria of the CFD were the minimum temperature on the anode shape, cooling water, and pressure loss from inlet to outlet. The optimal anode was conical in shape with a conical nozzle. Finally, the TG-43U1 parameters of the optimal source were compared with the literature. PMID:26966563

  15. VADER: A flexible, robust, open-source code for simulating viscous thin accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, M. R.; Forbes, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of thin axisymmetric viscous accretion disks is a classic problem in astrophysics. While models based on this simplified geometry provide only approximations to the true processes of instability-driven mass and angular momentum transport, their simplicity makes them invaluable tools for both semi-analytic modeling and simulations of long-term evolution where two- or three-dimensional calculations are too computationally costly. Despite the utility of these models, the only publicly-available frameworks for simulating them are rather specialized and non-general. Here we describe a highly flexible, general numerical method for simulating viscous thin disks with arbitrary rotation curves, viscosities, boundary conditions, grid spacings, equations of state, and rates of gain or loss of mass (e.g., through winds) and energy (e.g., through radiation). Our method is based on a conservative, finite-volume, second-order accurate discretization of the equations, which we solve using an unconditionally-stable implicit scheme. We implement Anderson acceleration to speed convergence of the scheme, and show that this leads to factor of ∼5 speed gains over non-accelerated methods in realistic problems, though the amount of speedup is highly problem-dependent. We have implemented our method in the new code Viscous Accretion Disk Evolution Resource (VADER), which is freely available for download from

  16. Toward real-time performance benchmarks for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Russell M.; Duchesneau, Louis; Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Schultze, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    The issue of real-time performance measurements for the Ada programming language through the use of benchmarks is addressed. First, the Ada notion of time is examined and a set of basic measurement techniques are developed. Then a set of Ada language features believed to be important for real-time performance are presented and specific measurement methods discussed. In addition, other important time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time system are also identified and measurement techniques developed. The measurement techniques are applied to the language and run-time system features and the results are presented.

  17. Transparent Ada rendezvous in a fault tolerant distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racine, Roger

    1986-01-01

    There are many problems associated with distributing an Ada program over a loosely coupled communication network. Some of these problems involve the various aspects of the distributed rendezvous. The problems addressed involve supporting the delay statement in a selective call and supporting the else clause in a selective call. Most of these difficulties are compounded by the need for an efficient communication system. The difficulties are compounded even more by considering the possibility of hardware faults occurring while the program is running. With a hardware fault tolerant computer system, it is possible to design a distribution scheme and communication software which is efficient and allows Ada semantics to be preserved. An Ada design for the communications software of one such system will be presented, including a description of the services provided in the seven layers of an International Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnect (OSI) model communications system. The system capabilities (hardware and software) that allow this communication system will also be described.

  18. ADA plaintiff must show AIDS limits major life activities.

    PubMed

    1998-05-15

    In a rare case, a Federal court ruled that AIDS does not automatically qualify a plaintiff for legal protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). [Name removed], an Illinois Wal-Mart stock clerk, was fired weeks after telling the store's general manager of his HIV status. [Name removed] alleges that the firing was due solely to his disease. Wal-Mart contends that [name removed] was fired for sexually harassing a co-worker, and says that since [name removed] was asymptomatic and asked for no accommodations, he does not qualify for ADA protection. Magistrate Morton Denlow agreed, saying that [name removed] raised no genuine issues about whether the ADA should protect him. A trial is scheduled for May. PMID:11365337

  19. FORTRAN codes to implement enhanced local wave number technique to determine the depth and location and shape of the causative source using magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, B. N. P.; Srivastava, Shalivahan

    2008-12-01

    The total field magnetic anomaly is analyzed to compute the depth and location and geometry of the causative source using two FORTRAN source codes, viz., FRCON1D and ELW. No assumption on the nature of source geometry, susceptibility contrast, etc. has been made. The source geometry is estimated by computing the structural index from previously determined depth and location. A detailed procedure is outlined for using these codes through a theoretical anomaly. The suppression of high-frequency noise in the observed data is tackled by designing a box-car window with cosine termination. The termination criterion is based on the peak position of the derivative operator computed for a pre-assumed depth of a shallow source below which the target is situated. The applicability of these codes has been demonstrated by analyzing a total field aeromagnetic anomaly of the Matheson area of northern Ontario, Canada.

  20. Bacteria-induced natural product formation in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans requires Saga/Ada-mediated histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Gacek, Agnieszka; Schümann, Julia; Hertweck, Christian; Strauss, Joseph; Brakhage, Axel A

    2011-08-23

    Sequence analyses of fungal genomes have revealed that the potential of fungi to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. In fact, most gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of antibiotics, toxins, or pigments are silent under standard laboratory conditions. Hence, it is one of the major challenges in microbiology to uncover the mechanisms required for pathway activation. Recently, we discovered that intimate physical interaction of the important model fungus Aspergillus nidulans with the soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus specifically activated silent fungal secondary metabolism genes, resulting in the production of the archetypal polyketide orsellinic acid and its derivatives. Here, we report that the streptomycete triggers modification of fungal histones. Deletion analysis of 36 of 40 acetyltransferases, including histone acetyltransferases (HATs) of A. nidulans, demonstrated that the Saga/Ada complex containing the HAT GcnE and the AdaB protein is required for induction of the orsellinic acid gene cluster by the bacterium. We also showed that Saga/Ada plays a major role for specific induction of other biosynthesis gene clusters, such as sterigmatocystin, terrequinone, and penicillin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the Saga/Ada-dependent increase of histone 3 acetylation at lysine 9 and 14 occurs during interaction of fungus and bacterium. Furthermore, the production of secondary metabolites in A. nidulans is accompanied by a global increase in H3K14 acetylation. Increased H3K9 acetylation, however, was only found within gene clusters. This report provides previously undescribed evidence of Saga/Ada dependent histone acetylation triggered by prokaryotes. PMID:21825172

  1. Advanced Neutron Source Dynamic Model (ANSDM) code description and user guide

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.

    1995-08-01

    A mathematical model is designed that simulates the dynamic behavior of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. Its main objective is to model important characteristics of the ANS systems as they are being designed, updated, and employed; its primary design goal, to aid in the development of safety and control features. During the simulations the model is also found to aid in making design decisions for thermal-hydraulic systems. Model components, empirical correlations, and model parameters are discussed; sample procedures are also given. Modifications are cited, and significant development and application efforts are noted focusing on examination of instrumentation required during and after accidents to ensure adequate monitoring during transient conditions.

  2. State prisons are covered by ADA, 7th Circuit rules.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    Prison inmate [name removed] sued the Indiana Department of Corrections, claiming it violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by denying him access to education programs, the library, and the dining hall because he is blind. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the district court's decision to dismiss the case based on the grounds that the ADA does not apply to prison inmates. The court held that the Department of Corrections cannot exclude an inmate with a disability from prison programs unless the accommodation caused an undue burden on the system. PMID:11364516

  3. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  4. An Ada run-time control architecture for telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and Ada language implementation of a process-level run-time control subystem for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot system. The concept of run-time control in a combined robot-teleoperation environment is examined and the telerobot system at JPL is described. An Ada language implementation of the JPL Telerobot Run-Time Controller (RTC) is described by highlighting the functional behavior of the subsystem, defining the internal modules, and providing a functional flow time sequence of internal module activity.

  5. Formal methods in the design of Ada 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David

    1995-01-01

    Formal, mathematical methods are most useful when applied early in the design and implementation of a software system--that, at least, is the familiar refrain. I will report on a modest effort to apply formal methods at the earliest possible stage, namely, in the design of the Ada 95 programming language itself. This talk is an 'experience report' that provides brief case studies illustrating the kinds of problems we worked on, how we approached them, and the extent (if any) to which the results proved useful. It also derives some lessons and suggestions for those undertaking future projects of this kind. Ada 95 is the first revision of the standard for the Ada programming language. The revision began in 1988, when the Ada Joint Programming Office first asked the Ada Board to recommend a plan for revising the Ada standard. The first step in the revision was to solicit criticisms of Ada 83. A set of requirements for the new language standard, based on those criticisms, was published in 1990. A small design team, the Mapping Revision Team (MRT), became exclusively responsible for revising the language standard to satisfy those requirements. The MRT, from Intermetrics, is led by S. Tucker Taft. The work of the MRT was regularly subject to independent review and criticism by a committee of distinguished Reviewers and by several advisory teams--for example, the two User/Implementor teams, each consisting of an industrial user (attempting to make significant use of the new language on a realistic application) and a compiler vendor (undertaking, experimentally, to modify its current implementation in order to provide the necessary new features). One novel decision established the Language Precision Team (LPT), which investigated language proposals from a mathematical point of view. The LPT applied formal mathematical analysis to help improve the design of Ada 95 (e.g., by clarifying the language proposals) and to help promote its acceptance (e.g., by identifying a

  6. Sound frequency-invariant neural coding of a frequency-dependent cue to sound source location.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heath G; Brown, Andrew D; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    The century-old duplex theory of sound localization posits that low- and high-frequency sounds are localized with two different acoustical cues, interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), respectively. While behavioral studies in humans and behavioral and neurophysiological studies in a variety of animal models have largely supported the duplex theory, behavioral sensitivity to ILD is curiously invariant across the audible spectrum. Here we demonstrate that auditory midbrain neurons in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) also encode ILDs in a frequency-invariant manner, efficiently representing the full range of acoustical ILDs experienced as a joint function of sound source frequency, azimuth, and distance. We further show, using Fisher information, that nominal "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" ILD-sensitive neural populations can discriminate ILD with similar acuity, yielding neural ILD discrimination thresholds for near-midline sources comparable to behavioral discrimination thresholds estimated for chinchillas. These findings thus suggest a revision to the duplex theory and reinforce ecological and efficiency principles that hold that neural systems have evolved to encode the spectrum of biologically relevant sensory signals to which they are naturally exposed. PMID:25972580

  7. Genome-wide Mapping of the Coactivator Ada2p Yields Insight into the Functional Roles of SAGA/ADA Complex in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sellam, Adnane; Askew, Christopher; Epp, Elias; Lavoie, Hugo; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The SAGA/ADA coactivator complex, which regulates numerous cellular processes by coordinating histone acetylation, is widely conserved throughout eukaryotes, and analysis of the Candida albicans genome identifies the components of this complex in the fungal pathogen. We investigated the multiple functions of SAGA/ADA in C. albicans by determining the genome-wide occupancy of Ada2p using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Ada2p is recruited to 200 promoters upstream of genes involved in different stress-response functions and metabolic processes. Phenotypic and transcriptomic analysis of ada2 mutant showed that Ada2p is required for the responses to oxidative stress, as well as to treatments with tunicamycin and fluconazole. Ada2p recruitment to the promoters of oxidative resistance genes is mediated by the transcription factor Cap1p, and coactivator function were also established for Gal4p, which recruits Ada2p to the promoters of glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism genes. Cooccupancy of Ada2p and the drug resistance regulator Mrr1p on the promoters of core resistance genes characterizing drug resistance in clinical strains was also demonstrated. Ada2p recruitment to the promoters of these genes were shown to be completely dependent on Mrr1p. Furthermore, ADA2 deletion causes a decrease in H3K9 acetylation levels of target genes, thus illustrating its importance for histone acetyl transferase activity. PMID:19279142

  8. The development of an Ada programming support environment database: SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database), user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    This is a manual for users of the Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD). SEAD was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities that are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce the duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. The manual describes the organization of the data in SEAD, the user interface from logging in to logging out, and concludes with a ten chapter tutorial on how to use the information in SEAD. Two appendices provide quick reference for logging into SEAD and using the keyboard of an IBM 3270 or VT100 computer terminal.

  9. Delaunay Tetrahedralization of the Heart Based on Integration of Open Source Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavarino, E.; Neves, L. A.; Machado, J. M.; de Godoy, M. F.; Shiyou, Y.; Momente, J. C.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Pinto, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.; do Nascimento, M. Z.

    2014-03-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a way of numerical solution applied in different areas, as simulations used in studies to improve cardiac ablation procedures. For this purpose, the meshes should have the same size and histological features of the focused structures. Some methods and tools used to generate tetrahedral meshes are limited mainly by the use conditions. In this paper, the integration of Open Source Softwares is presented as an alternative to solid modeling and automatic mesh generation. To demonstrate its efficiency, the cardiac structures were considered as a first application context: atriums, ventricles, valves, arteries and pericardium. The proposed method is feasible to obtain refined meshes in an acceptable time and with the required quality for simulations using FEM.

  10. An informatics infrastructure for combinatorial and high-throughput materials research built on open source code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Fasolka, Michael J.; Karim, Alamgir; Amis, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory research informatics systems (LRIS) hold great promise in streamlining research generally, and are absolutely necessary for new data-intensive research strategies such as combinatorial and high-throughput (C&HT) approaches. In this paper, we describe a LRIS geared towards C&HT materials research, which is being established in lab facilities at the NIST Combinatorial Method Center (NCMC). The NCMC LRIS system aims to seamlessly integrate the library design, fabrication, measurement and analysis/data-mining aspects of the combi approach into a functional whole geared towards accelerating materials research. Our LRIS system is built upon an open source database management system, and incorporates non-proprietary user/instrument interface and automation software. The NCMC LRIS project endeavours to provide working examples of informatics infrastructure development to those interested in assimilating such tools into their research programmes. Accordingly, this report aims at providing an experiential account of the process by which we designed and implemented the NCMC LRIS.

  11. Induction of resistance to alkylating agents in E. coli: the ada+ gene product serves both as a regulatory protein and as an enzyme for repair of mutagenic damage.

    PubMed Central

    Teo, I; Sedgwick, B; Demple, B; Li, B; Lindahl, T

    1984-01-01

    The expression of several inducible enzymes for repair of alkylated DNA in Escherichia coli is controlled by the ada+ gene. This regulatory gene has been cloned into a multicopy plasmid and shown to code for a 37-kd protein. Antibodies raised against homogeneous O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (the main repair activity for mutagenic damage in alkylated DNA) were found to cross-react with this 37-kd protein. Cell extracts from several independently derived ada mutants contain variable amounts of an altered 37-kd protein after an inducing alkylation treatment. In addition, an 18-kd protein identical with the previously isolated O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase has been identified as a product of the ada+ gene. The smaller polypeptide is derived from the 37-kd protein by proteolytic processing. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6092060

  12. Review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the severe accident source term reassessment study (BMI-2104). [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, T. S.

    1985-04-01

    The determination of severe accident source terms must, by necessity it seems, rely heavily on the use of complex computer codes. Source term acceptability, therefore, rests on the assessed validity of such codes. Consequently, one element of NRC's recent efforts to reassess LWR severe accident source terms is to provide a review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the reassessment. The results of this review is the subject of this document. The separate review documents compiled in this report were used as a resource along with the results of the BMI-2104 study by BCL and the QUEST study by SNL to arrive at a more-or-less independent appraisal of the status of source term modeling at this time.

  13. Comparison of Orbiter PRCS Plume Flow Fields Using CFD and Modified Source Flow Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, Wm. C.; Kinsey, Robin E.; Reid, Ethan A.; Stuart, Phillip C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter will use Reaction Control System (RCS) jets for docking with the planned International Space Station (ISS). During approach and backout maneuvers, plumes from these jets could cause high pressure, heating, and thermal loads on ISS components. The object of this paper is to present comparisons of RCS plume flow fields used to calculate these ISS environments. Because of the complexities of 3-D plumes with variable scarf-angle and multi-jet combinations, NASA/JSC developed a plume flow-field methodology for all of these Orbiter jets. The RCS Plume Model (RPM), which includes effects of scarfed nozzles and dual jets, was developed as a modified source-flow engineering tool to rapidly generate plume properties and impingement environments on ISS components. This paper presents flow-field properties from four PRCS jets: F3U low scarf-angle single jet, F3F high scarf-angle single jet, DTU zero scarf-angle dual jet, and F1F/F2F high scarf-angle dual jet. The RPM results compared well with plume flow fields using four CFD programs: General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), Cartesian (CART), Unified Solution Algorithm (USA), and Reacting and Multi-phase Program (RAMP). Good comparisons of predicted pressures are shown with STS 64 Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX) data.

  14. ADA and multi-microprocessor real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.; Collins, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of a high-order programming language for a real-time distributed network simulation is described. The additional problem of implementing a language on a possibly changing network is addressed. The recently designed language ADA (trademarked by DoD) was chosen since it provides the best model of the underlying application to be simulated.

  15. The ADA and Persons with Cognitive Disabilities. Trainer's Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

    This comprehensive trainer's guide and participant manual are designed to provide a planning process through which training programs on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its implications for persons with cognitive disabilities can be developed and delivered in a systematic way. Module 1 of the trainer's guide, "Planning and…

  16. Software Engineering Laboratory Ada performance study: Results and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The SEL is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies applied to the development of applications software. The SEL was created in 1977 and has three organizational members: NASA/GSFC, Systems Development Branch; The University of Maryland, Computer Sciences Department; and Computer Sciences Corporation, Systems Development Operation. The goals of the SEL are as follows: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environments; (2) to measure the effect of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include the Ada Performance Study Report. This paper describes the background of Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), the objectives and scope of the Ada Performance Study, the measurement approach used, the performance tests performed, the major test results, and the implications for future FDD Ada development efforts.

  17. Section 504/ADA: Guidelines for Educators and Administrators. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This document presents the Utah State Department of Education's guidelines to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The guidelines specifically address Subparts D and E of the regulations for Section 504, which deal with education. An introduction offers examples of discriminatory acts by school…

  18. The Impact of Business Size on Employer ADA Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Susanne M.; Erickson, William A.; VanLooy, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) came into effect for employers of 15 or more employees. Americans with disabilities continue to be more unemployed and underemployed than their nondisabled peers. Small businesses, with fewer than 500 employees, continue to be the…

  19. Learn about the ADA in Your Local Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Civil Rights Div.

    This bibliography lists 90 documents contained within the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Information File, which has been sent to 15,000 libraries across the country. The listing is organized into the following categories: laws and regulations (eight documents), technical assistance manuals and highlights (nine documents), question and…

  20. Section 504/ADA: Guidelines for Educators in Kansas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joan; Bieker, Rod; Copenhaver, John

    This document presents the Kansas State Department of Education's guidelines to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The guidelines specifically address Subparts A, B, C, and D of the regulations for Section 504 which deal with general provisions, employment practices, accessibility and education. An…

  1. [Section] 504/ADA Student Issues: The Latest and the Greatest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    Recent case law within and outside the school context has revised or refined various concepts concerning eligibility and other K-12 issues under Section 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Ten case lessons are described in this paper, seven of which are: (1) The frame of reference for determining "substantially limits" in the…

  2. Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Debates about the selection of programming languages often produce cultural collisions that are not easily resolved. This is especially true in the case of Ada and knowledge based programming. The construction of programming tools provides a desirable alternative for resolving the conflict.

  3. Web-MCQ: a set of methods and freely available open source code for administering online multiple choice question assessments.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Claire

    2007-08-01

    E-learning approaches have received increasing attention in recent years. Accordingly, a number of tools have become available to assist the nonexpert computer user in constructing and managing virtual learning environments, and implementing computer-based and/or online procedures to support pedagogy. Both commercial and free packages are now available, with new developments emerging periodically. Commercial products have the advantage of being comprehensive and reliable, but tend to require substantial financial investment and are not always transparent to use. They may also restrict pedagogical choices due to their predetermined ranges of functionality. With these issues in mind, several authors have argued for the pedagogical benefits of developing freely available, open source e-learning resources, which can be shared and further developed within a community of educational practitioners. The present paper supports this objective by presenting a set of methods, along with supporting freely available, downloadable, open source programming code, to allow administration of online multiple choice question assessments to students.

  4. Measuring Ada as a software development technology in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment is in progress to measure the effectiveness of Ada in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center flight dynamics software development environment. The experiment features the parallel development of software in FORTRAN and Ada. The experiment organization, objectives, and status are discussed. Experiences with an Ada training program and data from the development of a 5700-line Ada training exercise are reported.

  5. ELAPSE - NASA AMES LISP AND ADA BENCHMARK SUITE: EFFICIENCY OF LISP AND ADA PROCESSING - A SYSTEM EVALUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    One area of research of the Information Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center is devoted to the analysis and enhancement of processors and advanced computer architectures, specifically in support of automation and robotic systems. To compare systems' abilities to efficiently process Lisp and Ada, scientists at Ames Research Center have developed a suite of non-parallel benchmarks called ELAPSE. The benchmark suite was designed to test a single computer's efficiency as well as alternate machine comparisons on Lisp, and/or Ada languages. ELAPSE tests the efficiency with which a machine can execute the various routines in each environment. The sample routines are based on numeric and symbolic manipulations and include two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations, Cholesky decomposition and substitution, Gaussian elimination, high-level data processing, and symbol-list references. Also included is a routine based on a Bayesian classification program sorting data into optimized groups. The ELAPSE benchmarks are available for any computer with a validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system. Of the 18 routines that comprise ELAPSE, provided within this package are 14 developed or translated at Ames. The others are readily available through literature. The benchmark that requires the most memory is CHOLESKY.ADA. Under VAX/VMS, CHOLESKY.ADA requires 760K of main memory. ELAPSE is available on either two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes (standard distribution) or a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. The contents of the diskettes are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The ELAPSE benchmarks were written in 1990. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  6. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Implementation/testing phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda; Miller, John; Smith, Laurie; Stark, Mike; Mcgarry, Frank

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the software engineering issues related to the use of Ada for the implementation and system testing phases of four Ada projects developed in the flight dynamics area. These projects reflect an evolving understanding of more effective use of Ada features. In addition, the testing methodology used on these projects has changed substantially from that used on previous FORTRAN projects.

  7. The "Ada" Verb of Being in Bahasa Malaysia. Colorado Research in Linguistics, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Robin

    This paper examines the various syntactic and semantic functions of the "ada" verb of "being" in Malay. The claim is made that there is an abstract uppermost "ada" in the underlying structure of Malay sentences that asserts or denies the truth of the surface main clause. A further claim is made that the "ada" of the uppermost sentence is identical…

  8. 78 FR 10263 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for ADA Accommodations Request Packet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for ADA Accommodations Request Packet AGENCY... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the ADA Accommodations... through the Internet, at Martha.R.Brinson @irs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ADA...

  9. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Design phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda

    1988-01-01

    The software engineering issues related to the use of the Ada programming language during the design phase of an Ada project are analyzed. Discussion shows how an evolving understanding of these issues is reflected in the design processes of three generations of Ada projects.

  10. Code of ethics for dental researchers.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for Dental Research, in 2009, adopted a code of ethics. The code applies to members of the association and is enforceable by sanction, with the stated requirement that members are expected to inform the association in cases where they believe misconduct has occurred. The IADR code goes beyond the Belmont and Helsinki statements by virtue of covering animal research. It also addresses issues of sponsorship of research and conflicts of interest, international collaborative research, duty of researchers to be informed about applicable norms, standards of publication (including plagiarism), and the obligation of "whistleblowing" for the sake of maintaining the integrity of the dental research enterprise as a whole. The code is organized, like the ADA code, into two sections. The IADR principles are stated, but not defined, and number 12, instead of the ADA's five. The second section consists of "best practices," which are specific statements of expected or interdicted activities. The short list of definitions is useful. PMID:25951679

  11. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigted. A distributed system, programmed entirely in Ada, was studied to assess the use of individual tasks without concern for the processor used. Continued development and testing of the fault tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada to cope with the failures of interest; design of approaches to fault tolerant software in real time systems, and the integration of these ideas into Ada; and the preparation of various papers and presentations were discussed.

  12. Insurance benefits under the ADA: Discrimination or business as usual?

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    In December 1987, John McGann discovered he had AIDS. In July 1988, his employer altered his health insurance policy by reducing lifetime coverage for AIDS to $5,000, while maintaining the million-dollar limit for all other health conditions. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the employer`s right to make that change. The Supreme Court denied certiori. Public outcry was immediate and voluminous. The Solicitor General argued that the new Americans with Disabilities Act would save future John McGanns from the same treatment, but the validity of this optimistic prediction is yet to be determined. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is landmark legislation that bars discrimination against the disabled in all aspects of employment, public services, and accommodations. The Act broadly defines disability to include illnesses such as AIDS and cancer, as well as limitations on mobility, vision, and hearing. The ADA indisputably creates a private cause of action for discrimination on the basis of disability. However, depending on the standard of review chosen by the federal courts, this cause of action may or may not provide much protection to those claiming discrimination on the basis of disability in employee benefits and insurance. This article discusses the ADA`s coverage of insurance and benefits in light of the possible standards courts might use to evaluate actions of parties in suits alleging discrimination in these areas and applies those standards of review to the facts of the McGann case. 146 refs.

  13. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  14. Implementation of a double Gaussian source model for the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and its influence on small fields dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Edgardo; Caprile, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The shape of the radiation source of a linac has a direct impact on the delivered dose distributions, especially in the case of small radiation fields. Traditionally, a single Gaussian source model is used to describe the electron beam hitting the target, although different studies have shown that the shape of the electron source can be better described by a mixed distribution consisting of two Gaussian components. Therefore, this study presents the implementation of a double Gaussian source model into the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The impact of the double Gaussian source model for a 6 MV beam is assessed through the comparison of different dosimetric parameters calculated using a single Gaussian source, previously com-missioned, the new double Gaussian source model and measurements, performed with a diode detector in a water phantom. It was found that the new source can be easily implemented into the BEAMnrc code and that it improves the agreement between measurements and simulations for small radiation fields. The impact of the change in source shape becomes less important as the field size increases and for increasing distance of the collimators to the source, as expected. In particular, for radiation fields delivered using stereotactic collimators located at a distance of 59 cm from the source, it was found that the effect of the double Gaussian source on the calculated dose distributions is negligible, even for radiation fields smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Accurate determination of the shape of the radiation source allows us to improve the Monte Carlo modeling of the linac, especially for treatment modalities such as IMRT, were the radiation beams used could be very narrow, becoming more sensitive to the shape of the source. PMID:27685141

  15. Identification of human proteins functionally conserved with the yeast putative adaptors ADA2 and GCN5.

    PubMed Central

    Candau, R; Moore, P A; Wang, L; Barlev, N; Ying, C Y; Rosen, C A; Berger, S L

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional adaptor proteins are required for full function of higher eukaryotic acidic activators in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that this pathway of activation is evolutionarily conserved. Consistent with this view, we have identified possible human homologs of yeast ADA2 (yADA2) and yeast GCN5 (yGCN5), components of a putative adaptor complex. While there is overall sequence similarity between the yeast and human proteins, perhaps more significant is conservation of key sequence features with other known adaptors. We show several functional similarities between the human and yeast adaptors. First, as shown for yADA2 and yGCN5, human ADA2 (hADA2) and human GCN5 (hGCN5) interacted in vivo in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Moreover, hGCN5 interacted with yADA2 in this assay, suggesting that the human proteins form similar complexes. Second, both yADA2 and hADA2 contain cryptic activation domains. Third, hGCN5 and yGCN5 had similar stabilizing effects on yADA2 in vivo. Furthermore, the region of yADA2 that interacted with yGCN5 mapped to the amino terminus of yADA2, which is highly conserved in hADA2. Most striking, is the behavior of the human proteins in human cells. First, GAL4-hADA2 activated transcription in HeLa cells, and second, either hADA2 or hGCN5 augmented GAL4-VP16 activation. These data indicated that the human proteins correspond to functional homologs of the yeast adaptors, suggesting that these cofactors play a key role in transcriptional activation. PMID:8552087

  16. The circulating transcriptome as a source of non-invasive cancer biomarkers: concepts and controversies of non-coding and coding RNA in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mercado, Marta; Manterola, Lorea; Larrea, Erika; Goicoechea, Ibai; Arestin, María; Armesto, María; Otaegui, David; Lawrie, Charles H

    2015-10-01

    The gold standard for cancer diagnosis remains the histological examination of affected tissue, obtained either by surgical excision, or radiologically guided biopsy. Such procedures however are expensive, not without risk to the patient, and require consistent evaluation by expert pathologists. Consequently, the search for non-invasive tools for the diagnosis and management of cancer has led to great interest in the field of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum. An additional benefit of blood-based testing is the ability to carry out screening and repeat sampling on patients undergoing therapy, or monitoring disease progression allowing for the development of a personalized approach to cancer patient management. Despite having been discovered over 60 years ago, the clear clinical potential of circulating nucleic acids, with the notable exception of prenatal diagnostic testing, has yet to translate into the clinic. The recent discovery of non-coding (nc) RNA (in particular micro(mi)RNAs) in the blood has provided fresh impetuous for the field. In this review, we discuss the potential of the circulating transcriptome (coding and ncRNA), as novel cancer biomarkers, the controversy surrounding their origin and biology, and most importantly the hurdles that remain to be overcome if they are really to become part of future clinical practice.

  17. The circulating transcriptome as a source of non-invasive cancer biomarkers: concepts and controversies of non-coding and coding RNA in body fluids

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mercado, Marta; Manterola, Lorea; Larrea, Erika; Goicoechea, Ibai; Arestin, María; Armesto, María; Otaegui, David; Lawrie, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for cancer diagnosis remains the histological examination of affected tissue, obtained either by surgical excision, or radiologically guided biopsy. Such procedures however are expensive, not without risk to the patient, and require consistent evaluation by expert pathologists. Consequently, the search for non-invasive tools for the diagnosis and management of cancer has led to great interest in the field of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum. An additional benefit of blood-based testing is the ability to carry out screening and repeat sampling on patients undergoing therapy, or monitoring disease progression allowing for the development of a personalized approach to cancer patient management. Despite having been discovered over 60 years ago, the clear clinical potential of circulating nucleic acids, with the notable exception of prenatal diagnostic testing, has yet to translate into the clinic. The recent discovery of non-coding (nc) RNA (in particular micro(mi)RNAs) in the blood has provided fresh impetuous for the field. In this review, we discuss the potential of the circulating transcriptome (coding and ncRNA), as novel cancer biomarkers, the controversy surrounding their origin and biology, and most importantly the hurdles that remain to be overcome if they are really to become part of future clinical practice. PMID:26119132

  18. NASA-evolving to Ada: Five-year plan. A plan for implementing recommendations made by the Ada and software management assessment working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    At their March 1988 meeting, members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Information Resources Management (IRM) Council expressed concern that NASA may not have the infrastructure necessary to support the use of Ada for major NASA software projects. Members also observed that the agency has no coordinated strategy for applying its experiences with Ada to subsequent projects (Hinners, 27 June 1988). To deal with these problems, the IRM Council chair appointed an intercenter Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG). They prepared a report (McGarry et al., March 1989) entitled, 'Ada and Software Management in NASA: Findings and Recommendations'. That report presented a series of recommendations intended to enable NASA to develop better software at lower cost through the use of Ada and other state-of-the-art software engineering technologies. The purpose here is to describe the steps (called objectives) by which this goal may be achieved, to identify the NASA officials or organizations responsible for carrying out the steps, and to define a schedule for doing so. This document sets forth four goals: adopt agency-wide software standards and policies; use Ada as the programming language for all mission software; establish an infrastructure to support software engineering, including the use of Ada, and to leverage the agency's software experience; and build the agency's knowledge base in Ada and software engineering. A schedule for achieving the objectives and goals is given.

  19. Role of the Ada adaptor complex in gene activation by the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, A; Almlöf, T; Ford, J; McEwan, I J; Gustafsson, J A; Wright, A P

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the Ada adaptor complex is important for the gene activation capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor in yeast. The recently isolated human Ada2 protein also increases the potency of the receptor protein in mammalian cells. The Ada pathway is of key significance for the tau1 core transactivation domain (tau1c) of the receptor, which requires Ada for activity in vivo and in vitro. Ada2 can be precipitated from nuclear extracts by a glutathione S-transferase-tau1 fusion protein coupled to agarose beads, and a direct interaction between Ada2 and tau1c can be shown by using purified proteins. This interaction is strongly reduced by a mutation in tau1c that reduces transactivation activity. Mutations affecting the Ada complex do not reverse transcriptional squelching by the tau1 domain, as they do for the VP16 transactivation domain, and thus these powerful acidic activators differ in at least some important aspects of gene activation. Mutations that reduce the activity of the tau1c domain in wild-type yeast strains cause similar reductions in ada mutants that contain little or no Ada activity. Thus, gene activation mechanisms, in addition to the Ada pathway, are involved in the activity of the tau1c domain. PMID:9154805

  20. Distribution of Isotopic and Environmental Tracers in Groundwater, Northern Ada County, Southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Residents of northern Ada County, Idaho, depend on groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses. The population of this area is growing rapidly and groundwater resources must be understood for future water-resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, used a suite of isotopic and environmental tracers to gain a better understanding of groundwater ages, recharge sources, and flowpaths in northern Ada County. Thirteen wells were sampled between September and October 2009 for field parameters, major anions and cations, nutrients, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, tritium, radiocarbon, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gasses. Well depths ranged from 30 to 580 feet below land surface. Wells were grouped together based on their depth and geographic location into the following four categories: shallow aquifer, intermediate/deep aquifer, Willow Creek aquifer, and Dry Creek aquifer. Major cations and anions indicated calcium-bicarbonate and sodium-bicarbonate water types in the study area. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes carried an oxygen-18 excess signature, possibly indicating recharge from evaporated sources or water-rock interactions in the subsurface. Chlorofluorocarbons detected modern (post-1940s) recharge in every well sampled; tritium data indicated modern water (post-1951) in seven, predominantly shallow wells. Nutrient concentrations tended to be greater in wells signaling recent recharge based on groundwater age dating, thus confirming the presence of recent recharge in these wells. Corrected radiocarbon results generated estimated residence times from modern to 5,100 years before present. Residence time tended to increase with depth, as confirmed by all three age-tracers. The disagreement among residence times indicates that samples were well-mixed and that the sampled aquifers contain a mixture of young and old recharge. Due to a lack of data, no conclusions about sources of recharge could be drawn

  1. An approach to distributed execution of Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, R. A.; Krishnan, P.; Theriault, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intelligent control of the Space Station will require the coordinated execution of computer programs across a substantial number of computing elements. It will be important to develop large subsets of these programs in the form of a single program which executes in a distributed fashion across a number of processors. A translation strategy for distributed execution of Ada programs in which library packages and subprograms may be distributed is described. A preliminary version of the translator is operational. Simple data objects (no records or arrays as yet), subprograms, and static tasks may be referenced remotely.

  2. Monogenic polyarteritis: the lesson of ADA2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Caorsi, Roberta; Penco, Federica; Schena, Francesca; Gattorno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a new autoinflammatory disease characterised by an early onset vasculopathy with livedoid skin rash associated with systemic manifestations, CNS involvement and mild immunodeficiency.This condition is secondary to autosomal recessive mutations of CECR1 (Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region 1) gene, mapped to chromosome 22q11.1, that encodes for the enzymatic protein adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2). By now 19 different mutations in CECR1 gene have been detected.The pathogenetic mechanism of DADA2 is still unclear. ADA2 in a secreted protein mainly expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage; its enzymatic activity is higher in conditions of hypoxia, inflammation and oncogenesis. Moreover ADA2 is able to induce macrophages proliferation and differentiation; it's deficiency is in fact associated with a reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2). The deficiency of ADA2 is also associated with an up-regulation of neutrophils-expressed genes and an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mild immunodeficiency detected in many DADA2 patients suggests a role of this protein in the adaptive immune response; an increased mortality of B cells and a reduction in the number of memory B cells, terminally differentiated B cells and plasmacells has been described in many patients. The lack of the protein is associated with endothelium damage; however the function of this protein in the endothelial homeostasis is still unknown.From the clinical point of view, this disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of severity. Chronic or recurrent systemic inflammation with fever, elevation of acute phase reactants and skin manifestations (mainly represented by livedo reticularis) is the typical clinical picture. While in some patients the disease is mild and skin-limited, others present a severe, even lethal, disease with multi-organ involvement; the CNS involvement is rather common with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. In

  3. Large distributed control system using ADA in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, J. P., LLNL

    1998-04-21

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a large distributed control system constructed using object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers that run software written in Ada and communicating through CORBA. The project has completed its final design review; implementation of the first of five planned increments will be delivered at the end of fiscal year 1998. Preliminary measures of the distributed controls performance confirm the design decisions reported in this paper, and the measurement and supporting simulation of full system performance continue.

  4. An Overview of Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. Historical background. 2. What is ADAS? 3. R and D status. 4. Reliability/cost examples (1, 2, and 3). 5. What's new? 6. Technical advantages. 7. NASA relevance. 8. NASA plans/options. 9. Remaining R and D. 10. Applications. 11. Product benefits. 11. Commercial advantages. 12. intellectual property. Aerospace industry requires highly reliable data acquisition systems. Traditional Acquisition systems employ end-to-end hardware and software redundancy. Typically, redundancy adds weight, cost, power consumption, and complexity.

  5. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  6. Coded aperture imaging of fusion source in a plasma focus operated with pure D{sub 2} and a D{sub 2}-Kr gas admixture

    SciTech Connect

    Springham, S. V.; Talebitaher, A.; Shutler, P. M. E.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Lee, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coded aperture imaging (CAI) technique has been used to investigate the spatial distribution of DD fusion in a 1.6 kJ plasma focus (PF) device operated in, alternatively, pure deuterium or deuterium-krypton admixture. The coded mask pattern is based on a singer cyclic difference set with 25% open fraction and positioned close to 90 Degree-Sign to the plasma focus axis, with CR-39 detectors used to register tracks of protons from the D(d, p)T reaction. Comparing the coded aperture imaging proton images for pure D{sub 2} and D{sub 2}-Kr admixture operation reveals clear differences in size, density, and shape between the fusion sources for these two cases.

  7. Application and systems software in Ada: Development experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuschill, Jim

    1986-01-01

    In its most basic sense software development involves describing the tasks to be solved, including the given objects and the operations to be performed on those objects. Unfortunately, the way people describe objects and operations usually bears little resemblance to source code in most contemporary computer languages. There are two ways around this problem. One is to allow users to describe what they want the computer to do in everyday, typically imprecise English. The PRODOC methodology and software development environment is based on a second more flexible and possibly even easier to use approach. Rather than hiding program structure, PRODOC represents such structure graphically using visual programming techniques. In addition, the program terminology used in PRODOC may be customized so as to match the way human experts in any given application area naturally describe the relevant data and operations. The PRODOC methodology is described in detail.

  8. Timing issues in the distributed execution of Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines, in the context of distributed execution, the meaning of Ada constructs involving time. In the process, unresolved questions of interpretation and problems with the implementation of a consistent notion of time across a network are uncovered. It is observed that there are two Ada mechanisms that can involve a distributed sense of time: the conditional entry call, and the timed entry call. It is shown that a recent interpretation by the Language Maintenance Committee resolves the questions for the conditional entry calls but results in an anomaly for timed entry calls. A detailed discussion of alternative implementations for the timed entry call is made, and it is aruged that: (1) timed entry calls imply a common sense of time between the machines holding the calling and called tasks; and (2) the measurement of time for the expiration of the delay and the decision of whether or not to perform the rendezvous should be made on the machine holding the called task. The need to distinguish the unreadiness of the called task from timeouts caused by network failure is pointed out. Finally, techniques for realizing a single sense of time across the distributed system (at least to within an acceptable degree of uncertainty) are also discussed.

  9. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 2 report: Detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    Various issues are studied in the context of the design of an Ada based expert system building tool. Using an existing successful design as a starting point, the impact is analyzed of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design, the Ada system is redesigned, and its performance is analyzed using both complexity-theoretic and empirical techniques. The algorithms specified in the overall design are refined, resolving and documenting any open design issues, identifying each system module, documenting the internal architecture and control logic, and describing the primary data structures involved in the module.

  10. Hyperbilirubinemia and rapid fatal hepatic failure in severe combined immunodeficiency caused by adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID).

    PubMed

    Kühl, J S; Schwarz, K; Münch, A; Schmugge, M; Pekrun, A; Meisel, C; Wahn, V; Ebell, W; von Bernuth, H

    2011-03-01

    Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA.

  11. Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Juan J; Monaghan, Gemma; Børsting, Claus; Norbury, Gail; Morling, Niels; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2007-05-01

    Inherited adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder that causes immunodeficiency, varying from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the majority of cases to a less severe form in a small minority of patients. Five patients of Somali origin from four unrelated families, with severe ADA-SCID, were registered in the Greater London area. Patients and their parents were investigated for the nonsense mutation Q3X (ADA c7C>T), two missense mutations K80R (ADA c239A>G) and R142Q (ADA c425G>A), and a TAAA repeat located at the 3' end of an Alu element (AluVpA) positioned 1.1 kb upstream of the ADA transcription start site. All patients were homozygous for the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7. Among 207 Somali immigrants to Denmark, the frequency of ADA c7C>T and the maximum likelihood estimate of the frequency of the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7 were both 0.012 (carrier frequency 2.4%). Based on the analysis of AluVpA alleles, the ADA c7C/T mutation was estimated to be approximately 7,100 years old. Approximately 1 out of 5 - 10000 Somali children will be born with ADA deficiency due to an ADA c7C/T mutation, although within certain clans the frequency may be significantly higher. ADA-SCID may be a frequent immunodeficiency disorder in Somalia, but will be underdiagnosed due to the prevailing socioeconomic and nutritional deprivation.

  12. Moving target, distributed, real-time simulation using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. R.; Feyock, S.; King, L. A.; Morell, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Research on a precompiler solution is described for the moving target compiler problem encountered when trying to run parallel simulation algorithms on several microcomputers. The precompiler is under development at NASA-Lewis for simulating jet engines. Since the behavior of any component of a jet engine, e.g., the fan inlet, rear duct, forward sensor, etc., depends on the previous behaviors and not the current behaviors of other components, the behaviors can be modeled on different processors provided the outputs of the processors reach other processors in appropriate time intervals. The simulator works in compute and transfer modes. The Ada procedure sets for the behaviors of different components are divided up and routed by the precompiler, which essentially receives a multitasking program. The subroutines are synchronized after each computation cycle.

  13. DEC Ada interface to Screen Management Guidelines (SMG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laomanachareon, Somsak; Lekkos, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    DEC's Screen Management Guidelines are the Run-Time Library procedures that perform terminal-independent screen management functions on a VT100-class terminal. These procedures assist users in designing, composing, and keeping track of complex images on a video screen. There are three fundamental elements in the screen management model: the pasteboard, the virtual display, and the virtual keyboard. The pasteboard is like a two-dimensional area on which a user places and manipulates screen displays. The virtual display is a rectangular part of the terminal screen to which a program writes data with procedure calls. The virtual keyboard is a logical structure for input operation associated with a physical keyboard. SMG can be called by all major VAX languages. Through Ada, predefined language Pragmas are used to interface with SMG. These features and elements of SMG are briefly discussed.

  14. ADASAGE4.0. Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.; Russell, K.; Stewart, H.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE4.0 is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE4.0 consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  15. ADASAGE4.02-MERIDIAN. Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.; Russell, K.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  16. ADASAGE3.1; Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.; Russell, K.; Stewart, H.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  17. ADASAGE4.02-ALSYS. Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.; Russell, K.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  18. School Issues Under [Section] 504 and the ADA: The Latest and Greatest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper highlights recent guidance and rulings from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of interest to administrators, advocates, and attorneys. It is a companion piece to Student Issues on SectionNB504/ADA: The Latest and Greatest. Compliance with SectionNB504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) continues to involve debate and dialog on…

  19. Lessons learned in the transition to Ada from FORTRAN at NASA/Goddard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Two dynamics satellite simulators are developed from the same requirements, one in Ada and the other in FORTRAN. The purpose of the research was to find out how well the prescriptive Ada development model worked to develop the Ada simulator. The FORTRAN simulator development, as well as past FORTRAN developments, provided a baseline for comparison. Since this was the first simulator developed, the prescriptive Ada development model had many similarities to the usual FORTRAN development model. However, it was modified to include longer design and shorter testing phases, which is generally expected with Ada developments. One result was that the percentage of time the Ada project spent in the various development activities was very similar to the percentage of time spent in these activities when doing a FORTRAN project. Another finding was the difficulty the Ada team had with unit testing as well as with integration. It was realized that adding additional steps to the design phase, such as an abstract data type analysis, and certain guidelines to the implementation phase, such as to use primarily library units and nest sparingly, would have made development easier. These are among the recommendations made to be incorporated in a new Ada development model next time.

  20. The Labor Market Experience of Workers with Disabilities: The ADA and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the recent labor market experience of American workers with disabilities and an assessment of the impact the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has had on that experience. Since one intention of the ADA is to break down barriers to employment for the disabled, the analyses focus on labor demand…

  1. The G22A Polymorphism of the ADA Gene and Susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettinger, Joe A.; Liu, Xudong; Holden, Jeanette Jeltje Anne

    2008-01-01

    Inborn errors of purine metabolism have been implicated as a cause for some cases of autism. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the sera of some children with autism and reports of an association of the A allele of the ADA G22A (Asp8Asn) polymorphism in individuals with autism of…

  2. NRPA Law Review. Combat Karate Class Illustrates ADA "Direct Threat" Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities, highlighting a lawsuit involving a boy with AIDS who was barred from a traditional combat-oriented martial arts school. Courts ruled that his exclusion did not violate the ADA because he posed significant health and safety risks to…

  3. A Mode Propagation Database Suitable for Code Validation Utilizing the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan and Artificial Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. A series of tests were performed primarily for the use of code validation and tool validation. Rotating Rake mode measurements were acquired for parametric sets of: (i) mode blockage, (ii) liner insertion loss, (iii) short ducts, and (iv) mode reflection.

  4. A Mode Propagation Database Suitable for Code Validation Utilizing the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan and Artificial Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. A series of tests were performed primarily for the use of code validation and tool validation. Rotating Rake mode measurements were acquired for parametric sets of: (1) mode blockage, (2) liner insertion loss, (3) short ducts, and (4) mode reflection.

  5. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigated. In particular, the concept that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware was examined. Progress is discussed for the following areas: continued development and testing of the fault-tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada so that it might more easily cope with the failure of interest; and design of new approaches to fault-tolerant software in real-time systems, and integration of these ideas into Ada.

  6. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada were investigated in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern. In particular, the focus was on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors are being executed, and that failures may occur in the software and underlying hardware. A secondary interest is in the performance of Ada systems and how that performance can be gauged reliably. Primary activities included: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; development of a refined approach to recovery that was applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  7. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. F.; Knight, J. C.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1983-01-01

    The issues involved in the use of the programming language Ada on distributed systems are discussed. The effects of Ada programs on hardware failures such as loss of a processor are emphasized. It is shown that many Ada language elements are not well suited to this environment. Processor failure can easily lead to difficulties on those processors which remain. As an example, the calling task in a rendezvous may be suspended forever if the processor executing the serving task fails. A mechanism for detecting failure is proposed and changes to the Ada run time support system are suggested which avoid most of the difficulties. Ada program structures are defined which allow programs to reconfigure and continue to provide service following processor failure.

  8. All Source Analysis System (ASAS): Migration from VAX to Alpha AXP computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjoholm-Sierchio, Michael J.; Friedman, Steven Z. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) experience migrating existing VAX applications to Digital Equipment Corporation's new Alpha AXP processor is covered. The rapid development approach used during the 10-month period required to migrate the All Source Analysis System (ASAS), 1.5 million lines of FORTRAN, C, and Ada code, is also covered. ASAS, an automated tactical intelligence system, was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U. S. Army. Other benefits achieved as a result of the significant performance improvements provided by Alpha AXP platform are also described.

  9. Subunits of ADA-two-A-containing (ATAC) or Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltrasferase (SAGA) Coactivator Complexes Enhance the Acetyltransferase Activity of GCN5.

    PubMed

    Riss, Anne; Scheer, Elisabeth; Joint, Mathilde; Trowitzsch, Simon; Berger, Imre; Tora, László

    2015-11-27

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) play a crucial role in eukaryotes by regulating chromatin architecture and locus specific transcription. GCN5 (KAT2A) is a member of the GNAT (Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase) family of HATs. In metazoans this enzyme is found in two functionally distinct coactivator complexes, SAGA (Spt Ada Gcn5 acetyltransferase) and ATAC (Ada Two A-containing). These two multiprotein complexes comprise complex-specific and shared subunits, which are organized in functional modules. The HAT module of ATAC is composed of GCN5, ADA2a, ADA3, and SGF29, whereas in the SAGA HAT module ADA2b is present instead of ADA2a. To better understand how the activity of human (h) hGCN5 is regulated in the two related, but different, HAT complexes we carried out in vitro HAT assays. We compared the activity of hGCN5 alone with its activity when it was part of purified recombinant hATAC or hSAGA HAT modules or endogenous hATAC or hSAGA complexes using histone tail peptides and full-length histones as substrates. We demonstrated that the subunit environment of the HAT complexes into which GCN5 incorporates determines the enhancement of GCN5 activity. On histone peptides we show that all the tested GCN5-containing complexes acetylate mainly histone H3K14. Our results suggest a stronger influence of ADA2b as compared with ADA2a on the activity of GCN5. However, the lysine acetylation specificity of GCN5 on histone tails or full-length histones was not changed when incorporated in the HAT modules of ATAC or SAGA complexes. Our results thus demonstrate that the catalytic activity of GCN5 is stimulated by subunits of the ADA2a- or ADA2b-containing HAT modules and is further increased by incorporation of the distinct HAT modules in the ATAC or SAGA holo-complexes.

  10. Mobile, hybrid Compton/coded aperture imaging for detection, identification and localization of gamma-ray sources at stand-off distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornga, Shawn R.

    The Stand-off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) program is an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) project through the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) with the goal of detection, identification and localization of weak radiological sources in the presence of large dynamic backgrounds. The Raytheon-SORDS Tri-Modal Imager (TMI) is a mobile truck-based, hybrid gamma-ray imaging system able to quickly detect, identify and localize, radiation sources at standoff distances through improved sensitivity while minimizing the false alarm rate. Reconstruction of gamma-ray sources is performed using a combination of two imaging modalities; coded aperture and Compton scatter imaging. The TMI consists of 35 sodium iodide (NaI) crystals 5x5x2 in3 each, arranged in a random coded aperture mask array (CA), followed by 30 position sensitive NaI bars each 24x2.5x3 in3 called the detection array (DA). The CA array acts as both a coded aperture mask and scattering detector for Compton events. The large-area DA array acts as a collection detector for both Compton scattered events and coded aperture events. In this thesis, developed coded aperture, Compton and hybrid imaging algorithms will be described along with their performance. It will be shown that multiple imaging modalities can be fused to improve detection sensitivity over a broader energy range than either alone. Since the TMI is a moving system, peripheral data, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) must also be incorporated. A method of adapting static imaging algorithms to a moving platform has been developed. Also, algorithms were developed in parallel with detector hardware, through the use of extensive simulations performed with the Geometry and Tracking Toolkit v4 (GEANT4). Simulations have been well validated against measured data. Results of image reconstruction algorithms at various speeds and distances will be presented as well as

  11. Research, development, training, and education using the Ada programming language. Final report, 1 September 1987-31 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.C.

    1989-07-16

    The primary goal of this activity was to conduct research in the application and development of Ada, and in broader terms the objectives were as follows: (1) To develop numerical algorithms for parallel processing using the Ada language; (2) To develop new methodologies in reusing Ada software; (3) To solve select problems in applied mathematics using MACSYMA and Ada; (4) Simulate the interactions of nodes in a network using Ada; (5) To increase the cadre of educations available to provide Ada training by conducting Ada workshops for Norfolk State University faculty and staff; (6) To develop a series of in-class and individualized modules addressing Ada programming using computer-assisted instruction; and (7) To disseminate research and computer-aided instruction modules to other minority institutions through computer networking, workshops, and lecture series.

  12. TIDY, a complete code for renumbering and editing FORTRAN source programs. User's manual for IBM 360/67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A. V.; Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    TIDY, a computer code which edits and renumerates FORTRAN decks which have become difficult to read because of many patches and revisions, is described. The old program is reorganized so that statement numbers are added sequentially, and extraneous FORTRAN statements are deleted. General instructions for using TIDY on the IBM 360/67 Tymeshare System, and specific instructions for use on the NASA/AMES IBM 360/67 TSS system are included as well as specific instructions on how to run TIDY in conversational and in batch modes. TIDY may be adopted for use on other computers.

  13. The characterization and optimization of NIO1 ion source extraction aperture using a 3D particle-in-cell code.

    PubMed

    Taccogna, F; Minelli, P; Cavenago, M; Veltri, P; Ippolito, N

    2016-02-01

    The geometry of a single aperture in the extraction grid plays a relevant role for the optimization of negative ion transport and extraction probability in a hybrid negative ion source. For this reason, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model of the extraction region around the single aperture including part of the source and part of the acceleration (up to the extraction grid (EG) middle) regions has been developed for the new aperture design prepared for negative ion optimization 1 source. Results have shown that the dimension of the flat and chamfered parts and the slope of the latter in front of the source region maximize the product of production rate and extraction probability (allowing the best EG field penetration) of surface-produced negative ions. The negative ion density in the plane yz has been reported. PMID:26932027

  14. Toward quantifying the source term for predicting global climatic effects of nuclear war: applications of urban fire codes

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; Kang, S.W.; Takata, A.N.

    1985-06-15

    Calculating urban-area fire development is critical to estimating global smoke production effects due to nuclear warfare. To improve calculations of fire starts and spread in urban areas, we performed a parameter-sensitivity analysis using three codes from IIT Research Institute. We applied improved versions of the codes to two urban areas: an infinite ''uniform city'' with only one type of building and the ''San Jose urban area'' as of the late 1960s. We varied parameters and compared affected fuel consumption and areas with a baseline case. The dominant parameters for the uniform city were wind speed, atmospheric visibility, frequency of secondary fire starts, building density, and window sizes. For San Jose (1968), they were wind speed, building densities, location of ground zero (GZ), height of burst (HOB), window sizes, and brand range. Because some results are very sensitive to actual fuel-distribution characteristics and the attack scenario, it is not possible to use a uniform city to represent actual urban areas. This was confirmed by a few calculations for the Detroit area as of the late 1960s. Many improvements are needed, such as inclusion of fire-induced winds and debris fires, before results can be extrapolated to the global scale.

  15. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  16. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

  17. 76 FR 14745 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement, Ada and Canyon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Statement, Ada and Canyon Counties, ID AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration. ACTION: Rescind Notice of... Statement for a proposed highway project in Ada and Canyon County, Idaho is being rescinded. FOR FURTHER... Ballantyne Lane in Ada County. The project is commonly known as the State Highway 44 Corridor...

  18. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  19. Functional similarity and physical association between GCN5 and ADA2: putative transcriptional adaptors.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, G A; Silverman, N; Berger, S L; Horiuchi, J; Guarente, L

    1994-01-01

    A selection for yeast mutants resistant to GAL4-VP16-induced toxicity previously identified two genes, ADA2 and ADA3, which may function as adaptors for some transcriptional activation domains and thereby facilitate activation. Here we identify two new genes by the same selection, one of which is identical to GCN5. We show that gcn5 mutants share properties with ada mutants, including slow growth, temperature sensitivity and reduced activation by the VP16 and GCN4 activation domains. Double mutant studies suggest that ADA2 and GCN5 function together in a complex or pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that GCN5 binds to ADA2 both by the two-hybrid assay in vivo and by co-immunoprecipitation in vitro. This suggests that ADA2 and GCN5 are part of a heteromeric complex that mediates transcriptional activation. Finally, we demonstrate the functional importance of the bromodomain of GCN5, a sequence found in other global transcription factors such as the SWI/SNF complex and the TATA binding protein-associated factors. This domain is not required for the interaction between GCN5 and ADA2 and thus may mediate a more general activity of transcription factors. Images PMID:7957049

  20. Development of Immunocapture-LC/MS Assay for Simultaneous ADA Isotyping and Semiquantitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have potential to elicit immune responses resulting in anti-drug antibodies that can pose problems for both patient safety and product efficacy. During drug development immunogenicity is usually examined by risk-based approach along with specific strategies for developing “fit-for-purpose” bioanalytical approaches. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays are the most widely used platform for ADA detection due to their high sensitivity and throughput. During the past decade, LC/MS has emerged as a promising technology for quantitation of biotherapeutics and protein biomarkers in biological matrices, mainly owing to its high specificity, selectivity, multiplexing, and wide dynamic range. In fully taking these advantages, we describe here an immunocapture-LC/MS methodology for simultaneous isotyping and semiquantitation of ADA in human plasma. Briefly, ADA and/or drug-ADA complex is captured by biotinylated drug or anti-drug Ab, immobilized on streptavidin magnetic beads, and separated from human plasma by a magnet. ADA is then released from the beads and subjected to trypsin digestion followed by LC/MS detection of specific universal peptides for each ADA isotype. The LC/MS data are analyzed using cut-point and calibration curve. The proof-of-concept of this methodology is demonstrated by detecting preexisting ADA in human plasma. PMID:27034966

  1. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics “entity” (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code’s parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred

  2. Source convergence diagnostics using Boltzmann entropy criterion application to different OECD/NEA criticality benchmarks with the 3-D Monte Carlo code Tripoli-4

    SciTech Connect

    Dumonteil, E.; Le Peillet, A.; Lee, Y. K.; Petit, O.; Jouanne, C.; Mazzolo, A.

    2006-07-01

    The measurement of the stationarity of Monte Carlo fission source distributions in k{sub eff} calculations plays a central role in the ability to discriminate between fake and 'true' convergence (in the case of a high dominant ratio or in case of loosely coupled systems). Recent theoretical developments have been made in the study of source convergence diagnostics, using Shannon entropy. We will first recall those results, and we will then generalize them using the expression of Boltzmann entropy, highlighting the gain in terms of the various physical problems that we can treat. Finally we will present the results of several OECD/NEA benchmarks using the Tripoli-4 Monte Carlo code, enhanced with this new criterion. (authors)

  3. TOMO3D: 3-D joint refraction and reflection traveltime tomography parallel code for active-source seismic data—synthetic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, A.; Korenaga, J.; Sallarès, V.; Miniussi, A.; Ranero, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new 3-D traveltime tomography code (TOMO3D) for the modelling of active-source seismic data that uses the arrival times of both refracted and reflected seismic phases to derive the velocity distribution and the geometry of reflecting boundaries in the subsurface. This code is based on its popular 2-D version TOMO2D from which it inherited the methods to solve the forward and inverse problems. The traveltime calculations are done using a hybrid ray-tracing technique combining the graph and bending methods. The LSQR algorithm is used to perform the iterative regularized inversion to improve the initial velocity and depth models. In order to cope with an increased computational demand due to the incorporation of the third dimension, the forward problem solver, which takes most of the run time (˜90 per cent in the test presented here), has been parallelized with a combination of multi-processing and message passing interface standards. This parallelization distributes the ray-tracing and traveltime calculations among available computational resources. The code's performance is illustrated with a realistic synthetic example, including a checkerboard anomaly and two reflectors, which simulates the geometry of a subduction zone. The code is designed to invert for a single reflector at a time. A data-driven layer-stripping strategy is proposed for cases involving multiple reflectors, and it is tested for the successive inversion of the two reflectors. Layers are bound by consecutive reflectors, and an initial velocity model for each inversion step incorporates the results from previous steps. This strategy poses simpler inversion problems at each step, allowing the recovery of strong velocity discontinuities that would otherwise be smoothened.

  4. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  5. Transmission from theory to practice: Experiences using open-source code development and a virtual short course to increase the adoption of new theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Even amongst the academic community, new theoretical tools can remain underutilized due to the investment of time and resources required to understand and implement them. This surely limits the frequency that new theory is rigorously tested against data by scientists outside the group that developed it, and limits the impact that new tools could have on the advancement of science. Reducing the barriers to adoption through online education and open-source code can bridge the gap between theory and data, forging new collaborations, and advancing science. A pilot venture aimed at increasing the adoption of a new theory of time-variable transit time distributions was begun in July 2015 as a collaboration between Johns Hopkins University and The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI). There were four main components to the venture: a public online seminar covering the theory, an open source code repository, a virtual short course designed to help participants apply the theory to their data, and an online forum to maintain discussion and build a community of users. 18 participants were selected for the non-public components based on their responses in an application, and were asked to fill out a course evaluation at the end of the short course, and again several months later. These evaluations, along with participation in the forum and on-going contact with the organizer suggest strengths and weaknesses in this combination of components to assist participants in adopting new tools.

  6. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Reynolds, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which the hardware components are assumed to be unreliable is investigated. The possibility that a distributed system can be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processor they are executing on, and that failures can occur in the underlying hardware is considered. The reduced cost of computer hardware and the advantages of distributed processing (for example, increased reliability through redundancy and greater flexibility) indicate that many aerospace computer systems can be distributed. The use of Ada and distributed systems is a good combination for aerospace embedded systems.

  7. Ada compiler evaluation on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the work in progress to select the Ada compilers for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Software Support Environment (SSE) project. The purpose of the SSE Ada compiler evaluation team is to establish the criteria, test suites, and benchmarks to be used for evaluating Ada compilers for the mainframes, workstations, and the realtime target for flight- and ground-based computers. The combined efforts and cooperation of the customer, subcontractors, vendors, academia and SIGAda groups made it possible to acquire the necessary background information, benchmarks, test suites, and criteria used.

  8. Under oath: content analysis of oaths administered in ADA-Accredited Dental Schools in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Aaron B; Peterson, Erin M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2009-06-01

    This study reviews and analyzes the content of dental school oaths taken by students in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico in 2006. Each oath was qualitatively reviewed to determine its consistency with each of the five principles set forth in the American Dental Association (ADA)'s Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct. Fifty-eight oaths were received from sixty-one of sixty-six schools in response to information requests regarding use of oaths and manner of administration. Of these, thirty-nine employ one oath, administered at either graduation or ceremonies marking transition to clinical training; twelve employ an oath at both occasions, with five repeating the same oath; and ten have no formal oaths. Eighteen oaths follow the wording of "The Dentist's Pledge," nine follow the "Oath to the Profession/Professional Pledge," three follow the Modern Hippocratic Oath, and twenty-eight are idiosyncratic. All five of the ADA principles (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity) are addressed in thirteen oaths, four principles in nine oaths, and three or fewer principles in thirty-six oaths. Eleven make reference to care for the underserved. As oath-taking is an opportunity to instill and reinforce to students dentistry's most important ethical obligations, recommendations are offered to make the content more meaningful and comprehensive.

  9. AdaBoost-based algorithm for network intrusion detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Maybank, Steve

    2008-04-01

    Network intrusion detection aims at distinguishing the attacks on the Internet from normal use of the Internet. It is an indispensable part of the information security system. Due to the variety of network behaviors and the rapid development of attack fashions, it is necessary to develop fast machine-learning-based intrusion detection algorithms with high detection rates and low false-alarm rates. In this correspondence, we propose an intrusion detection algorithm based on the AdaBoost algorithm. In the algorithm, decision stumps are used as weak classifiers. The decision rules are provided for both categorical and continuous features. By combining the weak classifiers for continuous features and the weak classifiers for categorical features into a strong classifier, the relations between these two different types of features are handled naturally, without any forced conversions between continuous and categorical features. Adaptable initial weights and a simple strategy for avoiding overfitting are adopted to improve the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm has low computational complexity and error rates, as compared with algorithms of higher computational complexity, as tested on the benchmark sample data. PMID:18348941

  10. Automated model integration at source code level: An approach for implementing models into the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Mocko, D. M.; Kumar, S.; Nearing, G. S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Geiger, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    Model integration bridges the data flow between modeling frameworks and models. However, models usually do not fit directly into a particular modeling environment, if not designed for it. An example includes implementing different types of models into the NASA Land Information System (LIS), a software framework for land-surface modeling and data assimilation. Model implementation requires scientific knowledge and software expertise and may take a developer months to learn LIS and model software structure. Debugging and testing of the model implementation is also time-consuming due to not fully understanding LIS or the model. This time spent is costly for research and operational projects. To address this issue, an approach has been developed to automate model integration into LIS. With this in mind, a general model interface was designed to retrieve forcing inputs, parameters, and state variables needed by the model and to provide as state variables and outputs to LIS. Every model can be wrapped to comply with the interface, usually with a FORTRAN 90 subroutine. Development efforts need only knowledge of the model and basic programming skills. With such wrappers, the logic is the same for implementing all models. Code templates defined for this general model interface could be re-used with any specific model. Therefore, the model implementation can be done automatically. An automated model implementation toolkit was developed with Microsoft Excel and its built-in VBA language. It allows model specifications in three worksheets and contains FORTRAN 90 code templates in VBA programs. According to the model specification, the toolkit generates data structures and procedures within FORTRAN modules and subroutines, which transfer data between LIS and the model wrapper. Model implementation is standardized, and about 80 - 90% of the development load is reduced. In this presentation, the automated model implementation approach is described along with LIS programming

  11. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating coded signals

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2014-12-30

    A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.

  12. An open-source Matlab code package for improved rank-reduction 3D seismic data denoising and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang; Huang, Weilin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous seismic data denoising and reconstruction is a currently popular research subject in modern reflection seismology. Traditional rank-reduction based 3D seismic data denoising and reconstruction algorithm will cause strong residual noise in the reconstructed data and thus affect the following processing and interpretation tasks. In this paper, we propose an improved rank-reduction method by modifying the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) formula used in the traditional method. The proposed approach can help us obtain nearly perfect reconstruction performance even in the case of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The proposed algorithm is tested via one synthetic and field data examples. Considering that seismic data interpolation and denoising source packages are seldom in the public domain, we also provide a program template for the rank-reduction based simultaneous denoising and reconstruction algorithm by providing an open-source Matlab package.

  13. Approaches to the study of neural coding of sound source location and sound envelope in real environments

    PubMed Central

    Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Bishop, Brian; Kim, Duck O.

    2012-01-01

    The major functions of the auditory system are recognition (what is the sound) and localization (where is the sound). Although each of these has received considerable attention, rarely are they studied in combination. Furthermore, the stimuli used in the bulk of studies did not represent sound location in real environments and ignored the effects of reverberation. Another ignored dimension is the distance of a sound source. Finally, there is a scarcity of studies conducted in unanesthetized animals. We illustrate a set of efficient methods that overcome these shortcomings. We use the virtual auditory space method (VAS) to efficiently present sounds at different azimuths, different distances and in different environments. Additionally, this method allows for efficient switching between binaural and monaural stimulation and alteration of acoustic cues singly or in combination to elucidate neural mechanisms underlying localization and recognition. Such procedures cannot be performed with real sound field stimulation. Our research is designed to address the following questions: Are IC neurons specialized to process what and where auditory information? How does reverberation and distance of the sound source affect this processing? How do IC neurons represent sound source distance? Are neural mechanisms underlying envelope processing binaural or monaural? PMID:22754505

  14. Four Possible Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Ada, Oklahoma

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of federal, state, and city initiatives on climate change are presented. Specific steps for the City of Ada, Oklahoma, are presented. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy.

  15. System testing of a production Ada (trademark) project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seigle, Jeffrey; Esker, Linda; Shi, Ying-Liang

    1990-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that utilize its features has a strong impact on all phases of the software development project lifecycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The teams found some qualitative differences between the system test phases of the two projects. Although planning for system testing and conducting of tests were not generally affected by the use of Ada, the solving of problems found in system testing was generally facilitated by Ada constructs and design methodology. Most problems found in system testing were not due to difficulty with the language or methodology but to lack of experience with the application.

  16. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance analysis was begin on the Ada implementations. The goal is to supply the system designer with tools that will allow a rational decision to be made about whether a particular implementation can support a given application early in the design cycle. Primary activities were: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; preparation and presentation of a paper at the 1987 Washington DC Ada Symposium; development of a refined approach to recovery that is presently being applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  17. Expanding ADA coverage to employee benefit plans: recent judicial and administrative developments.

    PubMed

    Mook, J R

    1995-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act has been heralded as the Emancipation Proclamation for persons with disabilities. The purpose of the law is to provide nothing less than a "clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities." Precisely how the nondiscrimination principles of the ADA will be applied to an employer's provision of health benefits to its employees has been the subject of much debate since the Act's passage in 1990. Although the statutory language and the legislative history support a limited application of the ADA to benefits issues, recent court decisions and enforcement actions by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission indicate that the ADA may have a much more profound impact in the area of benefits plan design and administration. Moreover, as benefits administrators take a much more active role in managing health care decisions, the ADA may become a vehicle for legal challenges to those decisions that affect the disabled. PMID:10172245

  18. CSF ADA Determination in Early Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Gupta, B B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous and Cryptococcal meningitis are common in HIV patients. A highly specific and sensitive rapid test for diagnosis of Tuberculous meningitis especially in setting of HIV is not available in developing countries where the burden of disease is high. We measured ADA (adenosine deaminase) levels using spectrophotometric method in the CSF of HIV patients with meningitis to differentiate Tuberculous meningitis from meningitis due to other causes. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ADA values between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and nontuberculous (non-TB) meningitis patients and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve was drawn from these values. Levels of ADA in the CSF of patients with TBM were significantly higher than those in patients with meningitis due to other causes. CSF ADA level determination with a cut-off value of 6 IU/L was found to be highly specific and fairly sensitive test for the diagnosis of TBM in HIV positive patients. PMID:27144055

  19. On-line upgrade of program modules using AdaPT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    One purpose of our research is the investigation of the effectiveness and expressiveness of AdaPT, a set of language extensions to Ada 83, for distributed systems. As a part of that effort, we are now investigating the subject of replacing, e.g. upgrading, software modules while the software system remains in operation. The AdaPT language extensions provide a good basis for this investigation for several reasons: they include the concept of specific, self-contained program modules which can be manipulated; support for program configuration is included in the language; and although the discussion will be in terms of the AdaPT language, the AdaPT to Ada 83 conversion methodology being developed as another part of this project will provide a basis for the application of our findings to Ada 83 and Ada 9X systems. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the basic mechanisms of the replacement process. With this purpose in mind, we will avoid including issues whose presence would obscure these basic mechanisms by introducing additional, unrelated concerns. Thus, while replacement in the presence of real-time deadlines, heterogeneous systems, and unreliable networks is certainly a topic of interest, we will first gain an understanding of the basic processes in the absence of such concerns. The extension of the replacement process to more complex situations can be made later. A previous report established an overview of the module replacement problem, a taxonomy of the various aspects of the replacement process, and a solution to one case in the replacement taxonomy. This report provides solutions to additional cases in the replacement process taxonomy: replacement of partitions with state and replacement of nodes. The solutions presented here establish the basic principles for module replacement. Extension of these solutions to other more complicated cases in the replacement taxonomy is direct, though requiring substantial work beyond the available funding.

  20. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada (a trade mark of the US Dept. of Defense) in distributed environments in which the hardware are assumed to be unreliable were investigated. The possibility that a distributed system is programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on and failures occurring in the underlying hardware were examined.

  1. A study of the portability of an Ada system in the software engineering laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Linda O.; Valett, Susan Ray

    1990-01-01

    A particular porting effort is discussed, and various statistics on analyzing the portability of Ada and the total staff months (overall and by phase) required to accomplish the rehost, are given. This effort is compared to past experiments on the rehosting of FORTRAN systems. The discussion includes an analysis of the types of errors encountered during the rehosting, the changes required to rehost the system, experiences with the Alsys IBM Ada compiler, the impediments encountered, and the lessons learned during this study.

  2. A-D-A small molecules for solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wang; Wan, Xiangjian; Li, Miaomiao; Wang, Yunchuang; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-03-25

    A-D-A small molecules have drawn more and more attention in solution-processed organic solar cells due to the advantages of a diversity of structures, easy control of energy levels, etc. Recently, a power conversion efficiency of nearly 10% has been achieved through careful material design and device optimization. This feature article reviews recent representative progress in the design and application of A-D-A small molecules in organic photovoltaic cells.

  3. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  4. 6th Circuit: insurance policies are not covered by the ADA.

    PubMed

    1997-08-22

    The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) does not cover the products that an insurer offers. The ADA only covers the physical premises of an insurance company. The court also ruled that the ADA does not mandate equality in employer-provider insurance coverage between people with varying types of disabilities. According to the court, the ADA only requires that all eligible employees be able to enroll in the plan. The case was brought by [name removed], a former employee of Schering-Plough Corporation, who complained that the long-term disability plan sponsored by the company and operated by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, violated the ADA. The plan limited mental illness disability benefits to two years but did not place a similar cap on physical conditions. The ruling, binding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan, contradicts earlier opinions which held that insurance products are subject to Title III of the ADA. The ruling states that Title III does not control the content of a long-term disability policy offered by an employer. Previous precedents set by the 1st Circuit Court in 1994 that had been viewed as protecting persons living with AIDS (PWAs) from discrimination in insurance programs and products were rejected by this ruling.

  5. Code System to Solve the Few-Group Neutron Diffusion Equation Utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) for Eigenvalue, Adjoint, and Fixed-Source

    2004-04-21

    Version 04 NESTLE solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the NEM. The NESTLE code can solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two- ormore » four-energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e., upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modeled include Cartesian and hexagonal. Three-, two-, and one-dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The thermal conditions predicted by the thermal-hydraulic model of the core are used to correct cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections are parameterized by color, control rod state (i.e., in or out), and burnup, allowing fuel depletion to be modeled. Either a macroscopic or microscopic model may be employed.« less

  6. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ - supplementary report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Jr, D E; Pleasant, J C; Killough, G G

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe revisions in the SFACTOR computer code and to provide useful documentation for that program. The SFACTOR computer code has been developed to implement current methodologies for computing the average dose equivalent rate S(X reverse arrow Y) to specified target organs in man due to 1 ..mu..Ci of a given radionuclide uniformly distributed in designated source orrgans. The SFACTOR methodology is largely based upon that of Snyder, however, it has been expanded to include components of S from alpha and spontaneous fission decay, in addition to electron and photon radiations. With this methodology, S-factors can be computed for any radionuclide for which decay data are available. The tabulations in Appendix II provide a reference compilation of S-factors for several dosimetrically important radionuclides which are not available elsewhere in the literature. These S-factors are calculated for an adult with characteristics similar to those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Man. Corrections to tabulations from Dunning are presented in Appendix III, based upon the methods described in Section 2.3. 10 refs.

  7. Calculations of the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the MCNP-4C code.

    PubMed

    Khattab, K; Sulieman, I

    2009-04-01

    The MCNP-4C code, based on the probabilistic approach, was used to model the 3D configuration of the core of the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The continuous energy neutron cross sections from the ENDF/B-VI library were used to calculate the thermal and fast neutron fluxes in the inner and outer irradiation sites of MNSR. The thermal fluxes in the MNSR inner irradiation sites were also measured experimentally by the multiple foil activation method ((197)Au (n, gamma) (198)Au and (59)Co (n, gamma) (60)Co). The foils were irradiated simultaneously in each of the five MNSR inner irradiation sites to measure the thermal neutron flux and the epithermal index in each site. The calculated and measured results agree well.

  8. The cel3 gene of Agaricus bisporus codes for a modular cellulase and is transcriptionally regulated by the carbon source.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, C M; Yagüe, E; Raguz, S; Wood, D A; Thurston, C F

    1994-01-01

    A 52-kDa protein, CEL3, has been separated from the culture filtrate of Agaricus bisporus during growth on cellulose. A PCR-derived probe was made, with a degenerate oligodeoxynucleotide derived from the amino acid sequence of a CEL3 CNBr cleavage product and was used to select cel3 cDNA clones from an A. bisporus cDNA library. Two allelic cDNAs were isolated. They showed 98.8% identity of their nucleotide sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence and domain architecture of CEL3 showed a high degree of similarity to those of cellobiohydrolase II of Trichoderma reesei. Functional expression of cel3 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was achieved by placing it under the control of a constitutive promoter and fusing it to the yeast invertase signal sequence. Recombinant CEL3 secreted by yeast showed enzymatic activity towards crystalline cellulose. At long reaction times, CEL3 was also able to degrade carboxymethyl cellulose. Northern (RNA) analysis showed that cel3 gene expression was induced by cellulose and repressed by glucose, fructose, 2-deoxyglucose, and lactose. Glycerol, mannitol, sorbitol, and maltose were neutral carbon sources. Nuclear run-on analysis showed that the rate of synthesis of cel3 mRNA in cellulose-grown cultures was 13 times higher than that in glucose-grown cultures. A low basal rate of cel3 mRNA synthesis was observed in the nuclei isolated from glucose-grown mycelia. Images PMID:8085821

  9. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  10. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  11. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  12. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    PubMed

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27273565

  13. Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, Adam J; Tholpady, Ashok; Tholpady, Sunil S; Shang, Hulan; Ogle, Roy C

    2005-03-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue contains cells with intriguing multilineage developmental plasticity, much like marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Putative stem or progenitor cells from fat have been given many different names in the literature, reflecting an early and evolving consensus regarding their phenotypic characterization. The study reported here used microarrays to evaluate over 170 genes relating to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix in undifferentiated, early-passage human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells isolated from three separate donors. The hADAS populations unanimously transcribed 66% of the screened genes, and 83% were transcribed by at least two of the three populations. The most highly transcribed genes relate to functional groupings such as cell adhesion, matrix proteins, growth factors and receptors, and proteases. The transcriptome of hADAS cells demonstrated by this work reveals many similarities to published profiles of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition, flow analysis of over 24 hADAS cell surface proteins (n = 7 donors) both confirms and expands on the existing literature and reveals strong intergroup correlation, despite an inconsistent nomenclature and the lack of standardized protocols for cell isolation and culture. Finally, based on flow analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies, our results suggest that hADAS cells do not express several proteins that are implicated as markers of "stemness" in other stem cell populations, including telomerase, CD133, and the membrane transporter ABCG2.

  14. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine <0.09μmol/L, adenosine <1.61μmol/L). We also developed a second tier test to distinguish true positives from false positives and improve the positive predictive value of an initial abnormal result. In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program.

  15. Development and implementation in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE of a new virtual source model for radiotherapy photon beams and portal image calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert, I.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Agelou, M.; Croc de Suray, A.; Garcia-Hernandez, J. C.; Gempp, S.; Benkreira, M.; de Carlan, L.; Lazaro, D.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at developing a generic virtual source model (VSM) preserving all existing correlations between variables stored in a Monte Carlo pre-computed phase space (PS) file, for dose calculation and high-resolution portal image prediction. The reference PS file was calculated using the PENELOPE code, after the flattening filter (FF) of an Elekta Synergy 6 MV photon beam. Each particle was represented in a mobile coordinate system by its radial position (r s ) in the PS plane, its energy (E), and its polar and azimuthal angles (φ d and θ d ), describing the particle deviation compared to its initial direction after bremsstrahlung, and the deviation orientation. Three sub-sources were created by sorting out particles according to their last interaction location (target, primary collimator or FF). For each sub-source, 4D correlated-histograms were built by storing E, r s , φ d and θ d values. Five different adaptive binning schemes were studied to construct 4D histograms of the VSMs, to ensure histogram efficient handling as well as an accurate reproduction of E, r s , φ d and θ d distribution details. The five resulting VSMs were then implemented in PENELOPE. Their accuracy was first assessed in the PS plane, by comparing E, r s , φ d and θ d distributions with those obtained from the reference PS file. Second, dose distributions computed in water, using the VSMs and the reference PS file located below the FF, and also after collimation in both water and heterogeneous phantom, were compared using a 1.5%-0 mm and a 2%-0 mm global gamma index, respectively. Finally, portal images were calculated without and with phantoms in the beam. The model was then evaluated using a 1%-0 mm global gamma index. Performance of a mono-source VSM was also investigated and led, as with the multi-source model, to excellent results when combined with an adaptive binning scheme.

  16. Development and implementation in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE of a new virtual source model for radiotherapy photon beams and portal image calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert, I.; Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Agelou, M.; Croc de Suray, A.; Garcia-Hernandez, J. C.; Gempp, S.; Benkreira, M.; de Carlan, L.; Lazaro, D.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at developing a generic virtual source model (VSM) preserving all existing correlations between variables stored in a Monte Carlo pre-computed phase space (PS) file, for dose calculation and high-resolution portal image prediction. The reference PS file was calculated using the PENELOPE code, after the flattening filter (FF) of an Elekta Synergy 6 MV photon beam. Each particle was represented in a mobile coordinate system by its radial position (r s ) in the PS plane, its energy (E), and its polar and azimuthal angles (φ d and θ d ), describing the particle deviation compared to its initial direction after bremsstrahlung, and the deviation orientation. Three sub-sources were created by sorting out particles according to their last interaction location (target, primary collimator or FF). For each sub-source, 4D correlated-histograms were built by storing E, r s , φ d and θ d values. Five different adaptive binning schemes were studied to construct 4D histograms of the VSMs, to ensure histogram efficient handling as well as an accurate reproduction of E, r s , φ d and θ d distribution details. The five resulting VSMs were then implemented in PENELOPE. Their accuracy was first assessed in the PS plane, by comparing E, r s , φ d and θ d distributions with those obtained from the reference PS file. Second, dose distributions computed in water, using the VSMs and the reference PS file located below the FF, and also after collimation in both water and heterogeneous phantom, were compared using a 1.5%–0 mm and a 2%–0 mm global gamma index, respectively. Finally, portal images were calculated without and with phantoms in the beam. The model was then evaluated using a 1%–0 mm global gamma index. Performance of a mono-source VSM was also investigated and led, as with the multi-source model, to excellent results when combined with an adaptive binning scheme.

  17. Rational's experience using Ada for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, James E., Jr.; Devlin, Michael T.

    1986-01-01

    The experience using the Rational Environment has confirmed the advantages forseen when the project was started. Interactive syntatic and semantic information makes a tremendous difference in the ease of constructing programs and making changes to them. The ability to follow semantic references makes it easier to understand exisiting programs and the impact of changes. The integrated debugger makes it much easier to find bugs and test fixes quickly. Taken together, these facilites have helped greatly in reducing the impact of ongoing maintenance of the ability to produce a new code. Similar improvements are anticipated as the same level of integration and interactivity are achieved for configuration management and version control. The environment has also proven useful in introducing personnel to the project and existing personnel to new parts of the system. Personnel benefit from the assistance with syntax and semantics; everyone benefits from the ability to traverse and understand the structure of unfamiliar software. It is often possible for someone completely unfamiliar with a body of code to use these facilities, to understand it well enough to successfully with a body of code to use these facilities to understand it well enough to successfully diagnose and fix bugs in a matter of minutes.

  18. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-10-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442-29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation. PMID:27402865

  19. Spectrum of mutations in a cohort of UK patients with ADA deficient SCID: Segregation of genotypes with specific ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stuart P; Wilson, Melanie; Harb, Elissar; Fairbanks, Lynette; Xu-Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucie; Kearney, Laura; Madkaikar, Manisha; Bobby Gaspar, H

    2015-12-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) arises from a number of different genetic defects, one of the most common being mutations in the gene encoding adenosine deaminase (ADA). In the UK, ADA deficient SCID compromises approximately 20% of all known cases of SCID. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the ADA gene in 46 known ADA deficient SCID patients on whom DNA had been stored. Here, we report a high frequency of two previously reported mutations and provide a link between the mutations and patient ethnicity within our patient cohort. We also report on 9 novel mutations that have been previously unreported.

  20. Multicast Reduction Network Source Code

    2006-12-19

    MRNet is a software tree-based overlay network developed at the University of Wisconsin, Madison that provides a scalable communication mechanism for parallel tools. MRNet, uses a tree topology of networked processes between a user tool and distributed tool daemons. This tree topology allows scalable multicast communication from the tool to the daemons. The internal nodes of the tree can be used to distribute computation and alalysis on data sent from the tool daemons to themore » tool. This release covers minor implementation to port this software to the BlueGene/L architecuture and for use with a new implementation of the Dynamic Probe Class Library.« less

  1. Multicast Reduction Network Source Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.

    2006-12-19

    MRNet is a software tree-based overlay network developed at the University of Wisconsin, Madison that provides a scalable communication mechanism for parallel tools. MRNet, uses a tree topology of networked processes between a user tool and distributed tool daemons. This tree topology allows scalable multicast communication from the tool to the daemons. The internal nodes of the tree can be used to distribute computation and alalysis on data sent from the tool daemons to the tool. This release covers minor implementation to port this software to the BlueGene/L architecuture and for use with a new implementation of the Dynamic Probe Class Library.

  2. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  3. Implementation of and Ada real-time executive: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, James D.; Burton, Bruce A.; Koppes, Mary R.

    1986-01-01

    Current Ada language implementations and runtime environments are immature, unproven and are a key risk area for real-time embedded computer system (ECS). A test-case environment is provided in which the concerns of the real-time, ECS community are addressed. A priority driven executive is selected to be implemented in the Ada programming language. The model selected is representative of real-time executives tailored for embedded systems used missile, spacecraft, and avionics applications. An Ada-based design methodology is utilized, and two designs are considered. The first of these designs requires the use of vendor supplied runtime and tasking support. An alternative high-level design is also considered for an implementation requiring no vendor supplied runtime or tasking support. The former approach is carried through to implementation.

  4. Diagnostic value of sputum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Binesh, Fariba; Jalali, Hadi; Zare, Mohammad Reza; Behravan, Farhad; Tafti, Arefeh Dehghani; Behnaz, Fatemah; Tabatabaee, Mohammad; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is still a considerable health problem in many countries. Rapid diagnosis of this disease is important, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been used as a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ADA in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The current study included 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (culture positive, smear ±) and 42 patients with non tuberculosis pulmonary diseases (culture negative). ADA was measured on all of the samples. Results The median value of ADA in non-tuberculosis patients was 2.94 (4.2) U/L and 4.01 (6.54) U/L in tuberculosis patients, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.100). The cut-off point of 3.1 U/L had a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 53%, the cut-off point of 2.81 U/L had a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 50% and the cut-off point of 2.78 U/L had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 48%. The positive predictive values for cut-off points of 3.1, 2.81 and 2.78 U/L were 55.7%, 57.44% and 69.23%, respectively. The negative predictive values for the abovementioned cut-off points were 56.75%, 57.14% and 55.88%, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed that sputum ADA test is neither specific nor sensitive. Because of its low sensitivity and specificity, determination of sputum ADA for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is not recommended. PMID:27482515

  5. An Ada implementation of the network manager for the advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail A.

    1986-01-01

    From an implementation standpoint, the Ada language provided many features which facilitated the data and procedure abstraction process. The language supported a design which was dynamically flexible (despite strong typing), modular, and self-documenting. Adequate training of programmers requires access to an efficient compiler which supports full Ada. When the performance issues for real time processing are finally addressed by more stringent requirements for tasking features and the development of efficient run-time environments for embedded systems, the full power of the language will be realized.

  6. The Spectrum Sensing Algorithm Based AdaBoost in Cognitive Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Deyong; Wang, Xin

    To solve the low detection rate of the primary user in the cognitive radio environment, we propose a spectrum sensing method based on AdaBoost in the case of low SNR. In this paper, a set of received signal spectrum features are first calculated and extracted the discriminant feature vector as training samples and testing samples for classification. Finally, we utilize the trained AdaBoost to detect the primary user. Test result shows that the proposed algorithm is not affected by uncertainty factors of noise and has high performance to classification detection compared with ANN, SVM and maximum-minimum eigenvalue (MME).

  7. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this mini-review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response. PMID:21897124

  8. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this Mini-Review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response.

  9. Polyethylene Glycol-Conjugated Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Therapy Provides Temporary Immune Reconstitution to a Child with Delayed-Onset ADA Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lainka, Elke; Hershfield, Michael S.; Santisteban, Ines; Bali, Pawan; Seibt, Annette; Neubert, Jennifer; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Niehues, Tim

    2005-01-01

    We describe the effects of polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase (ADA) replacement therapy on lymphocyte counts, activation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cytokine secretion in a 14-month-old girl with “delayed-onset” ADA deficiency and marked immunodysregulation. Pretreatment lymphopenia affected T cells (CD4, 150/μl; CD8, 459/μl), B cells (16/μl), and NK cells (55/μl). T cells were uniformly activated and largely apoptotic (CD4, 59%; CD8, 82%); and T-cell-dependent cytokine levels in plasma were elevated, including the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2; 26 pg/ml), IL-4 (81 pg/ml), IL-5 (46 pg/ml), gamma interferon (1,430 pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor alpha (210 pg/ml), and IL-10 (168 pg/ml). Mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells show reduced IL-2 secretion and proliferation. During the first 5 months of therapy there was clinical improvement and partial immune reconstitution, with nearly normal lymphocyte subset numbers, reduced T-cell activation and CD4-cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma cytokine levels. In parallel, IL-2 secretion and the lymphocyte mitogenic response improved. Between 4 and 7 months, immunoglobulin G antibodies to bovine ADA developed and resulted in the complete reversal of immune recovery. PMID:16002636

  10. Evaluation of the area factor used in the RESRAD code for the estimation of airborne contaminant concentrations of finite area sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.S.; Yu, C.; Wang, S.K.

    1998-07-01

    The area factor is used in the RESRAD code to estimate the airborne contaminant concentrations for a finite area of contaminated soils. The area factor model used in RESRAD version 5.70 and earlier (referred to as the old area factor) was a simple, but conservative, mixing model that tended to overestimate the airborne concentrations of radionuclide contaminants. An improved and more realistic model for the area factor (referred to here as the new area factor) is described in this report. The new area factor model is designed to reflect site-specific soil characteristics and meteorological conditions. The site-specific parameters considered include the size of the source area, average particle diameter, and average wind speed. Other site-specific parameters (particle density, atmospheric stability, raindrop diameter, and annual precipitation rate) were assumed to be constant. The model uses the Gaussian plume model combined with contaminant removal processes, such as dry and wet deposition of particulates. Area factors estimated with the new model are compared with old area factors that were based on the simple mixing model. In addition, sensitivity analyses are conducted for parameters assumed to be constant. The new area factor model has been incorporated into RESRAD version 5.75 and later.

  11. The repository-based software engineering program: Redefining AdaNET as a mainstream NASA source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Repository-based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is described to inform and update senior NASA managers about the program. Background and historical perspective on software reuse and RBSE for NASA managers who may not be familiar with these topics are provided. The paper draws upon and updates information from the RBSE Concept Document, baselined by NASA Headquarters, Johnson Space Center, and the University of Houston - Clear Lake in April 1992. Several of NASA's software problems and what RBSE is now doing to address those problems are described. Also, next steps to be taken to derive greater benefit from this Congressionally-mandated program are provided. The section on next steps describes the need to work closely with other NASA software quality, technology transfer, and reuse activities and focuses on goals and objectives relative to this need. RBSE's role within NASA is addressed; however, there is also the potential for systematic transfer of technology outside of NASA in later stages of the RBSE program. This technology transfer is discussed briefly.

  12. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  13. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  16. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  17. Sharing the Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Colleges and universities are beginning to consider collaborating on open-source-code projects as a way to meet critical software and computing needs. Points out the attractive features of noncommercial open-source software and describes some examples in use now, especially for the creation of Web infrastructure. (SLD)

  18. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  19. Run-time implementation issues for real-time embedded Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Ruth A.

    1986-01-01

    A motivating factor in the development of Ada as the department of defense standard language was the high cost of embedded system software development. It was with embedded system requirements in mind that many of the features of the language were incorporated. Yet it is the designers of embedded systems that seem to comprise the majority of the Ada community dissatisfied with the language. There are a variety of reasons for this dissatisfaction, but many seem to be related in some way to the Ada run-time support system. Some of the areas in which the inconsistencies were found to have the greatest impact on performance from the standpoint of real-time systems are presented. In particular, a large part of the duties of the tasking supervisor are subject to the design decisions of the implementer. These include scheduling, rendezvous, delay processing, and task activation and termination. Some of the more general issues presented include time and space efficiencies, generic expansions, memory management, pragmas, and tracing features. As validated compilers become available for bare computer targets, it is important for a designer to be aware that, at least for many real-time issues, all validated Ada compilers are not created equal.

  20. Implementation of Ada protocols on Mil-STD-1553 B data bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhman, Smil; Rosemberg, Flavia

    1986-01-01

    Standardization activity of data communication in avionic systems started in 1968 for the purpose of total system integration and the elimination of heavy wire bundles carrying signals between various subassemblies. The growing complexity of avionic systems is straining the capabilities of MIL-STD-1553 B (first issued in 1973), but a much greater challenge to it is posed by Ada, the standard language adopted for real-time, computer embedded-systems. Hardware implementation of Ada communication protocols in a contention/token bus or token ring network is proposed. However, during the transition period when the current command/response multiplex data bus is still flourishing and the development environment for distributed multi-computer Ada systems is as yet lacking, a temporary accomodation of the standard language with the standard bus could be very useful and even highly desirable. By concentrating all status informtion and decisions at the bus controller, it was found to be possible to construct an elegant and efficient harware impelementation of the Ada protocols at the bus interface. This solution is discussed.

  1. 77 FR 36231 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) proposes to amend the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines to specifically address emergency transportable housing units that are provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency or other entities on a temporary site in response to an emergency need......

  2. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... and Centers Program, published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The priorities... 350. (c) The notice of final priorities published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE ADA TECHNOLOGIES' ELECTRO-DECON PROCESS TO REMOVE RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, Jenn-Hai; Demmer, Rick L.; Argyle, Mark D.; Veatch, Brad D.

    2003-02-27

    A surface decontamination system featuring the use of ADA's electrochemical process was tested and evaluated. The process can be flexibly deployed by using an electrolyte delivery system that has been demonstrated to be reliable and effective. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this system for the surface decontamination of radiologically contaminated stainless steel.

  4. 76 FR 57013 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... proposed modifications of its recordkeeping and reporting provisions under title VII, the ADA, and GINA. (76 FR 31892, June 2, 2011). No requests to present oral testimony at a hearing concerning the... COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1602 RIN 3046-AA89 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the...

  5. Health Care and ADA Language Education Programs. Cooperative Demonstration Program: High Technology. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A project implemented cooperative training programs in the three occupational areas: ADA computer language use; respiratory therapy technician; and hospital pharmacy technician. The project's purpose was to demonstrate high technology training programs for adults as a cooperative effort among the West Virginia Department of Education, local…

  6. 75 FR 43747 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...., buses characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a baggage compartment). 56 FR 45530, September 6, 1991; 63 FR 51694, September 28, 1998. The Access Board's transportation vehicle guidelines are... transportation provisions of the ADA in 1991. 56 FR 45621 and 45756, September 6, 1991. The Department...

  7. 76 FR 38129 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge Translation... applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.133A-7. Dates: Applications Available: June 29, 2011. Date of Pre-Application Meeting: July 20,...

  8. 75 FR 45661 - Notice of Permanent Closure on Public Lands in Ada County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Permanent Closure on Public Lands in Ada County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure. SUMMARY: On April 12, 2010, Higby Cave and all public lands within 1,000 feet of the entrance were permanently closed to vehicle access...

  9. Description of real-time Ada software implementation of a power system monitor for the Space Station Freedom PMAD DC testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, Kimberly; Mackin, Michael; Wright, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the Ada language software developed to perform the electrical power system monitoring functions for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC testbed. The results of the effort to implement this monitor are presented. The PMAD DC testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used in Space Station Freedom. The power is controlled by smart switches known as power control components (or switchgear). The power control components are currently coordinated by five Compaq 386/20e computers connected through an 802.4 local area network. The power system monitor algorithm comprises several functions, including periodic data acquisition, data smoothing, system performance analysis, and status reporting. Data are collected from the switchgear sensors every 100 ms, then passed through a 2-Hz digital filter. System performance analysis includes power interruption and overcurrent detection. The system monitor required a hardware timer interrupt to activate the data acquisition function. The execution time of the code was optimized by using an assembly language routine. The routine allows direct vectoring of the processor to Ada language procedures that perform periodic control activities.

  10. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  11. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  12. Tale of a multifaceted co-activator, hADA3: from embryogenesis to cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chand, Vaibhav; Nandi, Deeptashree; Mangla, Anita Garg; Sharma, Puneet; Nag, Alo

    2016-09-01

    Human ADA3, the evolutionarily conserved transcriptional co-activator, remains the unified part of multiple cellular functions, including regulation of nuclear receptor functions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, chromatin remodelling, genomic stability and chromosomal maintenance. The past decade has witnessed exciting findings leading to considerable expansion in research related to the biology and regulation of hADA3. Embryonic lethality in homozygous knockout Ada3 mouse signifies the importance of this gene product during early embryonic development. Moreover, the fact that it is a novel target of Human Papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein, one of the most prevalent causal agents behind cervical cancer, helps highlight some of the crucial aspects of HPV-mediated oncogenesis. These findings imply the central involvement of hADA3 in regulation of various cellular functional losses accountable for the genesis of malignancy and viral infections. Recent reports also provide evidence for post-translational modifications of hADA3 leading to its instability and contributing to the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, its association with poor prognosis of breast cancer suggests intimate association in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we present the first review on hADA3 with a comprehensive outlook on the molecular and functional roles of hADA3 to provoke further interest for more elegant and intensive studies exploring assorted aspects of this protein. PMID:27605378

  13. Lessons learned in the transition to ADA from FORTRAN at NASA/Goddard. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    A case study was done at Goddard Space Flight Center, in which two dynamics satellite simulators are developed from the same requirements, one in Ada and the other in FORTRAN. The purpose of the research was to find out how well the prescriptive Ada development model worked to develop the Ada simulator. The FORTRAN simulator development, as well as past FORTRAN developments, provided a baseline for comparison. Since this was the first simulator developed here, the prescriptive Ada development model had many similarities to the usual FORTRAN development model. However, it was modified to include longer design and shorter testing phases, which is generally expected with Ada development. One surprising result was that the percentage of time the Ada project spent in the various development activities was very similar to the percentage of time spent in these activities when doing a FORTRAN project. Another surprising finding was the difficulty the Ada team had with unit testing as well as with integration. In retrospect it is realized that adding additional steps to the design phase, such as an abstract data type analysis, and certain guidelines to the implementation phase, such as to use primarily library units and nest sparingly, would have made development much easier.

  14. Tale of a multifaceted co-activator, hADA3: from embryogenesis to cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Vaibhav; Nandi, Deeptashree; Mangla, Anita Garg; Sharma, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Human ADA3, the evolutionarily conserved transcriptional co-activator, remains the unified part of multiple cellular functions, including regulation of nuclear receptor functions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, chromatin remodelling, genomic stability and chromosomal maintenance. The past decade has witnessed exciting findings leading to considerable expansion in research related to the biology and regulation of hADA3. Embryonic lethality in homozygous knockout Ada3 mouse signifies the importance of this gene product during early embryonic development. Moreover, the fact that it is a novel target of Human Papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein, one of the most prevalent causal agents behind cervical cancer, helps highlight some of the crucial aspects of HPV-mediated oncogenesis. These findings imply the central involvement of hADA3 in regulation of various cellular functional losses accountable for the genesis of malignancy and viral infections. Recent reports also provide evidence for post-translational modifications of hADA3 leading to its instability and contributing to the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, its association with poor prognosis of breast cancer suggests intimate association in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we present the first review on hADA3 with a comprehensive outlook on the molecular and functional roles of hADA3 to provoke further interest for more elegant and intensive studies exploring assorted aspects of this protein. PMID:27605378

  15. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  16. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The general inadequacy of Ada for programming systems that must survive processor loss was shown. A solution to the problem was proposed in which there are no syntatic changes to Ada. The approach was evaluated using a full-scale, realistic application. The application used was the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS), an experimental computer control system developed for a modified Boeing 737 aircraft. The ATOPS system is a full authority, real-time avionics system providing a large variety of advanced features. Methods of building fault tolerance into concurrent systems were explored. A set of criteria by which the proposed method will be judged was examined. Extensive interaction with personnel from Computer Sciences Corporation and NASA Langley occurred to determine the requirements of the ATOPS software. Backward error recovery in concurrent systems was assessed.

  17. Design of an Ada expert system shell for the VHSIC avionic modular flight processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, F. Jesse

    1992-01-01

    The Embedded Computer System Expert System Shell (ES Shell) is an Ada-based expert system shell developed at the Avionics Laboratory for use on the VHSIC Avionic Modular Processor (VAMP) running under the Ada Avionics Real-Time Software (AARTS) Operating System. The ES Shell provides the interface between the expert system and the avionics environment, and controls execution of the expert system. Testing of the ES Shell in the Avionics Laboratory's Integrated Test Bed (ITB) has demonstrated its ability to control a non-deterministic software application executing on the VAMP's which can control the ITB's real-time closed-loop aircraft simulation. The results of these tests and the conclusions reached in the design and development of the ES Shell have played an important role in the formulation of the requirements for a production-quality expert system inference engine, an ingredient necessary for the successful use of expert systems on the VAMP embedded avionic flight processor.

  18. Discrimination of Breast Tumors in Ultrasonic Images by Classifier Ensemble Trained with AdaBoost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Atsushi; Shimizu, Akinobu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for acurate automated discrimination of breast tumors (carcinoma, fibroadenoma, and cyst). We defined 199 features related to diagnositic observations noticed when a doctor judges breast tumors, such as internal echo, shape, and boundary echo. These features included novel features based on a parameter of log-compressed K distribution, which reflect physical characteristics of ultrasonic B-mode imaging. Furthermore, we propose a discrimination method of breast tumors by using an ensemble classifier based on the multi-class AdaBoost algorithm with effective features selection. Verification by analyzing 200 carcinomas, 30 fibroadenomas and 30 cycts showed the usefulness of the newly defined features and the effectiveness of the discrimination by using an ensemble classifier trained by AdaBoost.

  19. ADaM: augmenting existing approximate fast matching algorithms with efficient and exact range queries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug discovery, disease detection, and personalized medicine are fast-growing areas of genomic research. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing techniques, researchers can obtain an abundance of data for many different biological assays in a short period of time. When this data is error-free, the result is a high-quality base-pair resolution picture of the genome. However, when the data is lossy the heuristic algorithms currently used when aligning next-generation sequences causes the corresponding accuracy to drop. Results This paper describes a program, ADaM (APF DNA Mapper) which significantly increases final alignment accuracy. ADaM works by first using an existing program to align "easy" sequences, and then using an algorithm with accuracy guarantees (the APF) to align the remaining sequences. The final result is a technique that increases the mapping accuracy from only 60% to over 90% for harder-to-align sequences. PMID:25079667

  20. Judge says sex is not a major life activity for purposes of ADA.

    PubMed

    1999-05-28

    A federal judge granted summary judgement to a retailer accused of firing an employee because he had hepatitis C. The employee alleged disability-based discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA requires plaintiffs to show that they are "substantially limited" in "major life activities" such as self-care, walking, or working. The employee attempted to expand this definition, and claimed that he was limited in sexual reproduction. Although a previous court ruling allowed this claim, the judge took a narrow interpretation of the law. The judge held that sexual intercourse was not a major life activity, and that the plaintiff was not substantially limited by his hepatitis C to perform sexually or at work. PMID:11367138

  1. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  2. EEOC says temporary workers qualify for ADA protection. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued guidelines clarifying that both employers and staffing agencies can be held liable for discrimination and harassment of temporary or contingent workers. These workers are often viewed as independent contractors, and not employees. The guidance clarifies the employee-employer relationship, holding both the employment firm and the client accountable for discrimination and harassment and offering protection for this class of worker under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other anti-discrimination statutes. The guidance also contains two case examples of how the ADA applies to contractual workers with HIV. The staffing firm and client each must count every worker with whom there is an employment relationship, and are prohibited from discriminating against each other's employees. PMID:11364955

  3. E-ADA activity in lymphocytes of an experimental model of pythiosis treated with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bach, Barbara Charlotte; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto dos Santos; Souza, Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves; Ruchel, Jader Betsch; Schlemmer, Karine Bizzi; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Hecktheuer, Pedro Abib; de Lima Pereira, Patrique; Casali, Emerson André; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-08-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. Some authors have suggested the involvement of a Th2-like immune response in the infected host, which leads to extensive tissue damage. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response pattern is one hypothesis to explain the curative properties of immunotherapy. Taking into account the importance of immunotherapy for pythiosis treatment and the contribution of adenine nucleotides in the immunoregulation of the host, we evaluated the ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA; EC 3·5.4·4) activity in lymphocytes from rabbits inoculated with P. insidiosum. Rabbits were inoculated with 1 milliliter of zoospores subcutaneously injected into the lateral thorax; after developing lesions, the rabbits received eight doses of immunotherapy. E-ADA activity was measured in lymphocytes and the adenine nucleotides and adenosine levels were quantitatively determined in serum. Rabbits with characteristic lesions of pythiosis showed a decreased E-ADA activity (82·36%), a decreased adenosine triphosphate concentration (54·04%) and a higher adenosine concentration (2·51 fold), when compared with controls, after 28 days of inoculation. However, after the immunotherapy, the rabbits showed an increase in the E-ADA activity when compared with control (78·62%), contributing for the change in the immune response. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the change from a Th2 to a Th1 immune response with the participation of the purinergic system could be responsible for the curative properties of immunotherapy. PMID:23086808

  4. Early-Onset Stroke and Vasculopathy Associated with Mutations in ADA2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Q.; Yang, D.; Ombrello, A.K.; Zavialov, Andrey V.; Toro, C.; Zavialov, Anton V.; Stone, D.L.; Chae, J.J.; Rosenzweig, S.D.; Bishop, K.; Barron, K.S.; Kuehn, H.S.; Hoffmann, P.; Negro, A.; Tsai, W.L.; Cowen, E.W.; Pei, W.; Milner, J.D.; Silvin, C.; Heller, T.; Chin, D.T.; Patronas, N.J.; Barber, J.S.; Lee, C.-C.R.; Wood, G.M.; Ling, A.; Kelly, S.J.; Kleiner, D.E.; Mullikin, J.C.; Ganson, N.J.; Kong, H.H.; Hambleton, S.; Candotti, F.; Quezado, M.M.; Calvo, K.R.; Alao, H.; Barham, B.K.; Jones, A.; Meschia, J.F.; Worrall, B.B.; Kasner, S.E.; Rich, S.S.; Goldbach-Mansky, R.; Abinun, M.; Chalom, E.; Gotte, A.C.; Punaro, M.; Pascual, V.; Verbsky, J.W.; Torgerson, T.R.; Singer, N.G.; Gershon, T.R.; Ozen, S.; Karadag, O.; Fleisher, T.A.; Remmers, E.F.; Burgess, S.M.; Moir, S.L.; Gadina, M.; Sood, R.; Hershfield, M.S.; Boehm, M.; Kastner, D.L.; Aksentijevich, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND We observed a syndrome of intermittent fevers, early-onset lacunar strokes and other neurovascular manifestations, livedoid rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and systemic vasculopathy in three unrelated patients. We suspected a genetic cause because the disorder presented in early childhood. METHODS We performed whole-exome sequencing in the initial three patients and their unaffected parents and candidate-gene sequencing in three patients with a similar phenotype, as well as two young siblings with polyarteritis nodosa and one patient with small-vessel vasculitis. Enzyme assays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemical testing, flow cytometry, and cytokine profiling were performed on samples from the patients. To study protein function, we used morpholino-mediated knockdowns in zebrafish and short hairpin RNA knockdowns in U937 cells cultured with human dermal endothelial cells. RESULTS All nine patients carried recessively inherited mutations in CECR1 (cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1), encoding adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2), that were predicted to be deleterious; these mutations were rare or absent in healthy controls. Six patients were compound heterozygous for eight CECR1 mutations, whereas the three patients with polyarteritis nodosa or small-vessel vasculitis were homozygous for the p.Gly47Arg mutation. Patients had a marked reduction in the levels of ADA2 and ADA2-specific enzyme activity in the blood. Skin, liver, and brain biopsies revealed vasculopathic changes characterized by compromised endothelial integrity, endothelial cellular activation, and inflammation. Knockdown of a zebrafish ADA2 homologue caused intracranial hemorrhages and neutropenia — phenotypes that were prevented by coinjection with nonmutated (but not with mutated) human CECR1. Monocytes from patients induced damage in cocultured endothelial-cell layers. CONCLUSIONS Loss-of-function mutations in CECR1 were associated with a spectrum of vascular and inflammatory phenotypes

  5. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  6. Two-terminal video coding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  7. Software engineering and Ada (Trademark) training: An implementation model for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    The choice of Ada for software engineering for projects such as the Space Station has resulted in government and industrial groups considering training programs that help workers become familiar with both a software culture and the intricacies of a new computer language. The questions of how much time it takes to learn software engineering with Ada, how much an organization should invest in such training, and how the training should be structured are considered. Software engineering is an emerging, dynamic discipline. It is defined by the author as the establishment and application of sound engineering environments, tools, methods, models, principles, and concepts combined with appropriate standards, guidelines, and practices to support computing which is correct, modifiable, reliable and safe, efficient, and understandable throughout the life cycle of the application. Neither the training programs needed, nor the content of such programs, have been well established. This study addresses the requirements for training for NASA personnel and recommends an implementation plan. A curriculum and a means of delivery are recommended. It is further suggested that a knowledgeable programmer may be able to learn Ada in 5 days, but that it takes 6 to 9 months to evolve into a software engineer who uses the language correctly and effectively. The curriculum and implementation plan can be adapted for each NASA Center according to the needs dictated by each project.

  8. Using Ada to implement the operations management system in a community of experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    An architecture is described for the Space Station Operations Management System (OMS), consisting of a distributed expert system framework implemented in Ada. The motivation for such a scheme is based on the desire to integrate the very diverse elements of the OMS while taking maximum advantage of knowledge based systems technology. Part of the foundation of an Ada based distributed expert system was accomplished in the form of a proof of concept prototype for the KNOMES project (Knowledge-based Maintenance Expert System). This prototype successfully used concurrently active experts to accomplish monitoring and diagnosis for the Remote Manipulator System. The basic concept of this software architecture is named ACTORS for Ada Cognitive Task ORganization Scheme. It is when one considers the overall problem of integrating all of the OMS elements into a cooperative system that the AI solution stands out. By utilizing a distributed knowledge based system as the framework for OMS, it is possible to integrate those components which need to share information in an intelligent manner.

  9. AdaFF: Adaptive Failure-Handling Framework for Composite Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Lee, Wan Yeon; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Kim, Jong

    In this paper, we propose a novel Web service composition framework which dynamically accommodates various failure recovery requirements. In the proposed framework called Adaptive Failure-handling Framework (AdaFF), failure-handling submodules are prepared during the design of a composite service, and some of them are systematically selected and automatically combined with the composite Web service at service instantiation in accordance with the requirement of individual users. In contrast, existing frameworks cannot adapt the failure-handling behaviors to user's requirements. AdaFF rapidly delivers a composite service supporting the requirement-matched failure handling without manual development, and contributes to a flexible composite Web service design in that service architects never care about failure handling or variable requirements of users. For proof of concept, we implement a prototype system of the AdaFF, which automatically generates a composite service instance with Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) according to the users' requirement specified in XML format and executes the generated instance on the ActiveBPEL engine.

  10. The implementation and use of ADA on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware. A new linguistic construct, the colloquy, is introduced which solves the problems identified in an earlier proposal, the conversation. It was shown that the colloquy is at least as powerful as recovery blocks, but it is also as powerful as all the other language facilities proposed for other situations requiring backward error recovery: recovery blocks, deadlines, generalized exception handlers, traditional conversations, s-conversations, and exchanges. The major features that distinguish the colloquy are described. Sample programs that were written, but not executed, using the colloquy show that extensive backward error recovery can be included in these programs simply and elegantly. These ideas are being implemented in an experimental Ada test bed.

  11. 9th Circuit says engaging in sex is a major life activity under ADA.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the ability to engage in sexual relations is a major life activity under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ruling suggests that all adults and adolescents infected with HIV are covered by the ADA because of the risk of transmitting the virus sexually. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled last year in the [name removed] v. [Name removed] case that the ability to procreate is a major life activity, but it left unresolved the issue of whether sexual relations were covered. Several other courts have further defined the issue and ruled that sexual dysfunction should count as a disability. The plaintiff in this case sued after his employer refused to relocate him to a different department, stating he was deprived of a reasonable accommodation. The plaintiff suffered from impotence, and claimed a disability under the ADA. The dissenting judge in the ruling noted that he did not see how one's ability to have sexual relations had any connection to employment. PMID:11367019

  12. Parallel Ada implementation of a multiple-model Kalman-filter tracking system: a software engineering approach. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, W.J.

    1989-03-01

    The success of the Strategic Defense Initiative depends directly on significant advances in both computer hardware and software development technologies. Parallel architectures and the Ada programming language have advantages that make them candidates for use in SDI command and control computer systems. This thesis examines those advantages in the context of an SDI-type application: implementation of a Kalman-filter tracking system. This research consists of three parts. The first is a set of software engineering guidelines developed for use in creating parallel designs suitable for implementation in Ada. These guidelines cover the design process from initial problem analysis to final detailed design. Methods of problem decomposition are discussed, as are language partitioning strategies. Justification is provided for using the Ada task construct for process boundaries, and Ada multitasking design issues are reviewed. A parallel software design methodology is also described.

  13. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  14. Geohydrology of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer east-central Oklahoma with a section on chemical quality of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Lugosz, Joseph J.; McClaflin, Roger G.; Marcher, Melvin V.

    1986-01-01

    water in the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer generally is suitable for municipal, domestic, and stock use. Of 55 water samples analyzed in the laboratory, about 75 percent were of the sodium bicarbonate or sodium calcium bicarbonate type; the remainder were of the sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, sodium chloride, or indeterminate types. Laboratory and on-site chemical-quality data indicate that mineralization of both ground and surface waters is greater than normal in some areas. Water samples from 7 wells and 12 stream sites had concentrations of bromide exceeding 1 milligram per liter; the only known source of bromide in the area is brine associated with petroleum production.

  15. ADA Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gips, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    Describes requirements for existing educational facilities under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act and addresses issues such as guidelines for children, wheelchair-accessible and ambulatory stalls, areas without their own section in the standards, assistive listening devices in auditoriums, ramp slope, emergency evacuation planning,…

  16. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  17. Shielding analysis of neuron emitting sealed sources in S100 pipe component OVERPACK/TRUPACT-11 geometries using MCNP transport code and empirical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R. T.; Brown, T. H.; Tompkins, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to estimate an upper bound for the dose at the mid-plane on the surface of a S100 Overpack, i.e., a specially designed drum for transuranium (TRU) waste containing shielding and sealed neutron sources. In addition, the dose at the surface and at a distance for a TRUPACT-II Container with 14 S100 Overpack drums was also estimated for the Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), for Normal Condition of Transport with crushed Overpacks and for accident conditions. The source modeled was a Plutonium-Beryllium source with the Plutonium infinitely dilute in the Beryllium. In the calculations, a source of one curie per drum was modeled. The resulting dose from the calculations may be scaled to reflect multi-curie level sources. When these results are scaled to 28 curies per drum, the limiting payload, the dose rates obtained meet the requirements of the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report.

  18. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  19. Description of real-time Ada software implementation of a power system monitor for the Space Station Freedom PMAD DC testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, Kimberly; Mackin, Michael; Wright, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    The Ada language software development to perform the electrical system monitoring functions for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC testbed is described. The results of the effort to implement this monitor are presented. The PMAD DC testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electrical power system to be used in the Space Station Freedom. The power is controlled by smart switches known as power control components (or switchgear). The power control components are currently coordinated by five Compaq 382/20e computers connected through an 802.4 local area network. One of these computers is designated as the control node with the other four acting as subsidiary controllers. The subsidiary controllers are connected to the power control components with a Mil-Std-1553 network. An operator interface is supplied by adding a sixth computer. The power system monitor algorithm is comprised of several functions including: periodic data acquisition, data smoothing, system performance analysis, and status reporting. Data is collected from the switchgear sensors every 100 milliseconds, then passed through a 2 Hz digital filter. System performance analysis includes power interruption and overcurrent detection. The reporting mechanism notifies an operator of any abnormalities in the system. Once per second, the system monitor provides data to the control node for further processing, such as state estimation. The system monitor required a hardware time interrupt to activate the data acquisition function. The execution time of the code was optimized using an assembly language routine. The routine allows direct vectoring of the processor to Ada language procedures that perform periodic control activities. A summary of the advantages and side effects of this technique are discussed.

  20. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the Ada implementation of the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS), an experimental computer control system developed at NASA Langley for a modified Boeing 737 aircraft, is presented. The criteria that was determined for the evaluation of this approach is described. A preliminary version of the requirements for the ATOPS is contained. This requirements specification is not a formal document, but rather a description of certain aspects of the ATOPS system at a level of detail that best suits the needs of the research. The survey of backward error recovery techniques is also presented.