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Sample records for ada trough levels

  1. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes. PMID:26201386

  2. What is the intrapatient variability of mycophenolic acid trough levels?

    PubMed

    Todorova, Ekaterina K; Huang, Shih-Han S; Kobrzynski, Marta C; Filler, Guido

    2015-11-01

    TDM of MPA, the active compound of MMF, is rarely used despite its substantial intra- and interpatient variability. Little is known about the utility of long-term MPA TDM. Data are expressed as mean (one standard deviation). All available data from 27 renal transplant recipients (mean age at transplantation: 7.7 [5.0] yr) with an average follow-up of 9.3 (4.6) yr were analyzed. MPA levels were measured using the EMIT. GFR was measured using cystatin C and eGFR was calculated using the Filler formula. Intrapatient CV of the trough level was calculated as the ratio of the mean divided by one standard deviation. Mean cystatin C eGFR was 56.9 (24.4) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . There was a weak but significant correlation between the MPA trough level and the AUC (Spearman r = 0.6592, p < 0.0001). A total of 1964 MPA trough levels (73 [45]/patient) were measured, as compared to 3462 Tac trough levels (144 [71]/patient). The average MPA trough level was 3.01 (1.26) mg/L and the average trough Tac level was 7.3 (1.8) ng/mL. Intrapatient CV was statistically higher (p = 0.00093) for MPA at 0.68 (0.29) when compared to Tac with a CV of 0.46 (0.12). CV did not correlate with eGFR. Intrapatient MPA trough level CV is significantly higher than for Tac, while CV for both MPA and Tac was high. MPA trough level monitoring may be a feasible monitoring option to improve patient exposure and possibly outcomes.

  3. Lupus-anticoagulant testing at NOAC trough levels.

    PubMed

    Ratzinger, Franz; Lang, Mona; Belik, Sabine; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Quehenberger, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC), including rivaroxaban, apixaban or dabigatran, regularly show relevant effects on coagulation tests, making the interpretation of results difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible interferences of NOACs in trough level concentrations in lupus anticoagulant (LA) testing. Citrate plasma specimens of 30 healthy volunteers were spiked with rivaroxaban, apixaban or dabigatran in four plasma concentration levels at or below trough NOAC levels. The NOAC concentration was measured using dedicated surrogate concentration tests and a stepwise diagnostic procedure for LA-testing was applied using screening, mixing and confirmatory testing. Results were compared to NOAC-free specimens. Starting with a plasma concentration of 12.5 ng/ml, dabigatran-spiked specimens showed significant prolongations in the lupus anticoagulant-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) as well as in the Dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT), leading to 43.3 % false positives in confirmatory testing in the dRVVT. In contrast, rivaroxaban, beginning with 7.5 ng/ml, exclusively affected dRVVT-based tests. In confirmatory tests, 30.0 % of rivaroxaban-spiked specimens showed false positive results. Starting with 18.75 ng/ml apixaban, a significant prolongation of the dRVVT and up to 20.7 % false positives in confirmatory tests were found. In contrast to other NOACs tested, apixaban did not present with a dose-dependent increase of the dRVVT ratio. In conclusion, the rate of false positive results in LA-testing is unacceptably high at expected trough levels of NOACs. Even at plasma concentrations below the LLOQ of commercially available surrogate tests, LA testing is best avoided in patients with NOAC therapy.

  4. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  5. Diagnostic value of sputum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Binesh, Fariba; Jalali, Hadi; Zare, Mohammad Reza; Behravan, Farhad; Tafti, Arefeh Dehghani; Behnaz, Fatemah; Tabatabaee, Mohammad; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis is still a considerable health problem in many countries. Rapid diagnosis of this disease is important, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been used as a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ADA in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The current study included 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (culture positive, smear ±) and 42 patients with non tuberculosis pulmonary diseases (culture negative). ADA was measured on all of the samples. Results The median value of ADA in non-tuberculosis patients was 2.94 (4.2) U/L and 4.01 (6.54) U/L in tuberculosis patients, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.100). The cut-off point of 3.1 U/L had a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 53%, the cut-off point of 2.81 U/L had a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 50% and the cut-off point of 2.78 U/L had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 48%. The positive predictive values for cut-off points of 3.1, 2.81 and 2.78 U/L were 55.7%, 57.44% and 69.23%, respectively. The negative predictive values for the abovementioned cut-off points were 56.75%, 57.14% and 55.88%, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed that sputum ADA test is neither specific nor sensitive. Because of its low sensitivity and specificity, determination of sputum ADA for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is not recommended. PMID:27482515

  6. Initial dose of vancomycin based on body weight and creatinine clearance to minimize inadequate trough levels in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y

    2012-10-01

    Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of <30% as low. In the generalized linear model, initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min, 1 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of <10 mcg/mL in patients weighing <55 kg, but not in patients weighing ≥55 kg. Optimal VCM initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.

  7. Introduction to Image Algebra Ada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.

    1991-07-01

    Image Algebra Ada (IAA) is a superset of the Ada programming language designed to support use of the Air Force Armament Laboratory's image algebra in the development of computer vision application programs. The IAA language differs from other computer vision languages is several respects. It is machine independent, and an IAA translator has been implemented in the military standard Ada language. Its image operands and operations can be used to program a range of both low- and high-level vision algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the image algebra constructs supported in IAA and describes the embodiment of these constructs in the IAA extension of Ada. Examples showing the use of IAA for a range of computer vision tasks are given. The design of IAA as a superset of Ada and the implementation of the initial translator in Ada represent critical choices. The authors discuss the reasoning behind these choices as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Implementation strategies associated with the use of Ada as an implementation language for IAA are also discussed. While one can look on IAA as a program design language (PDL) for specifying Ada programs, it is useful to consider IAA as a separate language superset of Ada. This admits the possibility of directly translating IAA for implementation on special purpose architectures. This paper explores strategies for porting IAA to various architectures and notes the critical language and implementation features for porting to different architectures.

  8. Parallel programming with Ada

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, J.

    1988-01-01

    To the human programmer the ease of coding distributed computing is highly dependent on the suitability of the employed programming language. But with a particular language it is also important whether the possibilities of one or more parallel architectures can efficiently be addressed by available language constructs. In this paper the possibilities are discussed of the high-level language Ada and in particular of its tasking concept as a descriptional tool for the design and implementation of numerical and other algorithms that allow execution of parts in parallel. Language tools are explained and their use for common applications is shown. Conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of several Ada concepts.

  9. Ada issues in implementing ART-Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Due to the Ada mandate of a number of government agencies, interest in deploying expert systems such as Ada has increased. Recently, several Ada-based expert system tools have been developed. According to a recent benchmark report, these tools do not perform as well as similar tools written in C. While poorly implemented Ada compilers contribute to the poor benchmark result, some fundamental problems of the Ada language itself have been uncovered. Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the deployment of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force.

  10. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1992-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation of Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAS 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3, the prototype was evaluated by software engineering students at Auburn University and then updated with significant enhancements to the user interface including editing capabilities. Version 3.2 of the prototype was prepared for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  11. Transforming AdaPT to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how the main features of the proposed Ada language extensions intended to support distribution, and offered as possible solutions for Ada9X can be implemented by transformation into standard Ada83. We start by summarizing the features proposed in a paper (Gargaro et al, 1990) which constitutes the definition of the extensions. For convenience we have called the language in its modified form AdaPT which might be interpreted as Ada with partitions. These features were carefully chosen to provide support for the construction of executable modules for execution in nodes of a network of loosely coupled computers, but flexibly configurable for different network architectures and for recovery following failure, or adapting to mode changes. The intention in their design was to provide extensions which would not impact adversely on the normal use of Ada, and would fit well in style and feel with the existing standard. We begin by summarizing the features introduced in AdaPT.

  12. Classic-Ada(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  13. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  14. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  15. An Ada programming support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyrrill, AL; Chan, A. David

    1986-01-01

    The toolset of an Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) being developed at North American Aircraft Operations (NAAO) of Rockwell International, is described. The APSE is resident on three different hosts and must support developments for the hosts and for embedded targets. Tools and developed software must be freely portable between the hosts. The toolset includes the usual editors, compilers, linkers, debuggers, configuration magnagers, and documentation tools. Generally, these are being supplied by the host computer vendors. Other tools, for example, pretty printer, cross referencer, compilation order tool, and management tools were obtained from public-domain sources, are implemented in Ada and are being ported to the hosts. Several tools being implemented in-house are of interest, these include an Ada Design Language processor based on compilable Ada. A Standalone Test Environment Generator facilitates test tool construction and partially automates unit level testing. A Code Auditor/Static Analyzer permits the Ada programs to be evaluated against measures of quality. An Ada Comment Box Generator partially automates generation of header comment boxes.

  16. ADA Restroom Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) creates for designing school restrooms. The issues of mobility and circulation of users are addressed. Some of the dimension requirements required by the ADA are listed. (GR)

  17. ART/Ada and CLIPS/Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Although they have reached a point of commercial viability, expert systems were originally developed in artificial intelligence (AI) research environments. Many of the available tools still work best in such environments. These environments typically utilize special hardware such as LISP machines and relatively unfamiliar languages such as LISP or Prolog. Space Station applications will require deep integration of expert system technology with applications developed in conventional languages, specifically Ada. The ability to apply automation to Space Station functions could be greatly enhanced by widespread availability of state-of-the-art expert system tools based on Ada. Although there have been some efforts to examine the use of Ada for AI applications, there are few, if any, existing products which provide state-of-the-art AI capabilities in an Ada tool. The goal of the ART/Ada Design Project is to conduct research into the implementation in Ada of state-of-the-art hybrid expert systems building tools (ESBT's). This project takes the following approach: using the existing design of the ART-IM ESBT as a starting point, analyze the impact of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design; redesign the system in Ada; and analyze its performance. The research project will attempt to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future Space Station Freedom projects. During Phase 1 of the project, initial requirements analysis, design, and implementation of the kernel subset of ART-IM functionality was completed. During Phase 2, the effort has been focused on the implementation and performance analysis of several versions with increasing functionality. Since production quality ART/Ada tools will not be available for a considerable time, and additional subtask of this project will be the completion of an Ada version of the CLIPS expert system shell developed by NASA

  18. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing) of Ada: The development of a program analysis environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1988-01-01

    A history of the Query Utility Environment for Software Testing (QUEST)/Ada is presented. A fairly comprehensive literature review which is targeted toward issues of Ada testing is given. The definition of the system structure and the high level interfaces are then presented. The design of the three major components is described. The QUEST/Ada IORL System Specifications to this point in time are included in the Appendix. A paper is also included in the appendix which gives statistical evidence of the validity of the test case generation approach which is being integrated into QUEST/Ada.

  19. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  20. Ada/POSIX binding: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    NASA is seeking an operating system interface definition (OSID) for the Space Station Program (SSP) in order to take advantage of the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products available today and the many that are expected in the future. NASA would also like to avoid the reliance on any one source for operating systems, information system, communication system, or instruction set architecture. The use of the Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX) is examined as a possible solution to this problem. Since Ada is already the language of choice for SSP, the question of an Ada/POSIX binding is addressed. The intent of the binding is to provide access to the POSIX standard operation system (OS) interface and environment, by which application portability of Ada applications will be supported at the source code level. A guiding principle of Ada/POSIX binding development is a clear conformance of the Ada interface with the functional definition of POSIX. The interface is intended to be used by both application developers and system implementors. The objective is to provide a standard that allows a strictly conforming application source program that can be compiled to execute on any conforming implementation. Special emphasis is placed on first providing those functions and facilities that are needed in a wide variety of commercial applications

  1. Trough Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    3 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows boulders on the floor of a wide trough in Memnonia Fossae.

    Location near: 18.8oS, 150.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  2. Managing Ada development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language was developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense to address the soaring costs associated with software development and maintenance. Ada is powerful, and yet to take full advantage of its power, it is sufficiently complex and different from current programming approaches that there is considerable risk associated with committing a program to be done in Ada. There are also few programs of any substantial size that have been implemented using Ada that may be studied to determine those management methods that resulted in a successful Ada project. The items presented are the author's opinions which have been formed as a result of going through an experience software development. The difficulties faced, risks assumed, management methods applied, and lessons learned, and most importantly, the techniques that were successful are all valuable sources of management information for those managers ready to assume major Ada developments projects.

  3. Experiments with Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, D.; Mcclimens, M.; Agresti, W.

    1985-01-01

    A 1200-line Ada source code project simulating the most basic functions of an operations control center was developed. We selected George Cherry's Process Abstraction Methodology for Embedded Large Applications (PAMELA) and DEC's Ada Compilation System (ACS) under VAX/VMS to build the software from requirements to acceptance test. The system runs faster than its FORTRAN implementation and was produced on schedule and under budget with an overall productivity in excess of 30 lines of Ada source code per day.

  4. Righting the ADA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans with disabilities feel that a series of negative court decisions is reducing their status to that of "second-class citizens," a status that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was supposed to remedy forever. In this report, the National Council on Disability (NCD), which first proposed the enactment of an ADA and developed the…

  5. Software engineering and Ada in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Don

    1986-01-01

    Modern software engineering promises significant reductions in software costs and improvements in software quality. The Ada language is the focus for these software methodology and tool improvements. The IBM FSD approach, including the software engineering practices that guide the systematic design and development of software products and the management of the software process are examined. The revised Ada design language adaptation is revealed. This four level design methodology is detailed including the purpose of each level, the management strategy that integrates the software design activity with the program milestones, and the technical strategy that maps the Ada constructs to each level of design. A complete description of each design level is provided along with specific design language recording guidelines for each level. Finally, some testimony is offered on education, tools, architecture, and metrics resulting from project use of the four level Ada design language adaptation.

  6. A distributed programming environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Peter; Mcdonnell, Tom; Mcfarland, Gregory; Timmins, Lawrence J.; Litke, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Despite considerable commercial exploitation of fault tolerance systems, significant and difficult research problems remain in such areas as fault detection and correction. A research project is described which constructs a distributed computing test bed for loosely coupled computers. The project is constructing a tool kit to support research into distributed control algorithms, including a distributed Ada compiler, distributed debugger, test harnesses, and environment monitors. The Ada compiler is being written in Ada and will implement distributed computing at the subsystem level. The design goal is to provide a variety of control mechanics for distributed programming while retaining total transparency at the code level.

  7. Deploying expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1989-01-01

    As the Department of Defense Ada mandate begins to be enforced actively, interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. A prototype Ada based expert system tool is introduced called ART/Ada. This prototype was built to support research into the language and operational issues of expert systems in Ada. ART/Ada allows applications of a conventional expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments with efficient use of time and space. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada base inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART/Ada will be used to implement several prototype expert systems for the Space Station Freedom Program testbeds.

  8. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in an increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. The Automated Reasoning Tool-Ada (ART-Ada), an Ada expert system tool, is explained. ART-Ada allows applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom program and the U.S. Air Force.

  9. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) Ada, an Ada Expert system tool is described. ART-Ada allow applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  10. Proceedings of the third international IEEE conference on Ada applications and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on software applications. Topics include: An interleaving symbolic execution approach for the formal verification of Ada programs with tasking, fault-tolerant Ada software, object-oriented frameworks for Ada, and generating multitasking Ada programs from high-level specifications.

  11. Postinduction serum infliximab trough level and decrease of C-reactive protein level are associated with durable sustained response to infliximab: a retrospective analysis of the ACCENT I trial

    PubMed Central

    Cornillie, Freddy; Hanauer, Stephen B; Diamond, Robert H; Wang, Jianping; Tang, Kezhen L; Xu, Zhenhua; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment. Objective To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline). Design ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs. Results After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab. Conclusions Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher

  12. Parallel Ada benchmarks for the SVMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of parallel processing paradigm to design and develop faster and more reliable computers appear to clearly mark the future of information processing. NASA started the development of such an architecture: the Spaceborne VHSIC Multi-processor System (SVMS). Ada will be one of the languages used to program the SVMS. One of the unique characteristics of Ada is that it supports parallel processing at the language level through the tasking constructs. It is important for the SVMS project team to assess how efficiently the SVMS architecture will be implemented, as well as how efficiently Ada environment will be ported to the SVMS. AUTOCLASS II, a Bayesian classifier written in Common Lisp, was selected as one of the benchmarks for SVMS configurations. The purpose of the R and D effort was to provide the SVMS project team with the version of AUTOCLASS II, written in Ada, that would make use of Ada tasking constructs as much as possible so as to constitute a suitable benchmark. Additionally, a set of programs was developed that would measure Ada tasking efficiency on parallel architectures as well as determine the critical parameters influencing tasking efficiency. All this was designed to provide the SVMS project team with a set of suitable tools in the development of the SVMS architecture.

  13. A LISP-Ada connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworski, Allan; Lavallee, David; Zoch, David

    1987-01-01

    The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using Ada for expert systems and the implementation of an expert-friendly interface which supports knowledge entry. In the Ford LISP-Ada Connection (FLAC) system LISP and Ada are used in ways which complement their respective capabilities. Future investigation will concentrate on the enhancement of the expert knowledge entry/debugging interface and on the issues associated with multitasking and real-time expert systems implementation in Ada.

  14. Benchmark Lisp And Ada Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria; Galant, David; Lim, Raymond; Stutz, John; Gibson, J.; Raghavan, B.; Cheesema, P.; Taylor, W.

    1992-01-01

    Suite of nonparallel benchmark programs, ELAPSE, designed for three tests: comparing efficiency of computer processing via Lisp vs. Ada; comparing efficiencies of several computers processing via Lisp; or comparing several computers processing via Ada. Tests efficiency which computer executes routines in each language. Available for computer equipped with validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system.

  15. Ada(R) Test and Verification System (ATVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelich, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The Ada Test and Verification System (ATVS) functional description and high level design are completed and summarized. The ATVS will provide a comprehensive set of test and verification capabilities specifically addressing the features of the Ada language, support for embedded system development, distributed environments, and advanced user interface capabilities. Its design emphasis was on effective software development environment integration and flexibility to ensure its long-term use in the Ada software development community.

  16. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  17. Transformation of ADA programs into silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organick, E. I.; Lindstrom, G.; Smith, D. K.; Subrahmany; Carter, T.

    1982-03-01

    This report outlines the beginning steps taken in an integrated research effort toward the development of a methodology, and supporting systems, for transforming Ada programs, or program units, (directly) into corresponding VLSI systems. The time seems right to expect good results. The need is evident; special purpose systems should be realistic alternatives where simplicity, speed, reliability, and security ae dominant factors. Success in this research can lead to attractive options for embedded system applications. Ada programs can be regarded as ensembles of machines, one per program unit (module), which in turn may be mapped directly into corresponding VLSI structures on one or more chips with interconnecting (packet switched or other) communication nets. The research reported here is part of a five-year plan, the first year of which focuses on 'proving' the concepts through a realistic demonstration of methodology for a specific example Ada program (a silicon representation of part or all of the DoD Standard Internet Protocol, IP, initially expressed in Ada). Implicit in these objectives is the development of a set of hardware structuring paradigms (rewrite rules) whose application can ensure that transformation steps between levels of abstraction in the design process are well structured in order to preserve the integrity and, where possible, the clarity of the original Ada specification. Some paradigms, but of course not all, lead to highly efficient implementations.

  18. Low Dose Infliximab for Prevention of Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease: Long Term Follow-Up and Impact of Infliximab Trough Levels and Antibodies to Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Dario; Marino, Marco; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Zarifi, Dimitra; Del Bianco, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease endoscopic and clinical remission can be maintained for up to 1 year with low infliximab doses (3 mg/Kg). However, in theory low-dose infliximab treated patients could develop subtherapeutic trough levels, infiximab antibodies, and might loose response to therapy. To verify this hypothesis infliximab pharmacokinetics and clinical/endoscopic response were checked in a group of patients treated in the long term with low infliximab doses. Design Infliximab antibodies, infliximab levels, highly-sensitive CRP and fecal calprotectin were measured during the 8-week interval in 5 consecutive patients in clinical (Crohn’s Disease Activity Index < 150) and endoscopic (Rutgeerts scores 0–1) remission after one year of therapy with infliximab 3 mg/Kg. For comparison with reported standards, infliximab pharmacokinetics and inflammatory parameters were also tested in 6 Crohn’s disease patients who did not undergo surgery and who were in clinical remission while on infliximab 5 mg/Kg. Patients on low infliximab dose also underwent colonoscopy after 18 additional months of therapy. Results Highly sensitive CRP and fecal calprotectin increased in all patients during the 8-week interval. Infliximab trough levels were lower in patients treated with the low dose compared to controls (mean±SE: 2.0±0.3 vs 4.75±0.83 μg/mL respectively p<0.05). Infliximab antibodies were present in two of the subjects treated with low infliximab dose and in none of the controls. However, in low dose-treated patients after 18 additional months of therapy endoscopy continued to show mucosal remission and none of them developed clinical recurrence or side effects. Conclusions Patients treated with low infliximab doses had lower trough levels compared to patients treated with 5 mg/Kg and some developed antibodies to infliximab. However, low infliximab doses sustained clinical and endoscopic remission for a total of 30 months of

  19. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  20. ADA (adenosine deaminase) gene therapy enters the competition

    SciTech Connect

    Culliton, B.J.

    1990-08-31

    Around the world, some 70 children are members of a select and deadly club. Born with an immune deficiency so severe that they will die of infection unless their immune systems can be repaired, they have captured the attention of would-be gene therapists who believe that a handful of these kids--the 15 or 20 who lack functioning levels of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA)--could be saved by a healthy ADA gene. A team of gene therapists is ready to put the theory to the test. In April 1987, a team of NIH researchers headed by R. Michael Blaese and W. French Anderson came up with the first formal protocol to introduce a healthy ADA gene into an unhealthy human. After 3 years of line-by-line scrutiny by five review committees, they have permission to go ahead. Two or three children will be treated in the next year, and will be infused with T lymphocytes carrying the gene for ADA. If the experiment works, the ADA gene will begin producing normal amounts of ADA. An interesting feature of ADA deficiency, that makes it ideal for initial gene studies, is that the amount of ADA one needs for a healthy immune system is quite variable. Hence, once inside a patient's T cells, the new ADA gene needs only to express the enzyme in moderate amounts. No precise gene regulation is necessary.

  1. Ada software productivity prototypes: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Malhotra, Shan

    1988-01-01

    A case study of the impact of Ada on a Command and Control project completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is given. The data for this study was collected as part of a general survey of software costs and productivity at JPL and other NASA sites. The task analyzed is a successful example of the use of rapid prototyping as applied to command and control for the U.S. Air Force and provides the U.S. Air Force Military Airlift Command with the ability to track aircraft, air crews and payloads worldwide. The task consists of a replicated database at several globally distributed sites. The local databases at each site can be updated within seconds after changes are entered at any one site. The system must be able to handle up to 400,000 activities per day. There are currently seven sites, each with a local area network of computers and a variety of user displays; the local area networks are tied together into a single wide area network. Using data obtained for eight modules, totaling approximately 500,000 source lines of code, researchers analyze the differences in productivities between subtasks. Factors considered are percentage of Ada used in coding, years of programmer experience, and the use of Ada tools and modern programming practices. The principle findings are the following. Productivity is very sensitive to programmer experience. The use of Ada software tools and the use of modern programming practices are important; without such use Ada is just a large complex language which can cause productivity to decrease. The impact of Ada on development effort phases is consistent with earlier reports at the project level but not at the module level.

  2. Performance of coagulation tests in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. A cross-sectional pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Francart, Suzanne J; Hawes, Emily M; Deal, Allison M; Adcock, Dorothy M; Gosselin, Robert; Jeanneret, Cheryl; Friedman, Kenneth D; Moll, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of anticoagulation status during rivaroxaban therapy is desirable in certain clinical situations. It was the study objective to determine coagulation tests most useful for assessing rivaroxaban's anticoagulant effect. Peak and trough blood samples from 29 patients taking rivaroxaban 20 mg daily were collected. Mass spectrometry and various coagulation assays were performed. "On-therapy range" was defined as the rivaroxaban concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS. A "misprediction percentage" was calculated based on how often results of each coagulation assay were in the normal reference range, while the rivaroxaban concentration was in the "on-therapy" range. The on-therapy range was 8.9-660 ng/ml. The misprediction percentages for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), using multiple reagents and coagulometers, ranged from 10%-52% and 31%-59%, respectively. PT, aPTT and activated clotting time (ACT) were insensitive to trough rivaroxaban: 59%, 62%, and 80% of samples had a normal result, respectively. Over 95% of PT and ACT values were elevated at peak. Four different rivaroxaban calibrated anti-Xa assays had R² values >0.98, demonstrating strong correlations with rivaroxaban drug levels. In conclusion, PT, aPTT and ACT are often normal in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. However, PT and ACT may have clinical utility at higher drug plasma levels. Rivaroxaban calibrated anti-factor Xa assays can accurately identify low and high on-therapy rivaroxaban drug levels and, therefore, have superior utility in all clinical situations where assessment of anticoagulation status may be beneficial.

  3. AdaNET executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The goal of AdaNET is to transfer existing and emerging software engineering technology from the Federal government to the private sector. The views and perspectives of the current project participants on long and short term goals for AdaNET; organizational structure; resources and returns; summary of identified AdaNET services; and the summary of the organizational model currently under discussion are presented.

  4. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grasser, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects' surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  5. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOEpatents

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  6. Ada training evaluation and recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Robert; Stark, Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper documents the Ada training experiences and recommendations of the Gamma Ray Observatory dynamics simulator Ada development team. A two month Ada training program for software developers is recommended which stresses the importance of teaching design methodologies early, as well as the use of certain training aids such as videotaped lectures and computer-aided instruction. Furthermore, a separate training program for managers is recommended, so that they may gain a better understanding of modified review products and resource allocation associated with Ada projects.

  7. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  8. Transforming AdaPT to Ada9x

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Volz, Richard A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.

    1993-01-01

    How the concepts of AdaPT can be transformed into programs using the object oriented features proposed in the preliminary mapping for Ada9x are described. Emphasizing, as they do, the importance of data types as units of program, these features match well with the development of partitions as translations into Abstract Data Types which was exploited in the Ada83 translation covered in report R3. By providing a form of polymorphic type, the Ada83 version also gives support for the conformant partition idea which could be achieved in Ada83 only by using UNCHECKED CONVERSIONS. It is assumed that the reader understands AdaPT itself, but the translation into Ada83 is briefly reviewed, by applying it to a small example. This is then used to show how the same translation would be achieved in the 9x version. It is important to appreciate that the distribution features which are proposed in current mapping are not used or discussed in any detail, as those are not well matched to the AdaPT approach. Critical evaluation and comparison of these approaches is given in a separate report.

  9. Long-term Treatment of Teicoplanin for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sternal Osteomyelitis with Renal Impairment: A Case of High Teicoplanin Trough Levels Maintained by Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shiohira, Hideo; Nakamatsu, Masashi; Kise, Yuya; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Hokama, Nobuo; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ueda, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Katsunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is recommended for therapeutic drug monitoring during treatment. Maintaining a high trough range of teicoplanin is also recommended for severe infectious disease. However, the optimal dose and interval of treatment for severe renal impairment is unknown. We report a 79-year-old man who received long-term teicoplanin treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to postoperative sternal osteomyelitis with renal impairment. Plasma teicoplanin trough levels were maintained at a high range (20-30 μg/mL). Although the patient required long-term teicoplanin treatment, a further decline in renal function was not observed, and blood culture remained negative after the start of treatment. Teicoplanin treatment that is maintained at a high trough level by therapeutic drug monitoring might be beneficial for severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection accompanied by renal impairment. PMID:27592834

  10. Using Ada: The deeper challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language and the associated Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) and Ada Run Time Environment (ARTE) provide the potential for significant life-cycle cost reductions in computer software development and maintenance activities. The Ada programming language itself is standardized, trademarked, and controlled via formal validation procedures. Though compilers are not yet production-ready as most would desire, the technology for constructing them is sufficiently well known and understood that time and money should suffice to correct current deficiencies. The APSE and ARTE are, on the other hand, significantly newer issues within most software development and maintenance efforts. Currently, APSE and ARTE are highly dependent on differing implementer concepts, strategies, and market objectives. Complex and sophisticated mission-critical computing systems require the use of a complete Ada-based capability, not just the programming language itself; yet the range of APSE and ARTE features which must actually be utilized can vary significantly from one system to another. As a consequence, the need to understand, objectively evaluate, and select differing APSE and ARTE capabilities and features is critical to the effective use of Ada and the life-cycle efficiencies it is intended to promote. It is the selection, collection, and understanding of APSE and ARTE which provide the deeper challenges of using Ada for real-life mission-critical computing systems. Some of the current issues which must be clarified, often on a case-by-case basis, in order to successfully realize the full capabilities of Ada are discussed.

  11. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada. Final Report, 1 Jun. 1990 - 30 Sep. 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.H. II.

    1991-09-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  12. Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chedrawi, Lutfi

    1986-01-01

    An artist acquires all the necessary tools before painting a scene. In the same analogy, a software engineer needs the necessary tools to provide their design with the proper means for implementation. Ada provide these tools. Yet, as an artist's painting needs a brochure to accompany it for further explanation of the scene, an Ada design also needs a document along with it to show the design in its detailed structure and hierarchical order. Ada could be self-explanatory in small programs not exceeding fifty lines of code in length. But, in a large environment, ranging from thousands of lines and above, Ada programs need to be well documented to be preserved and maintained. The language used to specify an Ada document is called Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL). This language sets some rules to help derive a well formatted Ada detailed design document. The rules are defined to meet the needs of a project manager, a maintenance team, a programmer and a systems designer. The design document templates, the document extractor, and the rules set forth by the ASDL are explained in detail.

  13. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  14. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  15. Bundled turbidite deposition in the central Pandora Trough (Gulf of Papua) since Last Glacial Maximum: Linking sediment nature and accumulation to sea level fluctuations at millennial timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorry, StéPhan J.; Droxler, André W.; Mallarino, Gianni; Dickens, Gerald R.; Bentley, Sam J.; Beaufort, Luc; Peterson, Larry C.; Opdyke, Bradley N.

    2008-03-01

    Since Last Glacial Maximum (23-19 ka), Earth climate warming and deglaciation occurred in two major steps (Bølling-Allerød and Preboreal), interrupted by a short cooling interval referred to as the Younger Dryas (12.5-11.5 ka B.P.). In this study, three cores (MV-33, MV-66, and MD-40) collected in the central part of Pandora Trough (Gulf of Papua) have been analyzed, and they reveal a detailed sedimentary pattern at millennial timescale. Siliciclastic turbidites disappeared during the Bølling-Allerød and Preboreal intervals to systematically reoccur during the Younger Dryas interval. Subsequent to the final disappearance of the siliciclastic turbidites a calciturbidite occurred during meltwater pulse 1B. The Holocene interval was characterized by a lack of siliciclastic turbidites, relatively high carbonate content, and fine bank-derived aragonitic sediment. The observed millennial timescale sedimentary variability can be explained by sea level fluctuations. During the Last Glacial Maximum, siliciclastic turbidites were numerous when the lowstand coastal system was located along the modern shelf edge. Although they did not occur during the intervals of maximum flooding of the shelf (during meltwater pulses 1A and 1B), siliciclastic turbidites reappear briefly during the Younger Dryas, an interval when sea level rise slowed, stopped, or perhaps even fell. The timing of the calciturbidite coincides with the first reflooding of Eastern Fields Reef, an atoll that remained exposed for most of the glacial stages.

  16. Genome-wide Mapping of the Coactivator Ada2p Yields Insight into the Functional Roles of SAGA/ADA Complex in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sellam, Adnane; Askew, Christopher; Epp, Elias; Lavoie, Hugo; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The SAGA/ADA coactivator complex, which regulates numerous cellular processes by coordinating histone acetylation, is widely conserved throughout eukaryotes, and analysis of the Candida albicans genome identifies the components of this complex in the fungal pathogen. We investigated the multiple functions of SAGA/ADA in C. albicans by determining the genome-wide occupancy of Ada2p using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Ada2p is recruited to 200 promoters upstream of genes involved in different stress-response functions and metabolic processes. Phenotypic and transcriptomic analysis of ada2 mutant showed that Ada2p is required for the responses to oxidative stress, as well as to treatments with tunicamycin and fluconazole. Ada2p recruitment to the promoters of oxidative resistance genes is mediated by the transcription factor Cap1p, and coactivator function were also established for Gal4p, which recruits Ada2p to the promoters of glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism genes. Cooccupancy of Ada2p and the drug resistance regulator Mrr1p on the promoters of core resistance genes characterizing drug resistance in clinical strains was also demonstrated. Ada2p recruitment to the promoters of these genes were shown to be completely dependent on Mrr1p. Furthermore, ADA2 deletion causes a decrease in H3K9 acetylation levels of target genes, thus illustrating its importance for histone acetyl transferase activity. PMID:19279142

  17. Gulf trough: the Atlantic connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Henry, Vernon J.; Idris, Faisal M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of seismic reflection profiles and stratigraphic data indicate a continuation of the Gulf trough trend across eastern South Carolina and offshore between Cape Fear and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Seismic profiles show a linear northeast-trending zone of nondeposition and erosion and areas of chaotic deposition in the Eocene and Oligocene sections. The character of deposition and erosion along this trend is similar to that produced by bottom currents under the core of the present Gulf Stream. The trend separates deep-water from shallower water deposits, indicating that the erosion was produced by strong marine currents flowing through the Gulf trough in the high sea levels of middle Eocene through early Oligocene time.

  18. A proposed classification scheme for Ada-based software products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernosek, Gary J.

    1986-01-01

    As the requirements for producing software in the Ada language become a reality for projects such as the Space Station, a great amount of Ada-based program code will begin to emerge. Recognizing the potential for varying levels of quality to result in Ada programs, what is needed is a classification scheme that describes the quality of a software product whose source code exists in Ada form. A 5-level classification scheme is proposed that attempts to decompose this potentially broad spectrum of quality which Ada programs may possess. The number of classes and their corresponding names are not as important as the mere fact that there needs to be some set of criteria from which to evaluate programs existing in Ada. An exact criteria for each class is not presented, nor are any detailed suggestions of how to effectively implement this quality assessment. The idea of Ada-based software classification is introduced and a set of requirements from which to base further research and development is suggested.

  19. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  20. Paranoia.Ada: Sample output reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Paranoia.Ada is a program to diagnose floating point arithmetic in the context of the Ada programming language. The program evaluates the quality of a floating point arithmetic implementation with respect to the proposed IEEE Standards P754 and P854. Paranoia.Ada is derived from the original BASIC programming language version of Paranoia. The Paranoia.Ada replicates in Ada the test algorithms originally implemented in BASIC and adheres to the evaluation criteria established by W. M. Kahan. Paranoia.Ada incorporates a major structural redesign and employs applicable Ada architectural and stylistic features.

  1. ART-Ada design project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in deploying expert systems in Ada has increased. An Ada based expert system tool is described called ART-Ada, which was built to support research into the language and methodological issues of expert systems in Ada. ART-Ada allows applications of an existing expert system tool called ART-IM (Automated Reasoning Tool for Information Management) to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-IM, a C-based expert system tool, is used to generate Ada source code which is compiled and linked with an Ada based inference engine to produce an Ada executable image. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  2. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.; Carlisle, Homer W.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H.; Deason, William H.; Haga, Kevin D.; Huggins, John R.; Keleher, William R. A.; Starke, Benjamin B.; Weyrich, Orville R.

    1989-01-01

    A unit level, Ada software module testing system, called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada), is described. The project calls for the design and development of a prototype system. QUEST/Ada design began with a definition of the overall system structure and a description of component dependencies. The project team was divided into three groups to resolve the preliminary designs of the parser/scanner: the test data generator, and the test coverage analyzer. The Phase 1 report is a working document from which the system documentation will evolve. It provides history, a guide to report sections, a literature review, the definition of the system structure and high level interfaces, descriptions of the prototype scope, the three major components, and the plan for the remainder of the project. The appendices include specifications, statistics, two papers derived from the current research, a preliminary users' manual, and the proposal and work plan for Phase 2.

  3. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  4. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  5. Multiprocessor performance modeling with ADAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.; Andrews, Asa M.

    1989-01-01

    A graph managing strategy referred to as the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) appears useful for the time-optimized execution of application algorithm graphs in embedded multiprocessors and for the performance prediction of graph designs. This paper reports the modeling of ATAMM in the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) to make an independent verification of ATAMM's performance prediction capability and to provide a user framework for the evaluation of arbitrary algorithm graphs. Following an overview of ATAMM and its major functional rules are descriptions of the ADAS model of ATAMM, methods to enter an arbitrary graph into the model, and techniques to analyze the simulation results. The performance of a 7-node graph example is evaluated using the ADAS model and verifies the ATAMM concept by substantiating previously published performance results.

  6. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  7. Ada style guide (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, Edwin V.; Agresti, William; Ferry, Daniel; Lavallee, David; Maresca, Paul; Nelson, Robert; Quimby, Kelvin; Rosenberg, Jacob; Roy, Daniel; Shell, Allyn

    1987-01-01

    Ada is a programming language of considerable expressive power. The Ada Language Reference Manual provides a thorough definition of the language. However, it does not offer sufficient guidance on the appropriate use of Ada's powerful features. For this reason, the Goddard Space Flight Center Ada User's Group has produced this style guide which addresses such program style issues. The guide covers three areas of Ada program style: the structural decomposition of a program; the coding and the use of specific Ada features; and the textural formatting of a program.

  8. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  9. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  10. Segmented Trough Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmyd, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Segmented troughlike reflector for solar cells approach concentration effectiveness of true parabolic reflector yet simpler and less expensive. Walls of segmented reflector composed of reflective aluminized membrane. Lengthwise guide wire applies tension to each wall, thereby dividing each into two separate planes. Planes tend to focus Sunlight on solar cells at center of trough between walls. Segmented walls provide higher Sunlight concentration ratios than do simple walls.

  11. The magnetospheric trough

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.; Elphic, R.C.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-03-04

    The authors review the history of the concepts of the magnetospheric cold-ion trough and hot-electron trough and conclude that the two regions are actually essentially the same. The magnetospheric trough may be viewed as a temporal state in the evolution of convecting flux tubes. These flux tubes are in contact with the earth`s upper atmosphere which acts both as a sink for precipitating hot plasma sheet electrons and as a source for the cold ionospheric plasma leading to progressive depletion of the plasma sheet and refilling with cold plasma. Geosynchronous plasma observations show that the rate of loss of plasma-sheet electron energy density is commensurate with the precipitating electron flux at the low-latitude edge of the diffuse aurora. The rate at which geosynchronous flux tubes fill with cold ionospheric plasma is found to be consistent with previous estimates of early-time refilling. Geosynchronous observations further indicate that both Coulomb collisions and wave-particle effects probably play a role in trapping ionospheric material in the magnetosphere.

  12. Early Monitoring of Response (MORE) to Golimumab Therapy Based on Fecal Calprotectin and Trough Serum Levels in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Drabik, Attyla; Sturm, Andreas; Blömacher, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with moderate to severe inflammatory activity with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibodies leads to a clinical remission rate of 10% after 8 weeks of therapy. However, it must be taken into account that patient selection in clinical trials clearly influences both response and remission rates. An unsatisfactory response to anti-TNFα medication after week 12 often leads to a discontinuation of treatment. The early prediction of clinical response could therefore help optimize therapy and potentially avoid ineffective treatments. Objective The aim of this study is to develop an algorithm for optimizing golimumab administration in patients with moderate to severe UC by calculating the probability of clinical response in Week 26 based on data from Week 6. Methods The study is designed as a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, non-interventional observational study with no interim analyses and a sample size of 58 evaluable patients. The primary outcome is the prediction of clinical response in Week 26 based on a 50% reduction in fecal calprotectin and a positive golimumab trough level in Week 6. Results Enrollment started in October 2014 and was still open at the date of submission. The study is expected to finish in December 2016. Conclusions The early identification of patients who are responding to an anti-TNFα antibody is therapeutically beneficial. At the same time, patients who are not responding can be identified earlier. The development of a therapeutic algorithm for identifying patients as responders or non-responders can thus help prescribing physicians to both avoid ineffective treatments and adjust dosages when necessary. This in turn promotes a higher degree of treatment tolerance and patient safety in the case of anti-TNFα antibody administration. ClinicalTrial German Clinical Trials Register, Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien DRKS00005940; https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de

  13. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada): The development of a prgram analysis environment for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of research and development efforts are described for Task one, Phase two of a general project entitled The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. The scope of this task includes the design and development of a prototype system for testing Ada software modules at the unit level. The system is called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada). The prototype for condition coverage provides a platform that implements expert system interaction with program testing. The expert system can modify data in the instrument source code in order to achieve coverage goals. Given this initial prototype, it is possible to evaluate the rule base in order to develop improved rules for test case generation. The goals of Phase two are the following: (1) to continue to develop and improve the current user interface to support the other goals of this research effort (i.e., those related to improved testing efficiency and increased code reliable); (2) to develop and empirically evaluate a succession of alternative rule bases for the test case generator such that the expert system achieves coverage in a more efficient manner; and (3) to extend the concepts of the current test environment to address the issues of Ada concurrency.

  14. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Charlie, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This feature issue focuses on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), with articles discussing provisions of the ADA and its impact on people with developmental disabilities. Articles have the following titles and authors: "The ADA: What Does It Mean for People with Developmental Disabilities?" (Deborah L. McFadden and Edward P. Burke); "The…

  15. Software unit testing in Ada environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    A validation procedure for the Ada binding of the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) is being developed. PRIOR Data Sciences is also producing a version of the GKS written in Ada. These major software engineering projects will provide an opportunity to demonstrate a sound approach for software testing in an Ada environment. The GKS/Ada validation capability will be a collection of test programs and data, and test management guidelines. These products will be used to assess the correctness, completeness, and efficiency of any GKS/Ada implementation. The GKS/Ada developers will be able to obtain the validation software for their own use. It is anticipated that this validation software will eventually be taken over by an independent standards body to provide objective assessments of GKS/Ada implementations, using an approach similar to the validation testing currently applied to Ada compilers. In the meantime, if requested, this validation software will be used to assess GKS/Ada products. The second project, implementation of GKS using the Ada language, is a conventional software engineering tasks. It represents a large body of Ada code and has some interesting testing problems associated with automatic testing of graphics routines. Here the normal test practices which include automated regression testing, independent quality assistance, test configuration management, and the application of software quality metrics will be employed. The software testing methods emphasize quality enhancement and automated procedures. Ada makes some aspects of testing easier, and introduces some concerns. These issues are addressed.

  16. Ada--Programming Language of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, David

    1983-01-01

    Ada is a programing language developed for the Department of Defense, with a registered trademark. It was named for Ada Augusta, coworker of Charles Babbage and the world's first programer. The Department of Defense hopes to prevent variations and to establish Ada as a consistent, standardized language. (MNS)

  17. Structuring the formal definition of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Kurt W.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the formal definition of Ada are described. At present, a difficult subset of Ada has been defined and the experience gained so far by this work is reported. Currently, the work continues towards the formal definition of the Ada language.

  18. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhelil, J.

    The intracontinental Benue Trough was initiated during the Lower Cretaceous in relation with the Atlantic Ocean opening. The first stage of its evolution started in the Aptian, forming isolated basins with continental sedimentation. In the Albian times, a great delta developed in the Upper Benue Trough, while the first marine transgression coming from the opening Gulf of Guinea occurred in the south and reached the Middle Benue. The widespread Turonian transgression made the Atlantic and Tethys waters communicate through the Sahara, Niger basins and the Benue Trough. The tectonic evolution of the Benue Trough was closely controlled by transcurrent faulting through an axial fault system, developing local compressional and tensional regimes and resulting in basins and basement horsts along releasing and restraining bends of the faults. Two major compressional phases occurred: in the Abakaliki area (southern Benue) during the Santonian; and at the end of the Cretaceous in the Upper Benue Trough. In Abakaliki, the sedimentary infilling was severely deformed through folding and flattening, and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. The Cretaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault zones in most of the trough but was particularly active in the Abakaliki Trough, where it has alkaline affinities. From Albian to Santonian, the magmatism was accompanied in part of the Abakaliki Trough by a low-grade metamorphism. Geophysical data indicate a crustal thinning beneath the Benue Trough and, at a superficial level, an axial basement high flanked by two elongated deep basins including isolated sub-basins. The model of the tectonic evolution of the trough is based upon a general sinistral wrenching along the trough responsible for the structural arrangement and the geometry of the sub-basins. During the early stages of the Gulf of Guinea opening the Benue Trough was probably the expression on land of the Equatorial Fracture Zones.

  19. Examination of the largest-possible tsunamis (Level 2) generated along the Nankai and Suruga troughs during the past 4000 years based on studies of tsunami deposits from the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Akihisa

    2016-12-01

    Japanese historical documents reveal that Mw 8 class earthquakes have occurred every 100-150 years along the Suruga and Nankai troughs since the 684 Hakuho earthquake. These earthquakes have commonly caused large tsunamis with wave heights of up to 10 m in the Japanese coastal area along the Suruga and Nankai troughs. From the perspective of tsunami disaster management, these tsunamis are designated as Level 1 tsunamis and are the basis for the design of coastal protection facilities. A Mw 9.0 earthquake (the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake) and a mega-tsunami with wave heights of 10-40 m struck the Pacific coast of the northeastern Japanese mainland on 11 March 2011, and far exceeded pre-disaster predictions of wave height. Based on the lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the Japanese Government predicted the tsunami heights of the largest-possible tsunami (termed a Level 2 tsunami) that could be generated in the Suruga and Nankai troughs. The difference in wave heights between Level 1 and Level 2 tsunamis exceeds 20 m in some areas, including the southern Izu Peninsula. This study reviews the distribution of prehistorical tsunami deposits and tsunami boulders during the past 4000 years, based on previous studies in the coastal area of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The results show that a tsunami deposit dated at 3400-3300 cal BP can be traced between the Shimizu, Shizuoka and Rokken-gawa lowlands, whereas no geologic evidence related to the corresponding tsunami (the Rokken-gawa-Oya tsunami) was found on the southern Izu Peninsula. Thus, the Rokken-gawa-Oya tsunami is not classified as a Level 2 tsunami.

  20. Ada technology support for NASA-GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of the Ada programming language and environments to perform directorate functions was reviewed. The Mission and Data Operations Directorate Network (MNET) conversion effort was chosen as the first task for evaluation and assistance. The MNET project required the rewriting of the existing Network Control Program (NCP) in the Ada programming language. The DEC Ada compiler running on the VAX under WMS was used for the initial development efforts. Stress tests on the newly delivered version of the DEC Ada compiler were performed. The new Alsys Ada compiler was purchased for the IBM PC AT. A prevalidated version of the compiler was obtained. The compiler was then validated.

  1. Transmitter data collection using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A data collection system installed on the 400 kilowatt X-band transmitter of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is described. The data collection system is built around the off-the-shelf IEEE 488 instrumentation, linked with fiber optics, controlled by an inexpensive computer, and uses software written in the Ada language. The speed and accuracy of the system is discussed, along with programming techniques used for both data collection and reduction.

  2. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  3. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  4. Gullied Trough Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies emergent from beneath erosion-resistant rock layers in a trough south of Atlantis Chaos near 38.9oS, 176.3oW. Gullies such as these are fairly common in depressions at south middle latitudes. Tens of thousands of gullies have been identified in MGS MOC and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images. Whether they formed by running liquid water remains a controversial issue. Banked channels, like some shown here, are one form of evidence cited to indicate that a fluid with the properties of liquid water may have been involved. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  5. STGT program: Ada coding and architecture lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usavage, Paul; Nagurney, Don

    1992-01-01

    STGT (Second TDRSS Ground Terminal) is currently halfway through the System Integration Test phase (Level 4 Testing). To date, many software architecture and Ada language issues have been encountered and solved. This paper, which is the transcript of a presentation at the 3 Dec. meeting, attempts to define these lessons plus others learned regarding software project management and risk management issues, training, performance, reuse, and reliability. Observations are included regarding the use of particular Ada coding constructs, software architecture trade-offs during the prototyping, development and testing stages of the project, and dangers inherent in parallel or concurrent systems, software, hardware, and operations engineering.

  6. An Ada run-time control architecture for telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and Ada language implementation of a process-level run-time control subystem for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot system. The concept of run-time control in a combined robot-teleoperation environment is examined and the telerobot system at JPL is described. An Ada language implementation of the JPL Telerobot Run-Time Controller (RTC) is described by highlighting the functional behavior of the subsystem, defining the internal modules, and providing a functional flow time sequence of internal module activity.

  7. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  8. ART/Ada design project, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An Ada-Based Expert System Building Tool Design Research Project was conducted. The goal was to investigate various issues in the context of the design of an Ada-based expert system building tool. An attempt was made to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential for embedding expert systems in Ada systems for eventual application in future projects. The current status of the project is described by introducing an operational prototype, ART/Ada. How the project was conducted is explained. The performance of the prototype is analyzed and compared with other related works. Future research directions are suggested.

  9. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered.

  10. Proceedings of the 2nd NASA Ada User's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Several presentations, mostly in viewgraph form, on various topics relating to Ada applications are given. Topics covered include the use of Ada in NASA, Ada and the Space Station, the software support environment, Ada in the Software Engineering Laboratory, Ada at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Flight Telerobotic Servicer, and lessons learned in prototyping the Space Station Remote Manipulator System control.

  11. Paranoia.Ada: A diagnostic program to evaluate Ada floating-point arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjermstad, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Many essential software functions in the mission critical computer resource application domain depend on floating point arithmetic. Numerically intensive functions associated with the Space Station project, such as emphemeris generation or the implementation of Kalman filters, are likely to employ the floating point facilities of Ada. Paranoia.Ada appears to be a valuabe program to insure that Ada environments and their underlying hardware exhibit the precision and correctness required to satisfy mission computational requirements. As a diagnostic tool, Paranoia.Ada reveals many essential characteristics of an Ada floating point implementation. Equipped with such knowledge, programmers need not tremble before the complex task of floating point computation.

  12. Structure of the Mekong trough

    SciTech Connect

    Van Khy, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Mekong trough occupies the shelf of southern Vietnam between the sea coast and the Condao-Cu Lao Tu line of islands and the adjacent area of the onshore Mekong delta. It extends for 400 km from southwest to northeast with a width of 100 km. The Mekong trough is situated on the upper Mesozoic volcanic belt of South Vietnam, which is part of the East Asian volcanogenic belt. It is bounded on the southeast by the Con Son high, on the southwest by the Corat-Ca Mau high, and on the northwest by the Dalat massif. The Mekong trough is considered to have major potential as a new petroleum province. Since 1969, numerous common depth point (CDP) seismic profiles have been run and seven deep wells have been drilled on the shelf in the Mekong trough. This paper is devoted to an analysis of the findings. 9 references, 4 figures.

  13. A small evaluation suite for Ada compilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, Randy; Roy, Daniel M.

    1986-01-01

    After completing a small Ada pilot project (OCC simulator) for the Multi Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) at Goddard last year, the use of Ada to develop OCCs was recommended. To help MSOCC transition toward Ada, a suite of about 100 evaluation programs was developed which can be used to assess Ada compilers. These programs compare the overall quality of the compilation system, compare the relative efficiencies of the compilers and the environments in which they work, and compare the size and execution speed of generated machine code. Another goal of the benchmark software was to provide MSOCC system developers with rough timing estimates for the purpose of predicting performance of future systems written in Ada.

  14. Development of an Ada programming support environment database SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database) administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD) was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities which are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. SEAD data is organized into five major areas: information regarding education and training resources which are relevant to the life cycle of Ada-based software engineering projects such as those in the Space Station program; research publications relevant to NASA projects such as the Space Station Program and conferences relating to Ada technology; the latest progress reports on Ada projects completed or in progress both within NASA and throughout the free world; Ada compilers and other commercial products that support Ada software development; and reusable Ada components generated both within NASA and from elsewhere in the free world. This classified listing of reusable components shall include descriptions of tools, libraries, and other components of interest to NASA. Sources for the data include technical newletters and periodicals, conference proceedings, the Ada Information Clearinghouse, product vendors, and project sponsors and contractors.

  15. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  16. Development of an Ada package library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Bruce; Broido, Michael

    1986-01-01

    A usable prototype Ada package library was developed and is currently being evaluated for use in large software development efforts. The library system is comprised of an Ada-oriented design language used to facilitate the collection of reuse information, a relational data base to store reuse information, a set of reusable Ada components and tools, and a set of guidelines governing the system's use. The prototyping exercise is discussed and the lessons learned from it have led to the definition of a comprehensive tool set to facilitate software reuse.

  17. ELAPSE - NASA AMES LISP AND ADA BENCHMARK SUITE: EFFICIENCY OF LISP AND ADA PROCESSING - A SYSTEM EVALUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    One area of research of the Information Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center is devoted to the analysis and enhancement of processors and advanced computer architectures, specifically in support of automation and robotic systems. To compare systems' abilities to efficiently process Lisp and Ada, scientists at Ames Research Center have developed a suite of non-parallel benchmarks called ELAPSE. The benchmark suite was designed to test a single computer's efficiency as well as alternate machine comparisons on Lisp, and/or Ada languages. ELAPSE tests the efficiency with which a machine can execute the various routines in each environment. The sample routines are based on numeric and symbolic manipulations and include two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations, Cholesky decomposition and substitution, Gaussian elimination, high-level data processing, and symbol-list references. Also included is a routine based on a Bayesian classification program sorting data into optimized groups. The ELAPSE benchmarks are available for any computer with a validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system. Of the 18 routines that comprise ELAPSE, provided within this package are 14 developed or translated at Ames. The others are readily available through literature. The benchmark that requires the most memory is CHOLESKY.ADA. Under VAX/VMS, CHOLESKY.ADA requires 760K of main memory. ELAPSE is available on either two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes (standard distribution) or a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. The contents of the diskettes are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The ELAPSE benchmarks were written in 1990. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  18. Extensions of ADA for SIMD parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.; Siegel, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to program SIMD (single instruction stream-multiple data stream) parallel machines used for tasks such as speech and image processing, a language with explicit parallel constructs is often desirable. The language ADA, developed by the Department of Defense, is used as a basis for such a language. Extensions of ADA which allow the user to specify such things as interprocessor communications and activation of processors are proposed. 25 references.

  19. Ada programming guidelines for deterministic storage management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have established that a program can be written in the Ada language such that the program's storage management requirements are determinable prior to its execution. Specific guidelines for ensuring such deterministic usage of Ada dynamic storage requirements are described. Because requirements may vary from one application to another, guidelines are presented in a most-restrictive to least-restrictive fashion to allow the reader to match appropriate restrictions to the particular application area under investigation.

  20. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  1. CSF ADA Determination in Early Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Gupta, B B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous and Cryptococcal meningitis are common in HIV patients. A highly specific and sensitive rapid test for diagnosis of Tuberculous meningitis especially in setting of HIV is not available in developing countries where the burden of disease is high. We measured ADA (adenosine deaminase) levels using spectrophotometric method in the CSF of HIV patients with meningitis to differentiate Tuberculous meningitis from meningitis due to other causes. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ADA values between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and nontuberculous (non-TB) meningitis patients and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve was drawn from these values. Levels of ADA in the CSF of patients with TBM were significantly higher than those in patients with meningitis due to other causes. CSF ADA level determination with a cut-off value of 6 IU/L was found to be highly specific and fairly sensitive test for the diagnosis of TBM in HIV positive patients. PMID:27144055

  2. Toward the efficient implementation of expert systems in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Here, the authors describe Ada language issues encountered during the development of ART-Ada, an expert system tool for Ada deployment. ART-Ada is being used to implement several expert system applications for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Air Force. Additional information is given on dynamic memory allocation.

  3. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  4. Ada Run Time Support Environments and a common APSE Interface Set. [Ada Programming Support Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.

  5. A-D-A small molecules for solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wang; Wan, Xiangjian; Li, Miaomiao; Wang, Yunchuang; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-03-25

    A-D-A small molecules have drawn more and more attention in solution-processed organic solar cells due to the advantages of a diversity of structures, easy control of energy levels, etc. Recently, a power conversion efficiency of nearly 10% has been achieved through careful material design and device optimization. This feature article reviews recent representative progress in the design and application of A-D-A small molecules in organic photovoltaic cells.

  6. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  7. Proceedings of the First NASA Ada Users' Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ada has the potential to be a part of the most significant change in software engineering technology within NASA in the last twenty years. Thus, it is particularly important that all NASA centers be aware of Ada experience and plans at other centers. Ada activity across NASA are covered, with presenters representing five of the nine major NASA centers and the Space Station Freedom Program Office. Projects discussed included - Space Station Freedom Program Office: the implications of Ada on training, reuse, management and the software support environment; Johnson Space Center (JSC): early experience with the use of Ada, software engineering and Ada training and the evaluation of Ada compilers; Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC): university research with Ada and the application of Ada to Space Station Freedom, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, the Aero-Assist Flight Experiment and the Secure Shuttle Data System; Lewis Research Center (LeRC): the evolution of Ada software to support the Space Station Power Management and Distribution System; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL): the creation of a centralized Ada development laboratory and current applications of Ada including the Real-time Weather Processor for the FAA; and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC): experiences with Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) project and the implications of GSFC experience for Ada use in NASA. Despite the diversity of the presentations, several common themes emerged from the program: Methodology - NASA experience in general indicates that the effective use of Ada requires modern software engineering methodologies; Training - It is the software engineering principles and methods that surround Ada, rather than Ada itself, which requires the major training effort; Reuse - Due to training and transition costs, the use of Ada may initially actually decrease productivity, as was clearly found at GSFC; and real-time work at LeRC, JPL and GSFC shows

  8. Applying Ada to Beech Starship avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, David W.

    1986-01-01

    As Ada solidified in its development, it became evident that it offered advantages for avionics systems because of it support for modern software engineering principles and real time applications. An Ada programming support environment was developed for two major avionics subsystems in the Beech Starship. The two subsystems include electronic flight instrument displays and the flight management computer system. Both of these systems use multiple Intel 80186 microprocessors. The flight management computer provides flight planning, navigation displays, primary flight display of checklists and other pilot advisory information. Together these systems represent nearly 80,000 lines of Ada source code and to date approximately 30 man years of effort. The Beech Starship avionics systems are in flight testing.

  9. A database management capability for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Arvola; Danberg, SY; Fox, Stephen; Landers, Terry; Nori, Anil; Smith, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The data requirements of mission critical defense systems have been increasing dramatically. Command and control, intelligence, logistics, and even weapons systems are being required to integrate, process, and share ever increasing volumes of information. To meet this need, systems are now being specified that incorporate data base management subsystems for handling storage and retrieval of information. It is expected that a large number of the next generation of mission critical systems will contain embedded data base management systems. Since the use of Ada has been mandated for most of these systems, it is important to address the issues of providing data base management capabilities that can be closely coupled with Ada. A comprehensive distributed data base management project has been investigated. The key deliverables of this project are three closely related prototype systems implemented in Ada. These three systems are discussed.

  10. Atomic Data and Modelling for Fusion: the ADAS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, H. P.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    The paper is an update on the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, ADAS, since ICAM-DATA06 and a forward look to its evolution in the next five years. ADAS is an international project supporting principally magnetic confinement fusion research. It has participant laboratories throughout the world, including ITER and all its partner countries. In parallel with ADAS, the ADAS-EU Project provides enhanced support for fusion research at Associated Laboratories and Universities in Europe and ITER. OPEN-ADAS, sponsored jointly by the ADAS Project and IAEA, is the mechanism for open access to principal ADAS atomic data classes and facilitating software for their use. EXTENDED-ADAS comprises a variety of special, integrated application software, beyond the purely atomic bounds of ADAS, tuned closely to specific diagnostic analyses and plasma models. The current scientific content and scope of these various ADAS and ADAS related activities are briefly reviewed. These span a number of themes including heavy element spectroscopy and models, charge exchange spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy and special features which provide a broad baseline of atomic modelling and support. Emphasis will be placed on `lifting the fundamental data baseline'—a principal ADAS task for the next few years. This will include discussion of ADAS and ADAS-EU coordinated and shared activities and some of the methods being exploited.

  11. Knowledge representation into Ada parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Babikyan, Carol; Harper, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The Knowledge Representation into Ada Parallel Processing project is a joint NASA and Air Force funded project to demonstrate the execution of intelligent systems in Ada on the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory fault-tolerant parallel processor (FTPP). Two applications were demonstrated - a portion of the adaptive tactical navigator and a real time controller. Both systems are implemented as Activation Framework Objects on the Activation Framework intelligent scheduling mechanism developed by Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The implementations, results of performance analyses showing speedup due to parallelism and initial efficiency improvements are detailed and further areas for performance improvements are suggested.

  12. Ada in AI or AI in Ada. On developing a rationale for integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.; Goforth, Andre

    1988-01-01

    The use of Ada as an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language is gaining interest in the NASA Community, i.e., by parties who have a need to deploy Knowledge Based-Systems (KBS) compatible with the use of Ada as the software standard for the Space Station. A fair number of KBS and pseudo-KBS implementations in Ada exist today. Currently, no widely used guidelines exist to compare and evaluate these with one another. The lack of guidelines illustrates a fundamental problem inherent in trying to compare and evaluate implementations of any sort in languages that are procedural or imperative in style, such as Ada, with those in languages that are functional in style, such as Lisp. Discussed are the strengths and weakness of using Ada as an AI language and a preliminary analysis provided of factors needed for the development of criteria for the integration of these two families of languages and the environments in which they are implemented. The intent for developing such criteria is to have a logical rationale that may be used to guide the development of Ada tools and methodology to support KBS requirements, and to identify those AI technology components that may most readily and effectively be deployed in Ada.

  13. Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects.

  14. Role of an upper-level trough in the life cycle of a tropical-like cyclone: mesoscale experiments assessed with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, J.-P.; Pantillon, F.; Lambert, D.; Richard, E.; Claud, C.

    2010-09-01

    The predictability of a tropical-like Mediterranean cyclone or medicane that occurred on 26th September 2006 over Southern Italy is investigated. Using the French non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MESO-NH, numerical experiments starting from various initial atmospheric states were conducted to assess the impact of initial condition uncertainties on the forecast of the track and deepening of the medicane. To generate a set of perturbed atmospheric states, a simple date-shifting initialization method was used. Two sets of simulations were run, using lateral boundaries and initial conditions derived from both the French operational global assimilation system Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle (ARPEGE) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) system. Simulations were assessed using in situ and satellite observations. A pronounced sensitivity to the initial conditions was found. They determined wether the medicane was formed, and how much it deepened, and gave rise to a variety of convective signatures that could be verified from space. Preliminary results suggest that the intensification of the medicane was partly related to its passage through the left exit of the upper-level jet.

  15. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  16. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  17. Using ADA Tasks to Simulate Operating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  18. The Courts, the ADA, and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, David D.

    2005-01-01

    Litigation influences what goes on in the classroom. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), other statutes, and legal precedent have defined reasonable restrictions on what qualifies as a handicap. Still, universities tend to go overboard--out of ignorance, and influenced by a culture that seems to champion every conceivable victim--in…

  19. The computerization of programming: Ada (R) lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struble, Dennis D.

    1986-01-01

    One of the largest systems yet written in Ada has been constructed. This system is the Intermetrics Ada compiler. Many lessons have been learned during the implementation of this Ada compiler. Some of these lessons, concentrating on those lessons relevant to large system implementations are described. The characteristics of the Ada compiler implementation project at Intermetrics are also described. Some specific experiences during the implementation are pointed out.

  20. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  1. Knowledge, programming, and programming cultures: LISP, C, and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The results of research 'Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems' are presented. The purpose of the research was to compare Ada to other programming languages. The report focuses on the programming languages Ada, C, and Lisp, the programming cultures that surround them, and the programming paradigms they support.

  2. 49 CFR 37.125 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. 37.125... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.125 ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. Each public entity required to provide complementary paratransit service...

  3. 49 CFR 37.123 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. 37.123... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.123 ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. (a) Public entities required by § 37.121 of this subpart to...

  4. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  5. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  6. Comparing host and target environments for distributed Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulk, Mark C.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language provides a means of specifying logical concurrency by using multitasking. Extending the Ada multitasking concurrency mechanism into a physically concurrent distributed environment which imposes its own requirements can lead to incompatibilities. These problems are discussed. Using distributed Ada for a target system may be appropriate, but when using the Ada language in a host environment, a multiprocessing model may be more suitable than retargeting an Ada compiler for the distributed environment. The tradeoffs between multitasking on distributed targets and multiprocessing on distributed hosts are discussed. Comparisons of the multitasking and multiprocessing models indicate different areas of application.

  7. Ada and software management in NASA: Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Recent NASA missions have required software systems that are larger, more complex, and more critical than NASA software systems of the past. The Ada programming language and the software methods and support environments associated with it are seen as potential breakthroughs in meeting NASA's software requirements. The findings of a study by the Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG) are presented. The study was chartered to perform three tasks: (1) assess the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities; (2) assess the infrastructure (standards, policies, and internal organizations) supporting software management and the Ada activities; and (3) present an Ada implementation and use strategy appropriate for NASA over the next 5 years.

  8. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  9. Ada education in a software life-cycle context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, Anne J.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the experience gained from a comprehensive educational program undertaken at The Charles Stark Draper Lab. to introduce the Ada language and to transition modern software engineering technology into the development of Ada and non-Ada applications is described. Initially, a core group, which included manager, engineers and programmers, received training in Ada. An Ada Office was established to assume the major responsibility for training, evaluation, acquisition and benchmarking of tools, and consultation on Ada projects. As a first step in this process, and in-house educational program was undertaken to introduce Ada to the Laboratory. Later, a software engineering course was added to the educational program as the need to address issues spanning the entire software life cycle became evident. Educational efforts to date are summarized, with an emphasis on the educational approach adopted. Finally, lessons learned in administering this program are addressed.

  10. Ada (trademark) projects at NASA. Runtime environment issues and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.; Wilke, Randall W.

    1988-01-01

    Ada practitioners should use this document to discuss and establish common short term requirements for Ada runtime environments. The major current Ada runtime environment issues are identified through the analysis of some of the Ada efforts at NASA and other research centers. The runtime environment characteristics of major compilers are compared while alternate runtime implementations are reviewed. Modifications and extensions to the Ada Language Reference Manual to address some of these runtime issues are proposed. Three classes of projects focusing on the most critical runtime features of Ada are recommended, including a range of immediately feasible full scale Ada development projects. Also, a list of runtime features and procurement issues is proposed for consideration by the vendors, contractors and the government.

  11. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  12. Solargenix Energy Advanced Parabolic Trough Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R. C.; Hale, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Solargenix Advanced Trough Development Project was initiated in the Year 2000 with the support of the DOE CSP Program and, more recently, with the added support of the Nevada Southwest Energy Partnership. Parabolic trough plants are the most mature solar power technology, but no large-scale plants have been built in over a decade. Given this lengthy lull in deployment, our first Project objective was development of improved trough technology for near-term deployment, closely patterned after the best of the prior-generation troughs. The second objective is to develop further improvements in next-generation trough technology that will lead to even larger reductions in the cost of the delivered energy. To date, this Project has successfully developed an advanced trough, which is being deployed on a 1-MW plant in Arizona and will soon be deployed in a 64-MW plant in Nevada. This advanced trough offers a 10% increase in performance and over an 20% decrease in cost, relative to prior-generation troughs.

  13. Monitoring Emergent Absorption Troughs in Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Patrick; Rodriguez Hidalgo, Paola; Brandt, W. Niel; Rogerson, Jesse; Filiz Ak, Nur; Chajet, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Outflows from luminous AGN are important ingredients in galaxy formation. These outflows manifest as broad absorption line (BAL) troughs in quasar spectra. Trough variability can be used to constrain the physical parameters of these absorbing structures through comparison to models and simulations of accretion disk winds. Monitoring appearing/disappearing BAL troughs can constrain the distribution of BAL trough lifetimes along our line of sight. By comparing spectra from the SDSS Data Release (DR) 7 and DR 9, we identified 68 quasars in whose spectra new absorption troughs have appeared over 300-1200 restframe days, including one trough outflowing at v=60,000 km/s. We propose to complete our third-epoch GMOS spectroscopy of the brightest of those quasars (48 in 2013AB and 9 proposed here) to measure the absorption strength in newly appeared troughs <=365 restframe days after their previous measurement. Preliminary 2013AB results indicate that troughs are not on average still strengthening between SDSS and Gemini epochs; we therefore propose observations of 40 targets to probe shorter rest-frame time separations. We also target 8 objects showing simultaneous absorption variations in multiple ionization states, to help develop methods to distinguish absorption variations from cloud motion vs. those from ionization changes within clouds.

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water that underlies about 2,320-square miles of parts of Osage, Pawnee, Payne, Creek, Lincoln, Okfuskee, and Seminole Counties. Approximately 75 percent of the water withdrawn from the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is for municipal use. Rural domestic use and water for stock animals account for most of the remaining water withdrawn. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is defined in a ground-water report as consisting principally of the rocks of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Vamoosa Formation and overlying Ada Group. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer consists of a complex sequence of fine- to very fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, shale, and conglomerate interbedded with very thin limestones. The water-yielding capabilities of the aquifer are generally controlled by lateral and vertical distribution of the sandstone beds and their physical characteristics. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is unconfined where it outcrops in about an 1,700-square-mile area. Most of the lines in the aquifer boundary, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were extracted from published digital surficial geology data sets based on a scale of 1:250,000, and represent geologic contacts. Some of lines in the data sets were interpolated in areas where the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits near streams and rivers. These data sets include only the outcrop area of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and where the aquifer is overlain by alluvial and terrace deposits. The hydraulic conductivity value and recharge rate are from a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. The water-level elevation contours were digitized from a mylar map, at a scale of 1:250,000, used to publish a plate in a ground-water report about the Vamoosa-Ada

  15. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  16. Trough: peak ratios for antihypertensive agents: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Meredith; Elliott

    1996-06-01

    The trough: peak ratio for the response to an antihypertensive drug is a clinically meaningful parameter only when the index has been derived and calculated from an appropriately designed and conducted study. The original draft guidelines made no recommendations concerning the most appropriate methodology, hence trough: peak values have been calculated from studies in research units, in the clinic and using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Furthermore, some studies quoted single values based upon mean data, whereas others presented trough: peak ratios in individual subjects. To date only the use of the 'research unit' approach and ambulatory monitoring have been subject to any form of validation. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages but in each instance common factors emerge. These indicate that any study defining trough: peak ratios should incorporate a placebo assessment, steady state treatment, randomized cross-over design (ideally), estimates in individual patients, two or more dose levels (ideally), and, in the case of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the study of patients who achieve a given blood pressure reduction at the time of peak response. PMID:10226247

  17. QUEST/Ada: Query utility environment for software testing of Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1989-01-01

    Results of research and development efforts are presented for Task 1, Phase 2 of a general project entitled, The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. A prototype of the QUEST/Ada system was developed to collect data to determine the effectiveness of the rule-based testing paradigm. The prototype consists of five parts: the test data generator, the parser/scanner, the test coverage analyzer, a symbolic evaluator, and a data management facility, known as the Librarian. These components are discussed at length. Also presented is an experimental design for the evaluations, an overview of the project, and a schedule for its completion.

  18. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  19. Implementation of and Ada real-time executive: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, James D.; Burton, Bruce A.; Koppes, Mary R.

    1986-01-01

    Current Ada language implementations and runtime environments are immature, unproven and are a key risk area for real-time embedded computer system (ECS). A test-case environment is provided in which the concerns of the real-time, ECS community are addressed. A priority driven executive is selected to be implemented in the Ada programming language. The model selected is representative of real-time executives tailored for embedded systems used missile, spacecraft, and avionics applications. An Ada-based design methodology is utilized, and two designs are considered. The first of these designs requires the use of vendor supplied runtime and tasking support. An alternative high-level design is also considered for an implementation requiring no vendor supplied runtime or tasking support. The former approach is carried through to implementation.

  20. Association of G22A and A4223C ADA1 gene polymorphisms and ADA activity with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Salehabadi, Mahshid; Farimani, Marzieh; Tavilani, Heidar; Ghorbani, Marzieh; Poormonsefi, Faranak; Poorolajal, Jalal; Shafiei, Gholamreza; Ghasemkhani, Neda; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase-1 (ADA1) regulates the concentration of adenosine as the main modulator of oocyte maturation. There is compelling evidence for the association of ADA1 gene polymorphisms with many diseases but the importance of ADA1 polymorphisms in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not been studied before. This study investigates serum total ADA activity (tADA), ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities, and genotype and allele frequencies of G22A and A4223C polymorphisms in healthy and PCOS women. In this case-control study 200 PCOS patients and 200 healthy women were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and the PCR-RFLP technique was used to determine the G22A and A4223C variants. The genotype frequencies were calculated and the association between polymorphic genotypes and enzyme activities were determined. tADA activity was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared with the control group (27.76±6.0 vs. 39.63±7.48, respectively). PCOS patients also showed reduced activity of ADA1 and ADA2. PCOS was not associated with G22A polymorphism whereas AA, AC, and CC genotypes of A4223C polymorphism were found distributed differently between the control and the PCOS women where the C allele showed a strong protective role for PCOS (odds ratio=1.876, p=0.033). The present study for the first time showed that lower ADA activity may be involved in pathogenesis of PCOS by maintaining a higher concentration of adenosine affecting follicular growth. As a novel finding, we also showed great differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of A4223C polymorphism between groups indicating a protective role for C allele against PCOS. AbbreviationsADA: adenosine deaminase PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome PCR-RFLP: polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism tADA: total adenosine deaminase.

  1. Modern and ancient mineralization in the Salton Trough Rift

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, M.A. . Dept. Earth Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Salton Trough of SW North America is an active continental rift, the landward extension of the divergent tectonics of the Gulf of California. Shallow magmatic heat sources, thick porous sediments, tectonic activity and saline lakes interact to yield a variety of Pleistocene to modern hydrothermal systems. The oldest mineralization, the fish Creek evaporite, is a CASO[sub 4] deposit formed by a pre-rift Tertiary marine incursion. 4--5 million years ago the prograding Colorado River delta bisected the Trough, influencing the character of Pliocene and younger hydrothermal activity. The northern part of the Trough became a closed basin filled intermittently by large freshwater lakes. Along the W margin of the rift lies the Modoc hot spring gold deposit. This deposit occurs at the intersection of a range-front growth fault with fossil lake levels, suggesting paleohydrologic control by ancient lakes. Active geothermal systems within the Trough include low-T systems such as Heber and East Mesa, localized along high-angle faults where shallow groundwaters are conductively heated above basement highs. These blind systems have no surface expression and only moderate geophysical anomalies. High-T (> 250 C) active systems occur in sediment filled pull-apart basins developed over spreading center fragments (e.g., Salton Sea, Brawley, Cerro Prieto). These systems exhibit high heat flow, strong gravity and magnetic anomalies, and often have surface manifestations such as Quaternary volcanoes and thermal features. Many contain hot metalliferous brines that have evolved in the saline lake environment of the northern Trough.

  2. Software engineering and the role of Ada: Executive seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to introduce the basic terminology and concepts of software engineering and Ada. The life cycle model is reviewed. The application of the goals and principles of software engineering is applied. An introductory understanding of the features of the Ada language is gained. Topics addressed include: the software crises; the mandate of the Space Station Program; software life cycle model; software engineering; and Ada under the software engineering umbrella.

  3. Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.

  4. ART/Ada design project, phase 1: Project plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The plan and schedule for Phase 1 of the Ada based ESBT Design Research Project is described. The main platform for the project is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAXstations running the Virtual Memory System (VMS) operating system. The Ada effort and lines of code are given in tabular form. A chart is given of the entire project life cycle.

  5. Ada and the rapid development lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforrest, Lloyd; Gref, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    JPL is under contract, through NASA, with the US Army to develop a state-of-the-art Command Center System for the US European Command (USEUCOM). The Command Center System will receive, process, and integrate force status information from various sources and provide this integrated information to staff officers and decision makers in a format designed to enhance user comprehension and utility. The system is based on distributed workstation class microcomputers, VAX- and SUN-based data servers, and interfaces to existing military mainframe systems and communication networks. JPL is developing the Command Center System utilizing an incremental delivery methodology called the Rapid Development Methodology with adherence to government and industry standards including the UNIX operating system, X Windows, OSF/Motif, and the Ada programming language. Through a combination of software engineering techniques specific to the Ada programming language and the Rapid Development Approach, JPL was able to deliver capability to the military user incrementally, with comparable quality and improved economies of projects developed under more traditional software intensive system implementation methodologies.

  6. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  7. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  8. Sharing the Dream: Is the ADA Accommodating All? A Report on the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Michael L.; Jefferson, Tricia; de La Viez, Barbara; Park, Jenny Kim; Reilly, Peter; Quarterman, Bernard

    This report, generated by a Congressional hearing, analyzes the goals intended for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the impact on those it was intended to protect. It also discusses the practical effects of the ADA, recent Supreme Court decisions and judicial trends in ADA enforcement, substance abuse and the ADA, and the ADA's…

  9. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  10. A design for a reusable Ada library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litke, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A goal of the Ada language standardization effort is to promote reuse of software, implying the existence of substantial software libraries and the storage/retrieval mechanisms to support them. A searching/cataloging mechanism is proposed that permits full or partial distribution of the database, adapts to a variety of searching mechanisms, permits a changine taxonomy with minimal disruption, and minimizes the requirement of specialized cataloger/indexer skills. The important observation is that key words serve not only as indexing mechanism, but also as an identification mechanism, especially via concatenation and as support for a searching mechanism. By deliberately separating these multiple uses, the modifiability and ease of growth that current libraries require, is achieved.

  11. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures. PMID:25321094

  12. 49 CFR 37.123 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. 37.123 Section 37.123 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.123...

  13. The ADA and IDEA Basics: Inclusion of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motwani, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The ADA is a federal civil rights law that was passed in 1990 with the aim of securing equal rights for persons with disabilities in the employment, housing, government, transportation, and public accommodation contexts. It…

  14. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  15. Communication and the ADA (Effective Communication and Accessibility).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.

    This brief fact sheet addresses the following concerns about effective communication and accessibility under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): requirements under the ADA for achieving effective communication (e.g., provision of necessary auxiliary communication aids and services); identification of necessary communication aids and…

  16. Artificial Intelligence in ADA: Pattern-Directed Processing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeker, Larry H.; And Others

    To demonstrate to computer programmers that the programming language Ada provides superior facilities for use in artificial intelligence applications, the three papers included in this report investigate the capabilities that exist within Ada for "pattern-directed" programming. The first paper (Larry H. Reeker, Tulane University) is designed to…

  17. Translation and execution of distributed Ada programs - Is it still Ada?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Buzzard, Gregory D.; Krishnan, Padmanabhan

    1987-01-01

    Some of the fundamental issues and tradeoffs for distributed execution systems for the Ada language are examined. Steps that need to be taken to deal with heterogeneity of addressing program objects, of processing resources, and of the individual processor environment are considered. The ways in which program elements can be assigned are examined in the context of four issues: implied remote object access, object visibility and recursive execution, task termination problems, and distributed types.

  18. Simulation of the space station information system in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flexible Ada Simulation Tool (FAST) is a discrete event simulation language which is written in Ada. FAST has been used to simulate a number of options for ground data distribution of Space Station payload data. The fact that Ada language is used for implementation has allowed a number of useful interactive features to be built into FAST and has facilitated quick enhancement of its capabilities to support new modeling requirements. General simulation concepts are discussed, and how these concepts are implemented in FAST. The FAST design is discussed, and it is pointed out how the used of the Ada language enabled the development of some significant advantages over classical FORTRAN based simulation languages. The advantages discussed are in the areas of efficiency, ease of debugging, and ease of integrating user code. The specific Ada language features which enable these advances are discussed.

  19. The ADA at three years: a statute in flux.

    PubMed

    Coil, J H; Shapiro, L J

    1996-01-01

    In the three years since the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted, significant developments have occurred in the form of new administrative and judicial interpretations of the Act. The new guidelines and decisions will assist employers in complying with the ambiguous, and sometimes confusing, provisions of the ADA. Recent developments in areas such as the definition of a disability and the permissibility of medical inquiries, along with continuing developments in the areas of mental disabilities and defining reasonable accommodations, give employers insight into the obligations created by the ADA. These developments are a good starting point to understanding the ADA, but there is still a long way to go. This article surveys the recent developments in the law and examines the considerations that have become important to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the courts in interpreting the ADA's provisions.

  20. Polyethylene Glycol-Conjugated Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Therapy Provides Temporary Immune Reconstitution to a Child with Delayed-Onset ADA Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lainka, Elke; Hershfield, Michael S.; Santisteban, Ines; Bali, Pawan; Seibt, Annette; Neubert, Jennifer; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Niehues, Tim

    2005-01-01

    We describe the effects of polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase (ADA) replacement therapy on lymphocyte counts, activation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cytokine secretion in a 14-month-old girl with “delayed-onset” ADA deficiency and marked immunodysregulation. Pretreatment lymphopenia affected T cells (CD4, 150/μl; CD8, 459/μl), B cells (16/μl), and NK cells (55/μl). T cells were uniformly activated and largely apoptotic (CD4, 59%; CD8, 82%); and T-cell-dependent cytokine levels in plasma were elevated, including the levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2; 26 pg/ml), IL-4 (81 pg/ml), IL-5 (46 pg/ml), gamma interferon (1,430 pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor alpha (210 pg/ml), and IL-10 (168 pg/ml). Mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells show reduced IL-2 secretion and proliferation. During the first 5 months of therapy there was clinical improvement and partial immune reconstitution, with nearly normal lymphocyte subset numbers, reduced T-cell activation and CD4-cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma cytokine levels. In parallel, IL-2 secretion and the lymphocyte mitogenic response improved. Between 4 and 7 months, immunoglobulin G antibodies to bovine ADA developed and resulted in the complete reversal of immune recovery. PMID:16002636

  1. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  2. First International Conference on Ada (R) Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed include: test and verification; environment issues; distributed Ada issues; life cycle issues; Ada in Europe; management/training issues; common Ada interface set; and run time issues.

  3. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  4. Grounding zone wedges, Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesco, Michele; Urgeles, Roger; Özmaral, Asli; Hanebuth, Till; Caburlotto, Andrea; Hörner, Tanja; Lantzsch, Hendrik; LLopart, Juame; Lucchi, Renata; Skøtt Nicolaisen, Line; Giacomo, Osti; Sabbatini, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Swath bathymetry within Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) shows a seafloor characterized by E-W trending megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs) overprinted by transverse Grounding Zone Wedges (GZWs), which give the trough a stair profile (Rebesco et al., 2011). GZWs are formed by deposition of subglacial till at temporarily stable ice-stream fronts in between successive episodic retreats (Rüther et al., 2012; Bjarnadóttir et al., 2012). Sub-bottom data show that present-day morphology is largely inherited from palaeo-seafloor topography of GZWs, which is draped by a deglacial to early Holocene glaciomarine sediments (about 15 m thick). The ice stream that produced such subglacial morphology was flowing from East to West inside Kveithola Trough during Last Glacial Maximum. Its rapid retreat was likely associated with progressive lift-offs, and successive rapid melting of the grounded ice, induced by the eustatic sea-level rise (Lucchi et al., 2013). References: Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Rüther, D.C., Winsborrow, M.C.M., Andreassen, K., 2012. Grounding-line dynamics during the last deglaciation of Kveithola, W Barents Sea, as revealed by seabed geomorphology and shallow seismic stratigraphy. Boreas, 42, 84-107. Lucchi R.G., et al. 2013. Postglacial sedimentary processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola TMFs: impact of extreme glacimarine sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change, 111, 309-326. Rebesco, M., et al. 2011. Deglaciation of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet - a swath bathymetric and subbottom seismic study from the Kveitehola Trough. Marine Geology, 279, 141-14. Rüther, D.C., Bjarnadóttir, L.R., Junttila, J., Husum, K., Rasmussen, T.L., Lucchi, R.G., Andreassen, K., 2012. Pattern and timing of the north-western Barents Sea Ice Sheet deglaciation and indications of episodic Holocene deposition. Boreas 41, 494-512.

  5. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 1 report: Overall design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The design methodology for the ART/Ada project is introduced, and the selected design for ART/Ada is described in detail. The following topics are included: object-oriented design, reusable software, documentation techniques, impact of Ada, design approach, and differences between ART-IM 1.5 and ART/Ada 1.0 prototype. Also, Ada generator and ART/Ada runtime systems are discussed.

  6. How do spiral troughs form on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional model for the coupled evolution of ice-surface temperature and elevation in the Martian polar ice caps is presented. The model includes (1) enhanced heat absorption on steep, dust-exposed scarps, (2) accumulation and ablation, and (3) lateral conduction of heat within the ice cap. The model equations are similar to classic equations for excitable media, including nerve fibers and chemical oscillators. In two dimensions, a small zone of initial melting in the model develops into a train of poleward-migrating troughs with widths similar to those observed on Mars. Starting from random initial conditions, the three-dimensional model reproduces spiral waves very similar to those in the north polar ice cap, including secondary features such as gull-wing shaped troughs, bifurcations, and terminations. These results suggest that eolian processes and ice flow may not control trough morphology.

  7. Integrity and security in an Ada runtime environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    A review is provided of the Formal Methods group discussions. It was stated that integrity is not a pure mathematical dual of security. The input data is part of the integrity domain. The group provided a roadmap for research. One item of the roadmap and the final position statement are closely related to the space shuttle and space station. The group's position is to use a safe subset of Ada. Examples of safe sets include the Army Secure Operating System and the Penelope Ada verification tool. It is recommended that a conservative attitude is required when writing Ada code for life and property critical systems.

  8. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  9. Mental disabilities under the ADA: a management rights approach.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J J; Kulick, F B; Creighton, M K

    1995-01-01

    While numerous sources have focused on employee rights and employer obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act, this article will emphasize employer rights with respect to mental disabilities under the ADA. Specifically, it addresses the ADA's definition of "mental disability," the right of employers to screen job applicants in spite of the ADA, the conditions under which an employer may require an employee to undergo a "fitness for duty" examination, and the limits of the duty to "reasonably accommodate" an employee with a mental disability.

  10. Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Ada performance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the Ada Performance Study are described. The methods used are explained. Guidelines for future Ada development efforts are given. The goals and scope of the study are detailed, and the background of Ada development in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is presented. The organization and overall purpose of each test are discussed. The purpose, methods, and results of each test and analyses of these results are given. Guidelines for future development efforts based on the analysis of results from this study are provided. The approach used on the performance tests is discussed.

  11. Applications of an architecture design and assessment system (ADAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, F. Gail; Debrunner, Linda S.; White, Tennis S.

    1988-01-01

    A new Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) tool package is introduced, and a range of possible applications is illustrated. ADAS was used to evaluate the performance of an advanced fault-tolerant computer architecture in a modern flight control application. Bottlenecks were identified and possible solutions suggested. The tool was also used to inject faults into the architecture and evaluate the synchronization algorithm, and improvements are suggested. Finally, ADAS was used as a front end research tool to aid in the design of reconfiguration algorithms in a distributed array architecture.

  12. Ada and software management in NASA: Symposium/forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The promises of Ada to improve software productivity and quality, and the claims that a transition to Ada would require significant changes in NASA's training programs and ways of doing business were investigated. The study assesses the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities. A series of industry representatives (Computer Sciences Corporation, General Electric Aerospace, McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company, TRW, Lockheed, and Boeing) reviewed the recommendations and assessed their impact from the Company's perspective. The potential effects on NASA programs were then discussed.

  13. The Adam language: Ada extended with support for multiway activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The Adam language is an extension of Ada that supports multiway activities, which are cooperative activities involving two or more processes. This support is provided by three new constructs: diva procedures, meet statements, and multiway accept statements. Diva procedures are recursive generic procedures having a particular restrictive syntax that facilitates translation for parallel computers. Meet statements and multiway accept statements provide two ways to express a multiway rendezvous, which is an n-way rendezvous generalizing Ada's 2-way rendezvous. While meet statements tend to have simpler rules than multiway accept statements, the latter approach is a more straightforward extension of Ada. The only nonnull statements permitted within meet statements and multiway accept statements are calls on instantiated diva procedures. A call on an instantiated diva procedure is also permitted outside a multiway rendezvous; thus sequential Adam programs using diva procedures can be written. Adam programs are translated into Ada programs appropriate for use on parallel computers.

  14. A report on NASA software engineering and Ada training requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn B.; Svabek, L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's software engineering and Ada skill base are assessed and information that may result in new models for software engineering, Ada training plans, and curricula are provided. A quantitative assessment which reflects the requirements for software engineering and Ada training across NASA is provided. A recommended implementation plan including a suggested curriculum with associated duration per course and suggested means of delivery is also provided. The distinction between education and training is made. Although it was directed to focus on NASA's need for the latter, the key relationships to software engineering education are also identified. A rationale and strategy for implementing a life cycle education and training program are detailed in support of improved software engineering practices and the transition to Ada.

  15. Back arc extension in the Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.; Letouzey, J.; Barbier, F.; Charvet, J.; Foucher, J.; Hilde, T.W.C.; Kimura, M.; Ling-Yun, C.; Marsset, B.; Muller, C.; and others

    1987-12-10

    The Okinawa Trough, lying to the east of China, is a back arc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. Middle to late Miocene uplift, associated with normal faulting of the initially adjacent Ryukyu nonvolcanic arc and the Taiwan-Sinzi folded belt, corresponds to the first rifting phase. The timing of rifting is supported by the presence of marine sediments of corresponding age drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough. The rifting occurred after a major early Miocene change in the motion of the Philippine plate with respect to Eurasia and ceased during the Pliocene. A second rifting phase started about 2 m.y. ago, at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary and has continue until the present time. It has proceeded to a more advanced stage in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough than it has farther north. Detailed bathymetric (Sea Beam), seismic reflection and magnetics data collected during the POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean Charcot reveal the principal features of the extensional processes. The back are spreading phase started very recently in the southern and middle Okinawa Trough, as exemplified by several and echelon and, in some cases, overlapping active, central graben oriented N70/sup 0/ E--N80/sup 0/ E. Some of these depressions are intruded by volcanic ridges of fresh back arc basalt with associated large magnetic anomalies. Transform faults between these en echelon active rifts are not obvious.

  16. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  17. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  18. Designing with Ada for satellite simulation: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Church, V. E.; Card, D. N.; Lo, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    A FORTRAN oriented and an Ada oriented design for the same system are compared to learn whether an essentially different design was produced using Ada. The designs were produced by an experiment that involves the parallel development of software for a spacecraft dynamics simulator. Design differences are identified in the use of abstractions, system structure, and simulator operations. Although the designs were vastly different, this result may be influenced by some special characteristics discussed.

  19. Designing with Ada for satellite simulation: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, William W.; Church, Victor E.; Card, David N.; Lo, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    A FORTRAN-operated and an Ada-oriented design for the same system are compared to learn whether an essentially different design was produced using Ada. The designs were produced by an experiment that involves the parallel development of software for a spacecraft dynamics simulator. Design differences are identified in the use of abstractions, system structure, and simulator operations. Although the designs were significantly different, this result may be influenced by some special characteristics discussed.

  20. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  1. Compiling knowledge-based systems specified in KEE to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Feldman, Roy D.

    1991-01-01

    The first year of the PrKAda project is recounted. The primary goal was to develop a system for delivering Artificial Intelligence applications developed in the ProKappa system in a pure-Ada environment. The following areas are discussed: the ProKappa core and ProTalk programming language; the current status of the implementation; the limitations and restrictions of the current system; and the development of Ada-language message handlers in the ProKappa environment.

  2. Revisiting trough interactions and tropical cyclone intensity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirano, C. M.; Corbosiero, K. L.; Tang, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    An updated climatology of Atlantic basin tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change in the presence of upper tropospheric trough forcing is presented. To control for changes in the background thermodynamic environment, a methodology that normalizes intensity change by the potential intensity of the TC is used to more narrowly focus on the effect of troughs compared to previous studies. Relative to the full sample of Atlantic TCs, troughs are a negative influence on intensification: trough interaction cases are 4% less likely to intensify and 5% more likely to weaken. Troughs are especially detrimental compared to TCs without trough forcing: trough interaction cases are 14% less likely to intensify and 13% more likely to weaken. Additionally, eddy flux convergence of angular momentum, previously shown to positively affect TC intensity change, is shown to be a weak predictor of intensity change compared to vertical wind shear, which is enhanced during a trough interaction.

  3. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  4. Programming in a proposed 9X distributed Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    The studies of the proposed Ada 9X constructs for distribution, now referred to as AdaPT are reported. The goals for this time period were to revise the chosen example scenario and to begin studying about how the proposed constructs might be implemented. The example scenario chosen is the Submarine Combat Information Center (CIC) developed by IBM for the Navy. The specification provided by IBM was preliminary and had several deficiencies. To address these problems, some changes to the scenario specification were made. Some of the more important changes include: (1) addition of a system database management function; (2) addition of a fourth processing unit to the standard resources; (3) addition of an operator console interface function; and (4) removal of the time synchronization function. To implement the CIC scenario in AdaPT, the decided strategy were publics, partitions, and nodes. The principle purpose for implementing the CIC scenario was to demonstrate how the AdaPT constructs interact with the program structure. While considering ways that the AdaPt constructs might be translated to Ada 83, it was observed that the partition construct could reasonably be modeled as an abstract data type. Although this gives a useful method of modeling partitions, it does not at all address the configuration aspects on the node construct.

  5. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change. PMID:26708116

  6. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  7. Compiling knowledge-based systems from KEE to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Bock, Conrad; Feldman, Roy

    1990-01-01

    The dominant technology for developing AI applications is to work in a multi-mechanism, integrated, knowledge-based system (KBS) development environment. Unfortunately, systems developed in such environments are inappropriate for delivering many applications - most importantly, they carry the baggage of the entire Lisp environment and are not written in conventional languages. One resolution of this problem would be to compile applications from complex environments to conventional languages. Here the first efforts to develop a system for compiling KBS developed in KEE to Ada (trademark). This system is called KATYDID, for KEE/Ada Translation Yields Development Into Delivery. KATYDID includes early prototypes of a run-time KEE core (object-structure) library module for Ada, and translation mechanisms for knowledge structures, rules, and Lisp code to Ada. Using these tools, part of a simple expert system was compiled (not quite automatically) to run in a purely Ada environment. This experience has given us various insights on Ada as an artificial intelligence programming language, potential solutions of some of the engineering difficulties encountered in early work, and inspiration on future system development.

  8. Forward vehicle detection using cluster-based AdaBoost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Yeul-Min; Kim, Whoi-Yul

    2014-10-01

    A camera-based forward vehicle detection method with range estimation for forward collision warning system (FCWS) is presented. Previous vehicle detection methods that use conventional classifiers are not robust in a real driving environment because they lack the effectiveness of classifying vehicle samples with high intraclass variation and noise. Therefore, an improved AdaBoost, named cluster-based AdaBoost (C-AdaBoost), for classifying noisy samples along with a forward vehicle detection method are presented in this manuscript. The experiments performed consist of two parts: performance evaluations of C-AdaBoost and forward vehicle detection. The proposed C-AdaBoost shows better performance than conventional classification algorithms on the synthetic as well as various real-world datasets. In particular, when the dataset has more noisy samples, C-AdaBoost outperforms conventional classification algorithms. The proposed method is also tested with an experimental vehicle on a proving ground and on public roads, ˜62 km in length. The proposed method shows a 97% average detection rate and requires only 9.7 ms per frame. The results show the reliability of the proposed method FCWS in terms of both detection rate and processing time.

  9. Scintillation near the F-layer trough over Northern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kersley, L.; Pryse, S.E.; Russell, C.D.

    1990-05-03

    Results are presented of scintillation observations made during a two and a half year period at Lerwick in the Shetland Islands using more than 19000 passes of NNSS satellites. Examples of scintillation morphology, in the region near the scintillation boundary and the F-layer trough, for both amplitude and phase are discussed using exceedence levels for the S sub 4 and sigma sub psi indices respectively. The equatorwards advancement of the scintillation boundary in response to enhanced solar activity during the increasing phase of the solar cycle is shown to be a dominant feature in the observations.

  10. Two Arabidopsis orthologs of the transcriptional coactivator ADA2 have distinct biological functions.

    PubMed

    Hark, Amy T; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Pavangadkar, Kanchan A; Rao, Sumana; Gordon, Hillary; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis; Kaldis, Athanasios; Thomashow, Michael F; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2009-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an example of covalent modification of chromatin structure that has the potential to regulate gene expression. Gcn5 is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that associates with the transcriptional coactivator Ada2. In Arabidopsis, two genes encode proteins that resemble yeast ADA2 and share approximately 45% amino acid sequence identity. We previously reported that plants harboring a T-DNA insertion in the ADA2b gene display a dwarf phenotype with developmental defects in several organs. Here we describe T-DNA insertion alleles in the ADA2a gene, which result in no dramatic growth or developmental phenotype. Both ADA2a and ADA2b are expressed in a variety of plant tissues; moreover, expression of ADA2a from a constitutive promoter fails to complement the ada2b-1 mutant phenotype, consistent with the hypothesis that the two proteins have distinct biochemical roles. To further probe the cellular roles of ADA2a and ADA2b, we studied the response of the transcriptional coactivator mutants to abiotic stress. Although ada2b seedlings display hypersensitivity to salt and abscisic acid and altered responses to low temperature stress, the responses of ada2a seedlings to abiotic stress generally parallel those of wildtype plants. Intriguingly, ada2a;ada2b double mutant plants display an intermediate, gcn5-like phenotype, suggesting that ADA2a and ADA2b each work independently with GCN5 to affect genome function in Arabidopsis.

  11. Cultural Diversity and the ADA. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Susanne M.; Hoying, Joyce

    One of a series of guides on implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this guide focuses on cultural diversity and the ADA. First, the major components of the ADA are summarized. This is followed by discussion of employer considerations in addressing cultural diversity issues and implications of the ADA, such as diversity…

  12. A Simple Algorithm to Identify and Track Trough and Ridge in Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabe, C. M. N.; Fusco, D.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, researchers work with large volumes of data, and this can spend more time to climatology and meteorology analysis. The use of objective methods are essential to reduce the time of data analysis. An indication of synoptic systems development in surface is the presence of trough in the middle level (500 hPa). That atmospheric pattern denotes strong indication of instability and changes in the weather. Many of algorithms tracking of meteorological systems are two-dimensional. For example, the tracking of cyclones are based on identification of minimum center of sea level pressure or center of cyclonic vorticity close to the surface. The goal of this work is the creation of the algorithm that identifies and tracks the trough and ridge at middle levels (500 hPa), which can be used for three-dimensional identification/tracking of the cyclone on surface. The algorithm consists in identifying the area where the trough/ridge is contained, besides to provide information of the location of the axis of the trough/ridge and its slope, amplitude and intensity. So, allowing associate the features of the trough/ridge with the features of the systems at the surface.

  13. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 3 report: Test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    The plan is described for the integrated testing and benchmark of Phase Ada based ESBT Design Research Project. The integration testing is divided into two phases: (1) the modules that do not rely on the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator are tested before the Ada Generator is implemented; and (2) all modules are integrated and tested with the Ada code generated by the Ada Generator. Its performance and size as well as its functionality is verified in this phase. The target platform is a DEC Ada compiler on VAX mini-computers and VAX stations running the VMS operating system.

  14. The Ordovician Sebree Trough: An oceanic passage to the Midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolata, Dennis R.; Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.

    2001-01-01

    The Sebree Trough is a relatively narrow, shale-filled sedimentary feature extending for several hundred kilometers across the Middle and Late Ordovician carbonate platform of the Midcontinent United States. The dark graptolitic shales within the trough stand in contrast to the coeval bryozoan-brachiopod-echinodermrich limestones on the flanking platforms. We infer from regional stratal patterns, thickness and facies trends, and temporal relations established by biostratigraphy and K-bentonite stratigraphy that the Sebree Trough initially began to develop during late Turinian to early Chatfieldian time (Mohawkian Series) as a linear bathymetric depression situated over the failed late Precambrian-Early Cambrian Reelfoot Rift. Rising sea level and positioning of a subtropical convergence zone along the southern margin of Laurentia caused the rift depression to descend into cool, oxygen-poor, phosphate-rich oceanic waters that entered the southern reaches of the rift from the Iapetus Ocean. The trough apparently formed in a system of epicontinental estuarine circulation marked by a density-stratified water column. Trough formation was accompanied by cessation of carbonate sedimentation, deposition of graptolitic shales, development of hardground omission surfaces, substrate erosion, and local phosphogenesis. The carbonate platforms on either side of the trough are dominated by bryozoan-brachiopod-echinoderm grainstones and packstones that were deposited in zones of mixing where cool, nutrient-rich waters encountered warmer shelf waters. Concurrently, lime mudstone and wackestone were deposited shoreward (northern Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Michigan) in warmer, more tropical shallow seas. Coeval upward growth of the flanking carbonate platforms sustained and enhanced development of the trough shale facies. Five widespread diachronous late Mohawkian and Cincinnatian omission surfaces are present in the carbonate facies of the Midcontinent. These surfaces

  15. AdaNET phase 0 support for the AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) management system prototype. Catalog of available reusable software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The Ada Software Repository is a public-domain collection of Ada software and information. The Ada Software Repository is one of several repositories located on the SIMTEL20 Defense Data Network host computer at White Sands Missile Range, and available to any host computer on the network since 26 November 1984. This repository provides a free source for Ada programs and information. The Ada Software Repository is divided into several subdirectories. These directories are organized by topic, and their names and a brief overview of their topics are contained. The Ada Software Repository on SIMTEL20 serves two basic roles: to promote the exchange and use (reusability) of Ada programs and tools (including components) and to promote Ada education.

  16. Using Penelope to assess the correctness of NASA Ada software: A demonstration of formal methods as a counterpart to testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenlaub, Carl T.; Harper, C. Douglas; Hird, Geoffrey

    1993-01-01

    Life-critical applications warrant a higher level of software reliability than has yet been achieved. Since it is not certain that traditional methods alone can provide the required ultra reliability, new methods should be examined as supplements or replacements. This paper describes a mathematical counterpart to the traditional process of empirical testing. ORA's Penelope verification system is demonstrated as a tool for evaluating the correctness of Ada software. Grady Booch's Ada calendar utility package, obtained through NASA, was specified in the Larch/Ada language. Formal verification in the Penelope environment established that many of the package's subprograms met their specifications. In other subprograms, failed attempts at verification revealed several errors that had escaped detection by testing.

  17. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  18. Toward real-time performance benchmarks for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Russell M.; Duchesneau, Louis; Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Schultze, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    The issue of real-time performance measurements for the Ada programming language through the use of benchmarks is addressed. First, the Ada notion of time is examined and a set of basic measurement techniques are developed. Then a set of Ada language features believed to be important for real-time performance are presented and specific measurement methods discussed. In addition, other important time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time system are also identified and measurement techniques developed. The measurement techniques are applied to the language and run-time system features and the results are presented.

  19. Transparent Ada rendezvous in a fault tolerant distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racine, Roger

    1986-01-01

    There are many problems associated with distributing an Ada program over a loosely coupled communication network. Some of these problems involve the various aspects of the distributed rendezvous. The problems addressed involve supporting the delay statement in a selective call and supporting the else clause in a selective call. Most of these difficulties are compounded by the need for an efficient communication system. The difficulties are compounded even more by considering the possibility of hardware faults occurring while the program is running. With a hardware fault tolerant computer system, it is possible to design a distribution scheme and communication software which is efficient and allows Ada semantics to be preserved. An Ada design for the communications software of one such system will be presented, including a description of the services provided in the seven layers of an International Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnect (OSI) model communications system. The system capabilities (hardware and software) that allow this communication system will also be described.

  20. ADA plaintiff must show AIDS limits major life activities.

    PubMed

    1998-05-15

    In a rare case, a Federal court ruled that AIDS does not automatically qualify a plaintiff for legal protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). [Name removed], an Illinois Wal-Mart stock clerk, was fired weeks after telling the store's general manager of his HIV status. [Name removed] alleges that the firing was due solely to his disease. Wal-Mart contends that [name removed] was fired for sexually harassing a co-worker, and says that since [name removed] was asymptomatic and asked for no accommodations, he does not qualify for ADA protection. Magistrate Morton Denlow agreed, saying that [name removed] raised no genuine issues about whether the ADA should protect him. A trial is scheduled for May. PMID:11365337

  1. E-ADA activity in lymphocytes of an experimental model of pythiosis treated with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bach, Barbara Charlotte; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto dos Santos; Souza, Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves; Ruchel, Jader Betsch; Schlemmer, Karine Bizzi; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Hecktheuer, Pedro Abib; de Lima Pereira, Patrique; Casali, Emerson André; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-08-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. Some authors have suggested the involvement of a Th2-like immune response in the infected host, which leads to extensive tissue damage. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response pattern is one hypothesis to explain the curative properties of immunotherapy. Taking into account the importance of immunotherapy for pythiosis treatment and the contribution of adenine nucleotides in the immunoregulation of the host, we evaluated the ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA; EC 3·5.4·4) activity in lymphocytes from rabbits inoculated with P. insidiosum. Rabbits were inoculated with 1 milliliter of zoospores subcutaneously injected into the lateral thorax; after developing lesions, the rabbits received eight doses of immunotherapy. E-ADA activity was measured in lymphocytes and the adenine nucleotides and adenosine levels were quantitatively determined in serum. Rabbits with characteristic lesions of pythiosis showed a decreased E-ADA activity (82·36%), a decreased adenosine triphosphate concentration (54·04%) and a higher adenosine concentration (2·51 fold), when compared with controls, after 28 days of inoculation. However, after the immunotherapy, the rabbits showed an increase in the E-ADA activity when compared with control (78·62%), contributing for the change in the immune response. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the change from a Th2 to a Th1 immune response with the participation of the purinergic system could be responsible for the curative properties of immunotherapy. PMID:23086808

  2. Early-Onset Stroke and Vasculopathy Associated with Mutations in ADA2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Q.; Yang, D.; Ombrello, A.K.; Zavialov, Andrey V.; Toro, C.; Zavialov, Anton V.; Stone, D.L.; Chae, J.J.; Rosenzweig, S.D.; Bishop, K.; Barron, K.S.; Kuehn, H.S.; Hoffmann, P.; Negro, A.; Tsai, W.L.; Cowen, E.W.; Pei, W.; Milner, J.D.; Silvin, C.; Heller, T.; Chin, D.T.; Patronas, N.J.; Barber, J.S.; Lee, C.-C.R.; Wood, G.M.; Ling, A.; Kelly, S.J.; Kleiner, D.E.; Mullikin, J.C.; Ganson, N.J.; Kong, H.H.; Hambleton, S.; Candotti, F.; Quezado, M.M.; Calvo, K.R.; Alao, H.; Barham, B.K.; Jones, A.; Meschia, J.F.; Worrall, B.B.; Kasner, S.E.; Rich, S.S.; Goldbach-Mansky, R.; Abinun, M.; Chalom, E.; Gotte, A.C.; Punaro, M.; Pascual, V.; Verbsky, J.W.; Torgerson, T.R.; Singer, N.G.; Gershon, T.R.; Ozen, S.; Karadag, O.; Fleisher, T.A.; Remmers, E.F.; Burgess, S.M.; Moir, S.L.; Gadina, M.; Sood, R.; Hershfield, M.S.; Boehm, M.; Kastner, D.L.; Aksentijevich, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND We observed a syndrome of intermittent fevers, early-onset lacunar strokes and other neurovascular manifestations, livedoid rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and systemic vasculopathy in three unrelated patients. We suspected a genetic cause because the disorder presented in early childhood. METHODS We performed whole-exome sequencing in the initial three patients and their unaffected parents and candidate-gene sequencing in three patients with a similar phenotype, as well as two young siblings with polyarteritis nodosa and one patient with small-vessel vasculitis. Enzyme assays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemical testing, flow cytometry, and cytokine profiling were performed on samples from the patients. To study protein function, we used morpholino-mediated knockdowns in zebrafish and short hairpin RNA knockdowns in U937 cells cultured with human dermal endothelial cells. RESULTS All nine patients carried recessively inherited mutations in CECR1 (cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1), encoding adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2), that were predicted to be deleterious; these mutations were rare or absent in healthy controls. Six patients were compound heterozygous for eight CECR1 mutations, whereas the three patients with polyarteritis nodosa or small-vessel vasculitis were homozygous for the p.Gly47Arg mutation. Patients had a marked reduction in the levels of ADA2 and ADA2-specific enzyme activity in the blood. Skin, liver, and brain biopsies revealed vasculopathic changes characterized by compromised endothelial integrity, endothelial cellular activation, and inflammation. Knockdown of a zebrafish ADA2 homologue caused intracranial hemorrhages and neutropenia — phenotypes that were prevented by coinjection with nonmutated (but not with mutated) human CECR1. Monocytes from patients induced damage in cocultured endothelial-cell layers. CONCLUSIONS Loss-of-function mutations in CECR1 were associated with a spectrum of vascular and inflammatory phenotypes

  3. State prisons are covered by ADA, 7th Circuit rules.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    Prison inmate [name removed] sued the Indiana Department of Corrections, claiming it violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by denying him access to education programs, the library, and the dining hall because he is blind. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rejected the district court's decision to dismiss the case based on the grounds that the ADA does not apply to prison inmates. The court held that the Department of Corrections cannot exclude an inmate with a disability from prison programs unless the accommodation caused an undue burden on the system. PMID:11364516

  4. GRASP/Ada (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada): The development of a program analysis environment for Ada. Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II

    1990-01-01

    The study, formulation, and generation of structures for Ada (GRASP/Ada) are discussed in this second phase report of a three phase effort. Various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized with focus on reverse engineering. The overall goal is to provide the foundation for a CASE (computer-aided software design) environment in which reverse engineering and forward engineering (development) are tightly coupled. Emphasis is on a subset of architectural diagrams that can be generated automatically from source code with the control structure diagram (CSD) included for completeness.

  5. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  6. Formal methods in the design of Ada 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David

    1995-01-01

    Formal, mathematical methods are most useful when applied early in the design and implementation of a software system--that, at least, is the familiar refrain. I will report on a modest effort to apply formal methods at the earliest possible stage, namely, in the design of the Ada 95 programming language itself. This talk is an 'experience report' that provides brief case studies illustrating the kinds of problems we worked on, how we approached them, and the extent (if any) to which the results proved useful. It also derives some lessons and suggestions for those undertaking future projects of this kind. Ada 95 is the first revision of the standard for the Ada programming language. The revision began in 1988, when the Ada Joint Programming Office first asked the Ada Board to recommend a plan for revising the Ada standard. The first step in the revision was to solicit criticisms of Ada 83. A set of requirements for the new language standard, based on those criticisms, was published in 1990. A small design team, the Mapping Revision Team (MRT), became exclusively responsible for revising the language standard to satisfy those requirements. The MRT, from Intermetrics, is led by S. Tucker Taft. The work of the MRT was regularly subject to independent review and criticism by a committee of distinguished Reviewers and by several advisory teams--for example, the two User/Implementor teams, each consisting of an industrial user (attempting to make significant use of the new language on a realistic application) and a compiler vendor (undertaking, experimentally, to modify its current implementation in order to provide the necessary new features). One novel decision established the Language Precision Team (LPT), which investigated language proposals from a mathematical point of view. The LPT applied formal mathematical analysis to help improve the design of Ada 95 (e.g., by clarifying the language proposals) and to help promote its acceptance (e.g., by identifying a

  7. The development of an Ada programming support environment database: SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database), user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    This is a manual for users of the Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD). SEAD was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities that are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce the duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. The manual describes the organization of the data in SEAD, the user interface from logging in to logging out, and concludes with a ten chapter tutorial on how to use the information in SEAD. Two appendices provide quick reference for logging into SEAD and using the keyboard of an IBM 3270 or VT100 computer terminal.

  8. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  9. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  10. ADA and multi-microprocessor real-time simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.; Collins, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of a high-order programming language for a real-time distributed network simulation is described. The additional problem of implementing a language on a possibly changing network is addressed. The recently designed language ADA (trademarked by DoD) was chosen since it provides the best model of the underlying application to be simulated.

  11. The ADA and Persons with Cognitive Disabilities. Trainer's Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell Univ.

    This comprehensive trainer's guide and participant manual are designed to provide a planning process through which training programs on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its implications for persons with cognitive disabilities can be developed and delivered in a systematic way. Module 1 of the trainer's guide, "Planning and…

  12. Software Engineering Laboratory Ada performance study: Results and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Eric W.; Stark, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The SEL is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies applied to the development of applications software. The SEL was created in 1977 and has three organizational members: NASA/GSFC, Systems Development Branch; The University of Maryland, Computer Sciences Department; and Computer Sciences Corporation, Systems Development Operation. The goals of the SEL are as follows: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environments; (2) to measure the effect of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include the Ada Performance Study Report. This paper describes the background of Ada in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), the objectives and scope of the Ada Performance Study, the measurement approach used, the performance tests performed, the major test results, and the implications for future FDD Ada development efforts.

  13. Section 504/ADA: Guidelines for Educators and Administrators. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This document presents the Utah State Department of Education's guidelines to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The guidelines specifically address Subparts D and E of the regulations for Section 504, which deal with education. An introduction offers examples of discriminatory acts by school…

  14. The Impact of Business Size on Employer ADA Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Susanne M.; Erickson, William A.; VanLooy, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) came into effect for employers of 15 or more employees. Americans with disabilities continue to be more unemployed and underemployed than their nondisabled peers. Small businesses, with fewer than 500 employees, continue to be the…

  15. Learn about the ADA in Your Local Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Civil Rights Div.

    This bibliography lists 90 documents contained within the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Information File, which has been sent to 15,000 libraries across the country. The listing is organized into the following categories: laws and regulations (eight documents), technical assistance manuals and highlights (nine documents), question and…

  16. Section 504/ADA: Guidelines for Educators in Kansas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joan; Bieker, Rod; Copenhaver, John

    This document presents the Kansas State Department of Education's guidelines to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The guidelines specifically address Subparts A, B, C, and D of the regulations for Section 504 which deal with general provisions, employment practices, accessibility and education. An…

  17. [Section] 504/ADA Student Issues: The Latest and the Greatest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    Recent case law within and outside the school context has revised or refined various concepts concerning eligibility and other K-12 issues under Section 504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Ten case lessons are described in this paper, seven of which are: (1) The frame of reference for determining "substantially limits" in the…

  18. Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Debates about the selection of programming languages often produce cultural collisions that are not easily resolved. This is especially true in the case of Ada and knowledge based programming. The construction of programming tools provides a desirable alternative for resolving the conflict.

  19. Trough Concentrations of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Park, So Jin; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Park, Hyo Jung; In, Yong Won; Lee, Young Mi; Cho, Yang Hyun; Chung, Chi Ryang; Park, Chi-Min; Jeon, Kyeongman; Suh, Gee Young

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of the current vancomycin dosing strategy in adult patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), between March 2013 and November 2013, patients who were treated with vancomycin while on ECMO were enrolled. Control group consisted of 60 patients on vancomycin without ECMO, stayed in medical intensive care unit during the same study period and with the same exclusion criteria. Early trough levels were obtained within the fourth dosing, and maintenance levels were measured at steady state. A total of 20 patients were included in the analysis in ECMO group. Sixteen patients received an initial intravenous dose of 1.0 g vancomycin followed by 1.0 g every 12 hours. The non-steady state trough level of vancomycin after starting administration was subtherapeutic in 19 patients (95.00%) in ECMO group as compared with 40 patients (66.67%) in the control group (p = 0.013). Vancomycin clearance was 1.27±0.51 mL/min/kg, vancomycin clearance/creatinine clearance ratio was 0.90 ± 0.37, and elimination rate constant was 0.12 ± 0.04 h-1. Vancomycin dosingfrequency and total daily dose were significantly increased after clinical pharmacokinetic services of the pharmacist based on calculated pharmacokinetic parameters (from 2.10 ± 0.72 to 2.90 ± 0.97 times/day, p = 0.002 and from 32.54 ± 8.43 to 42.24 ± 14.62mg/kg, p = 0.014) in ECMO group in contrast with those (from 2.11 ± 0.69 to 2.37 ± 0.86 times/day, p = 0.071 and from 33.91 ± 11.85 to 31.61 ± 17.50 mg/kg, p = 0.350) in the control group.Although the elimination rate for vancomycin was similar with population parameter of non ECMO patients, the current dosing strategy of our institution for vancomycinin our ICU was not sufficient to achieve the target trough in the initial period in most patients receiving ECMO.

  20. Trough concentration of voriconazole and its relationship with efficacy and safety: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Haiying; Wang, Tiansheng; Falcione, Bonnie A.; Olsen, Keith M.; Chen, Ken; Tang, Huilin; Hui, John; Zhai, Suodi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The optimum trough concentration of voriconazole for clinical response and safety is controversial. The objective of this review was to determine the optimum trough concentration of voriconazole and evaluate its relationship with efficacy and safety. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese literature databases were searched. Observational studies that compared clinical outcomes below and above the trough concentration cut-off value were included. We set the trough concentration cut-off value for efficacy as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/L and for safety as 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 mg/L. The efficacy outcomes were invasive fungal infection-related mortality, all-cause mortality, rate of successful treatment and rate of prophylaxis failure. The safety outcomes included incidents of hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and visual disorders. Results A total of 21 studies involving 1158 patients were included. Compared with voriconazole trough concentrations of >0.5 mg/L, levels of <0.5 mg/L significantly decreased the rate of treatment success (risk ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.74). The incidence of hepatotoxicity was significantly increased with trough concentrations >3.0, >4.0, >5.5 and >6.0 mg/L. The incidence of neurotoxicity was significantly increased with trough concentrations >4.0 and >5.5 mg/L. Conclusions A voriconazole level of 0.5 mg/L should be considered the lower threshold associated with efficacy. A trough concentration >3.0 mg/L is associated with increased hepatotoxicity, particularly for the Asian population, and >4.0 mg/L is associated with increased neurotoxicity. PMID:26968880

  1. Geophysical analysis for the Ada Tepe region (Bulgaria) - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Petya; Metodiev, Metodi; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Vatseva, Rumiana

    2013-04-01

    According to the current archeological investigations Ada Tepe is the oldest gold mine in Europe with Late Bronze and Early Iron age. It is a typical low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit and is hosted in Maastrichtian-Paleocene sedimentary rocks above a detachment fault contact with underlying Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Ada Tepe (25o.39'E; 41o.25'N) is located in the Eastern Rhodope unit. The region is highly segmented despite the low altitude (470-750 m) due to widespread volcanic and sediment rocks susceptible to torrential erosion during the cold season. Besides the thorough geological exploration focused on identifying cost-effective stocks of mineral resources, a detailed geophysical analysis concernig diferent stages of the gold extraction project was accomplished. We present the main results from the geophysical investigation aimed to clarify the complex seismotectonic setting of the Ada Tepe site region. The overall study methodology consists of collecting, reviewing and estimating geophysical and seismological information to constrain the model used for seismic hazard assessment of the area. Geophysical information used in the present work consists of gravity, geomagnetic and seismological data. Interpretation of gravity data is applied to outline the axes of steep gravity transitions marked as potential axes of faults, flexures and other structures of dislocation. Direct inverse techniques are also utilized to estimate the form and depth of anomalous sources. For the purposes of seismological investigation of the Ada Tepe site region an earthquake catalogue is compiled for the time period 510BC - 2011AD. Statistical parameters of seismicity - annual seismic rate parameter, ?, and the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter exponential relation for Ada Tepe site region, are estimated. All geophysical datasets and derived results are integrated using GIS techniques ensuring interoperability of data when combining, processing and visualizing obtained

  2. The N-terminus region of the putative C2H2 transcription factor Ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. In addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. Here, we report the functional characterization of Ada1, a putative Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to Aspergillus nidulans FlbC, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brlA. ADA1 is predicted to encode a protein with two DNA binding motifs at the C terminus and a putative activator domain at the N terminus region. Deletion of the flbC gene in A. nidulans results in "fluffy" cotton-like colonies, with a defect in transition from vegetative growth to asexual development. In this study we show that Ada1 plays a key role in asexual development in F. verticillioides. Conidia production was significantly reduced in the knockout mutant (Δada1), in which aberrant conidia and conidiophores were also observed. We identified genes that are predicted to be downstream of ADA1, based on A. nidulans conidiation signaling pathway. Among them, the deletion of stuA homologue, FvSTUA, resulted in near absence of conidia production. To further investigate the functional conservation of this transcription factor, we complemented the Δada1 strain with A. nidulans flbC, F. verticillioides ADA1, and chimeric constructs. A. nidulans flbC failed to restore conidia production similar to the wild-type level. However, the Ada1N-terminal domain, which contains a putative activator, fused to A. nidulans FlbC C-terminal motif successfully complemented the Δada1 mutant. Taken together, Ada1 is an important transcriptional regulator of asexual development in F. verticillioides and that the N-terminus domain is critical for proper function of this transcription factor.

  3. Measuring Ada as a software development technology in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment is in progress to measure the effectiveness of Ada in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center flight dynamics software development environment. The experiment features the parallel development of software in FORTRAN and Ada. The experiment organization, objectives, and status are discussed. Experiences with an Ada training program and data from the development of a 5700-line Ada training exercise are reported.

  4. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Implementation/testing phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda; Miller, John; Smith, Laurie; Stark, Mike; Mcgarry, Frank

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the software engineering issues related to the use of Ada for the implementation and system testing phases of four Ada projects developed in the flight dynamics area. These projects reflect an evolving understanding of more effective use of Ada features. In addition, the testing methodology used on these projects has changed substantially from that used on previous FORTRAN projects.

  5. The "Ada" Verb of Being in Bahasa Malaysia. Colorado Research in Linguistics, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Robin

    This paper examines the various syntactic and semantic functions of the "ada" verb of "being" in Malay. The claim is made that there is an abstract uppermost "ada" in the underlying structure of Malay sentences that asserts or denies the truth of the surface main clause. A further claim is made that the "ada" of the uppermost sentence is identical…

  6. 78 FR 10263 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for ADA Accommodations Request Packet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for ADA Accommodations Request Packet AGENCY... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the ADA Accommodations... through the Internet, at Martha.R.Brinson @irs.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ADA...

  7. Evolution of Ada technology in the flight dynamics area: Design phase analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quimby, Kelvin L.; Esker, Linda

    1988-01-01

    The software engineering issues related to the use of the Ada programming language during the design phase of an Ada project are analyzed. Discussion shows how an evolving understanding of these issues is reflected in the design processes of three generations of Ada projects.

  8. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the Ada implementation of the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS), an experimental computer control system developed at NASA Langley for a modified Boeing 737 aircraft, is presented. The criteria that was determined for the evaluation of this approach is described. A preliminary version of the requirements for the ATOPS is contained. This requirements specification is not a formal document, but rather a description of certain aspects of the ATOPS system at a level of detail that best suits the needs of the research. The survey of backward error recovery techniques is also presented.

  9. Sedimentation and tectonics of the Sylhet trough, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.Y.; Nur Alam, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Sylhet trough, a sub-basin of the Bengal Basin in northeastern Bangladesh, contains a thick fill (12 to 16 km) of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that record its tectonic evolution. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and petrographic data collected from outcrops, cores, well logs, and seismic lines are used to reconstruct the history of this trough. -from Authors

  10. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and pens aboard an ocean vessel shall be equipped with proper troughs for feeding and watering animals... hay from racks or nets or by placing the hay on the floor of the pens in which the animals are... animals. (b) Sheep, goats, and swine. Pens for these animals shall have feed troughs not less than...

  11. Detached auroral arcs in the trough region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anger, C. D.; Moshupi, M. C.; Wallis, D. D.; Murphree, J. S.; Brace, L. H.; Shepherd, G. G.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous paper, Moshupi et al. (1977) have reported on the occurrence of rare auroral 'patches' equatorward of the normally well-defined boundary of diffuse aurora. Some less spectacular but more common arclike features were observed in the same 'trough' region (between the plasmapause and the auroral oval) during the period 1972-1975. These 'detached' arcs show some similarities to stable auroral red arcs in terms of their location and occurrence, but are completely different spectroscopically in that the stable auroral red arcs produce almost pure atomic oxygen red line emissions, whereas the detached arcs are deficient in red line emission - a feature implying totally different production mechanisms. The characteristics of the detached lines are described, including their unusual local time/longitude dependence.

  12. Use of water troughs by badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, D T

    2014-12-01

    The frequency of visits by badgers and cattle to five water troughs was examined using motion-activated infra-red cameras in a farming landscape in Northern Ireland between May and July 2013. Cattle visit rates varied significantly across troughs, were greatest during daylight periods, and more frequent during dry weather. Badgers were recorded visiting only one of the five water troughs. These visits were recorded on 14 different nights between midnight and 0300 h and were mainly by individual badgers. Water troughs were not used concurrently by badgers and cattle and the minimum period between badger and cattle use was 3 days. Although badgers used water troughs rarely during the study there remains the potential for indirect transmission of a bacterium such as Mycobacterium bovis that may merit further investigation.

  13. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigted. A distributed system, programmed entirely in Ada, was studied to assess the use of individual tasks without concern for the processor used. Continued development and testing of the fault tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada to cope with the failures of interest; design of approaches to fault tolerant software in real time systems, and the integration of these ideas into Ada; and the preparation of various papers and presentations were discussed.

  14. Insurance benefits under the ADA: Discrimination or business as usual?

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    In December 1987, John McGann discovered he had AIDS. In July 1988, his employer altered his health insurance policy by reducing lifetime coverage for AIDS to $5,000, while maintaining the million-dollar limit for all other health conditions. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the employer`s right to make that change. The Supreme Court denied certiori. Public outcry was immediate and voluminous. The Solicitor General argued that the new Americans with Disabilities Act would save future John McGanns from the same treatment, but the validity of this optimistic prediction is yet to be determined. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is landmark legislation that bars discrimination against the disabled in all aspects of employment, public services, and accommodations. The Act broadly defines disability to include illnesses such as AIDS and cancer, as well as limitations on mobility, vision, and hearing. The ADA indisputably creates a private cause of action for discrimination on the basis of disability. However, depending on the standard of review chosen by the federal courts, this cause of action may or may not provide much protection to those claiming discrimination on the basis of disability in employee benefits and insurance. This article discusses the ADA`s coverage of insurance and benefits in light of the possible standards courts might use to evaluate actions of parties in suits alleging discrimination in these areas and applies those standards of review to the facts of the McGann case. 146 refs.

  15. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  16. Identification of human proteins functionally conserved with the yeast putative adaptors ADA2 and GCN5.

    PubMed Central

    Candau, R; Moore, P A; Wang, L; Barlev, N; Ying, C Y; Rosen, C A; Berger, S L

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional adaptor proteins are required for full function of higher eukaryotic acidic activators in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that this pathway of activation is evolutionarily conserved. Consistent with this view, we have identified possible human homologs of yeast ADA2 (yADA2) and yeast GCN5 (yGCN5), components of a putative adaptor complex. While there is overall sequence similarity between the yeast and human proteins, perhaps more significant is conservation of key sequence features with other known adaptors. We show several functional similarities between the human and yeast adaptors. First, as shown for yADA2 and yGCN5, human ADA2 (hADA2) and human GCN5 (hGCN5) interacted in vivo in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Moreover, hGCN5 interacted with yADA2 in this assay, suggesting that the human proteins form similar complexes. Second, both yADA2 and hADA2 contain cryptic activation domains. Third, hGCN5 and yGCN5 had similar stabilizing effects on yADA2 in vivo. Furthermore, the region of yADA2 that interacted with yGCN5 mapped to the amino terminus of yADA2, which is highly conserved in hADA2. Most striking, is the behavior of the human proteins in human cells. First, GAL4-hADA2 activated transcription in HeLa cells, and second, either hADA2 or hGCN5 augmented GAL4-VP16 activation. These data indicated that the human proteins correspond to functional homologs of the yeast adaptors, suggesting that these cofactors play a key role in transcriptional activation. PMID:8552087

  17. NASA-evolving to Ada: Five-year plan. A plan for implementing recommendations made by the Ada and software management assessment working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    At their March 1988 meeting, members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Information Resources Management (IRM) Council expressed concern that NASA may not have the infrastructure necessary to support the use of Ada for major NASA software projects. Members also observed that the agency has no coordinated strategy for applying its experiences with Ada to subsequent projects (Hinners, 27 June 1988). To deal with these problems, the IRM Council chair appointed an intercenter Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG). They prepared a report (McGarry et al., March 1989) entitled, 'Ada and Software Management in NASA: Findings and Recommendations'. That report presented a series of recommendations intended to enable NASA to develop better software at lower cost through the use of Ada and other state-of-the-art software engineering technologies. The purpose here is to describe the steps (called objectives) by which this goal may be achieved, to identify the NASA officials or organizations responsible for carrying out the steps, and to define a schedule for doing so. This document sets forth four goals: adopt agency-wide software standards and policies; use Ada as the programming language for all mission software; establish an infrastructure to support software engineering, including the use of Ada, and to leverage the agency's software experience; and build the agency's knowledge base in Ada and software engineering. A schedule for achieving the objectives and goals is given.

  18. Interior trough deposits on Mars: Subice volcanoes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread, several-kilometer-thick successions of layered deposits occur as mounds that partly fill the troughs or chasmata that compose the Valles Marineris on Mars. Like terrestrial subice volcanoes, the layered deposits occur in a volcano-tectonic setting within basins that may have held ponded water or ice. On the basis of their dimensions, morphologies, and associated catastrophic floods and other geologic events as shown in Viking and new Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets, we suggest that the interior deposits are volcanic in origin and possibly generated by subice eruptions. A tuya origin for the mounds can explain the lack of external sediment, mound heights that can rival the plateau, local flat-topped mesas, morphologically distinct mounds of different ages, horizontal to steep dips, fine-grained materials, indications of rare volcanic vents and lava flows, and spectral composition. The extremely diverse layering of west Candor Chasma and possible volcanic cones in Melas may have formed by related subaerial eruptions. Consistent with the suggestion that interior deposits are eroding out of the wall rock, some deposits could have been erupted from sites along the walls.

  19. Synthesis of an A-D-A type of molecule used as electron acceptor for improving charge transfer in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Shu-Duo; Shen, Dan; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Mingdao

    2016-08-01

    Electron-accepting molecules play an important role in developing organic solar cells. A new type of A-D-A molecule, 3,6-di([7-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocin-3-yl]thiophen-2-yl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, was synthesized. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels are -3.55 and -5.85 eV, respectively. Therefore, the A-D-A type of compound could be used as electron acceptor for fabricating organic solar cell with a high open circuit voltage. Gibbs free energy (-49.2 kJ/mol) reveals that the process of A-D-A acceptor accepting an electron from poly(3-hexylthiophene) at excited state is spontaneous. The value of entropy (118 J/mol) in the process of an electron transferring from P3HT to the A-D-A acceptor at organic interface suggests that electrons generated from separation of electron-hole pairs at donor/acceptor interface would be delocalized efficiently. Therefore, the A-D-A molecule would be a potential acceptor for efficient organic BHJ solar cells.

  20. Role of the Ada adaptor complex in gene activation by the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, A; Almlöf, T; Ford, J; McEwan, I J; Gustafsson, J A; Wright, A P

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the Ada adaptor complex is important for the gene activation capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor in yeast. The recently isolated human Ada2 protein also increases the potency of the receptor protein in mammalian cells. The Ada pathway is of key significance for the tau1 core transactivation domain (tau1c) of the receptor, which requires Ada for activity in vivo and in vitro. Ada2 can be precipitated from nuclear extracts by a glutathione S-transferase-tau1 fusion protein coupled to agarose beads, and a direct interaction between Ada2 and tau1c can be shown by using purified proteins. This interaction is strongly reduced by a mutation in tau1c that reduces transactivation activity. Mutations affecting the Ada complex do not reverse transcriptional squelching by the tau1 domain, as they do for the VP16 transactivation domain, and thus these powerful acidic activators differ in at least some important aspects of gene activation. Mutations that reduce the activity of the tau1c domain in wild-type yeast strains cause similar reductions in ada mutants that contain little or no Ada activity. Thus, gene activation mechanisms, in addition to the Ada pathway, are involved in the activity of the tau1c domain. PMID:9154805

  1. Assessing the impact of substance use and hepatitis coinfection on atazanavir and lopinavir trough concentrations in HIV-infected patients during therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Slish, Judianne; Ma, Qing; Zingman, Barry S; Reichman, Richard C; Fischl, Margaret A; Gripshover, Barbara; Forrest, Alan; Brazeau, Dan; Boston, Naomi S; Catanzaro, Linda; DiFrancesco, Robin; Morse, Gene D

    2007-10-01

    Atazanavir (ATV) and lopinavir (LPV) are widely used HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Like with other protease inhibitors, careful monitoring of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in clinical practice is necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of substance use and hepatitis virus coinfection on plasma ATV and LPV trough concentrations in HIV-positive substance users and nonusers. Individuals established on ATV (300 mg and 100 mg ritonavir daily) or LPV (400 mg and 100 mg ritonavir twice daily)-containing regimens completed two clinical visits (trough and directly observed therapy) during which dosing characteristics, concomitant medication, and substance use were recorded. Trough plasma concentrations (22-26 hours for ATV and 10-14 hours for LPV) were measured using LCMSMS. The influence of substance use was evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Substance use was associated with a marked decrease in trough LPV concentrations during the trough visit (median, 5.536 and 3.791 microg/mL for nonsubstance users and substance users, respectively, P = 0.029). Significantly lower LPV trough levels were also noted among patients with active hepatitis C virus coinfection evaluated as an independent variable (median, 2.253 and 5.927 microg/mL for active and inactive/no hepatitis C virus infection, respectively, P = 0.032). Substance use and hepatitis virus coinfection had limited effects on ATV trough levels. In this cohort, despite the wide interindividual variability of ATV and LPV trough concentrations, significant associations between substance use and active hepatitis C virus infection and low LPV trough concentrations were observed. Further work is needed to assess the optimal dosing regimen when using LPV in HIV-infected substance users.

  2. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  3. Looking north inside of casthouse no. 6 at iron trough ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north inside of casthouse no. 6 at iron trough and iron notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINESHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  6. An approach to distributed execution of Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, R. A.; Krishnan, P.; Theriault, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intelligent control of the Space Station will require the coordinated execution of computer programs across a substantial number of computing elements. It will be important to develop large subsets of these programs in the form of a single program which executes in a distributed fashion across a number of processors. A translation strategy for distributed execution of Ada programs in which library packages and subprograms may be distributed is described. A preliminary version of the translator is operational. Simple data objects (no records or arrays as yet), subprograms, and static tasks may be referenced remotely.

  7. Monogenic polyarteritis: the lesson of ADA2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Caorsi, Roberta; Penco, Federica; Schena, Francesca; Gattorno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a new autoinflammatory disease characterised by an early onset vasculopathy with livedoid skin rash associated with systemic manifestations, CNS involvement and mild immunodeficiency.This condition is secondary to autosomal recessive mutations of CECR1 (Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region 1) gene, mapped to chromosome 22q11.1, that encodes for the enzymatic protein adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2). By now 19 different mutations in CECR1 gene have been detected.The pathogenetic mechanism of DADA2 is still unclear. ADA2 in a secreted protein mainly expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage; its enzymatic activity is higher in conditions of hypoxia, inflammation and oncogenesis. Moreover ADA2 is able to induce macrophages proliferation and differentiation; it's deficiency is in fact associated with a reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2). The deficiency of ADA2 is also associated with an up-regulation of neutrophils-expressed genes and an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mild immunodeficiency detected in many DADA2 patients suggests a role of this protein in the adaptive immune response; an increased mortality of B cells and a reduction in the number of memory B cells, terminally differentiated B cells and plasmacells has been described in many patients. The lack of the protein is associated with endothelium damage; however the function of this protein in the endothelial homeostasis is still unknown.From the clinical point of view, this disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of severity. Chronic or recurrent systemic inflammation with fever, elevation of acute phase reactants and skin manifestations (mainly represented by livedo reticularis) is the typical clinical picture. While in some patients the disease is mild and skin-limited, others present a severe, even lethal, disease with multi-organ involvement; the CNS involvement is rather common with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. In

  8. Large distributed control system using ADA in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, J. P., LLNL

    1998-04-21

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a large distributed control system constructed using object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers that run software written in Ada and communicating through CORBA. The project has completed its final design review; implementation of the first of five planned increments will be delivered at the end of fiscal year 1998. Preliminary measures of the distributed controls performance confirm the design decisions reported in this paper, and the measurement and supporting simulation of full system performance continue.

  9. An Overview of Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. Historical background. 2. What is ADAS? 3. R and D status. 4. Reliability/cost examples (1, 2, and 3). 5. What's new? 6. Technical advantages. 7. NASA relevance. 8. NASA plans/options. 9. Remaining R and D. 10. Applications. 11. Product benefits. 11. Commercial advantages. 12. intellectual property. Aerospace industry requires highly reliable data acquisition systems. Traditional Acquisition systems employ end-to-end hardware and software redundancy. Typically, redundancy adds weight, cost, power consumption, and complexity.

  10. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  11. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; et al

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers ofmore » the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.« less

  12. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miguel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Orgando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  13. Tectonic development of Baltimore Canyon trough

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, B.A.; Poag, C.W.; Sawyer, D.S.; Grow, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    New well data and a new gravity model across the southern end of Baltimore Canyon Trough provide a more complete history of the basin's tectonic evolution and deep crustal structure than was previously known. The basin, which formed during the separation of North America from Africa, narrows and shallows along strike, as basement depth decreases from about 18 km (59,000 ft) in the north near New York to about 4-6 km (13,123-19,685 ft) in the south near Cape Hatteras. Previous analysis of the Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) B2 and B3 wells using backstripping techniques showed a seaward increase in the amount of stretching during the basin's formation. The new biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations are from the USGS Island Beach well 1 just landward of the hinge zone in the basin. This well, along with the COST B2 and B3 data, provides a sampling of the sedimentary sections overlying continental, transitional (rift-stage), and oceanic crust. The subsidence histories derived from these data give a cross-sectional view of the basin's evolution. A gravity model of the southern end of the basin, along USGS multichannel seismic line 28, primarily analyzes a 60-mgal shelfedge anomaly. This anomaly reflects the change in bathymetry and more important a change toward the continent in underlying crustal thickness from typical oceanic to thinned continental crust. The crustal thinning is compared to the broad thinning zone to the north. Well-defined rift structures on the landward edge of the basin are modeled as rift grabens near the hinge zone.

  14. Timing issues in the distributed execution of Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines, in the context of distributed execution, the meaning of Ada constructs involving time. In the process, unresolved questions of interpretation and problems with the implementation of a consistent notion of time across a network are uncovered. It is observed that there are two Ada mechanisms that can involve a distributed sense of time: the conditional entry call, and the timed entry call. It is shown that a recent interpretation by the Language Maintenance Committee resolves the questions for the conditional entry calls but results in an anomaly for timed entry calls. A detailed discussion of alternative implementations for the timed entry call is made, and it is aruged that: (1) timed entry calls imply a common sense of time between the machines holding the calling and called tasks; and (2) the measurement of time for the expiration of the delay and the decision of whether or not to perform the rendezvous should be made on the machine holding the called task. The need to distinguish the unreadiness of the called task from timeouts caused by network failure is pointed out. Finally, techniques for realizing a single sense of time across the distributed system (at least to within an acceptable degree of uncertainty) are also discussed.

  15. Efficient Ada multitasking on a RISC register window architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.

  16. ART/Ada design project, phase 1. Task 2 report: Detailed design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bradley P.

    1988-01-01

    Various issues are studied in the context of the design of an Ada based expert system building tool. Using an existing successful design as a starting point, the impact is analyzed of the Ada language and Ada development methodologies on that design, the Ada system is redesigned, and its performance is analyzed using both complexity-theoretic and empirical techniques. The algorithms specified in the overall design are refined, resolving and documenting any open design issues, identifying each system module, documenting the internal architecture and control logic, and describing the primary data structures involved in the module.

  17. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  18. Hyperbilirubinemia and rapid fatal hepatic failure in severe combined immunodeficiency caused by adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID).

    PubMed

    Kühl, J S; Schwarz, K; Münch, A; Schmugge, M; Pekrun, A; Meisel, C; Wahn, V; Ebell, W; von Bernuth, H

    2011-03-01

    Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA.

  19. Tear trough deformity: different types of anatomy and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jindou; Wang, Xuekun; Chen, Rongrong; Xia, Xueying; Sun, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the efficacy of tear trough deformity treatment with the use of hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat for soft tissue augmentation and fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. Material and methods Seventy-eight patients with the tear trough were divided into three groups. Class I has tear trough without bulging orbital fat or excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class II is associated with mild to moderate orbital fat bulging, without excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class III is associated with severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class I or II was treated using hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat injections. Class III was treated with fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. The patients with a deep nasojugal groove of class III were treated with injecting autologous fat into the tear trough during fat repositioning lower blepharoplasty as a way of supplementing the volume added by the repositioned fat. Results Seventy-eight patients with tear trough deformity were confirmed from photographs taken before and after surgery. There were some complications, but all had complete resolution. Conclusions Patients with mild to moderate peri-orbital volume loss without severe orbital fat bulging may be good candidates for hyaluronic acid filler or fat grafting alone. However, patients with more pronounced deformities, severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin are often better served by fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release and fat grafting.

  20. Tear trough deformity: different types of anatomy and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jindou; Wang, Xuekun; Chen, Rongrong; Xia, Xueying; Sun, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the efficacy of tear trough deformity treatment with the use of hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat for soft tissue augmentation and fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. Material and methods Seventy-eight patients with the tear trough were divided into three groups. Class I has tear trough without bulging orbital fat or excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class II is associated with mild to moderate orbital fat bulging, without excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class III is associated with severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin. Class I or II was treated using hyaluronic acid gel or autologous fat injections. Class III was treated with fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release. The patients with a deep nasojugal groove of class III were treated with injecting autologous fat into the tear trough during fat repositioning lower blepharoplasty as a way of supplementing the volume added by the repositioned fat. Results Seventy-eight patients with tear trough deformity were confirmed from photographs taken before and after surgery. There were some complications, but all had complete resolution. Conclusions Patients with mild to moderate peri-orbital volume loss without severe orbital fat bulging may be good candidates for hyaluronic acid filler or fat grafting alone. However, patients with more pronounced deformities, severe orbital fat bulging and excess of the lower eyelid skin are often better served by fat repositioning via arcus marginalis release and fat grafting. PMID:27605904

  1. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  2. Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Juan J; Monaghan, Gemma; Børsting, Claus; Norbury, Gail; Morling, Niels; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2007-05-01

    Inherited adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder that causes immunodeficiency, varying from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the majority of cases to a less severe form in a small minority of patients. Five patients of Somali origin from four unrelated families, with severe ADA-SCID, were registered in the Greater London area. Patients and their parents were investigated for the nonsense mutation Q3X (ADA c7C>T), two missense mutations K80R (ADA c239A>G) and R142Q (ADA c425G>A), and a TAAA repeat located at the 3' end of an Alu element (AluVpA) positioned 1.1 kb upstream of the ADA transcription start site. All patients were homozygous for the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7. Among 207 Somali immigrants to Denmark, the frequency of ADA c7C>T and the maximum likelihood estimate of the frequency of the haplotype ADA-7T/ADA-239G/ADA-425G/AluVpA7 were both 0.012 (carrier frequency 2.4%). Based on the analysis of AluVpA alleles, the ADA c7C/T mutation was estimated to be approximately 7,100 years old. Approximately 1 out of 5 - 10000 Somali children will be born with ADA deficiency due to an ADA c7C/T mutation, although within certain clans the frequency may be significantly higher. ADA-SCID may be a frequent immunodeficiency disorder in Somalia, but will be underdiagnosed due to the prevailing socioeconomic and nutritional deprivation.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  4. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  5. Moving target, distributed, real-time simulation using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. R.; Feyock, S.; King, L. A.; Morell, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Research on a precompiler solution is described for the moving target compiler problem encountered when trying to run parallel simulation algorithms on several microcomputers. The precompiler is under development at NASA-Lewis for simulating jet engines. Since the behavior of any component of a jet engine, e.g., the fan inlet, rear duct, forward sensor, etc., depends on the previous behaviors and not the current behaviors of other components, the behaviors can be modeled on different processors provided the outputs of the processors reach other processors in appropriate time intervals. The simulator works in compute and transfer modes. The Ada procedure sets for the behaviors of different components are divided up and routed by the precompiler, which essentially receives a multitasking program. The subroutines are synchronized after each computation cycle.

  6. DEC Ada interface to Screen Management Guidelines (SMG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laomanachareon, Somsak; Lekkos, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    DEC's Screen Management Guidelines are the Run-Time Library procedures that perform terminal-independent screen management functions on a VT100-class terminal. These procedures assist users in designing, composing, and keeping track of complex images on a video screen. There are three fundamental elements in the screen management model: the pasteboard, the virtual display, and the virtual keyboard. The pasteboard is like a two-dimensional area on which a user places and manipulates screen displays. The virtual display is a rectangular part of the terminal screen to which a program writes data with procedure calls. The virtual keyboard is a logical structure for input operation associated with a physical keyboard. SMG can be called by all major VAX languages. Through Ada, predefined language Pragmas are used to interface with SMG. These features and elements of SMG are briefly discussed.

  7. Rehosting and retargeting an Ada compiler: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ray

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a plan for rehosting and retargeting the Air Force Armaments Lab. Ada cross compiler. This compiler was validated in Sept. 1985 using ACVC 1.6, is written in Pascal, is hosted on a CDC Cyber 170, and is targeted to an embedded Zilog Z8002. The study was performed to determine the feasibility, cost, time, and tasks required to retarget the compiler to a DEC VAX 11/78x and rehost it to an embedded U.S. Navy AN/UYK-44 computer. Major tasks identified were rehosting the compiler front end, rewriting the back end (code generator), translating the run time environment from Z8002 assembly language to AN/UYK-44 assembly language, and developing a library manager.

  8. ADASAGE4.0. Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.; Russell, K.; Stewart, H.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE4.0 is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE4.0 consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  9. ADASAGE4.02-MERIDIAN. Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.; Russell, K.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  10. ADASAGE3.1; Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.; Russell, K.; Stewart, H.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  11. ADASAGE4.02-ALSYS. Ada Application Development System

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K.; Russell, K.

    1990-10-01

    ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. Applications may vary in size from small to large multiprogram systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. These capabilities are integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, ADASAGE capabilities are selected and included along with any requirements unique to that application.

  12. School Issues Under [Section] 504 and the ADA: The Latest and Greatest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper highlights recent guidance and rulings from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of interest to administrators, advocates, and attorneys. It is a companion piece to Student Issues on SectionNB504/ADA: The Latest and Greatest. Compliance with SectionNB504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) continues to involve debate and dialog on…

  13. Lessons learned in the transition to Ada from FORTRAN at NASA/Goddard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Two dynamics satellite simulators are developed from the same requirements, one in Ada and the other in FORTRAN. The purpose of the research was to find out how well the prescriptive Ada development model worked to develop the Ada simulator. The FORTRAN simulator development, as well as past FORTRAN developments, provided a baseline for comparison. Since this was the first simulator developed, the prescriptive Ada development model had many similarities to the usual FORTRAN development model. However, it was modified to include longer design and shorter testing phases, which is generally expected with Ada developments. One result was that the percentage of time the Ada project spent in the various development activities was very similar to the percentage of time spent in these activities when doing a FORTRAN project. Another finding was the difficulty the Ada team had with unit testing as well as with integration. It was realized that adding additional steps to the design phase, such as an abstract data type analysis, and certain guidelines to the implementation phase, such as to use primarily library units and nest sparingly, would have made development easier. These are among the recommendations made to be incorporated in a new Ada development model next time.

  14. The Labor Market Experience of Workers with Disabilities: The ADA and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the recent labor market experience of American workers with disabilities and an assessment of the impact the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has had on that experience. Since one intention of the ADA is to break down barriers to employment for the disabled, the analyses focus on labor demand…

  15. The G22A Polymorphism of the ADA Gene and Susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettinger, Joe A.; Liu, Xudong; Holden, Jeanette Jeltje Anne

    2008-01-01

    Inborn errors of purine metabolism have been implicated as a cause for some cases of autism. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the sera of some children with autism and reports of an association of the A allele of the ADA G22A (Asp8Asn) polymorphism in individuals with autism of…

  16. NRPA Law Review. Combat Karate Class Illustrates ADA "Direct Threat" Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities, highlighting a lawsuit involving a boy with AIDS who was barred from a traditional combat-oriented martial arts school. Courts ruled that his exclusion did not violate the ADA because he posed significant health and safety risks to…

  17. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    succession has been divided into five seismic units, each representing different stages in the progradational accumulation of the TMF system. This poster and ongoing study will discuss how the ice-stream flow switching is linked to changes in depocentres of sedimentary sequences and further investigate the major controls, e.g. ice-sheet dynamics, ocean-climate changes, tectonic forcing and subglacial geology, that determined the evolution of the Disko Bay TMF. Essencial bibliography Mitchum, R.M. Jr., Vail, P.R., Sangree, J.B., 1977. Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, Part 6: Stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection patterns in depositional sequences. AAPG Memoir 26, 117-133. Ó Cofaigh, C., Andrews, J.T., Jennings, A.E., Dowdeswell, J.A., Hogan, K.A., Kilfeather, A.A., Sheldon, C., 2013. Glacimarine lithofacies, provenance and depositional processes on a West Greenland trough-mouth fan. Journal of Quaternary Science, 28(1), 13-26.

  18. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  19. Determination of error tolerances for optical design of parabolic troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, H.M.; Bannerot, R.B.; Mistree, F.

    1983-11-01

    A study is presented where potential optical errors in parabolic troughs are divided into two groups: random and non-random. Small-scale slope errors, mirror nonspecularity, apparent changes in sun's width, and small occasional tracking errors are classified as random errors. Reflector profile errors, misalignment of the receiver with the effective focus of the reflector, and misalignment of the trough with the sun are classified as non-random errors. Random errors are analyzed using statistics and assuming a normally distributed error. Non-random errors are analyzed by building provisions into the optical model which allow for the analysis of such errors. Universal design curves showing the effect of random and non-random errors on the optical performance (efficiency) of the trough are presented.

  20. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern were investigated. In particular, the concept that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware was examined. Progress is discussed for the following areas: continued development and testing of the fault-tolerant Ada testbed; development of suggested changes to Ada so that it might more easily cope with the failure of interest; and design of new approaches to fault-tolerant software in real-time systems, and integration of these ideas into Ada.

  1. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada were investigated in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern. In particular, the focus was on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors are being executed, and that failures may occur in the software and underlying hardware. A secondary interest is in the performance of Ada systems and how that performance can be gauged reliably. Primary activities included: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; development of a refined approach to recovery that was applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  2. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. F.; Knight, J. C.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1983-01-01

    The issues involved in the use of the programming language Ada on distributed systems are discussed. The effects of Ada programs on hardware failures such as loss of a processor are emphasized. It is shown that many Ada language elements are not well suited to this environment. Processor failure can easily lead to difficulties on those processors which remain. As an example, the calling task in a rendezvous may be suspended forever if the processor executing the serving task fails. A mechanism for detecting failure is proposed and changes to the Ada run time support system are suggested which avoid most of the difficulties. Ada program structures are defined which allow programs to reconfigure and continue to provide service following processor failure.

  3. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  4. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  5. Distribution and origin of dissolved gases of groundwaters at Las Cañadas aquifer, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, R.; Melian, G.; Padron, E.; Sortino, F.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Lopez, D. L.; Perez, N.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic aquifers commonly trap an important fraction of the main soluble components of fluids released from volcanic-hydrothermal system (CO2, SO2, H2S, HCl, HF, etc.). In particular, the interactions between volcanic gases and volcanic aquifers have been studied through hydrogeochemical parameters, as major and minor ions contents and dissolved gases in groundwaters. In the context of hydrogeochemical studies applied to active volcanic areas, studies of dissolved gases species in groundwater could be a useful tool to better understand the subsurface processes as gas-water-rock interaction or to strengthen the geochemical seismic-volcanic surveillance programs. In this work, we report the results of the geochemical characterization of dissolved gases (N2, O2, Ar, CO2, CH4, CO, H2, He, 222Rn, δ13CTDIC) in 96 groundwater samples from Las Cañadas aquifer (around Teide volcano) between May and October, 2006. The main aims of this work are: (1) to determine the background level of magmatic gas input in the aquifer during quiescent periods, (2) to better define the origin of dissolved gases in Las Cañadas aquifer, specially CO2, (3) to evaluate the gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring at depth, and (4) to delineate high permeable pathway of upward migration of volcanic-hydrothermal gases. In general, the dissolved gas phase in groundwaters of Las Cañadas aquifer is relatively enriched in endogenous gases (CO2, He and H2) while it is relatively depleted in atmospheric gases (N2, O2 and Ar). N2-O2-CO2 triangular diagram shows that dissolved gases in most of analyzed groundwater are variable mixtures of CO2-rich fluids from the volcanic-hydrothermal system (as represent the Teide fumaroles) with dissolved air. The relatively high N2/O2 ratio in some groundwater compared to the air saturated water suggests an O2 consumption during gas-water-rock interactions occurring at depth. Spatial distribution maps show anomalous concentration of 222Rn CH4, H2 and CO2

  6. Subunits of ADA-two-A-containing (ATAC) or Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltrasferase (SAGA) Coactivator Complexes Enhance the Acetyltransferase Activity of GCN5.

    PubMed

    Riss, Anne; Scheer, Elisabeth; Joint, Mathilde; Trowitzsch, Simon; Berger, Imre; Tora, László

    2015-11-27

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) play a crucial role in eukaryotes by regulating chromatin architecture and locus specific transcription. GCN5 (KAT2A) is a member of the GNAT (Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase) family of HATs. In metazoans this enzyme is found in two functionally distinct coactivator complexes, SAGA (Spt Ada Gcn5 acetyltransferase) and ATAC (Ada Two A-containing). These two multiprotein complexes comprise complex-specific and shared subunits, which are organized in functional modules. The HAT module of ATAC is composed of GCN5, ADA2a, ADA3, and SGF29, whereas in the SAGA HAT module ADA2b is present instead of ADA2a. To better understand how the activity of human (h) hGCN5 is regulated in the two related, but different, HAT complexes we carried out in vitro HAT assays. We compared the activity of hGCN5 alone with its activity when it was part of purified recombinant hATAC or hSAGA HAT modules or endogenous hATAC or hSAGA complexes using histone tail peptides and full-length histones as substrates. We demonstrated that the subunit environment of the HAT complexes into which GCN5 incorporates determines the enhancement of GCN5 activity. On histone peptides we show that all the tested GCN5-containing complexes acetylate mainly histone H3K14. Our results suggest a stronger influence of ADA2b as compared with ADA2a on the activity of GCN5. However, the lysine acetylation specificity of GCN5 on histone tails or full-length histones was not changed when incorporated in the HAT modules of ATAC or SAGA complexes. Our results thus demonstrate that the catalytic activity of GCN5 is stimulated by subunits of the ADA2a- or ADA2b-containing HAT modules and is further increased by incorporation of the distinct HAT modules in the ATAC or SAGA holo-complexes.

  7. Research, development, training, and education using the Ada programming language. Final report, 1 September 1987-31 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.C.

    1989-07-16

    The primary goal of this activity was to conduct research in the application and development of Ada, and in broader terms the objectives were as follows: (1) To develop numerical algorithms for parallel processing using the Ada language; (2) To develop new methodologies in reusing Ada software; (3) To solve select problems in applied mathematics using MACSYMA and Ada; (4) Simulate the interactions of nodes in a network using Ada; (5) To increase the cadre of educations available to provide Ada training by conducting Ada workshops for Norfolk State University faculty and staff; (6) To develop a series of in-class and individualized modules addressing Ada programming using computer-assisted instruction; and (7) To disseminate research and computer-aided instruction modules to other minority institutions through computer networking, workshops, and lecture series.

  8. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    1999-01-31

    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  9. 76 FR 14745 - Notice To Rescind a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement, Ada and Canyon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Statement, Ada and Canyon Counties, ID AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration. ACTION: Rescind Notice of... Statement for a proposed highway project in Ada and Canyon County, Idaho is being rescinded. FOR FURTHER... Ballantyne Lane in Ada County. The project is commonly known as the State Highway 44 Corridor...

  10. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  11. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Troughs and hayracks. 91.27 Section 91.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  12. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Troughs and hayracks. 91.27 Section 91.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  13. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Troughs and hayracks. 91.27 Section 91.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  14. 3. WOODLINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WOOD-LINED TROUGH WITH AQUEDUCT WASTE GATES IN THE OPEN POSITION, LOOKING NORTH. TRANSVERSE GIRDERS HAVE BEEN ADDED TO HELP STABILIZE THE AQUEDUCT. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Tinker's Creek Aqueduct, Canal Road, South Tinkers Creek Road, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Deep-water hydrocarbon potential of Georges Bank Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, D.S. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Characterization of the petroleum potential for Georges Bank Trough has been based primarily on limited organic geochemical data that indicate the area of recent drilling activity behind the paleoshelf edge to be poor in organic carbon and C/sub 15/ + extract values, with predominantly terrestrial kerogen types. Maturation data also suggest an inadequate thermal history for hydrocarbon generation in the area. It is possible that the effects of heat flow from the New England Seamount Chain may contribute to hydrocarbon generation in the Georges Bank Trough - a relationship that may also exist between the Newfoundland Seamount Chain and the Hibernia area of the Grand Banks. Also, comparisons can be drawn between the Atlantic Fracture Zone bordering the Georges Bank Trough and the Romanche-St. Paul Fracture Zone off the Ivory Coast. In the latter region, restricted anoxic environments with sediments rich in marine kerogen types have been identified, as have both structural and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms. Within this rhombochasm configuration, reservoir lithologies of sandstone and carbonate turbidites, fractured deep-water chalks, and reefal limestones should occur. The relationships of seamount to fracture zone, as applied to the rhombochasm model for the Georges Bank Trough, should enhance the hydrocarbon potential of the lower Mesozoic sediments seaward of the paleoshelf edge and thus classify this area as a future major hydrocarbon province.

  16. Electrodynamic structure of the morning high-latitude trough region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A.; Voiculescu, M.; Juusola, L.; Nygrén, T.; Kuula, R.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the electrodynamics of a postmidnight, high-latitude ionospheric trough, observed with the European Incoherent Scatter radar in northern Scandinavia on 24-25 June 2003 around 22:00-02:30 UT during quiet conditions. The UHF radar made meridian scans with a 30 min cadence resulting in nine cross sections of ionospheric parameters. The F region electric field was also determined with the tristatic system. Ionospheric equivalent currents, calculated from ground magnetometer data, mostly show an electrojet-like current that is reasonably uniform in the longitudinal direction. Combined analysis of the conductances and equivalent current with a local Kamide-Richmond-Matsushita (KRM) method yields the ionospheric electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) in a 2-D (latitude-longitude) area around the radar. We conclude that the most likely scenario is one where the trough is initially created poleward of the auroral oval by downward FAC that evacuates the F region, but as the trough moves to lower latitudes during the early morning hours, it becomes colocated with the westward electrojet. There the electron density further decreases due to increased recombination caused by enhanced ion temperature, which in turn is brought about by a larger convection speed. Later in the morning the convection speed decreases and the trough is filled by increasing photoionization.

  17. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  18. 9 CFR 91.27 - Troughs and hayracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Troughs and hayracks. 91.27 Section 91.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING...

  19. Functional similarity and physical association between GCN5 and ADA2: putative transcriptional adaptors.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, G A; Silverman, N; Berger, S L; Horiuchi, J; Guarente, L

    1994-01-01

    A selection for yeast mutants resistant to GAL4-VP16-induced toxicity previously identified two genes, ADA2 and ADA3, which may function as adaptors for some transcriptional activation domains and thereby facilitate activation. Here we identify two new genes by the same selection, one of which is identical to GCN5. We show that gcn5 mutants share properties with ada mutants, including slow growth, temperature sensitivity and reduced activation by the VP16 and GCN4 activation domains. Double mutant studies suggest that ADA2 and GCN5 function together in a complex or pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that GCN5 binds to ADA2 both by the two-hybrid assay in vivo and by co-immunoprecipitation in vitro. This suggests that ADA2 and GCN5 are part of a heteromeric complex that mediates transcriptional activation. Finally, we demonstrate the functional importance of the bromodomain of GCN5, a sequence found in other global transcription factors such as the SWI/SNF complex and the TATA binding protein-associated factors. This domain is not required for the interaction between GCN5 and ADA2 and thus may mediate a more general activity of transcription factors. Images PMID:7957049

  20. Development of Immunocapture-LC/MS Assay for Simultaneous ADA Isotyping and Semiquantitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have potential to elicit immune responses resulting in anti-drug antibodies that can pose problems for both patient safety and product efficacy. During drug development immunogenicity is usually examined by risk-based approach along with specific strategies for developing “fit-for-purpose” bioanalytical approaches. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays are the most widely used platform for ADA detection due to their high sensitivity and throughput. During the past decade, LC/MS has emerged as a promising technology for quantitation of biotherapeutics and protein biomarkers in biological matrices, mainly owing to its high specificity, selectivity, multiplexing, and wide dynamic range. In fully taking these advantages, we describe here an immunocapture-LC/MS methodology for simultaneous isotyping and semiquantitation of ADA in human plasma. Briefly, ADA and/or drug-ADA complex is captured by biotinylated drug or anti-drug Ab, immobilized on streptavidin magnetic beads, and separated from human plasma by a magnet. ADA is then released from the beads and subjected to trypsin digestion followed by LC/MS detection of specific universal peptides for each ADA isotype. The LC/MS data are analyzed using cut-point and calibration curve. The proof-of-concept of this methodology is demonstrated by detecting preexisting ADA in human plasma. PMID:27034966

  1. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Reynolds, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which the hardware components are assumed to be unreliable is investigated. The possibility that a distributed system can be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processor they are executing on, and that failures can occur in the underlying hardware is considered. The reduced cost of computer hardware and the advantages of distributed processing (for example, increased reliability through redundancy and greater flexibility) indicate that many aerospace computer systems can be distributed. The use of Ada and distributed systems is a good combination for aerospace embedded systems.

  2. Ada compiler evaluation on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the work in progress to select the Ada compilers for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Software Support Environment (SSE) project. The purpose of the SSE Ada compiler evaluation team is to establish the criteria, test suites, and benchmarks to be used for evaluating Ada compilers for the mainframes, workstations, and the realtime target for flight- and ground-based computers. The combined efforts and cooperation of the customer, subcontractors, vendors, academia and SIGAda groups made it possible to acquire the necessary background information, benchmarks, test suites, and criteria used.

  3. AdaBoost-based algorithm for network intrusion detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Maybank, Steve

    2008-04-01

    Network intrusion detection aims at distinguishing the attacks on the Internet from normal use of the Internet. It is an indispensable part of the information security system. Due to the variety of network behaviors and the rapid development of attack fashions, it is necessary to develop fast machine-learning-based intrusion detection algorithms with high detection rates and low false-alarm rates. In this correspondence, we propose an intrusion detection algorithm based on the AdaBoost algorithm. In the algorithm, decision stumps are used as weak classifiers. The decision rules are provided for both categorical and continuous features. By combining the weak classifiers for continuous features and the weak classifiers for categorical features into a strong classifier, the relations between these two different types of features are handled naturally, without any forced conversions between continuous and categorical features. Adaptable initial weights and a simple strategy for avoiding overfitting are adopted to improve the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm has low computational complexity and error rates, as compared with algorithms of higher computational complexity, as tested on the benchmark sample data. PMID:18348941

  4. The marine transgression in the Benue Trough (NE Nigeria): a palaeogeographic interpretation of the Gongila Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelle, M.

    Upper Cretaceous Gongila Formation in Benue Trough (NE Nigeria) is investigated. Through a detailed sedimentologic study, a lithologic log is proposed with 22 different levels for a 20 m thick section. Both palaeontological and petrographical results are used to describe the diagenetic history of Gongila limestones. A sedimentologic interpretation is thus suggested, illustrating the close relationships between sedimentation and regional tectonics. Occurrence of a Trans-Saharan Seaway is finally discussed. The palaeontological affinities between Sahara and Nigerian faunas have to be supported by sedimentological observations in order to conclude with assurance on the existence of such a seaway during the Cenomanian and Lower Turonian.

  5. Arctic Lena Trough -- NOT a Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, J. E.; Hellebrand, E.; Handt, A. V.; Nauret, F.; Gao, Y.; Feig, S.; Jovanovic, Z.

    2005-12-01

    The North American-Eurasian plate boundary traverses the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Over most of that length, it is a Mid-Ocean Ridge that spreads between about 23 mm/yr (MAR) and 10 mm/yr (Gakkel Ridge) full rate. The northern MAR and the Gakkel ridge are connected by a deep linear feature called Lena Trough. Until about 10 million years ago, Lena Trough was not an oceanic domain at all, but a continental shear zone through a narrow isthmus of continental crust that connected the American and Eurasian plates. Its opening was, significantly, the most recent and final event in the separation of the North American from the Eurasian continent, and opened the gateway for deep water circulation between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans. Models for the tectonic configuration of Lena Trough have until now differed only in the number and length of fracture zones and spreading segments thought to be present. Lena Trough is a deep fault-bounded basin with depths of 3800-4200m, and irregular, steep valley sides that are oblique to the spreading direction. Basement horst structures outcrop as sigmoidal ridges with steeply dipping sides project out of the valley floor, but these are not traceable to any parallel structures on either side. Ridge-orthogonal topography is simply absent (ie no segments trending parallel nor fracture zones perpendicular to Gakkel Ridge). Most faults trend approximately SSE-NNW, an obliquity with respect to Gakkel Ridge (SW-NE) of about 55 degrees. The basement ridges are composed nearly entirely of mantle peridotite, as are the valley walls. Only at the northern and southern extremities of Lena Trough do basalts appear at all. The Northern basalts show strong chemical affinities to those of Gakkel Ridge, and can be considered a part of the Gakkel volcanic system. The rare southernmost basalts, however, are quite unique. They are alkali basalts with K2O up to 2 weight percent, highly incompaitble element enriched and occupy a corner of isotope

  6. Four Possible Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Ada, Oklahoma

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of federal, state, and city initiatives on climate change are presented. Specific steps for the City of Ada, Oklahoma, are presented. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy.

  7. System testing of a production Ada (trademark) project: The GRODY study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seigle, Jeffrey; Esker, Linda; Shi, Ying-Liang

    1990-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that utilize its features has a strong impact on all phases of the software development project lifecycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The teams found some qualitative differences between the system test phases of the two projects. Although planning for system testing and conducting of tests were not generally affected by the use of Ada, the solving of problems found in system testing was generally facilitated by Ada constructs and design methodology. Most problems found in system testing were not due to difficulty with the language or methodology but to lack of experience with the application.

  8. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance analysis was begin on the Ada implementations. The goal is to supply the system designer with tools that will allow a rational decision to be made about whether a particular implementation can support a given application early in the design cycle. Primary activities were: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; preparation and presentation of a paper at the 1987 Washington DC Ada Symposium; development of a refined approach to recovery that is presently being applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  9. Expanding ADA coverage to employee benefit plans: recent judicial and administrative developments.

    PubMed

    Mook, J R

    1995-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act has been heralded as the Emancipation Proclamation for persons with disabilities. The purpose of the law is to provide nothing less than a "clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities." Precisely how the nondiscrimination principles of the ADA will be applied to an employer's provision of health benefits to its employees has been the subject of much debate since the Act's passage in 1990. Although the statutory language and the legislative history support a limited application of the ADA to benefits issues, recent court decisions and enforcement actions by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission indicate that the ADA may have a much more profound impact in the area of benefits plan design and administration. Moreover, as benefits administrators take a much more active role in managing health care decisions, the ADA may become a vehicle for legal challenges to those decisions that affect the disabled. PMID:10172245

  10. On-line upgrade of program modules using AdaPT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    One purpose of our research is the investigation of the effectiveness and expressiveness of AdaPT, a set of language extensions to Ada 83, for distributed systems. As a part of that effort, we are now investigating the subject of replacing, e.g. upgrading, software modules while the software system remains in operation. The AdaPT language extensions provide a good basis for this investigation for several reasons: they include the concept of specific, self-contained program modules which can be manipulated; support for program configuration is included in the language; and although the discussion will be in terms of the AdaPT language, the AdaPT to Ada 83 conversion methodology being developed as another part of this project will provide a basis for the application of our findings to Ada 83 and Ada 9X systems. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the basic mechanisms of the replacement process. With this purpose in mind, we will avoid including issues whose presence would obscure these basic mechanisms by introducing additional, unrelated concerns. Thus, while replacement in the presence of real-time deadlines, heterogeneous systems, and unreliable networks is certainly a topic of interest, we will first gain an understanding of the basic processes in the absence of such concerns. The extension of the replacement process to more complex situations can be made later. A previous report established an overview of the module replacement problem, a taxonomy of the various aspects of the replacement process, and a solution to one case in the replacement taxonomy. This report provides solutions to additional cases in the replacement process taxonomy: replacement of partitions with state and replacement of nodes. The solutions presented here establish the basic principles for module replacement. Extension of these solutions to other more complicated cases in the replacement taxonomy is direct, though requiring substantial work beyond the available funding.

  11. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Gregory, S. T.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada (a trade mark of the US Dept. of Defense) in distributed environments in which the hardware are assumed to be unreliable were investigated. The possibility that a distributed system is programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on and failures occurring in the underlying hardware were examined.

  12. A study of the portability of an Ada system in the software engineering laboratory (SEL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Linda O.; Valett, Susan Ray

    1990-01-01

    A particular porting effort is discussed, and various statistics on analyzing the portability of Ada and the total staff months (overall and by phase) required to accomplish the rehost, are given. This effort is compared to past experiments on the rehosting of FORTRAN systems. The discussion includes an analysis of the types of errors encountered during the rehosting, the changes required to rehost the system, experiences with the Alsys IBM Ada compiler, the impediments encountered, and the lessons learned during this study.

  13. Detection of anti-infliximab antibodies is impacted by antibody titer, infliximab level and IgG4 antibodies: a systematic comparison of three different assays

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Joana; Lopes, Susana; Gonçalves, Raquel; Caldeira, Paulo; Lago, Paula; Tavares de Sousa, Helena; Ramos, Jaime; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Ministro, Paula; Rosa, Isadora; Vieira, Ana Isabel; Coelho, Rosa; Tavares, Patrícia; Soares, João; Sousa, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho, Diana; Sousa, Paula; da Silva, João Pereira; Meira, Tânia; Silva Ferreira, Filipa; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Chowers, Yehuda; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Magro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the accuracy of different assays used to measure anti-infliximab antibodies (ADAs), especially in the presence of detectable infliximab (IFX). We thus aimed to evaluate and compare three different assays for the detection of IFX and ADAs and to clarify the impact of the presence of circulating IFX on the accuracy of the ADA assays. Methods: Blood samples from 79 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with infliximab were assessed for IFX levels and ADAs using three different assays: an in-house assay and two commercial kits, Immundiagnostik and Theradiag. Sera samples with ADAs and undetectable levels of IFX were spiked with exogenous IFX and analyzed for ADAs. Results: The three assays showed 81–96% agreement for the measured IFX level. However, the in-house assay and Immundiagnostik assays detected ADAs in 34 out of 79 samples, whereas Theradiag only detected ADAs in 24 samples. Samples negative for ADAs with Theradiag, but ADA-positive in both the in-house and Immundiagnostik assays, were positive for IFX or IgG4 ADAs. In spiking experiments, a low concentration of exogenous IFX (5 µg/ml) hampered ADA detection with Theradiag in sera samples with ADA levels of between 3 and 10 µg/ml. In the Immundiagnostik assay detection interference was only observed at concentrations of exogenous IFX higher than 30 µg/ml. However, in samples with high levels of ADAs (>25 µg/ml) interference was only observed at IFX concentrations higher than 100 µg/ml in all three assays. Binary (IFX/ADA) stratification of the results showed that IFX+/ADA- and IFX-/ADAs+ were less influenced by the assay results than the double-positive (IFX+/ADAs+) and double-negative (IFX-/ADAs-) combination. Conclusions: All three methodologies are equally suitable for measuring IFX levels. However, erroneous therapeutic decisions may occur when patients show double-negative (IFX-/ADAs-) or double-positive (IFX+/ADAs+) status, since agreement between

  14. Vector-matrix-quaternion, array and arithmetic packages: All HAL/S functions implemented in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Kwong, David D.

    1986-01-01

    The HAL/S avionics programmers have enjoyed a variety of tools built into a language tailored to their special requirements. Ada is designed for a broader group of applications. Rather than providing built-in tools, Ada provides the elements with which users can build their own. Standard avionic packages remain to be developed. These must enable programmers to code in Ada as they have coded in HAL/S. The packages under development at JPL will provide all of the vector-matrix, array, and arithmetic functions described in the HAL/S manuals. In addition, the linear algebra package will provide all of the quaternion functions used in Shuttle steering and Galileo attitude control. Furthermore, using Ada's extensibility, many quaternion functions are being implemented as infix operations; equivalent capabilities were never implemented in HAL/S because doing so would entail modifying the compiler and expanding the language. With these packages, many HAL/S expressions will compile and execute in Ada, unchanged. Others can be converted simply by replacing the implicit HAL/S multiply operator with the Ada *. Errors will be trapped and identified. Input/output will be convenient and readable.

  15. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  16. 6th Circuit: insurance policies are not covered by the ADA.

    PubMed

    1997-08-22

    The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) does not cover the products that an insurer offers. The ADA only covers the physical premises of an insurance company. The court also ruled that the ADA does not mandate equality in employer-provider insurance coverage between people with varying types of disabilities. According to the court, the ADA only requires that all eligible employees be able to enroll in the plan. The case was brought by [name removed], a former employee of Schering-Plough Corporation, who complained that the long-term disability plan sponsored by the company and operated by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, violated the ADA. The plan limited mental illness disability benefits to two years but did not place a similar cap on physical conditions. The ruling, binding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan, contradicts earlier opinions which held that insurance products are subject to Title III of the ADA. The ruling states that Title III does not control the content of a long-term disability policy offered by an employer. Previous precedents set by the 1st Circuit Court in 1994 that had been viewed as protecting persons living with AIDS (PWAs) from discrimination in insurance programs and products were rejected by this ruling.

  17. Rapid, large-scale purification and characterization of 'Ada protein' (O6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) of E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, D; Tano, K; Bunick, G J; Uberbacher, E C; Behnke, W D; Mitra, S

    1988-01-01

    The E. coli Ada protein (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) has been purified using a high-level expression vector with a yield of about 3 mg per liter of E. coli culture. The 39-kDa protein has an extinction coefficient (E280 nm (1%)) of 5.3. Its isoelectric point of 7.1 is lower than that predicted from the amino acid content. The homogeneous Ada protein is fully active as a methyl acceptor from O6-methylguanine in DNA. Its reaction with O6-methylguanine in a synthetic DNA has a second-order rate constant of 1.1 x 10(9) M-1 min-1 at O degree C. Both the native form and the protein methylated at Cys-69 are monomeric. The CD spectrum suggests a low alpha-helical content and the radius of gyration of 23 A indicates a compact, globular shape. The middle region of the protein is sensitive to a variety of proteases, including an endogenous activity in E. coli, suggesting that the protein is composed of N-terminal and C-terminal domains connected by a hinge region. E. coli B has a higher level of this protease than does K12. Images PMID:3041376

  18. En Echelon Ridge and Trough Structures on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Greeley, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Europa#s surface is tectonically and morphologically complex. Europan ridges, bands, ridged bands, double ridges, complex ridges, and troughs are collectively referred to as lineaments. Some lineaments are fault zones and exhibit sets of en echelon ridge and trough structures (EERTS). EERTS can be used to interpret the stress field in which the lineaments formed. These observations suggest that some lineaments at low latitudes initially formed as shear zones. rather than as purely tensional fractures as is commonly assumed. From stepping directions of EERTS and the offset directions of the lineaments in which they occur, we infer that some EERTS form as a result of compressional stress and others form as a result of tensional stress. EERTS that are inferred to form in compression are morphologically indistinguishable from EERTS that form in tension. The presence of tensional EERTS may support a diapiric origin for some ridges.

  19. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  20. Crustal Structure of Salton Trough using Deformable Layer Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.

    2012-12-01

    Salton Trough is an important geologic structure to understand the active rift between Imperial Fault and San Andreas Fault. To determine the underground geometry of Salton Trough and its nearby faults, we analyzed seismic phase data recorded by Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC). Both 2-D and 3-D models have been made to refine the velocity model so as to determine the basin and moho geometry beneath Salton Trough region. Here three inline and five cross-line velocity profiles were built by using 2D Deformable Layer Tomography (DLT) method. From these 2D profiles, we can see that the velocity gradient is very small in the low velocity zone. The low velocity anomaly can be detected beneath the axis of the Salton Trough around the depth of 19-21 km, and the relatively high velocity can be seen beneath the San Andreas faults. Within 100*150*40 km3 model volume, 90,180 P-wave and S-wave first arrival picks from 27,663 local events (from 2001 to 2012), which were obtained from 44 stations, were used to build 3D seismic velocity model of the crust. During the iterations of velocity updating, full 3-D ray tracing is implemented. From these 3-D velocity models with different sizes of grids, low velocity anomalies are present under the southwest of Salton Sea, while high velocity zone is present across Southern San Andreas Fault throughout all the depths. Profiles from 2-D velocity models compared to 3-D velocity models show similar geometry. 3-D crustal structure, which is determined from 3-D DLT, helps to better understand the divergent boundary between the North American and the Pacific tectonic plates

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. The nature of the crust under Cayman Trough from gravity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Coleman, D.F.; Dillon, William P.

    2002-01-01

    Considerable crustal thickness variations are inferred along Cayman Trough, a slow-spreading ocean basin in the Caribbean Sea, from modeling of the gravity field. The crust to a distance of 50 km from the spreading center is only 2-3 km thick in agreement with dredge and dive results. Crustal thickness increases to ???5.5 km at distances between 100 and 430 km west of the spreading center and to 3.5-6 km at distances between 60 and 370 km east of the spreading center. The increase in thickness is interpreted to represent serpentinization of the uppermost mantle lithosphere, rather than a true increase in the volume of accreted ocean crust. Serpentinized peridotite rocks have indeed been dredged from the base of escarpments of oceanic crust rocks in Cayman Trough. Laboratory-measured density and P-wave speed of peridotite with 40-50% serpentine are similar to the observed speed in published refraction results and to the inferred density from the model. Crustal thickness gradually increases to 7-8 at the far ends of the trough partially in areas where sea floor magnetic anomalies were identified. Basement depth becomes gradually shallower starting 250 km west of the rise and 340 km east of the rise, in contrast to the predicted trend of increasing depth to basement from cooling models of the oceanic lithosphere. The gradual increase in apparent crustal thickness and the shallowing trend of basement depth are interpreted to indicate that the deep distal parts of Cayman Trough are underlain by highly attenuated crust, not by a continuously accreted oceanic crust. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. A complex deglacial retreat history of the Anvers Island Trough paleo-ice stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevenell, A.; Ishman, S. E.; Domack, E. W.; Leventer, A.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Vadman, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Marine-terminating ice regulates the mass balance and stability of Antarctica's ice sheets and, ultimately, global sea level. However, predictions of future ice sheet response to climate change are limited by short observational time-series and the complexity of associated forcings and feedbacks. Here, we present new chronologic and multiproxy data from 7 marine sediment records from the outer to inner shelf down the axis of the Anvers Island Trough and into Palmer Deep that better constrain the timing and rate of ice retreat and improve understanding of the mechanisms driving deglaciation of this hypothesized paleo-ice stream. The retreat chronology is based on 16 CaCO3 (foraminifer and mollusk) and 45 ramped pyrolysis (acid-insoluble organic matter) AMS 14C dates. Radiocarbon dates from the laminated diatom ooze and mud facies immediately above the glacial diamicton indicate that deglaciation of the mid-Anvers Island Trough post-dated the Palmer Deep deglaciation by ~2000 uncorrected 14C years and that collapse of the mid-shelf system was rapid, if not instantaneous. The laminated facies, present throughout the suite of cores, is consistent with the calving bay reentrant model for deglaciation. However, this facies is limited (~15 couplets) on the mid-shelf and expanded (~127 couplets) on the inner-shelf, suggesting regional differences in calving bay duration. Planktic and benthic foraminifer isotopes, together with foraminifer and diatom assemblages, and biogeochemical data provide evidence for the presence of warmer nutrient-rich modified Circumpolar Deep Water throughout the Anvers Island Trough during deglaciation. The observed retreat complexity may relate to a hypothesized mid-shelf ice-dome system and requires additional geological and geophysical data to understand ice retreat patterns south and west of Palmer Deep. Such data will provide important new constraints for ice sheet models.

  4. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  5. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Moens, L.; Blake, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Solar parabolic trough systems for electricity production are receiving renewed attention, and new solar plants are under construction to help meet the growing demands of the power market in the Western United States. The growing solar trough industry will rely on operating experience it has gained over the last two decades. Recently, researchers found that trough plants that use organic heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as Therminol VP-1 are experiencing significant heat losses in the receiver tubes. The cause has been traced back to the accumulation of excess hydrogen gas in the vacuum annulus that surrounds the steel receiver tube, thus compromising the thermal insulation of the receiver. The hydrogen gas is formed during the thermal decomposition of the organic HTF that circulates inside the receiver loop, and the installation of hydrogen getters inside the annulus has proven to be insufficient for controlling the hydrogen build-up over the lifetime of the receivers. This paper will provide an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  6. Development effort of sheet molding compound (SMC) parabolic trough panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, P.A.; Champion, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the development effort are to: investigate the problems of molding parabolic trough solar reflector panels of sheet molding compound (SMC); develop molding techniques and processes by which silvered glass reflector sheets can be integrally molded into SMC trough panels; provide representative prototype panels for evaluation; and provide information regarding the technical feasibility of molding SMC panels in high volume production. The approach taken to meet the objectives was to design the parabolic panel, fabricate a prototype die, choose an SMC formulation and mold the glass and SMC together into a vertex to rim mirrored panel. The main thrust of the program was to successfully co-mold a mirrored glass sheet with the SMC. Results indicate that mirrored glass sheets, if properly strengthened to withstand the temperature and pressure of the molding process, can be successfully molded with SMC in a single press stroke using standard compression molding techniques. The finalized design of the trough panel is given. The SMC formulation chosen is a low shrink, low profile SMC using 40% by weight one inch chopped glass fibers in a uv stabilized polyester resin matrix. A program to test for the adhesion between mirrored glass sheets and the SMC is discussed briefly. (LEW)

  7. Laser welding on trough panel: 3D body part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Masato; Hisano, Hirohiko

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding for automotive bodies has been introduced mainly by European car manufacturers since more than 10 years ago. Their purposes of laser welding introduction were mainly vehicle performance improvement and lightweight. And laser welding was applied to limited portion where shapes of panels are simple and easy to fit welded flanges. Toyota also has introduced laser welding onto 3 dimensional parts named trough panel since 1999. Our purpose of the introduction was common use of equipment. Trough panel has a complex shape and different shapes in each car type. In order to realize common use of welding equipment, we introduced parts locating equipment which had unique, small & simple jigs fo each car type and NC (Numerical Controlled) locators and air-cooled small laser head developed by ourselves to the trough welding process. Laser welding replaced spot welding and was applied linearly like stitches. Length of laser welding was determined according to comparison with statistic tensile strength and fatigue strength of spot welding.

  8. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G. C.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  9. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Alyenik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough between about 56 and 58° N has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that mesoscale features such as eddies and large scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface Eddy Kinetic Energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. A five month glider mission in the Trough showed that much of this energy comes from features that are located over 1000 m below the surface in the deep cold waters of the Trough (possibly from eddies associated the North Atlantic Current). The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner they may also be quasi-trapped by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the Trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the Trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side and a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite

  10. Tectonic Significance of Intraoceanic Thrusts in the Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, T.; Kodaira, S.; Park, J.; Ashi, J.; Fukao, Y.; Moore, G. F.; Matsuoka, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Nankai Trough is a convergent margin where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath southwest Japan. Because this subduction zone has repeatedly generated great earthquakes with Mw>8, seismic reflection studies have been intensively carried out in the whole Nankai Trough region. However, the role of oceanic crust in plate convergent margins was not well understood. Recently, Tsuji et al. [2009] identified intraoceanic thrusts developed as imbricate structures within the subducting Philippine Sea plate off the Kii Peninsula in central Japan manifesting as strong-amplitude reflections observed in an industry-standard 3D seismic reflection data set. In this study, we use other 2D and 3D seismic reflection data acquired in the whole Nankai Trough region and extract geometries of (1) intraoceanic thrusts, (2) surface of oceanic crust and (3) Moho in order to discuss characteristics of intraoceanic thrusts distributed in the whole Nankai Trough region. We mainly use seismic reflection data acquired by JAMSTEC. Seismic profiles demonstrate that intraoceanic faults are densely distributed eastern side of the Cape Shionomisaki (southern edge of the Kii Peninsula). Large displacements of a few major intraoceanic thrusts elevate the crust surface, and the offset due to cumulative displacements reaches >1 km at the sediment-igneous crust interface. A part of Kashinozaki-Knoll is also uplifted by the thrust displacement. These imbricate intraoceanic thrusts cut through the oceanic crust as a discontinuous thrust plane. The intraoceanic thrusts strike nearly parallel to the trend of the trough axis. However the fault traces are bending at the western termination; the fault planes extend upward from side edges of the underlying intraoceanic thrusts and work as lateral faults. The deformation within oceanic crust may have continued until recently with subduction, because the shallow sediment as well as the seafloor is deformed due to the thrust displacement [Kodaira et

  11. Crustal structure across the Xisha Trough, northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xuelin; Ye, Sanyu; Wu, Shimin; Shi, Xiaobin; Zhou, Di; Xia, Kanyuan; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2001-11-01

    Located at the northwestern part of the South China Sea (SCS) between the Hainan and Xisha (Paracel) Islands, the Xisha Trough represents a failed rift in conjunction with the opening of the SCS between 32 and 17 Ma. From west towards east within a scale of several hundred kilometers, it presents all major stages of the rifting process, and thus, provides an ideal place to study the rifting process in great details. In the autumn of 1996, a joint team of Sino-German scientists carried out a wide-angle seismic experiment across the Xisha Trough with 10 ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) along a 237-km NNW-SSE-oriented profile, which was surveyed in 1987 with multi-channel seismic (MCS) method by BGR of Germany and SOA of China. Favorable weather conditions and the powerful 4×12-l air gun array rendered very good quality data with seismic signals observed at the offset of up to 110 km. A detailed velocity-depth model was obtained by using an interactive trial-and-error 2D ray-tracing method. Interpretation of the MCS data published by BGR provides very good geometrical constraints of the complex upper crustal structure, which is characterized by fault blocks, half-horsts and half-grabens filled with syn- and post-rift Cenozoic sediments. The velocity model in turn confirms the major structure outlined by the interpretation of the MCS data, showing a varying sedimentary layer between 1 and 4 km of thickness and velocities between 1.7 and 4.5 km/s. The P-wave velocity of 5.5 km/s on the top of the crystalline basement is relatively low, suggesting strong weathering. Within the crystalline crust, the velocity increases downward continuously to 6.8 km/s at the bottom of the crust without a clear differentiation in the middle crust, showing clearly its continental nature even beneath the Xisha Trough. The Moho is marked by a sharp first-order interface with a velocity of 8.0-8.1 km/s at the uppermost mantle. The Moho depth is 15 km beneath the center of the trough and

  12. The loss of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation due to dSAGA-specific dAda2b mutation influences the expression of only a small subset of genes

    PubMed Central

    Zsindely, Nóra; Pankotai, Tibor; Újfaludi, Zsuzsanna; Lakatos, Dániel; Komonyi, Orbán; Bodai, László; Tora, László; Boros, Imre M.

    2009-01-01

    In Drosophila, the dADA2b-containing dSAGA complex is involved in histone H3 lysine 9 and 14 acetylation. Curiously, although the lysine 9- and 14-acetylated histone H3 levels are drastically reduced in dAda2b mutants, these animals survive until a late developmental stage. To study the molecular consequences of the loss of histone H3 lysine 9 and 14 acetylation, we compared the total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) profiles of wild type and dAda2b mutant animals at two developmental stages. Global gene expression profiling indicates that the loss of dSAGA-specific H3 lysine 9 and 14 acetylation results in the expression change (up- or down-regulation) of a rather small subset of genes and does not cause a general transcription de-regulation. Among the genes up-regulated in dAda2b mutants, particularly high numbers are those which play roles in antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Results of chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that in dAda2b mutants, the lysine 9-acetylated histone H3 levels are decreased both at dSAGA up- and down-regulated genes. In contrast to that, in the promoters of dSAGA-independent ribosomal protein genes a high level of histone H3K9ac is maintained in dAda2b mutants. Our data suggest that by acetylating H3 at lysine 9, dSAGA modifies Pol II accessibility to specific promoters differently. PMID:19740772

  13. AdaRTE: adaptable dialogue architecture and runtime engine. A new architecture for health-care dialogue systems.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Barahona, L M; Giorgino, T

    2007-01-01

    Spoken dialogue systems have been increasingly employed to provide ubiquitous automated access via telephone to information and services for the non-Internet-connected public. In the health care context, dialogue systems have been successfully applied. Nevertheless, speech-based technology is not easy to implement because it requires a considerable development investment. The advent of VoiceXML for voice applications contributed to reduce the proliferation of incompatible dialogue interpreters, but introduced new complexity. As a response to these issues, we designed an architecture for dialogue representation and interpretation, AdaRTE, which allows developers to layout dialogue interactions through a high level formalism that offers both declarative and procedural features. AdaRTE aim is to provide a ground for deploying complex and adaptable dialogues whilst allows the experimentation and incremental adoption of innovative speech technologies. It provides the dynamic behavior of Augmented Transition Networks and enables the generation of different backends formats such as VoiceXML. It is especially targeted to the health care context, where a framework for easy dialogue deployment could reduce the barrier for a more widespread adoption of dialogue systems. PMID:17911878

  14. Conformational flexibility and subunit arrangement of the modular yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase complex.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva; Ross, James D; Lu, Shan; Cheng, Derrick T; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2015-04-17

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a highly conserved, 19-subunit histone acetyltransferase complex that activates transcription through acetylation and deubiquitination of nucleosomal histones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because SAGA has been shown to display conformational variability, we applied gradient fixation to stabilize purified SAGA and systematically analyzed this flexibility using single-particle EM. Our two- and three-dimensional studies show that SAGA adopts three major conformations, and mutations of specific subunits affect the distribution among these. We also located the four functional modules of SAGA using electron microscopy-based labeling and transcriptional activator binding analyses and show that the acetyltransferase module is localized in the most mobile region of the complex. We further comprehensively mapped the subunit interconnectivity of SAGA using cross-linking mass spectrometry, revealing that the Spt and Taf subunits form the structural core of the complex. These results provide the necessary restraints for us to generate a model of the spatial arrangement of all SAGA subunits. According to this model, the chromatin-binding domains of SAGA are all clustered in one face of the complex that is highly flexible. Our results relate information of overall SAGA structure with detailed subunit level interactions, improving our understanding of its architecture and flexibility.

  15. Total electron content and scintillation in the vicinity of the main ionospheric trough over Northern Europe. Final report, 1 Jul 90-30 Jun 91

    SciTech Connect

    Kersley, L.; Walker, I.K.

    1991-06-30

    A receiving system for NNSS satellites located at Lerwick (60.1N, 1.2W) has been used to make differential carrier phase measurements in the vicinity of the main ionospheric trough. The observations have been calibrated to obtain absolute total electron content using measurements from a co-located GPS receiver for two months near solar maximum. Mapping techniques, developed to study the changes in night-time total electron content as a function of both latitude and time, are described. Examples are given of characteristic trough behaviour for different levels of geomagnetic activity. A new feature of the work is the limited extent of the poleward wall of the trough for moderate geomagnetic conditions. The mapping techniques can also be applied to measurements of radio-wave scintillation allowing comparison between small-scale irregularity behaviour and the larger-scale changes in total electron content.

  16. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes in the Ionospheric Trough Region During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Moldwin, M.; Nicolls, M. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Coster, A. J.; Yizengaw, E.; Lyons, L. R.; Donovan, E.

    2013-12-01

    The ionospheric troughs are regions of remarkable electron density depression at the subauroral and auroral latitudes, and are categorized into the mid-latitude trough or high-latitude trough, depending on their relative location to the auroral oval. Substorms are one fundamental element of geomagnetic activity, during which structured field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection flows develop in the subauroral and auroral ionosphere. The auroral/trough region is expected to experience severe electron density variations during substorms. Accurate specification of the trough dynamics during substorms and understanding its relationship with the structured FACs and convection flows are of important practical purpose, including providing observational foundations for assessing the attendant impact on navigation and communication. In addition, troughs are important since they map to magnetospheric boundaries allowing the remote sensing of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. In this talk, we discuss the dynamics of the mid-latitude and high-latitude troughs during substorms based on multi-instrument observations. Using GPS total electron content (TEC) data, we characterize the location and width of the mid-latitude trough through the substorm lifecycle and compare them with existing trough empirical models. Using a combination of incoherent scattering radar (ISR), GPS TEC, auroral imager and a data assimilative model, we investigate the relationship between the high-latitude trough and FACs as well as convection flows. The high-latitude trough is found to be collocated with a counter-clockwise convection flow vortex east of the Harang reversal region, and downward FACs as part of the substorm current system are suggested to be responsible for the high-latitude trough formation. In addition, complex ionospheric electron temperature within the high-latitude trough is found, i.e., increase in the E region while decrease in the F region. We discuss possible

  17. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  18. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    PubMed

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27273565

  19. Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, Adam J; Tholpady, Ashok; Tholpady, Sunil S; Shang, Hulan; Ogle, Roy C

    2005-03-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue contains cells with intriguing multilineage developmental plasticity, much like marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Putative stem or progenitor cells from fat have been given many different names in the literature, reflecting an early and evolving consensus regarding their phenotypic characterization. The study reported here used microarrays to evaluate over 170 genes relating to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix in undifferentiated, early-passage human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells isolated from three separate donors. The hADAS populations unanimously transcribed 66% of the screened genes, and 83% were transcribed by at least two of the three populations. The most highly transcribed genes relate to functional groupings such as cell adhesion, matrix proteins, growth factors and receptors, and proteases. The transcriptome of hADAS cells demonstrated by this work reveals many similarities to published profiles of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition, flow analysis of over 24 hADAS cell surface proteins (n = 7 donors) both confirms and expands on the existing literature and reveals strong intergroup correlation, despite an inconsistent nomenclature and the lack of standardized protocols for cell isolation and culture. Finally, based on flow analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies, our results suggest that hADAS cells do not express several proteins that are implicated as markers of "stemness" in other stem cell populations, including telomerase, CD133, and the membrane transporter ABCG2.

  20. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine <0.09μmol/L, adenosine <1.61μmol/L). We also developed a second tier test to distinguish true positives from false positives and improve the positive predictive value of an initial abnormal result. In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program.

  1. Tufts submarine fan: turbidity-current gateway to Escanaba Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Normark, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel near its western exit from the Blanco Fracture Zone has formed the Tufts submarine fan, which extends more than 350 km south on the Pacific Plate to the Mendocino Fracture Zone. For this study, available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic-reflection data, long-range side-scan sonar images, and sediment core data are used to define the growth pattern of the fan. Tufts fan deposits have smoothed and filled in the linear ridge-and-valley relief over an area exceeding 23,000 km2 on the west flank of the Gorda Ridge. The southernmost part of the fan is represented by a thick (as much as 500 m) sequence of turbidite deposits ponded along more than 100 km of the northern flank of the Mendocino Fracture Zone. Growth of the Tufts fan now permits turbidity-current overflow from Cascadia Channel to reach the Escanaba Trough, a deep rift valley along the southern axis of the Gorda Ridge. Scientific drilling during both the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) provided evidence that the 500-m-thick sediment fill of Escanaba Trough is dominantly sandy turbidites. Radiocarbon dating of the sediment at ODP Site 1037 showed that deposition of most of the upper 120 m of fill was coincident with Lake Missoula floods and that the provenance of the fill is from the eastern Columbia River drainage basin. The Lake Missoula flood discharge with its entrained sediment continued flowing downslope upon reaching the ocean as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. These huge turbidity currents followed the Cascadia Channel to reach the Pacific Plate, where overbank flow provided a significant volume of sediment on Tufts fan and in Escanaba Trough. Tufts fan and Tufts Abyssal Plain to the west probably received turbidite sediment from the Cascadia margin during much of the Pleistocene.

  2. Acetylation of Mammalian ADA3 Is Required for Its Functional Roles in Histone Acetylation and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mohibi, Shakur; Srivastava, Shashank; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-10-01

    Alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3) is an essential component of specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. We have previously shown that ADA3 is required for establishing global histone acetylation patterns and for normal cell cycle progression (S. Mohibi et al., J Biol Chem 287:29442-29456, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.378901). Here, we report that these functional roles of ADA3 require its acetylation. We show that ADA3 acetylation, which is dynamically regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, reflects a balance of coordinated actions of its associated HATs, GCN5, PCAF, and p300, and a new partner that we define, the deacetylase SIRT1. We use mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to identify major sites of ADA3 acetylated by GCN5 and p300. Acetylation-defective mutants are capable of interacting with HATs and other components of HAT complexes but are deficient in their ability to restore ADA3-dependent global or locus-specific histone acetylation marks and cell proliferation in Ada3-deleted murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Given the key importance of ADA3-containing HAT complexes in the regulation of various biological processes, including the cell cycle, our study presents a novel mechanism to regulate the function of these complexes through dynamic ADA3 acetylation. PMID:27402865

  3. Spectrum of mutations in a cohort of UK patients with ADA deficient SCID: Segregation of genotypes with specific ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stuart P; Wilson, Melanie; Harb, Elissar; Fairbanks, Lynette; Xu-Bayford, Jinhua; Brown, Lucie; Kearney, Laura; Madkaikar, Manisha; Bobby Gaspar, H

    2015-12-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) arises from a number of different genetic defects, one of the most common being mutations in the gene encoding adenosine deaminase (ADA). In the UK, ADA deficient SCID compromises approximately 20% of all known cases of SCID. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the ADA gene in 46 known ADA deficient SCID patients on whom DNA had been stored. Here, we report a high frequency of two previously reported mutations and provide a link between the mutations and patient ethnicity within our patient cohort. We also report on 9 novel mutations that have been previously unreported.

  4. Deep drivers of mesoscale circulation in the central Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, T. J.; Aleynik, D.; Dumont, E.; Inall, M. E.

    2015-05-01

    Mesoscale variability in the central Rockall Trough, immediately west of the British Isles, has been investigated using a combination of ship-borne, underwater glider and gridded satellite altimeter measurements. Altimeter observations show that eddies and large-scale circulation cells are ubiquitous phenomena. They have horizontal length scales of order 100 km with vertical scales of over 1000 m and are associated with mean current speeds (over the upper 1000 m) of 15 ± 7 cm s-1. Monthly area averaged surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE) has substantial inter-annual variability, which at times can dominate a mean seasonal signal that varies from a maximum in May (74 cm2 s-2) to a minimum in October (52 cm2 s-2) and has increased gradually since 1992 at about 1.1 cm2 s-2 per year. This increase may be related to the retreat of the sub-polar gyre (SPG). A 5 month glider mission in the trough showed that the cyclonic component of EKE came from cold water features that are located over 1000 m below the surface. The surface currents from altimeters had similar magnitude to the drift currents averaged over 1000 m from the glider in the stratified autumn, but were half the deep water speed during late winter. Although the mesoscale features move in an apparent random manner, they seem to be constrained by submarine topography such as seamounts. Occasionally anti-cyclonic and cyclonic cells combine to cause a coherent westward deflection of the European slope current that warms the Rockall side of the trough. Such deflections contribute to the inter-annual variability in the observed temperature and salinity that are monitored in the upper 800 m of the trough. By combining glider and altimeter measurements it is shown that altimeter measurements fail to observe a 15 cm s-1 northward flowing slope current on the eastern side as well as a small persistent southward current on the western side. There is much to be gained from the synergy between satellite altimetry and in situ

  5. Organic geothermometry of petroleum from Escanaba Trough, offshore northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.; David, King J.; Claypool, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the extent of hopane and sterane isomerization and of monoaromatic-steroid-hydrocarbon aromatization in a sample of hydrothermally derived petroleum from the Escanaba Trough, a sediment-covered, volcanically active ridge axis. The results, along with kinetic parameters, predict the possible time-temperature history of the petrolum-forming process for this sample. The extent of these reactions is consistent with petroleum formation by intense heating (about 300-350??C) if the time period of this heating was as short as about 100 yr. Such a time scale is reasonable for hydrothermal-discharge events associated with ridge-crest volcanism. ?? 1987.

  6. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  7. QUEST/Ada (query utility environment for software testing of Ada: The development of a program analysis environment for Ada, task 1, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, David B.

    1991-01-01

    The results of research and development efforts of the first six months of Task 1, Phase 3 of the project are presented. The goals of Phase 3 are: (1) to further refine the rule base and complete the comparative rule base evaluation; (2) to implement and evaluate a concurrency testing prototype; (3) to convert the complete (unit-level and concurrency) testing prototype to a workstation environment; and (4) to provide a prototype development document to facilitate the transfer of research technology to a working environment. These goals were partially met and the results are summarized.

  8. An Ada implementation of the network manager for the advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail A.

    1986-01-01

    From an implementation standpoint, the Ada language provided many features which facilitated the data and procedure abstraction process. The language supported a design which was dynamically flexible (despite strong typing), modular, and self-documenting. Adequate training of programmers requires access to an efficient compiler which supports full Ada. When the performance issues for real time processing are finally addressed by more stringent requirements for tasking features and the development of efficient run-time environments for embedded systems, the full power of the language will be realized.

  9. The Spectrum Sensing Algorithm Based AdaBoost in Cognitive Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Deyong; Wang, Xin

    To solve the low detection rate of the primary user in the cognitive radio environment, we propose a spectrum sensing method based on AdaBoost in the case of low SNR. In this paper, a set of received signal spectrum features are first calculated and extracted the discriminant feature vector as training samples and testing samples for classification. Finally, we utilize the trained AdaBoost to detect the primary user. Test result shows that the proposed algorithm is not affected by uncertainty factors of noise and has high performance to classification detection compared with ANN, SVM and maximum-minimum eigenvalue (MME).

  10. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this mini-review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response. PMID:21897124

  11. The role of transcriptional coactivator ADA2b in Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Kaldis, Athanasios; Nikoloudi, Adriana; Tsementzi, Despoina

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth and crop production can be greatly affected by common environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity and low temperatures. Gene expression is affected by several abiotic stresses. Stress-inducible genes are regulated by transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications. In this Mini-Review, we have explored the role of transcriptional adaptor ADA2b in Arabidopsis responses to abiotic stress. ADA2b is required for the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress either by controlling H3 and H4 acetylation in the case of salt stress or affecting nucleosome occupancy in low temperatures response.

  12. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of southern part of Benue Trough: from an asymmetric basin in middle Albian to an infilled basin in mid-Cenomanian

    SciTech Connect

    Ojoh, K.A.; Popoff, M.

    1989-03-01

    Before the opening of the Equatorial domain of the South Atlantic, the initiation and installation of most intracontinental basins within Gondwanaland took place before the Albian in northeastern Brazil and west Africa. The first pronounced marine incursion in the southern part of the Benue Trough was in the middle Albian. Subsidence was localized in the deep asymmetrical middle Albian basin. The latter, combined with a lowstand marine ingression in the southern Benue Trough and the progressive rifting-drifting of Africa and South America, engendered an unstable, tectonically active, over-supplied basin characterized by megaslumps and turbidites. During the late Albian, differential subsidence installed a stable platform with organic-rich fossiliferous black shales and littoral deposits contemporaneous with a highstand of sea level and the interconnection of the Central and South Atlantic oceans in the proto Gulf of Guinea. Volcanosedimentary tendencies have been documented from the littoral deposits, and pyroclastics containing molluscan fragments in the southern Benue Trough have also been attributed to the upper Albian. The high rate of subsidence during the Albian became very slow in the Cenomanian. It corresponds to a period of eustatic fall of sea level during the early and middle Cenomanian with high clastic influx into the basin. The middle Cenomanian is characterized as the period of an infilled basin with subaerial-submarine erosional surface (unconformity type 2) in the southern Benue Trough. This may be attributed to the global character of the Cenomanian lowstand of sea level.

  13. Geodetic investigation into the deformation of the Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Brendan W.; Bock, Yehuda; Sandwell, David T.; Fialko, Yuri

    2013-09-01

    Salton Trough represents a complex transition between the spreading center in Baja California and the strike-slip San Andreas fault system and is one of the most active zones of deformation and seismicity in California. We present a high-resolution interseismic velocity field for the Salton Trough derived from 74 continuous GPS sites and 109 benchmarks surveyed in three GPS campaigns during 2008-2009 and previous surveys between 2000 and 2005. We also investigate small-scale deformation by removing the regional velocity field predicted by an elastic block model for Southern California from the observed velocities. We find a total extension rate of 11 mm/yr from the Mesquite Basin to the southern edge of the San Andreas Fault, coupled with 15 mm/yr of left-lateral shear, the majority of which is concentrated in the southern Salton Sea and Obsidian Buttes and is equivalent to 17 mm/yr oriented in the direction of the San Andreas Fault. Differential shear strain is exclusively localized in the Brawley Seismic Zone, and dilatation rate indicates widespread extension throughout the zone. In addition, we infer clockwise rotation of 10°/Ma, consistent with northwestward propagation of the Brawley Seismic Zone over geologic time.

  14. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation. PMID:26117114

  15. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.

    2014-12-01

    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  16. New acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) type copolymers for efficient organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghomrasni, S.; Ayachi, S.; Alimi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Three new conjugated systems alternating acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) type copolymers have been investigated by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) at the 6-31g (d) level of theory. 4,4‧-Dimethoxy-chalcone, also called the 1,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (BMP), has been used as a common acceptor moiety. It forced intra-molecular S⋯O interactions through alternating oligo-thiophene derivatives: 4-AlkylThiophenes (4-ATP), 4-AlkylBithiophenes (4-ABTP) and 4-Thienylene Vinylene (4-TEV) as donor moieties. The band gap, HOMO and LUMO electron distributions as well as optical properties were analyzed for each molecule. The fully optimized resulting copolymers showed low band gaps (2.2-2.8 eV) and deep HOMO energy levels ranging from -4.66 to -4.86 eV. A broad absorption [300-900 nm] covering the solar spectrum and absorption maxima ranges from 486 to 604 nm. In addition, organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) based on alternating copolymers in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) composites with the 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-C61 (PCBM), as an acceptor, have been optimized. Thus, the band gap decreased to 1.62 eV, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) were about 3-5% and the open circuit voltage Voc of the resulting molecules decreased from 1.50 to 1.27 eV.

  17. Depositional evolution of the Melville Bay trough-mouth fan, NW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutz, Paul; Gregersen, Ulrik

    2015-04-01

    The continental margin of NW Greenland bordering northern Baffin Bay is characterized by major sediment accumulations, known as Trough-Mouth Fans (TMF). The fan depocentres represent intense sediment dispersal at the terminus of ice streams that during cold climate periods provided major drainage routes of the northern Greenland Ice Sheet into Baffin Bay. The imprint of paleo-icestreams is seen by erosional troughs crossing a >250 km broad shelf region, which caps a series of sedimentary basins containing thick Mesozoic-Tertiary strata packages. This presentation provides an overview of the seismic stratigraphic division, depositional architecture and examples of seismic facies of the Melville Bay TMF using a 5-10 km grid of industry-quality 2D seismic data (TGS). The focus will primarily be on the inception and early stage of glacial fan development. Comparing the present-day topography with the regional geology shows that the paleo-icestreams exploited the Cenozoic infill of former rift basins that are more conducive to erosion than the adjoining ridges and structural highs. The TMF sequence is constructed by a series of progradational seismic units that represent successive steps in location of ice stream terminus and associated depocenters. The slope fronts of the prograding units show abundant signatures of sediment instability and mass-wasting but evidence of along-slope current-driven processes is also recognized presumably linked to interglacial sea level high-stands. The topset of each unit is characterized by planar erosion that merges landward into hummocky positive geometries with low internal reflectivity. These features are generally interpreted as subglacial landforms, e.g. terminal moraines and ice-contact deposits, associated with grounding zone wedges. Unlike the most recent TMF units deposited in front of the present trough, the oldest glacigenic units have built out from a Neogene sediment prism that forms the core of modern shallow-water banks

  18. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids at the Hatoma Knoll in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, T.; Shinjo, R.; Ishibashi, J.; Tsunogai, U.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Hatoma knoll is a caldera volcano which exists in the southern part of Okinawa Trough, and the hydrothermal field was discovered in the caldera in 1999. A lava dome exists in the center part of the caldera, and clear smokers up to 324.5°C, benthic organism colony and liquid CO2, and CO2 hydrate have been observed around the dome. Since 2000, the investigation cruise (NT00-06, YK07-04, NT07-12, NT08-13, and NT09-10) by "Shinkai2000", "Shinkai6500" and the "HYPER-DOLPHIN 3K" has been carried out. Hydrothermal fluid samples were taken from the hydrothermal system, and chemical and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermal fluid samples were investigated. The chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid has high pH compared with the hydrothermal fluid in the mid-ocean ridge, and ammonium concentration is high, suggesting that the sediments covered the Okinawa Trough contribute to the chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid. The end-members of hydrothermal fluid show a variation, but the ratios of the end-members are consistent with each other, suggesting that the hydrothermal system has a single source and subcritical phase separation occurs below the seafloor. The equilibrium temperature with the quartz based on Si concentration was 350-400°C at 1-2 km below the seafloor. CO2 concentration in hydrothermal fluid showed the high-level value in the hydrothermal system in the world. The origin of the abundant CO2 is the carbonate on the subducting plate and the sediment in the Okinawa Trough based on the carbon isotope and the helium isotope. Methane is also the high-level concentration in the hydrothermal system in the world. Most of methane is generated through methanogenesis based on the carbon isotope ratio. Sr isotopic ratio in the hydrothermal fluid suggests the influence of sediment. However, the knoll surface was covered by rhyolite, the influence of sediment would occur in the recharge zone of the hydrothermal system. The methane would be microbially produced

  19. Dissolved gas 222Rn, 220Rn and 220Rn/222Rn in the Ground Water System of Las Cañadas, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, L.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.; Lopez, D.

    2001-12-01

    Tenerife (2,034 Km2) could be considered as an unique natural-scale laboratory for hydrological studies at oceanic volcanic islands. Thousands of well and galleries have been drilled (1,650 Km) reaching the island volcanic aquifer at different depth and elevations. Cañadas' aquifer is located in the central part of Tenerife and is affected by Teide volcanic-hydrothermal system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration levels of dissolved gas 222Rn and 220Rn as well as their spatial distribution at Cañadas' aquifer. Dissolved gas 222Rn and 220Rn were measured at 13 observation sites "galleries" on July and August, 2001. Concentration of these dissolved gases were performed by means of a gas-water exchange membrane and an electrostatic-type alfa detector SARAD RTM2010-2 during 24 hours, allowing to measure alfa particles from its radioactive progeny, 214Po, 216Po and 218Po in hourly basis. Dissolved gas 222Rn concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 67.3 BqL-1, and 220Rn content ranged from 0.06 to 24.5 BqL-1. Median values for dissolved gas 222Rn and 220Rn are 1.7 and 0.64 BqL-1, respectively. Most of the ground waters showed dissolved gas 222Rn concentrations lower than 10 BqL-1, and relatively high levels up to 67.3 y 24.7 BqL-1 where observed at two galleries on the eastern side of Cañadas' aquifer. 220Rn/222Rn ratio ranged from 0.1 to 0.6. A wide range of 222Rn and 220Rn/222Rn ratios were just detected at the recharge zone of Cañadas' aquifer and a more limited range was observed at lower elevations. Teide volcanic-hydrothermal system might be playing a role on this spatial distribution. These results could be useful for hydrological modelling of Cañadas' aquifer and the geochemical monitoring for the seismic-volcanic surveillance of Tenerife.

  20. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  1. The potential economic benefit of using parabolic trough collectors to supplement power cycle boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmel, W. P., Jr.; Lukens, L. L.

    1981-11-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a combined parabolic trough solar/fossil fuel hybrid power plant. Applications are considered for investor-owned utilities and industries with stockholders and bond purchasers. Annual levelized revenues are calculated, based on the capital cost of equipment, annual operations and maintenance, and a rising cost of fossil fuel. The units of heat are considered as equal in value from each source, and project return on equity for an American Southwest user of the hybrid systems are calculated to show an annual project return on equity of 21% for a utility and 25% for an industry in 1985. Analysis of the total fuel replaced by a solar reheat system for a gas-fueled boiler system shows that a 20% reduction in fuel costs can be obtained by a 10% increase in the plant costs to include the solar reheat system furnishing low-temperature heat in 1985.

  2. Utility-Scale Parabolic Trough Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines, April 2009 - December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.

    2011-05-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The Guidelines contained here are specifically written for parabolic trough collector systems with a heat-transport system using a high-temperature synthetic oil, but the basic principles are relevant to other CSP systems.

  3. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  4. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  5. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  6. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... final rules for title II (28 CFR part 35) and title III (28 CFR part 36) of the Americans with... the Department's revised ADA title II regulation, 28 CFR 35.104 Definitions, the Department defines... consist of the 2004 ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the requirements contained in 28 CFR...

  7. Run-time implementation issues for real-time embedded Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Ruth A.

    1986-01-01

    A motivating factor in the development of Ada as the department of defense standard language was the high cost of embedded system software development. It was with embedded system requirements in mind that many of the features of the language were incorporated. Yet it is the designers of embedded systems that seem to comprise the majority of the Ada community dissatisfied with the language. There are a variety of reasons for this dissatisfaction, but many seem to be related in some way to the Ada run-time support system. Some of the areas in which the inconsistencies were found to have the greatest impact on performance from the standpoint of real-time systems are presented. In particular, a large part of the duties of the tasking supervisor are subject to the design decisions of the implementer. These include scheduling, rendezvous, delay processing, and task activation and termination. Some of the more general issues presented include time and space efficiencies, generic expansions, memory management, pragmas, and tracing features. As validated compilers become available for bare computer targets, it is important for a designer to be aware that, at least for many real-time issues, all validated Ada compilers are not created equal.

  8. Implementation of Ada protocols on Mil-STD-1553 B data bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhman, Smil; Rosemberg, Flavia

    1986-01-01

    Standardization activity of data communication in avionic systems started in 1968 for the purpose of total system integration and the elimination of heavy wire bundles carrying signals between various subassemblies. The growing complexity of avionic systems is straining the capabilities of MIL-STD-1553 B (first issued in 1973), but a much greater challenge to it is posed by Ada, the standard language adopted for real-time, computer embedded-systems. Hardware implementation of Ada communication protocols in a contention/token bus or token ring network is proposed. However, during the transition period when the current command/response multiplex data bus is still flourishing and the development environment for distributed multi-computer Ada systems is as yet lacking, a temporary accomodation of the standard language with the standard bus could be very useful and even highly desirable. By concentrating all status informtion and decisions at the bus controller, it was found to be possible to construct an elegant and efficient harware impelementation of the Ada protocols at the bus interface. This solution is discussed.

  9. 77 FR 36231 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) proposes to amend the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines to specifically address emergency transportable housing units that are provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency or other entities on a temporary site in response to an emergency need......

  10. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... and Centers Program, published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The priorities... 350. (c) The notice of final priorities published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and...

  11. EVALUATION OF THE ADA TECHNOLOGIES' ELECTRO-DECON PROCESS TO REMOVE RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, Jenn-Hai; Demmer, Rick L.; Argyle, Mark D.; Veatch, Brad D.

    2003-02-27

    A surface decontamination system featuring the use of ADA's electrochemical process was tested and evaluated. The process can be flexibly deployed by using an electrolyte delivery system that has been demonstrated to be reliable and effective. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this system for the surface decontamination of radiologically contaminated stainless steel.

  12. 76 FR 57013 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... proposed modifications of its recordkeeping and reporting provisions under title VII, the ADA, and GINA. (76 FR 31892, June 2, 2011). No requests to present oral testimony at a hearing concerning the... COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1602 RIN 3046-AA89 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the...

  13. 76 FR 79065 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR Part 1602 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 900 to 1899, revised as of July 1, 2011, in Part 1602, remove the words ``section 709(c) of title VII or section 107...

  14. Health Care and ADA Language Education Programs. Cooperative Demonstration Program: High Technology. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A project implemented cooperative training programs in the three occupational areas: ADA computer language use; respiratory therapy technician; and hospital pharmacy technician. The project's purpose was to demonstrate high technology training programs for adults as a cooperative effort among the West Virginia Department of Education, local…

  15. 75 FR 43747 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...., buses characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a baggage compartment). 56 FR 45530, September 6, 1991; 63 FR 51694, September 28, 1998. The Access Board's transportation vehicle guidelines are... transportation provisions of the ADA in 1991. 56 FR 45621 and 45756, September 6, 1991. The Department...

  16. 76 FR 38129 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Knowledge Translation... applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.133A-7. Dates: Applications Available: June 29, 2011. Date of Pre-Application Meeting: July 20,...

  17. 75 FR 45661 - Notice of Permanent Closure on Public Lands in Ada County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Permanent Closure on Public Lands in Ada County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure. SUMMARY: On April 12, 2010, Higby Cave and all public lands within 1,000 feet of the entrance were permanently closed to vehicle access...

  18. Stratified basal diamicts and their implications for subglacial conditions in deeply incised bedrock troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buechi, Marius W.; Menzies, John; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Deep bedrock troughs ("tunnel valleys"), formed below Pleistocene piedmont glaciers, serve as valuable archives of the Quaternary landscape evolution of the Northern Alpine foreland basin. The sedimentary infill of these troughs is often dominated by glacier retreat deposits (e.g. glacio-lacustrine silts), while the context of diamicts and gravels at the base, i.e. directly overlying bedrock, remain controversial with regard to their deposition in a subglacial or proglacial environment. We present results from a set of drill cores that recovered such coarse-grained basal units in a major buried bedrock-trough system in the Lower Glatt Valley, Northern Switzerland. The excellent core recovery has allowed a detailed lithological study combining macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical methods. The macroscopic analysis revealed that the basal infill comprises diamicts segmented into ~1-3 m thick layers by sorted interbeds. These interbeds consist either of i) clast-supported gravels interpreted as bedload or lag deposits, or ii) laminated sands and silts representing deposition dominated by low-energy settling. The thinly spaced stacking of sorted and stratified sediments results in a high vertical facies variability. The distinct changes in the energy levels at which the sorted interbeds were transported and deposited are interpreted to indicate alternating phases of a decoupled and coupled ice-bed-interface at the base of the overdeepening. This interpretation is supported by the microstructural analysis performed on thin-sections from diamictons of the basal unit, which reveal a polyphase (brittle and ductile) deformation of the diamicts. A primary indication for a subglacial origin of the deformation comes from an abundance of crushed grains, interpreted as resulting from in-situ fracturing of grains under high tensile stresses, typically attained at grain-to-grain contacts during subglacial deformation. Such a signature is unlikely to occur in a proglacial

  19. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  20. The magnetisation of Rosemary Bank Seamount, Rockall Trough, northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, P. R.; Roberts, D. G.

    1981-08-01

    Rosemary Bank is a non-uniformly magnetised seamount in the northern Rockall Trough. The reversely magnetised major component of the anomaly field was simulated by a numerical method and modelled using the Talwani three-dimensional magnetics program. The results suggest a higher Koenigsberger ratio than earlier reported for Rosemary Bank and a remanent magnetisation vector compatible with post-Jurassic formation and probably of a Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The limited depth to the base of the model implies that Rosemary Bank post-dates the underlying basement in agreement with a volcanic origin. The residual of the observed anomaly field is interpreted as being caused by normally magnetised bodies within and on top of the bank. This suggests subsequent volcanic activity during an interval of normal polarity.

  1. A Tilted-Trough Mechanism for AO/NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.; Pan, L.; Yasutomi, N.

    2001-12-01

    The least damped mode of the linear atmospheric dynamic system with the zonal mean flow interacting with stationary waves is shown to bear much resemblance to the observed Arctic Oscillation (AO)in terms of both zonal and associated stationary wave components. This AO-like mode results from the dynamic self-organization among the components of zonal mean flow and the associated stationary waves through a so-called tilted-trough positive feedback. Namely, the anomalous AO-like sheared zonal flow generates the associated anomaly in stationary waves in such a way that the tilts of the total stationary waves are altered to reinforce the sheared zonal-flow anomaly through the anomalous momentum flux convergence. Thus the AO-like least damped mode, which can be excited by surface or other forcing, is expected to be dominant over monthly and longer time scales.

  2. Oil and gas potential of the west Kamchatka trough

    SciTech Connect

    Savostin, L.; Kusnetsov, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The west Kamchatka trough (WKT) is a region with a two-stage structural pattern (i.e., Cenozoic cover and pre-Cenozoic basement). The composition of hydrocarbons in local accumulations in the trough, and the present-day and paleotemperature distributions suggest that the hydrocarbons have a complex history. The WKT basement complexes, which have been penetrated by wells, are exposed in uplifts in the southern Median-Kamchatka ridge (MKR), where it is possible to study their composition and structure. The nappe structure of the MKR comprises various sedimentary and volcanoclastic complexes, including some highly carbonaceous Mesozoic clastics. Geodynamic analysis of the MKR rocks shows that during the Mesozoic, two separate island-arc terrances evolved in this part of the northwest Pacific, behind which a back-arc basin developed. In the Paleogene, rocks of this basin were overridden by nappes and metamorphosed. New understanding of the structure and evolution of the older complexes suggest that hydrocarbon accumulations may exist in underthrust zones in the WKT basement, which contains both reservoirs and source rocks. Subsequent evolution of the region was accompanied by the formation of zones of anomalously high formation pressure. Hydrocarbons drained upwards along faults and accumulated in structures in the cover, in places reaching the surface. Existing drilling and seismic data do not help with the interpretation of the basement structure because these operations were aimed at discovering local structural traps in the Cenozoic cover. Future oil exploration surveys in the region will require remote sensing methods that have much deeper penetration.

  3. Coseismic slip resolution along a plate boundary megathrust: the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sagiya, Takeshi; Thatcher, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic survey measurements are used to estimate the coseismic slip distribution in the 1944 Tonankai (Mw=8.1) and 1946 Nankaido (Mw=8.3) earthquakes and to assess quantitatively the degree to which this slip is resolved on the plate boundary megathrust. Data used include 798 angle changes from triangulation surveys, 328 leveling section differences, and 5 coseismic tidal gage offsets. Many of the nominally coseismic triangulation data span ∼50 years, nearly half the earthquake cycle, and correction for interseismic deformation using post-1950 observations is applied. Microseismicity is used to define the configuration of the plate boundary interface and approximate it with a continuous, multisegment fault model. Because the onshore geodetic data have very limited resolving power for offshore fault segments, offshore coseismic slip was constrained by Satctke's [1993] estimation based on tsunami data. The majority of the coseismic slip occurs between 15 and 25 km depth. Although resolution declines toward the trench axis, it is sufficiently good to define two distinct high-slip regions, one off southeastern Shikoku Island (11 m maximum) and the other offshore of Kii Peninsula (3 m maximum). The slip magnitude off southeastern Shikoku, coupled with the plate convergence rate, would imply an recurrence interval of about 270 years, much-longer than the average repeat time of ∼120 years for historical great earthquakes on the Nankai Trough. However, the maximum coseismic slip is sensitive to the assumed fault geometry, and slippage on trough-parallel splay faults could significantly decrease the maximum slip to about 6 m.

  4. Tectono-sedimentary framework of the early Cretaceous continental Bima formation (upper Benue Trough, NE Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, M.

    The major structural features of the upper Benue Trough, directly influenced by the Precambrian framework, were initiated during Early Cretaceous times. Previous studies have shown the sandy Bima member deposits to be of probable Neocomian to Upper Aptain age. The Lower Bima gfang lomerates are restricted to the faulted basin margins and give way to braided-river deposits and ≪lacustrine≫deposits towards the basin axes. Characteristic sedimentary profiles of the different facies present within the various Bima members are given. On a regional scale, a horst and graben structural environment controlled both Upper Jurassic to Neocomian magmatism and the overall paleocurrent pattern prevailing during Lower Bima member sedimentation. The Lower Bima continental detrital deposits were transported along varying directions from uplifted areas towards neighbouring sub-basins. These observations clearly demonstrate the influence of Early Cretaceous synsedimentary tectonics on Lower Bima deposition. Both the Benue and Chad structural trends were of importance in controlling the Early Cretaceous history of the Upper Benue basin. A detailed microtectonic study was carried out along the Early Cretaceous synsedimentary fault zones. The results obtained, coupled with those from regional tectonics, indicate that the Upper Benue trough consists of a set a Earlt Cretaceous rhomb grabens or pull-ampart basins with sinistral strike-slip borders trending N 40°E to N 70°E ("Benue" trend) and normal borders striking N 120°E to N 160°E ("Chad" trend). The sediments of the lower Bima member were deposited prior to a major regional hiatus corresponding to the levelling of the continental basins during Late Aptian to Albian times. The fine-grained sediments of the upper Bima member were deposited in an homogeneous braided river system flowing towards the northwest. These deposits seal the major Early Cretaceous structural features.

  5. Mass transport-dominated sedimentation in a foreland basin, the Hidaka Trough, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Atsushi; TuZino, Taqumi; Joshima, Masato; Goto, Shusaku

    2013-08-01

    Mass transport is an important process of sediment redistribution from shallow to deep sea basins. It is vital to understand this process for disaster prevention and protection of economic interests in coastal and offshore areas. We describe mass transport-dominated sedimentation in an active foreland basin, the Hidaka Trough, which developed from collision between the northeastern Japan arc and the Kuril arc. The basin is deformed by east-west compression associated with large, frequent earthquakes. The trough is filled with thick (>4.5 km) sediments, ranging from coal-bearing Cretaceous terrestrial strata to modern diatomaceous hemipelagic mud and volcanic ash. Bottom-simulating reflectors and the distribution of mud volcanoes, pockmarks, and acoustic wipe-out zones on the seismic records suggest the presence of subsurface gases in the sediments. The basin features stacked mass transport deposits (MTDs), but no channel-levee systems have developed. The MTDs are relatively thin (<30 m) and are derived from three sides of the basin margin. Initiation of submarine slope failure in this area may be controlled by multiple factors that increase driving forces and decrease resistance of the slopes. The driving forces include oversteepening of the margin slope as a resul`t of thrusting and folding, and additional downslope gravitational acceleration caused by cyclic shaking during earthquakes. Decreased resistance in the slopes may be caused by the accumulation of excess pore-water pressure driven by a high-sedimentation rate, gas hydrate dissociation accompanying changes in sea level or seawater temperature, and liquefaction in coarse-grained beds during earthquakes.

  6. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with Solar Advisor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. SAM allows users to do complex system modeling with an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). In fact, all tables and graphics for this paper are taken directly from the model GUI. This model has the capability to compare different solar technologies within the same interface, making use of similar cost and finance assumptions. Additionally, the ability to do parametric and sensitivity analysis is central to this model. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  7. Tale of a multifaceted co-activator, hADA3: from embryogenesis to cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chand, Vaibhav; Nandi, Deeptashree; Mangla, Anita Garg; Sharma, Puneet; Nag, Alo

    2016-09-01

    Human ADA3, the evolutionarily conserved transcriptional co-activator, remains the unified part of multiple cellular functions, including regulation of nuclear receptor functions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, chromatin remodelling, genomic stability and chromosomal maintenance. The past decade has witnessed exciting findings leading to considerable expansion in research related to the biology and regulation of hADA3. Embryonic lethality in homozygous knockout Ada3 mouse signifies the importance of this gene product during early embryonic development. Moreover, the fact that it is a novel target of Human Papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein, one of the most prevalent causal agents behind cervical cancer, helps highlight some of the crucial aspects of HPV-mediated oncogenesis. These findings imply the central involvement of hADA3 in regulation of various cellular functional losses accountable for the genesis of malignancy and viral infections. Recent reports also provide evidence for post-translational modifications of hADA3 leading to its instability and contributing to the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, its association with poor prognosis of breast cancer suggests intimate association in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we present the first review on hADA3 with a comprehensive outlook on the molecular and functional roles of hADA3 to provoke further interest for more elegant and intensive studies exploring assorted aspects of this protein. PMID:27605378

  8. Lessons learned in the transition to ADA from FORTRAN at NASA/Goddard. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    A case study was done at Goddard Space Flight Center, in which two dynamics satellite simulators are developed from the same requirements, one in Ada and the other in FORTRAN. The purpose of the research was to find out how well the prescriptive Ada development model worked to develop the Ada simulator. The FORTRAN simulator development, as well as past FORTRAN developments, provided a baseline for comparison. Since this was the first simulator developed here, the prescriptive Ada development model had many similarities to the usual FORTRAN development model. However, it was modified to include longer design and shorter testing phases, which is generally expected with Ada development. One surprising result was that the percentage of time the Ada project spent in the various development activities was very similar to the percentage of time spent in these activities when doing a FORTRAN project. Another surprising finding was the difficulty the Ada team had with unit testing as well as with integration. In retrospect it is realized that adding additional steps to the design phase, such as an abstract data type analysis, and certain guidelines to the implementation phase, such as to use primarily library units and nest sparingly, would have made development much easier.

  9. Tale of a multifaceted co-activator, hADA3: from embryogenesis to cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Vaibhav; Nandi, Deeptashree; Mangla, Anita Garg; Sharma, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Human ADA3, the evolutionarily conserved transcriptional co-activator, remains the unified part of multiple cellular functions, including regulation of nuclear receptor functions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, chromatin remodelling, genomic stability and chromosomal maintenance. The past decade has witnessed exciting findings leading to considerable expansion in research related to the biology and regulation of hADA3. Embryonic lethality in homozygous knockout Ada3 mouse signifies the importance of this gene product during early embryonic development. Moreover, the fact that it is a novel target of Human Papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein, one of the most prevalent causal agents behind cervical cancer, helps highlight some of the crucial aspects of HPV-mediated oncogenesis. These findings imply the central involvement of hADA3 in regulation of various cellular functional losses accountable for the genesis of malignancy and viral infections. Recent reports also provide evidence for post-translational modifications of hADA3 leading to its instability and contributing to the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, its association with poor prognosis of breast cancer suggests intimate association in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we present the first review on hADA3 with a comprehensive outlook on the molecular and functional roles of hADA3 to provoke further interest for more elegant and intensive studies exploring assorted aspects of this protein. PMID:27605378

  10. Homozygosity for a novel adenosine deaminase (ADA) nonsense mutation (Q3>X) in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

    SciTech Connect

    Santisteban, I.; Arrendondo-Vega, F.X.; Kelly, S. |

    1994-09-01

    A Somali girl was diagnosed with ADA-deficient SCID at 7 mo; she responded well to PEG-ADA replacement and is now 3.3 yr old. ADA mRNA was undetectable (Northern) in her cultured T cells, but was present in T cells of her parents and two sibs. All PCR-amplified exon 1 genomic clones from the patient had a C>T transition at bp 7 relative to the start of translation, replacing Gln at codon 3 (AGA) with a termination codon (TGA, Q3>X). Patient cDNA (prepared by RT-PCR with a 5{prime} primer that covered codons 1-7) had a previously described polymorphism, K80>R, but was otherwise normal, indicating that no other coding mutations were present. A predicted new genomic BfaI restriction site was used to establish her homozygosity for Q3>X and to analyze genotypes of family members. We also analyzed the segregation of a variable Alu polyA-associated TAAA repeat (AluVpA) situated 5{prime} of the ADA gene. Three different AluVpA alleles were found, one of which was only present in the father and was not associated with his Q3>X allele. Because the father`s RBCs had only {approximately}15% of normal ADA activity, we analyzed his ADA cDNA. We found a G>A transition at bp 425 that substitutes Gln for Arg142, a solvent-accessible residue, and eliminates a BsmAI site in exon 5. ADA activity of the R142>Q in vitro translation product was 20-25% of wild type ADA translation product, suggesting that R142>Q is a new {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency mutation. As expected, Q3>X mRNA did not yield a detectable in vitro translation product. We conclude that the patient`s father is a compound heterozygote carrying the ADA Q3>X/R142>Q genotype. {open_quote}Partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency unassociated with immunodeficiency is relatively common in individuals of African descent. The present findings and previous observations suggest that {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency may have had an evolutionary advantage.

  11. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig S.

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  12. Plasmaspheric Density Troughs: Global IMAGE EUV Observations and Analysis via Global Core Plasma Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To date, the IMAGE EUV camera has observed several plasmaspheric density trough features inside the plasmapause under a wide range of geomagnetic activity. From the perspective of EUV, a density trough feature appears as a channel of diminished pixel counts which spans a width of L-shell (DELTA L) and magnetic local time (MLT) inside the plasmapause. Plasmaspheric density troughs are found to be morphologically complex possessing considerable spatial and temporal variability. We present an analysis of the evolution of trough DELTA L and MLT extent as functions of associated D (sub ST) and K (sub p) history. Trough features range in size from 0.16 less than or equal to DELTA L less than or equal to 1.2 with azimuthal extent from 1500 less than or equal to MLT less than or equal to 1200. All cases of plasmaspheric density troughs studied to date appear to have evolved as a result of the inner edge of the afternoon/evening plasma drainage plume being wrapped around through the nightside plasmasphere. The structure of plasmaspheric density trough features is further probed by analyzing simulated EUV images produced by forward modeling artificially introduced regions of depleted density into both static and dynamic global core plasmaspheric models. Forward modeling suggests that (1) L-shell refilling of density troughs during storm recovery can be modeled as filling from the ionosphere toward the equator (i.e., bottom-up refilling), and (2) that an erosion process is operating within flux tubes beyond the outer L-shell wall of the observed density troughs.

  13. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The general inadequacy of Ada for programming systems that must survive processor loss was shown. A solution to the problem was proposed in which there are no syntatic changes to Ada. The approach was evaluated using a full-scale, realistic application. The application used was the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS), an experimental computer control system developed for a modified Boeing 737 aircraft. The ATOPS system is a full authority, real-time avionics system providing a large variety of advanced features. Methods of building fault tolerance into concurrent systems were explored. A set of criteria by which the proposed method will be judged was examined. Extensive interaction with personnel from Computer Sciences Corporation and NASA Langley occurred to determine the requirements of the ATOPS software. Backward error recovery in concurrent systems was assessed.

  14. Design of an Ada expert system shell for the VHSIC avionic modular flight processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, F. Jesse

    1992-01-01

    The Embedded Computer System Expert System Shell (ES Shell) is an Ada-based expert system shell developed at the Avionics Laboratory for use on the VHSIC Avionic Modular Processor (VAMP) running under the Ada Avionics Real-Time Software (AARTS) Operating System. The ES Shell provides the interface between the expert system and the avionics environment, and controls execution of the expert system. Testing of the ES Shell in the Avionics Laboratory's Integrated Test Bed (ITB) has demonstrated its ability to control a non-deterministic software application executing on the VAMP's which can control the ITB's real-time closed-loop aircraft simulation. The results of these tests and the conclusions reached in the design and development of the ES Shell have played an important role in the formulation of the requirements for a production-quality expert system inference engine, an ingredient necessary for the successful use of expert systems on the VAMP embedded avionic flight processor.

  15. Discrimination of Breast Tumors in Ultrasonic Images by Classifier Ensemble Trained with AdaBoost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Atsushi; Shimizu, Akinobu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for acurate automated discrimination of breast tumors (carcinoma, fibroadenoma, and cyst). We defined 199 features related to diagnositic observations noticed when a doctor judges breast tumors, such as internal echo, shape, and boundary echo. These features included novel features based on a parameter of log-compressed K distribution, which reflect physical characteristics of ultrasonic B-mode imaging. Furthermore, we propose a discrimination method of breast tumors by using an ensemble classifier based on the multi-class AdaBoost algorithm with effective features selection. Verification by analyzing 200 carcinomas, 30 fibroadenomas and 30 cycts showed the usefulness of the newly defined features and the effectiveness of the discrimination by using an ensemble classifier trained by AdaBoost.

  16. Translating an AI application from Lisp to Ada: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria J.

    1991-01-01

    A set of benchmarks was developed to test the performance of a newly designed computer executing both Lisp and Ada. Among these was AutoClassII -- a large Artificial Intelligence (AI) application written in Common Lisp. The extraction of a representative subset of this complex application was aided by a Lisp Code Analyzer (LCA). The LCA enabled rapid analysis of the code, putting it in a concise and functionally readable form. An equivalent benchmark was created in Ada through manual translation of the Lisp version. A comparison of the execution results of both programs across a variety of compiler-machine combinations indicate that line-by-line translation coupled with analysis of the initial code can produce relatively efficient and reusable target code.

  17. Languages for artificial intelligence: Implementing a scheduler in LISP and in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1988-01-01

    A prototype scheduler for space experiments originally programmed in a dialect of LISP using some of the more traditional techniques of that language, was recast using an object-oriented LISP, Common LISP with Flavors on the Symbolics. This object-structured version was in turn partially implemented in Ada. The Flavors version showed a decided improvement in both speed of execution and readability of code. The recasting into Ada involved various practical problems of implementation as well as certain challenges of reconceptualization in going from one language to the other. Advantages were realized, however, in greater clarity of the code, especially where more standard flow of control was used. This exercise raised issues about the influence of programming language on the design of flexible and sensitive programs such as schedule planners, and called attention to the importance of factors external to the languages themselves such as system embeddedness, hardware context, and programmer practice.

  18. ADaM: augmenting existing approximate fast matching algorithms with efficient and exact range queries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug discovery, disease detection, and personalized medicine are fast-growing areas of genomic research. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing techniques, researchers can obtain an abundance of data for many different biological assays in a short period of time. When this data is error-free, the result is a high-quality base-pair resolution picture of the genome. However, when the data is lossy the heuristic algorithms currently used when aligning next-generation sequences causes the corresponding accuracy to drop. Results This paper describes a program, ADaM (APF DNA Mapper) which significantly increases final alignment accuracy. ADaM works by first using an existing program to align "easy" sequences, and then using an algorithm with accuracy guarantees (the APF) to align the remaining sequences. The final result is a technique that increases the mapping accuracy from only 60% to over 90% for harder-to-align sequences. PMID:25079667

  19. Judge says sex is not a major life activity for purposes of ADA.

    PubMed

    1999-05-28

    A federal judge granted summary judgement to a retailer accused of firing an employee because he had hepatitis C. The employee alleged disability-based discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA requires plaintiffs to show that they are "substantially limited" in "major life activities" such as self-care, walking, or working. The employee attempted to expand this definition, and claimed that he was limited in sexual reproduction. Although a previous court ruling allowed this claim, the judge took a narrow interpretation of the law. The judge held that sexual intercourse was not a major life activity, and that the plaintiff was not substantially limited by his hepatitis C to perform sexually or at work. PMID:11367138

  20. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  1. EEOC says temporary workers qualify for ADA protection. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued guidelines clarifying that both employers and staffing agencies can be held liable for discrimination and harassment of temporary or contingent workers. These workers are often viewed as independent contractors, and not employees. The guidance clarifies the employee-employer relationship, holding both the employment firm and the client accountable for discrimination and harassment and offering protection for this class of worker under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other anti-discrimination statutes. The guidance also contains two case examples of how the ADA applies to contractual workers with HIV. The staffing firm and client each must count every worker with whom there is an employment relationship, and are prohibited from discriminating against each other's employees. PMID:11364955

  2. Desired vancomycin trough serum concentration for treating invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Guglielmo, B Joseph; Hersh, Adam L

    2013-10-01

    Vancomycin area under the curve/minimal inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) >400 best predicts the outcome when treating invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection; however, trough serum concentrations are used clinically to assess the appropriateness of dosing. We used pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to examine the relationship between vancomycin trough values and AUC/MIC in children receiving vancomycin 15 mg/kg every 6 hours and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MIC of 1 μg/mL. A trough of 7-10 μg/mL predicted achievement of AUC/MIC >400 in >90% of children.

  3. Venus trough-and-ridge tessera - Analog to earth oceanic crust formed at spreading centers?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The similarity between the morphologies of Venus trough-and-ridge tessera and the earth's ocean floor is discussed. The hypothesis that tessera texture might be related to a crustal fabric produced at spreading centers is examined. It is suggested that the proccesses that produce the ocean floor fabric on earth are good candidates for the origin and production of the trough-and-ridge tessera. To support this hypothesis, the characteristics of the trough-and-ridge terrain in Laima Tessera are described and compared to the seafloor at spreading centers.

  4. Venus trough-and-ridge tessera - Analog to earth oceanic crust formed at spreading centers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    1990-05-01

    The similarity between the morphologies of Venus trough-and-ridge tessera and the earth's ocean floor is discussed. The hypothesis that tessera texture might be related to a crustal fabric produced at spreading centers is examined. It is suggested that the proccesses that produce the ocean floor fabric on earth are good candidates for the origin and production of the trough-and-ridge tessera. To support this hypothesis, the characteristics of the trough-and-ridge terrain in Laima Tessera are described and compared to the seafloor at spreading centers.

  5. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  6. Rational's experience using Ada for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, James E., Jr.; Devlin, Michael T.

    1986-01-01

    The experience using the Rational Environment has confirmed the advantages forseen when the project was started. Interactive syntatic and semantic information makes a tremendous difference in the ease of constructing programs and making changes to them. The ability to follow semantic references makes it easier to understand exisiting programs and the impact of changes. The integrated debugger makes it much easier to find bugs and test fixes quickly. Taken together, these facilites have helped greatly in reducing the impact of ongoing maintenance of the ability to produce a new code. Similar improvements are anticipated as the same level of integration and interactivity are achieved for configuration management and version control. The environment has also proven useful in introducing personnel to the project and existing personnel to new parts of the system. Personnel benefit from the assistance with syntax and semantics; everyone benefits from the ability to traverse and understand the structure of unfamiliar software. It is often possible for someone completely unfamiliar with a body of code to use these facilities, to understand it well enough to successfully with a body of code to use these facilities to understand it well enough to successfully diagnose and fix bugs in a matter of minutes.

  7. Wouthuysen-Field absorption trough in cosmic string wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Oscar F.

    2014-12-01

    The baryon density enhancement in cosmic string wakes leads to a stronger coupling of the spin temperature to the gas kinetic temperate inside these string wakes than in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect has the potential to enhance this coupling to such an extent that it may result in the strongest and cleanest cosmic string signature in the currently planned radio telescope projects. Here we consider this enhancement under the assumption that x-ray heating is not significant. We show that the size of this effect in a cosmic string wake leads to a brightness temperature at least two times more negative than in the surrounding IGM. If the SCI-HI [T. C. Voytek et al., Astrophys. J. 782, L9 (2014), J. B. Peterson et al., arXiv:1409.2774] or EDGES [J. D. Bowman and A. E. E. Rogers Nature (London) 468, 796 (2010), J. D. Bowman et al., Astrophys. J. 676, 1 (2008)] experiments confirm a WF absorption trough in the cosmic gas, then cosmic string wakes should appear clearly in 21 cm redshift surveys of z =10 to 30.

  8. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  9. Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

    1987-08-01

    The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

  10. Load on Trough Bellows Following an Argon Spill

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, K.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-12

    In the case of a gross argon spill from the DO detector, the liquid argon is caught in three plenums. These plenums are to be connected by bellows to make a horizontal trough open at one end for removing the argon. The design of these bellows is dependent on the maximum argon load they must carry. Bellows to connect the three argon-catching plenums in the DO detector must be able to carry at least 92 lbs of argon when closed and 231 lbs when open, plus the load due to argon in the convolutions. Examples of such loads and the method for their calculations are contained in the Discussion. It should be noted that a set of assumptions was used in these calculations. First, we considered a uniform channel and uniform flow. Second, we used a value for Manning's n meant for a similar, but not exactly the same, case. Finally, we were forced to define an average depth, d, to be used to state the hydraulic radius, R, and area of flow, A. These facts may warrant consideration in future calculations.

  11. Ada (R) assessment: An important issue within European Columbus Support Technology Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vielcanet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Software will be more important and more critical for Columbus than for any ESA previous project. As a simple comparison, overall software size has been in the range of 100 K source statements for EXOSAT, 500 K for Spacelab, and will probably reach several million lines of code for Columbus (all element together). Based on past experience, the total development cost of software can account for about 10 pct to 15 pct of the total space project development cost. The Ada technology may support the strong software engineering principles needed for Columbus, provided that technology is sufficiently mature and industry plans are meeting the Columbus project schedule. Over the past 3 years, Informatique Internationale has conducted a coherent program based on Ada technology assessment studies and experiments, for ESA and CNES. This specific research and development program benefits from 15 years experience in the field of space software development and is supported by the overall software engineering expertise of the company. The assessment and experiments of Ada software engineering by Informatique Internationale are detailed.

  12. Translating expert system rules into Ada code with validation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee; Duckworth, R. James; Green, Peter; Michalson, Bill; Gosselin, Dave; Nainani, Krishan; Pease, Adam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this ongoing research and development program is to develop software tools which enable the rapid development, upgrading, and maintenance of embedded real-time artificial intelligence systems. The goals of this phase of the research were to investigate the feasibility of developing software tools which automatically translate expert system rules into Ada code and develop methods for performing validation and verification testing of the resultant expert system. A prototype system was demonstrated which automatically translated rules from an Air Force expert system was demonstrated which detected errors in the execution of the resultant system. The method and prototype tools for converting AI representations into Ada code by converting the rules into Ada code modules and then linking them with an Activation Framework based run-time environment to form an executable load module are discussed. This method is based upon the use of Evidence Flow Graphs which are a data flow representation for intelligent systems. The development of prototype test generation and evaluation software which was used to test the resultant code is discussed. This testing was performed automatically using Monte-Carlo techniques based upon a constraint based description of the required performance for the system.

  13. Software engineering and Ada (Trademark) training: An implementation model for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    The choice of Ada for software engineering for projects such as the Space Station has resulted in government and industrial groups considering training programs that help workers become familiar with both a software culture and the intricacies of a new computer language. The questions of how much time it takes to learn software engineering with Ada, how much an organization should invest in such training, and how the training should be structured are considered. Software engineering is an emerging, dynamic discipline. It is defined by the author as the establishment and application of sound engineering environments, tools, methods, models, principles, and concepts combined with appropriate standards, guidelines, and practices to support computing which is correct, modifiable, reliable and safe, efficient, and understandable throughout the life cycle of the application. Neither the training programs needed, nor the content of such programs, have been well established. This study addresses the requirements for training for NASA personnel and recommends an implementation plan. A curriculum and a means of delivery are recommended. It is further suggested that a knowledgeable programmer may be able to learn Ada in 5 days, but that it takes 6 to 9 months to evolve into a software engineer who uses the language correctly and effectively. The curriculum and implementation plan can be adapted for each NASA Center according to the needs dictated by each project.

  14. Using Ada to implement the operations management system in a community of experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    An architecture is described for the Space Station Operations Management System (OMS), consisting of a distributed expert system framework implemented in Ada. The motivation for such a scheme is based on the desire to integrate the very diverse elements of the OMS while taking maximum advantage of knowledge based systems technology. Part of the foundation of an Ada based distributed expert system was accomplished in the form of a proof of concept prototype for the KNOMES project (Knowledge-based Maintenance Expert System). This prototype successfully used concurrently active experts to accomplish monitoring and diagnosis for the Remote Manipulator System. The basic concept of this software architecture is named ACTORS for Ada Cognitive Task ORganization Scheme. It is when one considers the overall problem of integrating all of the OMS elements into a cooperative system that the AI solution stands out. By utilizing a distributed knowledge based system as the framework for OMS, it is possible to integrate those components which need to share information in an intelligent manner.

  15. AdaFF: Adaptive Failure-Handling Framework for Composite Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Lee, Wan Yeon; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Kim, Jong

    In this paper, we propose a novel Web service composition framework which dynamically accommodates various failure recovery requirements. In the proposed framework called Adaptive Failure-handling Framework (AdaFF), failure-handling submodules are prepared during the design of a composite service, and some of them are systematically selected and automatically combined with the composite Web service at service instantiation in accordance with the requirement of individual users. In contrast, existing frameworks cannot adapt the failure-handling behaviors to user's requirements. AdaFF rapidly delivers a composite service supporting the requirement-matched failure handling without manual development, and contributes to a flexible composite Web service design in that service architects never care about failure handling or variable requirements of users. For proof of concept, we implement a prototype system of the AdaFF, which automatically generates a composite service instance with Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) according to the users' requirement specified in XML format and executes the generated instance on the ActiveBPEL engine.

  16. The implementation and use of ADA on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The use and implementation of Ada in distributed environments in which reliability is the primary concern is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that a distributed system may be programmed entirely in Ada so that the individual tasks of the system are unconcerned with which processors they are executing on, and that failures may occur in the software or underlying hardware. A new linguistic construct, the colloquy, is introduced which solves the problems identified in an earlier proposal, the conversation. It was shown that the colloquy is at least as powerful as recovery blocks, but it is also as powerful as all the other language facilities proposed for other situations requiring backward error recovery: recovery blocks, deadlines, generalized exception handlers, traditional conversations, s-conversations, and exchanges. The major features that distinguish the colloquy are described. Sample programs that were written, but not executed, using the colloquy show that extensive backward error recovery can be included in these programs simply and elegantly. These ideas are being implemented in an experimental Ada test bed.

  17. 9th Circuit says engaging in sex is a major life activity under ADA.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the ability to engage in sexual relations is a major life activity under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ruling suggests that all adults and adolescents infected with HIV are covered by the ADA because of the risk of transmitting the virus sexually. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled last year in the [name removed] v. [Name removed] case that the ability to procreate is a major life activity, but it left unresolved the issue of whether sexual relations were covered. Several other courts have further defined the issue and ruled that sexual dysfunction should count as a disability. The plaintiff in this case sued after his employer refused to relocate him to a different department, stating he was deprived of a reasonable accommodation. The plaintiff suffered from impotence, and claimed a disability under the ADA. The dissenting judge in the ruling noted that he did not see how one's ability to have sexual relations had any connection to employment. PMID:11367019

  18. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  19. Adenosine deaminase isoenzyme levels in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, I; Sagawa, K; Shichijo, S; Yokoyama, M M; Ou, D W; Wiederhold, M D

    1995-01-01

    In serum, the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) is known to be divided into two isoenzymes, ADA1 and ADA2, which have different molecular weights and kinetic properties. The present study investigated ADA isoenzyme levels in the sera of patients infected with retroviruses associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM), and AIDS, ADA isoenzyme activities were found to be significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the sera of patients with ATL, HAM, and AIDS than in the sera of healthy controls. In the case of the ADA subtypes in the sera of patients with ATL, ADA1 activity was significantly (P < 0.001) elevated in patients with the acute and lymphoma types of ATL compared with that in patients with the chronic and smoldering types of ATL. ADA2 activity was significantly elevated in the sera of patients with the acute, lymphoma, and chronic types of ATL (P < 0.001) compared with that in patients with smoldering ATL and HTLV-1 carriers. In the case of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, ADA1 and ADA2 activities in the sera of patients with AIDS and HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those in the sera of HIV-1 antibody-negative individuals. A significant elevation in ADA2 activity was also seen in the sera of AIDS patients (P < 0.01) compared with that in the sera of HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals. These results suggest that the magnitude of elevation of ADA isoenzyme levels in serum correlates well with the clinical conditions of the patients with these diseases. Measurement of the activities of ADA isoenzymes may therefore provide an additional parameter for distinguishing the subtypes of ATL and may prove to be useful as prognostic and therapeutic monitors in diseases associated with HTLV-1 and HIV-1 infections. PMID:8548545

  20. Hydrographic changes in the northern Okinawa Trough over the last 88 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Wu, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    The surface hydrographic conditions of the northern Okinawa Trough are influenced strongly by fluctuations of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and the Kuroshio. However, the high-resolution records of past surface hydrographic condition remain scarce in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) on orbital and millennial time scales. In this study, we applied a multiproxy (planktonic foraminiferal species, δ18O, alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS)) reconstruction from sediment core CSH1, which is located at the main axis of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of the Kuroshio, in the northern OT since the last 88 ka. The relative abundances of the warm-water planktonic foraminiferal species related to the Kuroshio are high during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while cold-water species related to East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and subarctic water mass are high during MIS 2. Alkenone SST measured from core CSH1 ranges between 21 and 25 ℃, with higher values during interglacials (MIS 1, 3.3, 5.1) and interstadials and lower values during glacials and Heinrich (H)/stadial events. The CSH1 SSS appears to be mainly controlled by the local river runoff and the Kuroshio, while the DOT change seems to be closely related to the strength of the Kuroshio and the latitudinal shift of the subarctic frontal zone. Our records suggest that, during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while global sea level was high, the Kuroshio was dominant; while during MIS 2, MIS 3 and MIS 4, with a low sea level, stronger EAWM and a more southerly subarctic front played important roles in governing the hydrographic characteristics in the OT. The hydrographic records, such as SST, SSS and DOT, show regional responses corresponding mainly to the global sea level, the Kuroshio, EAWM and subarctic front, factors which are consistently invoked in the interpretations of other regional records from the OT. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056

  1. Parallel Ada implementation of a multiple-model Kalman-filter tracking system: a software engineering approach. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, W.J.

    1989-03-01

    The success of the Strategic Defense Initiative depends directly on significant advances in both computer hardware and software development technologies. Parallel architectures and the Ada programming language have advantages that make them candidates for use in SDI command and control computer systems. This thesis examines those advantages in the context of an SDI-type application: implementation of a Kalman-filter tracking system. This research consists of three parts. The first is a set of software engineering guidelines developed for use in creating parallel designs suitable for implementation in Ada. These guidelines cover the design process from initial problem analysis to final detailed design. Methods of problem decomposition are discussed, as are language partitioning strategies. Justification is provided for using the Ada task construct for process boundaries, and Ada multitasking design issues are reviewed. A parallel software design methodology is also described.

  2. Correlation between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and raltegravir plasma trough concentrations in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Yagura, Hiroki; Watanabe, Dai; Ashida, Misa; Kushida, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Kazuyuki; Ikuma, Motoko; Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Yajima, Keishiro; Kasai, Daisuke; Nishida, Yasuharu; Uehira, Tomoko; Yoshino, Munehiro; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2015-10-01

    Raltegravir (RAL), an HIV integrase inhibitor, is metabolized mainly by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). Polymorphisms in UGT1A1 may cause alterations in the pharmacodynamics of RAL, which is taken twice daily with no dietary restrictions. We compared the effect of two polymorphic alleles in this gene, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 on plasma RAL concentrations in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. Of 114 Japanese HIV-1-infected patients who received RAL, the frequencies of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 were 18% and 13%, respectively. The percentage of homozygotes for UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 was 6% and 4%, respectively, the percentage of compound heterozygotes for UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 was 2%, and that of heterozygotes for UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 was 22% and 17%, respectively. RAL plasma trough concentrations were compared for each polymorphism. Significantly higher levels of RAL were observed with patients who were homozygous for UGT1A1*6 (median: 1.0 μg/mL) than for the normal allele (median: 0.11 μg/mL; p = 0.021). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of one or two alleles of UGT1A1*6 or two alleles of UGT1A1*28 were independent factors associated with high RAL plasma trough concentrations (≥ 0.17 μg/mL). These results indicated that UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 are both factors influencing the RAL plasma trough concentrations in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:26233886

  3. Correction of tear trough deformity with novel porcine collagen dermal filler (Dermicol-P35).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2009-01-01

    Deformity of the tear trough region, which can occur during the aging process, can result in dark shadows under the eyes and a fatigued appearance. Augmentation of the tear trough is challenging because of the thin skin and lack of fat in the region. Adding volume to the tear trough region with a dermal filler is a nonsurgical procedure with minimal discomfort to the patient. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence; Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ) is a new, ribose crosslinked, highly purified, porcine-based collagen filler that does not require prior skin testing and has shown improved persistence compared with bovine collagen-based dermal fillers. In this article, we present the clinical outcomes of patients who have received treatment with a novel ribose crosslinked porcine collagen dermal filler for the correction of tear trough deformity.

  4. The temperature field around a spherical ridge or trough in a plane

    SciTech Connect

    Fransaer, J.; Roos, J.R. )

    1992-05-01

    An analytical solution, which describes the temperature field around a single spherical particle partly embedded in a plane or around a trough making an arbitrary contact angle with a plane, is presented here. The temperature distributions for three cases are studied: the temperature distribution around a conducting bowl or trough, the temperature distribution around a non-conducting bowl or trough present in a conducting plane, and the temperature profile around a conducting bowl or trough conducting heat toward a sink at infinity. The normalized heat flux distribution on the plane and particle is presented. The various incremental resistances caused by a single and a dilute planar random array of truncated spherical particles are also derived.

  5. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  6. Coupling flexible solar cell with parabolic trough solar-concentrator-prototype design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, Alexander; Bergquist, Jonathon

    2007-10-01

    Solar cells are still too expensive (5-20/watt) to compete with traditional fossil fuel power generating methods (˜1/watt). Parabolic trough solar concentrator has the advantage of modest concentration ratio (10-100) which is well suited for coupling with solar cell. Thus using small area solar cell placed in the focal line of parabolic trough may be economically viable alternative to flat solar panels. We experiment with flexible solar cell (backed by water cooling pipe) placed in the focus of parabolic trough reflector. Another advantage of parabolic trough concentrator is very relaxed tracking requirement. For example, east-west oriented concentrator (aligned with the ecliptic plane) does not even need any tracking during core 4-6 hours around noon (when maximum illumination is available). The design and the performance of the prototype, as well as possible economical benefits of full scale projects are discussed in the presentation.

  7. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  8. The effects of thick sediment upon continental breakup: seismic imaging and thermal modeling of the Salton Trough, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Lowell, R. P.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kell, A. M.; Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lázaro-Mancilla, O.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting ultimately creates a deep accommodation space for sediment. When a major river flows into a late-stage rift, thick deltaic sediment can change the thermal regime and alter the mechanisms of extension and continental breakup. The Salton Trough, the northernmost rift segment of the Gulf of California plate boundary, has experienced the same extension as the rest of the Gulf, but is filled to sea level by sediment from the Colorado River. Unlike the southern Gulf, seafloor spreading has not initiated. Instead, seismicity, high heat flow, and minor volcanoes attest to ongoing rifting of thin, transitional crust. Recently acquired controlled-source seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data in the Salton Trough provide constraints upon crustal architecture and active rift processes. The crust in the central Salton Trough is only 17-18 km thick, with a strongly layered but relatively one-dimensional structure for ~100 km in the direction of plate motion. The upper crust includes 2-4 km of Colorado River sediment. Crystalline rock below the sediment is interpreted to be similar sediment metamorphosed by the high heat flow and geothermal activity. Meta-sediment extends to at least 9 km depth. A 4-5 km thick layer in the middle crust is either additional meta-sediment or stretched pre-existing continental crust. The lowermost 4-5 km of the crust is rift-related mafic magmatic intrusion or underplating from partial melting in the hot upper mantle. North American lithosphere in the Salton Trough has been almost or completely rifted apart. The gap has been filled by ~100 km of new transitional crust created by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. These processes create strong lithologic, thermal, and rheologic layering. While heat flow in the rift is very high, rapid sedimentation cools the upper crust as compared to a linear geotherm. Brittle extension occurs within new meta-sedimentary rock. The lower crust, in comparison, is

  9. Chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences in Norwegian-Danish basin and North Sea Central Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.O.

    1987-05-01

    Geochemical studies of subsurface sections and outcrops in the Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences from the Norwegian-Danish basin and the North Sea Central Trough have resulted in a detailed chemostratigraphy for these strata. The most applicable chemostratigraphic markers are based on the distribution of strontium, magnesium, manganese, the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio, and the variations in the carbonate contents. It is demonstrated that the chemostratigraphic approach is valid at two levels: (1) a superior chemostratigraphy in which deep-sea cores from the Atlantic Ocean and sections from western Europe are correlated on the basis of significant geochemical anomalies and long-term variations most likely induced by oceanic geochemical cycles and sea level fluctuations; (2) a subordinate but detailed intrabasinal chemostratigraphic correlation which primarily reflects the physicochemical conditions in the depositional environment. The Upper Cretaceous chemostratigraphy established in the Danish area allows a detailed correlation between relatively continuous chalk sequences in the Norwegian-Danish basin and the rather condensed and hiati-influenced sections in the oil fields of the North Sea. The results emphasize the applicability of chemostratigraphy in the subsurface exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk.

  10. Case studies of parasequence-stepped ammonite turnovers in transgressive systems tracts (Jurassic, Vocontian Trough, France)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, S.; Atrops, F. ); Mouterde, R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Mesozoic series of the Vocontian Trough is made up of a subpelagic, bed-scale limestone-marl alternation, which oscillates in a complex way from marl- to limestone-dominated. Sixth to second order cycle may be evidenced in the set of superimposed cyclicities. Platform-to-basin high-resolution correlations allow identification of third-order depositional sequences of sequence stratigraphy as a modulation in the pattern of the roughly 100-k.y.-muted, four to five bed parasequences. So, the authors can describe in detail ammonite turnovers versus systems tracts in basinal deposits. Usually, most of the change occurs in transgressive systems tracts; very few at sequence boundaries. In the several tens of Mesozoic sequences studied, transgressive systems tracts are of variable duration, spanning from one to five parasequences. The occurrence of cold ammonites during third-order sea-level rises, together with the marl-shift in the pattern of parasequences, suggests that coolings are coincident with transgressions, not with lowstands. If correct, most of the stress that forces the evolution of ammonites could be due to short-lived amplifications of the orbitally-forced high-frequency ( glacio-eustatic) oscillation during tectonically controlled third-order rises in sea level.

  11. Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism in the Great Basin: The Dry Mountain trough and related basins

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism affected the continental margin of western North America from the Yukon to the Mojave Desert. Specific signatures of this tectonism include local angular unconformities, regional disconformities, renewed outpouring of clastic debris from a reactivated Antler and related highlands, and development of deeper water basins with anoxic sediments deposited below wave base. The basins formed include Ishbel trough (Canada), the Wood River basin (Idaho), Cassia basin, Ferguson trough, Dry Mountain trough (all Nevada), and unnamed basins in Death Valley-Mojave Desert region. The Dry Mountain trough (DMT) was initiated during early Wolfcampian and received up to 1,200 m of sediment by the late Leonardian. The lower contact is a regional unconformity with the Ely Limestone, or locally with the Diamond Peak or Vinini formations. Thus, following a period of localized regional uplift that destroyed the Ely basin, portions of the uplifted and exposed shelf subsided creating the Dry Mountain trough. Evidence suggesting a tectonic origin for the DMT includes (1) high subsidence rates (60-140 m/m.y.); (2) renewed influx of coarse clastic debris from the Antler highlands: (3) possible pre-Early Permian folding, thrusting, and tilting within the highlands; and (4) differential subsidence within the Dry Mountain trough, suggesting the existence of independent fault blocks.

  12. Temporal variations in the dawn and dusk midlatitude trough position-modeled and measured (Ariel 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Tulunay, Y. K.; Chen, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The temporal development of the latitudinal position of the 600 km midlatitude electron density trough at dawn and dusk during the period 25-27 May 1967, which encompassed a large magnetic storm, was measured by the RF capacitive probe on the polar orbiting Ariel 3 satellite. The substorm-related changes in the L coordinate of the trough minimum and the point of most rapid change of density gradient on the low latitude side of the trough are similar. Oscillations of the trough position at dusk are in phase with substorm activity whereas movement of the trough at dawn is only apparent with the onset of the large storm. Near dusk there is evidence of structure in the form of a tail-like extension of the plasmasphere at the peak of the storm. Detailed model calculations assuming a spatially invariant equatorial convection E field which varies in step with K sub p index reproduces much of the observed behavior, particularly at dusk, and shows that more than one plasmapause-type transition may be identifiable in the trough region.

  13. Decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode and its influence on the East Asian trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunhui; Zhou, Botao; Ding, Yihui

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the decadal variation of the stratosphere-troposphere coupled system around the year 2000 by using the NCEP reanalysis-2 data. Specifically, the relationship between the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) and the tropospheric East Asian trough is investigated in order to find the effective stratospheric signals during cold air outbreaks in China. Statistical analyses and dynamic diagnoses both indicate that after 2000, increased stratospheric polar vortex disturbances occur and the NAM is mainly in negative phase. The tropospheric polar areas are directly affected by the polar vortex, and in the midlatitudes, the Ural blocking high and East Asian trough are more active, which lead to enhanced cold air activities in eastern and northern China. Further investigation reveals that under this circulation pattern, downward propagations of negative NAM index are closely related to the intensity variation of the East Asian trough. When negative NAM anomalies propagate down to the upper troposphere and reach a certain intensity (standardized NAM index less than-1), they result in apparent reinforcement of the East Asian trough, which reaches its maximum intensity about one week later. The northerly wind behind the trough transports cold air southward and eastward, and the range of influence and the intensity are closely associated with the trough location. Therefore, the NAM index can be used as a measure of the signals from the disturbed stratosphere to give some indication of cold air activities in China.

  14. A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Leveling Device for Ultramicrotomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Austin E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a device for maintaining the proper water level in knife boats during ultramicrotomy. Water levels in troughs are adjusted rapidly and precisely during the cutting process. Illustrations are included. (Author/MA)

  15. Structure and mineralization in the Salton Trough, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ririe, G.T. . Science and Technology Div.)

    1992-01-01

    The Salton Trough (ST) is located in southeastern California and extends into northern Baja, Mexico. Structurally the ST consists of predominantly northwest-trending, right-lateral, strike-slip faults separated by a series of down-dropped basinal areas. A variety of processing techniques were used to enhance gravity and magnetic data which were used to help define the structural styles present in the sediment-filled ST, and to define the boundaries of the basinal areas. The system of strike-slip faults and related basinal areas in interpreted to be a late Neogene style of deformation that overprints an earlier-formed extensional basin. The intrusion of Neogene intrusive rocks into the sediment-filled ST has resulted in the development of a number of geothermal systems including the Salton Sea (SS) system. A characteristic feature of the commercially productive geothermal systems in the ST is the presence of high-temperature (> 250 C) saline brines. The chemistry of these brines varies widely within the ST. Data from a large number of analyses of the SS geothermal system brines and scales document the presence of a variety of metallic elements including: Pb, ZN, Cu, Mn, Ag, and Au. A variety of mineral deposits occur within and adjacent to the ST including the large open pit Mesquite gold mine. However, none of the gold deposits along the margin of the ST formed from a fossil geothermal system analogous to the SS system. Fossil analogs to SS type systems are suggested to be present in the Proterozoic Mt. Isa block in northern Australia. Deposits in this part of Australia consist of several world-class base metal deposits including the Mt. Isa mine. Structural controls on the localization of geothermal systems in the ST may be similar to those controlling the distribution of mineralization in ancient continental rift systems such as those in northern Australia.

  16. Seismic Reflectivity of the Crust in the Northern Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K.; Fuis, G. S.; Goldman, M.; Persaud, P.; Ryberg, T.; Langenheim, V. E.; Scheirer, D. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Catchings, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Trough in southern California is a tectonically active pull-apart basin that was formed by migrating step-overs between strike-slip faults, of which the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and the Imperial Fault are the current, northernmost examples. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) was undertaken to improve our knowledge of fault geometry and seismic velocities within the sedimentary basins and underlying crystalline crust around the SAF. Such data are useful as input for modeling scenarios of strong ground shaking in the surrounding high-population areas. We used pre-stack depth migration of line segments from shot gathers in several seismic profiles that were acquired in the northern part of the SSIP study area (Lines 4 - 7). Our migration approach can be considered as an infinite-frequency approximation of the Fresnel volume pre-stack depth migration method. We use line segments instead of the original waveform data. We demonstrate the method using synthetic data and analyze real data from Lines 4 - 7 to illustrate the relationship between distinct phases in the time domain and their resulting image at depth. We show both normal-moveout reflections from sub-horizontal interfaces and reverse-moveout reflections from steep interfaces, such as faults. Migrated images of dipping faults, such as the SAF and the Pinto Mountain Fault, are presented in this way. The SAF is imaged along Line 4, through the Mecca Hills, as a number of steeply dipping fault segments that collectively form a flower structure, above 5 km depth, that sole into a moderately NE-dipping fault below that depth. The individual migrated reflection packages correlate with mapped surface fault traces in the Mecca Hills. A similar geometry is seen on Line 6, from Palm Springs through Yucca Valley, where fault splays sole or project into a moderately dipping SAF below 10-km depth. We also show and discuss the reflectivity pattern of the middle and lower crust for Lines 4 - 7.

  17. ADA Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gips, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    Describes requirements for existing educational facilities under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act and addresses issues such as guidelines for children, wheelchair-accessible and ambulatory stalls, areas without their own section in the standards, assistive listening devices in auditoriums, ramp slope, emergency evacuation planning,…

  18. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-05-01

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  19. Studies of burial metamorphism in the Cretaceous sediments of the Southern Benue Trough and Anambra, Basin, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akande, S.O.; Erdtmann, B.D.

    1995-08-01

    Organic matter reflectance, illite crystallinity and fluid inclusion techniques are applied to the evaluation of burial history of Cretaceous sediments in the southern Benue Trough and Anambra Basin. The successions are invaded by intrusives, volcanic rocks and intra-formational veins especially in the Albian sections of the Abakaliki anticline and sub-bituminous coals in the Lower Maastrichtian sections of the Anambra Basin. Vitrinite reflectance (Rm) data from exposed NW/SE sections from Enugu to Abakaliki are ca: .55% in the Lower Maastrichtian coals and shales, 0.67% in the Coniacian shales, 0.91 in the Turonian shales and 4.31% in the Albian shales. A corresponding decrease in illite crystallinity indices coupled with a decrease in the percentage of smectite from 30% to 0% (%S in I/S) was observed on the NW/SE section. Fluid inclusion temperatures from vein quartz in the Albian shales range from 170 to 250{degrees}C. Our data suggest that sediments in the study area were buried to ranks within and beyond the oil window at their present outcrop levels. Possibilities for Cretaceous targets should be sought in the deeper non emergent sections of the Benue Trough and the Anambra Basin.

  20. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  1. Detailed Studies of the Axial Summit Trough of the East Pacific Rise 9-10N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Soule, S. A.; Escartin, J.; Perfit, M.; Tivey, M.; Schouten, H.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2005-12-01

    The axial summit trough is a nearly continuous feature along the East Pacific Rise from 9-10 deg. N. The AST marks the central spreading axis of the ridge, is the site of the bulk of the volcanic eruptions, and hosts the majority of hydrothermal vent sites. In the past, the AST has been interpreted to be a purely tectonic or purely volcanic feature. Detailed analysis of sidescan imagery and high-resolution microbathymetry are used to identify the morphology and structural variability of the axial summit trough (AST) along the EPR crest in the study area. We use these data to address questions related to the causes for variability in width and character of the AST and how those parameters relate to the morphology and volcanic history of adjacent seafloor, relationships between lava flows and faults and fissures developed within ~4 km of the AST, and the frequency and size of volcanic eruptions. With constraints from microbathymetry data and knowledge of the detailed volcanic contacts along the EPR 9-10N AST derived from Alvin and towed camera data, we explore models of AST formation in an effort to better understand relationships between dike intrusion and how extensional strain is accommodated across the EPR axis. Assuming purely tectonic origins for the AST, 3D boundary element modeling suggests that dike widths and the levels to which dikes rise beneath the EPR axis are variable along-axis. For well-mapped portions of the AST we are able to infer the number of dikes needed to produce its current geometry, and as a result, the timescale of formation. Where the ridge is most volcanically active, we find that modeled dike widths and depths are unreasonable, and suggest that volcanic overprinting has modified the character of the AST. We conclude that both volcanic and tectonic processes are responsible for the formation of the AST and that the balance between these parameters controls the physical characteristics of the AST observed on the seafloor today.

  2. Combining multiple feature representations and AdaBoost ensemble learning for reducing false-positive detections in computer-aided detection of masses on mammograms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Hoe; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N; Ro, Yong Man

    2012-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of current Computer-aided Detection (CADe) systems is a high number of false-positive (FP) detections, especially for detecting mass abnormalities. In a typical CADe system, classifier design is one of the key steps for determining FP detection rates. This paper presents the effective classifier ensemble system for tackling FP reduction problem in CADe. To construct ensemble consisting of correct classifiers while disagreeing with each other as much as possible, we develop a new ensemble construction solution that combines data resampling underpinning AdaBoost learning with the use of different feature representations. In addition, to cope with the limitation of weak classifiers in conventional AdaBoost, our method has an effective mechanism for tuning the level of weakness of base classifiers. Further, for combining multiple decision outputs of ensemble members, a weighted sum fusion strategy is used to maximize a complementary effect for correct classification. Comparative experiments have been conducted on benchmark mammogram dataset. Results show that the proposed classifier ensemble outperforms the best single classifier in terms of reducing the FP detections of masses.

  3. Simulations of tropical cyclogenesis associated with different monsoon trough patterns over the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Chen, Guanghua; Li, Tim; Ren, Fumin

    2016-08-01

    The numerical simulations of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis during the strong and weak monsoon trough (MT) years, in which meteorological fields are composited, are conducted using advanced research weather research and forecasting model. The simulation results show that both tropical disturbances tend to form in the east of the western North Pacific (WNP) near 160°-170°E during the strong and weak MT years. During the strong MT years, there is a faster formation rate of TC. The eastward-extending MT gradually evolves into a closed monsoon gyre over the WNP during the early stage. The following rapid development of TC can be attributed to the enhanced lower-level southwesterly flows induced by the cross-equatorial currents, enhanced easterly winds, and weak vertical wind shear, which provide a favorable environment for TC genesis. The strengthened large-scale circulation spawns abundant convective updrafts resulting in the aggregation of cyclonic vorticity. In contrast, during the weak MT years, the westward-retreated MT gradually evolves into expansive easterly winds over the WNP. Two episodes of convective updrafts are triggered with a longer interval, and thus lead to a slower TC genesis compared with that during the strong MT years.

  4. Tectonic sequence stratigraphy, Early Permian Dry Mountain trough, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.S.; Gallegos, D.M.; Spinosa, C. ); Schwarz, D.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The Early Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) of east-central Nevada is one of several tectonic basins and associated uplifts that developed along the continenetal margin during the latest Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Dry Mountain tectonic phase. The sequence stratigraphy reflects a combination of eustatic sea level changes and tectonic uplift or subsidence. Fewer than one to only a few million years separate the development of sequence boundaries within the DMT. At this scale, differences among published eustasy curves preclude their use as definitive tools to identify eustatically controlled sequence boundaries. Nevertheless, available data indicate several pulses of tectonism affected sedimentation within the DMT. The authors are attempting to develop criteria to distinguish tectonic from eustatic sequence boundaries. Detailed biostratigraphic data are required to provide an independent check on the correlation of sequence boundaries between measured sections. For example, the same age boundary may reflect tectonic uplift in one part of the basin and subsidence in another. The uplift may or may not result in subaerial exposure and erosion. For those boundaries that do not result from subaerial exposure, lithofacies and biofacies analyses are required to infer relative uplift (water depth decrease) or subsidence (water depth increase). There are inherent resolution limitations in both the paleontologic and sedimentologic methodologies. These limitations, combined with those of eustasy curves, dictate the preliminary nature of their results.

  5. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  6. SST-forced interdecadal deepening of the winter India-Burma trough since the 1950s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo; Ren, Hong-Li

    2016-03-01

    The winter India-Burma Trough (IBT) has undergone a pronounced interdecadal deepening since the 1950s, which led to the significant rainfall increasing over the eastern Indochina Peninsula and south China. To better understand such an observed IBT change, this study examines the responses of the IBT to the upstream subtropical jet, historical anthropogenic forcing, and tropical sea surface temperature (SST). Results show that the SST warming that occurs in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean (ETIO) is the primary cause of the observed interdecadal IBT deepening. The remarkable SST warming leads to a reduction of sea level pressure (SLP) over ETIO by diabatic heating. In association with the change of zonal SLP gradient, the westerly wind anomalies are observed. The northern flank of the westerlies further induces a cyclonic Rossby wave response over the Bay of Bengal. As a result, the winter IBT is intensified. This attribution can be supported by the simulations of atmosphere general circulation models forced by historical SST, in which the observed IBT changes are well simulated on both interdecadal and interannual time scales.

  7. Structural and tectonic evolution of the eastern Cayman Trough (Caribbean Sea) from seismic reflection data

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, S.; Mauffret, A.; Pubellier, M.

    1996-02-01

    The eastern Cayman Trough preserves a record of the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Caribbean history that is largely affected by Neogene strike-slip tectonics of the current plate boundary. We conducted an analysis of seismic data within the eastern Cayman Trough, based upon single and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles collected during the Seacarib II cruise in 1987 and the Casis cruise in 1992. These data show that the basement of the eastern Cayman Trough can be divided into four domains from east to west, with distinct morphologic and sedimentary character and inferred older to younger ages: (1) a province of rifted Mesozoic continental crust exhibiting seven parallel horst blocks striking northeast-southwest; (2) a continent-ocean transition between provinces 1 and 3 that exhibits seamounts, small hills, and sedimentary basins; (3) an Eocene oceanic crust with rough basement but smoother relief than the rifted crust; basement trends are roughly north-south and oblique to the northwest trend in domain 1, and (4) the northern Jamaica slope, which forms an east-west-trending slope, with northward-dipping strata that flank the three deeper water domains of the Cayman Trough. The domains are interpreted to be the product of the Eocene east-west opening of the Cayman Trough as a pull-apart basin in a left-lateral strike-slip setting. Closure of the 1100 km of Eocene and younger oceanic crust of the Cayman Trough places the fault-block province adjacent to the Belize margin of Central America. A Neogene phase of transpression has reactivated structures in the four domains, along with on-land structures described by previous authors in Jamaica. The proximity of the eastern margin of the Cayman Trough to petroliferous, continental rocks in Central America suggests an improved possibility of hydrocarbon potential. Unfortunately, sediment thicknesses of less than 1 km probably are not conducive to hydrocarbon formation.

  8. An attempt to model the influence of the trough on HF communication by using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulunay, Yurdanur; Tulunay, Ersin; Senalp, Erdem Turker

    2001-09-01

    Trough is an interesting phenomenon in characterizing the behavior of the ionosphere, especially during disturbed conditions. The subject, which was introduced around the 1970s, is still attracting attention, especially during recent years. In HF communication, in particular, over the midlatitude ionospheric regions the electron density trough exhibits a phenomenon of abrupt gradients of electron densities in space and time which are directly reflected to foF2. Thus the performances of HF communications are directly affected. In this work an attempt has been made for the modeling to quantify the influence of the ionospheric midlatitude electron density trough on the ionospheric critical frequency foF2 by using neural networks. Data sets are used from the ground stations that include observations in the trough region. It has been demonstrated that the neural-net based approaches are promising in modeling of the ionospheric processes. Data generated by using statistical relationships are used to train the neural network. Then the trained neural network is used to forecast the ionospheric critical frequency, foF2, values 1 hour in advance for the cases when the probability of influence of the trough is high. Preliminary results will be presented to discuss the suitability of the neural-network-based approach in the modeling of complex processes such as the influence of the trough on foF2. The basic contributions of this work are 1) generation and organization of significant data for teaching complex processes, 2) neural-network-based modeling of a highly complex nonlinear process such as the influence of the trough on foF2 forecasting, and 3) general demonstration of learning capability by calculating cross correlations and general demonstration of reaching a proper operating point by calculating errors (that is, during the optimization process the neural network reaches the global minimum by using the gradient descent method).

  9. Stereospecific removal of methyl phosphotriesters from DNA by an Escherichia coli ada+ extract.

    PubMed

    Weinfeld, M; Drake, A F; Saunders, J K; Paterson, M C

    1985-10-11

    The ada+ gene product, a DNA methyltransferase present in extracts from an Escherichia coli strain constitutive for the adaptive response, removes only half of the methyl phosphotriesters from alkylated DNA. Since DNA phosphotriesters occur in two isomeric configurations (denoted Rp and Sp), we examined whether this reflects a stereospecific mode of repair by the methyltransferase. Analysis by reverse-phase HPLC, phosphorus NMR and circular dichroism established that only triesters in the Sp configuration are acted upon by the E. coli extract. PMID:3903661

  10. Detection of coronal mass ejections using AdaBoost on grayscale statistic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Yin, Jian-qin; Lin, Jia-ben; Wang, Xiao-fan; Guo, Juan

    2016-10-01

    We present an automatic algorithm to detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 running difference images. The algorithm includes 3 steps: (1) split the running difference images into blocks according to slice size and analyze the grayscale statistics of the blocks from a set of images with and without CMEs; (2) select the optimal parameters for slice size, gray threshold and fraction of the bright points and (3) use AdaBoost to combine the weak classifiers designed according to the optimal parameters. Experimental results show that our method is effective and has a high accuracy rate.

  11. Ground-water quality in northern Ada County, lower Boise River basin, Idaho, 1985-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.; Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    In October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, Boise Regional Office (IDEQ-BRO), began a comprehensive study of ground-water quality in the lower Boise River Basin. The study in northern Ada County has been completed, and this report presents selected results of investigations in that area. Results and discussion presented herein are based on information in publications listed under “References Cited” on the last page of this Fact Sheet.

  12. An Ada Linear-Algebra Software Package Modeled After HAL/S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Lawson, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    New avionics software written more easily. Software package extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to those of HAL/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as Space Station flight software. In addition to built-in functions of HAL/S, package incorporates quaternion functions used in Space Shuttle and Galileo projects and routines from LINPAK solving systems of equations involving general square matrices. Contains two generic programs: one for floating-point computations and one for integer computations. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.

  13. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  14. Software issues involved in code translation of C to Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooi, Robert; Giarratano, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    It is often thought that translation of one programming language to another is a simple solution that can be used to extend the software life span or in rehosting software to another environment. The possible problems are examined as are the advantages and disadvantages of direct machine or human code translation versus that of redesign and rewrite of the software. The translation of the expert system language called C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) which is written in C, to Ada, will be used as a case study of the problems that are encountered.

  15. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of the Salton Trough, southeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; McCarthy, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents data and modelling results from a crustal and upper mantle wide-angle seismic transect across the Salton Trough region in southeast California. The Salton Trough is a unique part of the Basin and Range province where mid-ocean ridge/transform spreading in the Gulf of California has evolved northward into the continent. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the final leg of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE). Two perpendicular models of the crust and upper mantle were fit to wide-angle reflection and refraction travel times, seismic amplitudes, and Bouguer gravity anomalies. The first profile crossed the Salton Trough from the southwest to the northeast, and the second was a strike line that paralleled the Salton Sea along its western edge. We found thin crust (???21-22 km thick) beneath the axis of the Salton Trough (Imperial Valley) and locally thicker crust (???27 km) beneath the Chocolate Mountains to the northeast. We modelled a slight thinning of the crust further to the northeast beneath the Colorado River (???24 km) and subsequent thickening beneath the metamorphic core complex belt northeast of the Colorado River. There is a deep, apparently young basin (???5-6 km unmetamorphosed sediments) beneath the Imperial Valley and a shallower (???2-3 km) basin beneath the Colorado River. A regional 6.9-km/s layer (between ???15-km depth and the Moho) underlies the Salton Trough as well as the Chocolate Mountains where it pinches out at the Moho. This lower crustal layer is spatially associated with a low-velocity (7.6-7.7 km/s) upper mantle. We found that our crustal model is locally compatible with the previously suggested notion that the crust of the Salton Trough has formed almost entirely from magmatism in the lower crust and sedimentation in the upper crust. However, we observe an apparently magmatically emplaced lower crust to the northeast, outside of the Salton Trough, and propose that this layer in part

  16. The structure and subsidence of Rockall Trough from two-ship seismic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Joppen, M.; White, R.S. )

    1990-11-10

    Coincident multichannel seismic reflection and refraction profiles acquired northwest of Britain during a two-ship seismic experiment in the southern Rockall Trough provide evidence for a thin (6 km) syn-rift crust below Rockall Trough. The variation of seismic velocity with depth is consistent with either oceanic crust similar to that found in other parts of the North Atlantic or with thinned continental crust heavily intruded by syn-rift igneous rocks. The syn-rift crust beneath Rockall Trough is now buried by nearly 5 km of sediments that are intruded by Tertiary volcanics varying in extent from isolated sills to a large sill complex extending 100 km laterally. The basement imaged on seismic profiles exhibits a band of subhorizontal reflectors that extend laterally over distances of up to 40 km which they interpret as sediments intercalated with submarine lava flow generated during the opening of the Trough. Estimates of stretching from crustal thinning and from subsidence indicate that Rockall Trough has undergone extensive rifting ({beta} > 6). Upwelling asthenosphere beneath the thinned lithosphere generated at least 1-3 km thickness of melt as it decompressed. The molten rock rose upward from the mantle until it was in part extruded as lava flows and in part intruded into the crust.

  17. Macrobenthos of the southern part of St. Anna trough and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.; Minin, K. V.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Molodtsova, T. N.; Rajskiy, A. K.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of benthic communities of the southern part of St. Anna Trough were investigated during the 54th and 59th cruises of RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Material was collected using Sigsbee trawl at 10 stations arranged in two transects (depth range 57-554 m). It was shown that benthic communities of the western arm of the St. Anna Trough differ considerably from the communities of the eastern arm. The western arm communities develop under the influence of active near-bottom hydrodynamics in conditions of rugged topography and a coarse-grained sediment or hard substrate. The wastern arm of the trough is characterized by the predomination of the soft sediment, smooth topography, and weak currents. In the western arm of the trough the influence of the Barents Sea fauna is traced down to the edge of the internal shelf (about 150 m depth). The community of the eastern arm of the trough situated out from the direct influence of the Barents Sea waters represents a continuation of the Ophiocten sericeum community, typical for external Kara Sea shelf. With increasing depth, Ophiopleura borealis becomes the dominant species of the community. In the greatest explored depths some deep-water High-Arctic species, such as echinoids Pourtalesia jeffreysi, were observed. The major factors determining the distribution of benthic communities in the investigated area are the microrelief pattern, the sediment structure, and near-bottom hydrodynamics.

  18. Altitude Variation of the Plasmapause Signature in the Main Ionospheric Trough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Benson, Robert F.; Webb, Phillip A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Bilitza, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    The projection of the plasmapause magnetic-field lines to low altitudes, where the light-ion chemistry is dominated by O(+), tends to occur near the minimum electron density in the main (midlatitude) electron density trough at night. With increasing attitude in the trough, where H(+) emerges as the dominant iota on the low-latitude boundary, we have found cases where the plasmapause field lines are located on the sharp low-Latitude side of the trough as expected if this topside ionosphere H(+) distribution varies in step with the plasmapause gradient in the distant plasmasphere. These conclusions are based on near-equatorial crossings of the plasmapause (corresponding to the steep gradient in the dominant species H(+) by the Explorer-45 satellite as determined from electric-field measurements by Maynard and Cauffman in the early 1970s and ISIS-2 ionospheric topside-sounder measurements. The former data have now been converted to digital form and made available at http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The latter provide samples of nearly coincident observations of ionospheric main trough crossings near the same magnetic-field lines of the Explorer 45-determined equatorial plasmapause. The ISIS-2 vertical electron density profiles are used to infer where the F-region transitions from an O(+) to a H(+) dominated plasma through the main trough boundaries.

  19. The noon and midnight mid-latitude trough as seen by Ariel 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulunay, Y. K.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The electron density data returned by the polar orbiting satellites Ariel 3 and Ariel 4 revealed that the midlatitude trough is one of the distinct large-scale features of the ionosphere at about 550 km. Recent work (e.g., Tulunay and Grebowsky, 1975) on the data included the investigation of the temporal development of the latitudinal position of the midlatitude electron density trough at dawn and dusk during the large magnetic storms of May 1967 and May 1972. Model calculations which assumed that the equatorial convection E-field varies in step with the Kp index reproduced on the average the observed behavior. In the present paper, trough observations made at noon and midnight during the period, 12-21 December 1971 which encompassed a relatively large magnetic storm are discussed. In this context, model calculations have been employed as a guide of average approximations of the actual situation in predicting the plasmapause location. It is also shown that the trough observed on the noon passes is not generally plasmapause-related as the nightside troughs are expected to be.

  20. Generic Ada code in the NASA space station command, control and communications environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougall, D. P.; Vollman, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of efforts to apply powerful Ada constructs to the formatted message handling process are described. The goal of these efforts was to extend the state-of-technology in message handling while at the same time producing production-quality, reusable code. The first effort was initiated in September, 1984 and delivered in April, 1985. That product, the Generic Message Handling Facility, met initial goals, was reused, and is available in the Ada Repository on ARPANET. However, it became apparent during its development that the initial approach to building a message handler template was not optimal. As a result of this initial effort, several alternate approaches were identified, and research is now on-going to identify an improved product. The ultimate goal is to be able to instantly build a message handling system for any message format given a specification of that message format. The problem lies in how to specify the message format, and one that is done, how to use that information to build the message handler. Message handling systems and message types are described. The initial efforts, its results and its shortcomings are detailed. The approach now being taken to build a system which will be significantly easier to implement, and once implemented, easier to use, is described. Finally, conclusions are offered.

  1. Mason Tenders agrees to pay $1 million to end ADA litigation.

    PubMed

    1995-12-29

    The [name removed] District Council Welfare Fund has agreed to pay $1 million to construction workers who have been denied medical coverage for AIDS-related care. The decision establishes self-insured health care benefits programs as covered entities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The settlement ends a three-year battle which began in 1992 between [name removed] and fourteen HIV-positive construction workers who were refused medical coverage. The first suit was filed by [name removed]., a construction worker who lost coverage for his HIV-related care in July 1991. At that time, the union fund decided to exclude care for HIV on the grounds that it was too expensive. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) filed an ADA lawsuit that challenged disability-based distinctions in health insurance. The U.S. Attorney's Office filed a complaint against the union under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute to end organized crime associated with the union. In late 1994, the government announced a consent decree, settling its racketeering suit against the union. Under the terms of the settlement, [name removed] was awarded $16,000 in damages. In the EEOC case, damages for plan members ranged as high as $50,000.

  2. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  3. Using AppletMagic(tm) to Implement an Orbit Propagator: New Life for Ada Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the use of the Intermetrics AppletMagic tool to build an applet to display a satellite ground track on a world map. This applet is the result of a prototype project that was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center's Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), starting in June of 1996. Both Version 1 and Version 2 of this applet can be accessed via the URL http://fdd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Java.html. This paper covers Version 1, as Version 2 did not make radical changes to the Ada part of the applet. This paper will briefly describe the design of the applet, discuss the issues that arose during development, and will conclude with lessons learned and future plans for the FDD's use of Ada and Java. The purpose of this paper is to show examples of a successful project using Oi AppletMagic, and to highlight some of the pitfalls that occurred along the way. It is hoped that this discussion will be useful both to users of AppletMagic and to organizations such as Intermetrics that develop new technology.

  4. Halite Brine in the Onondaga Trough near Syracuse, New York: Characterization and Simulation of Variable-Density Flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Kappel, William M.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2007-01-01

    Halite brine (saturation ranging from 45 to 80 percent) lies within glacial-drift deposits that fill the Onondaga Trough, a 40-km long bedrock valley deepened by Pleistocene ice near Syracuse, N.Y. The most concentrated brine occupies the northern end of the trough, more than 15 kilometers (km) beyond the northern limit of halite beds in the Silurian Salina Group, the assumed source of salt. The chemical composition of the brine and its radiocarbon age estimated from geochemical modeling with NETPATH suggest that the brine formed through dissolution of halite by glacial melt water, and later mixed with saline bedrock water about 16,500 years ago. Transient variable-density flow simulations were conducted with SEAWAT to assess current (2005) ground-water flow conditions within the glacial drift. A transient three-dimensional (3D) model using a grid spacing of 100 meters (m) and maximum layer spacing of 30 m was used to simulate a 215-year period from 1790 to 2005. The model was calibrated to observations of water levels, chloride concentrations, and discharges of water and chloride. The model produced an acceptable match to the measured data and provided a reasonable representation of the density distribution within the brine pool. The simulated mass of chloride in storage declined steadily during the 215-year period; however, the decline was mainly due to dispersion, which is probably overestimated because of the large layer spacing. Model results suggest that saline water from waste-disposal operations associated with a chemical plant has migrated beneath the western shore of Onondaga Lake. Two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional models of the aquifer system within the Onondaga Trough were prepared to test the plausibility of a hypothesis that the brine was derived from a relict source of halite that was dissolved by glacial melt water. The 2D models used parameter estimates obtained with the calibrated 3D model. Model results indicated the brine could have migrated

  5. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  6. New constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Salton Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, D.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Salton Trough is a critical structure where two very different styles of deformation meet; spreading-center dominated deformation to the south in the Gulf of California and dextral strike-slip deformation along the San Andreas fault system(SAF) to the north. Seismic CHIRP data acquired in the Salton Sea provide new constraints on the interaction between the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Imperial fault systems and reveal distinct changes in deformational style from north to south. Based on the stratal geometry observed in CHIRP profiles, we propose three distinct phases of tectonic deformation: (1) Late- Pleistocene transpression north of the Extra Fault Zone (EFZ) replaced by (2) late-Holocene differential subsidence south of the EFZ and (3) recent formation of the Brawley Seismic Zone (BSZ), a through-going crustal shear zone. An angular unconformity is observed to separate the folded and faulted (late?) Pleistocene strata of the Brawley Formation from the overlying Holocene Cahuilla Formation (CF). North of the EFZ reflectors in the CF suggest little to no active deformation. Conversely, south of the EFZ reflectors exhibit marked divergence with their dip systematically increasing with depth. Such a pattern of divergence indicates that the rate of sedimentation has kept pace with the rate of tectonically-induced accommodation. As such, it appears that the EFZ is a tectonic hinge zone delineating the northern limit of active subsidence, high heat flow, and volcanism. Furthermore, given the observed subsidence pattern, we predict the existence of a NE trending basin-bounding normal fault, or series of normal faults, near the southern shoreline of the Salton Sea. In our conceptual model, the early distributed faulting and transrotation between the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults accounts for the compressional folding observed in the Brawley Formation, but later gave way to extension-dominated deformation as significant slip became focused along the Imperial

  7. The 3D heat flux density distribution on a novel parabolic trough wavy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demagh, Yassine; Kabar, Yassine; Bordja, Lyes; Noui, Samira

    2016-05-01

    The non-uniform concentrated solar flux distribution on the outer surface of the absorber pipe can lead to large circumferential gradient temperature and high concentrated temperature of the absorber pipe wall, which is one of the primary causes of parabolic trough solar receiver breakdown. In this study, a novel shape of the parabolic trough absorber pipe is proposed as a solution to well homogenize the solar flux distribution, as well as, the temperature in the absorber wall. The conventional straight absorber located along the focal line of the parabola is replaced by wavy one (invention patent by Y. Demagh [1]) for which the heat flux density distribution on the outer surface varies in both axial and azimuthal directions (3D) while it varies only in the azimuthal direction on the former (2D). As far as we know, there is not previous study which has used a longitudinally wavy pipe as an absorber into the parabolic trough collector unit.

  8. Long-Term Clinical Remission in Biologically Naïve Crohn's Disease Patients with Adalimumab Therapy, Including Analyses of Switch from Adalimumab to Infliximab.

    PubMed

    Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Ozeki, Keiji; Katano, Takahito; Shimura, Takaya; Mori, Yoshinori; Kubota, Eiji; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    There is little evidence regarding the maintenance of long-term clinical remission by adalimumab (ADA) therapy in Crohn's disease (CD) patients naïve to anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment (naïve CD patients), since most CD patients are treated with ADA after infliximab (IFX) therapy. The long-term clinical response to ADA was retrospectively analyzed in 17 naïve CD patients for at least 24 months, and the serum trough IFX levels were evaluated in patients switching from ADA to IFX. Of the 17 naïve CD patients, 14 (82.4%) maintained long-term clinical remission with ADA therapy for at least 24 months, without serious adverse events. The clinical condition of 7 patients was observed for more than 36 months, and 3, 1, 1, and 2 cases maintained remission at months 42, 48, 54, and 60 after ADA therapy, respectively. Three patients (17.6%) switched from ADA to IFX less than 24 months after the start of ADA therapy, and they had remission, retaining trough levels of IFX higher than 1 μg/ml, occasionally by dose escalation. In conclusion, maintenance ADA therapy achieves long-term clinical remission in naïve CD patients. Switching from ADA to IFX is an important therapeutic option in CD patients showing loss of response to ADA, occasionally with dose escalation, based on the analysis of serum IFX trough levels. PMID:27462198

  9. Tectonic Setting of the Danger Islands Troughs in the Manihiki Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Coffin, M. F.; Mahoney, J. J.; Koizumi, K.; Tikku, A.; Sato, H.; Ingle, S.; Miura, R.; Kato, H.; Kaida, M.; Shamberger, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Manihiki Plateau, which lies in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, is considered to be one of the Cretaceous Large Igneous Provinces, which formed at or near a triple junction (Winterer et al., 1974). Three major geomorphic plateaus, High, North, and Western plateaus, are discernible within the plateau itself. The depth of the Western Plateau, about 4000 m, is deeper than those of the other plateaus, about 3000 m. The High Plateau is separated by linear deep narrow depressions named the Danger Islands Troughs (Mammerickx et al., 1974). The Danger Islands Troughs is thought to be a trace of the plate boundaries (Winterer et al., 1974). Geophysical and geological investigations were conducted by R/V Hakuho-maru, Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo, in August 2003. The bathymetric survey by the SEA BEAM 2120 multi-narrow beam echo sounders was carried out along the Danger Islands Troughs (DIT) between 9__deg40'S and 6_deg30'S. The interval of the track lines is about 5 km. Geomagnetic and gravity fields were measured during the bathymetric survey. Volcanic rocks were dredged at the four sites of the slopes of the troughs. Our bathymetric survey exposes the detailed topographic expression of the DIT. The topographic expression of the DIT is a trough bordered by ridges with a height of 2500 m above the floor of the troughs. The depth of the northern part, north of 7__deg$30_fS, of the DIT is 5900 m. That of the southern part of the DIT is 4800 m. There is a seamount which high is 2500 m between the northern and southern parts of the DIT. O investigations indicates that the DIT is not an extinct normal spreading system, but a fracture zone which is a trace of an oblique spreading system or a leaky transform fault.

  10. Crustal deformation at the Nankai Trough estimated from seafloor geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Okuda, T.; Nagai, S.; Kuno, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath the southwest Japan along the Nankai Trough with a rate of about 4-6 cm/yr, where megathrust earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-150 years. Because the region expected to be the hypocentral area of next Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes is almost located in offshore area, it is important to know the spatio-temporal variation of crustal deformation accompanied with plate interaction in high precision. For this issue, we have conducted seafloor geodetic observation at the Nankai Trough using a GPS/Acoustic technique since 2004. In this system, we estimate the position of a surveying vessel by Kinematic GPS analysis and measure the distance between the vessel and the benchmark on the seafloor by Acoustic measurements. Next we determine the location of the benchmark. For the repeatability of this observation, the location of benchmark is determined within a precision of 2-3 cm at horizontal components. Several seafloor benchmarks are located at the Nankai Trough, which are individually operated by Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University, and Nagoya University. In the Kumano Basin, we have three seafloor benchmarks located about 60-80 km away from the deformation front of the Nankai Trough. The observations from 2005 to 2011 have illustrated that those benchmarks are moving at rates of about 4 cm/yr toward west-northwest with velocity uncertainties of about 2 cm/yr relative to the Amurian plate. In this study, to explain the crustal deformation derived from seafloor geodetic observations especially at the shallower part of the Nankai Trough, we conduct numerical simulations using finite element method and then discuss the interplate coupling at the Nankai Trough.

  11. Geologic settings for hydrocarbons in the Gafsa trough of central Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Traut, M. ); Reed, J.K.; Schamel, S. ); Hassine, K.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The Gafsa trough of onshore central Tunisia is one of the more interesting and underexplored features of North Africa. It is a 5-12-km deep, east-west-trenching depression bounded by the Saharan flexure on the south and the Kasserine platform on the north. The geology of the Gafsa trough has been characterized with a series of regional stratigraphic and structure cross sections prepared from well data, and a set of depth and time structure maps prepared from an array of regional seismic lines. The southern margin of the basin is a simple north- and northwest-dipping homocline broken by small down-to-basin normal faults. The northern margin against the Kasserine platform has considerably lower structural relief but is marked by a complex system of normal and reverse faults. The axis of the trough deepens to the east and west away from a broad saddle between Tozeur and Kebili. The Gafsa trough is developed on the erosionally beveled and rifted northern flank of the late Paleozoic Talamzane arch. Middle Paleozoic sediments, including organic-rich Lower Silurian shales, appear to underlie the basin. The trough is filled with several distinct successions of sediments: Permo-Carboniferous carbonates and clastics locally exceeding 3000 m in thickness; 100-2000 m of Triassic-Liassic basal sands and evaporites; and a 6000-8000-m-thick succession of Middle Jurassic-lower Tertiary marine to paralic carbonates and clastics. Basal Triassic and underlying Paleozoic strata are considered too deeply buried in the Gafsa trough to be reasonable exploration targets. The most prospective target is sand lenses within the Middle-Upper Jurassic clastic/carbonate basin fill. In the extreme eastern part of the basin, commercial quantities of hydrocarbons have recently been discovered in these sands.

  12. Controls of bioclastic turbidite deposition in eastern Muertos Trough northeast Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Forsthoff, G.M.; Holcombe, T.L.

    1985-02-01

    A study of seismic-reflection profiles and sediment cores establishes regional bathymetric and source area control over the composition, transport, and distribution of turbidites in the eastern Muertos Trough, Bioclastic (carbonate) turbidites dominate the eastern portion of the trough. Analyses of carbon content and sand-sized components suggest that the bioclastic turbidites (characterized by planktonic foraminifera, pteropods, and sponge spicules) are reworked pelagic oozes originally deposited on the outer-shelf and upper-slope areas south of St. Croix and eastern Puerto Rico. The presence of several intrashelf and upper-slope basins prohibits shallow-water carbonate sediments from entering the Muertos Trough. Volcanic rock fragments derived from Puerto Rico are transported to the trough via the Guayanilla Canyon system. Mixing of the volcanic fragments with outer-shelf and upper-slope lutites results in mixed bioclastic-terrigenous turbidites south of central and western Puerto Rico. The paucity of shallow-water carbonate sediments in the trough suggests that the submarine canyons are effective conduits for the rapid transport of volcaniclastic sands across the shelf and thereby prevent extensive mixing with inner- and middle-shelf carbonate sediments. Sediment transport within the trough is primarily axial in an east-west direction. Outer trench-wall fault scarps, south of Guayanilla Canyon, limit the southerly progradation of the trench-wedge facies and deflect incoming gravity flows in a down-axis (westward) direction. Where no faults exist, the trench wedge progrades southward and interfingers with the pelagic sediments of the northern Venezuelan basin.

  13. E-ADA activity in erythrocytes of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and its possible functional correlations with anemia.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Schafer, Andressa S; Aires, Adelina R; Tonin, Alexandre A; Pimentel, Victor C; Oliveira, Camila B; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Marta L R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activity in erythrocytes of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus, correlating it with the degrees of anemia of the experimental animals. A total of 14 healthy lambs, with negative fecal exam for parasites, were to carry out the present study. They were divided into two groups, composed by seven animals: Group A represented the healthy animals (uninfected), while in Group B the animals were infected with 15,000 larvae of H. contortus. Blood was drawn on the days 15, 45 and 75 post-infection (PI) in order to perform the hematological analysis, as well as the mensuration of E-ADA activity in erythrocytes. Parasitological stool exam were performed on the same days mentioned above to follow up the evolution of the infection, as well to determine the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG). On day 15PI, the animals presented negative EPG and there was not significant (P>0.05) difference between groups in relation to E-ADA activity and hematologic parameters. Animals in Group B had positive EPG for helminths on days 45 and 75 PI, accompanied by varying degrees of anemia, when compared to Group A. At the same periods E-ADA activity was significantly (P<0.05) increased in the erythrocytes of animals of Group B when compared with the not-infected ones. Statistically, there was a negative correlation (P<0.01) between activity E-ADA in erythrocytes and hematocrit on days 45 (r = -0.76) and 75 (r = -0.85)PI. Based on these results and in the scientific literature, it is possible to conclude that the E-ADA may participate on mechanisms related with the pathogenesis and host response against anemia caused by H. contortus.

  14. Carbon isotope systematics of individual hydrocarbons in hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough, Northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoneit, B.R.T.; Schoell, M.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7%, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.We submitted individual aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of hydrothermal petroleum from Escanaba Trough to compound specific isotope analysis to trace their origins. The carbon isotope compositions of the alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (means -27.5 and -24.7 per mill, respectively) reflect a primarily terrestrial organic matter source.

  15. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  16. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks across Rome Trough, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Restored stratigraphic cross sections drawn primarily through the subsurface of parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee provide new detailed information to further the understanding of Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentation and tectonics associated with the Rome trough sector of the Appalachian basin. Drilled thickness of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence ranges from a maximum of about 14,500 ft (4.5 km) along the axis of the trough to a minimum of about 3500 ft (1 km) on the western flank.

  17. Hierarchical Ada robot programming system (HARPS)- A complete and working telerobot control system based on the NASREM model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, Stephen; Green, Tom; Cofer, Sue; Sauerwein, Tim

    1989-01-01

    HARPS is a telerobot control system that can perform some simple but useful tasks. This capability is demonstrated by performing the ORU exchange demonstration. HARPS is based on NASREM (NASA Standard Reference Model). All software is developed in Ada, and the project incorporates a number of different CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools. NASREM was found to be a valid and useful model for building a telerobot control system. Its hierarchical and distributed structure creates a natural and logical flow for implementing large complex robust control systems. The ability of Ada to create and enforce abstraction enhanced the implementation of such control systems.

  18. Ethyl carbamate levels resulting from azodicarbonamide use in bread.

    PubMed

    Cañas, B J; Diachenko, G W; Nyman, P J

    1997-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA), a dough conditioner, is an additive approved in the US up to a maximum of 45 mg/kg in flour. The addition of 45 mg/kg of ADA was investigated and found to increase the ethyl carbamate (EC) content of commercially prepared breads by 1-3 micrograms/kg. A similar increase in EC was observed in breads baked in the laboratory with a bread machine. The increase in EC levels appears to depend on a variety of factors, most notably the concentration of ADA added and the time of fermentation. The addition of 20 mg/kg ADA caused only a slight increase, if any, in commercial products but a 2.3 micrograms/kg increase of EC in breads baked with a bread machine. When 100 mg/kg of ascorbic acid was added along with ADA, smaller EC increases were observed. Addition of urea was also found to enhance the EC content of the bread. Toasting, which was previously shown to increase EC levels, caused even larger increases when ADA or urea had been added.

  19. The effect of MMF dose and trough levels on adverse effects in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Nida; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T

    2015-09-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic and safety data exist for MMF in pediatric HTR. Previously targeted MPA-TL are 1.5-3.0 μg/mL. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes targeting MPA-TL of 0.8-2.0 μg/mL in pediatric HTR. MPA-TL were retrospectively collected 2-12 months post-transplant. Acute rejection, infection, leukopenia, and GI complaints were then correlated with MPA-TL. A total of 355 MPA-TL from 22 HTR were included. Median age was 2.5 yr. Primary indication for transplant was dilated cardiomyopathy (64%). Mean MPA-TL was 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL. African American patients received significantly higher doses (702 ± 235 mg/m(2) ) compared with other races (p = 0.035). Leukopenia was less common in patients with SUB MPA vs. others (p = 0.01). MMF was discontinued for GI complaints in one patient and leukopenia in two patients. One SUB patient had acute rejection, and one SUP patient had infection. One-yr survival was 100%. Targeting a lower range for MPA-TL was not associated with significant rejection or infection. Despite lower MPA-TL, MMF was discontinued in 3/22 patients for adverse effects.

  20. Characteristics of weakly confined submarine channel system and their application to gas hydrate trapping system, Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The 1st offshore gas hydrate production test was conducted at gas hydrate concentrated zone (reservoir) of the Eastern Nankai Trough, which is considered stratigraphic accumulation. However, the accumulation mechanism for this concentrated zone is not yet well understood. In this study, in order to examine gas hydrate trapping system in the accumulation mechanism, we identify the depositional process and controlling factors based on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy using the core and geophysical log data. Our study area is the minibasin in the front of the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough. The minibasin development is strongly influenced by uplift of the knoll associated with plate subduction. The minibasin fill deposits are interpreted as the Pleistocene trough fill small turbidite fan system. Seven depositional sequences are identified based on grain size, bed thickness, sedimentary structure, and stacking pattern in this study. The sequence boundaries are also identified by terminations of seismic reflection. These sequences are attributed to a fourth to fifth-order eustatic sea-level changes, because the stacking pattern cycle is in phase with global oxygen isotope curves, the cycle is also identified in the onshore formation during the same period. The reservoir was interpreted as Falling-Stage Systems Tract (FSST) and Lowstand Systems Tract (LST). In the reservoir, it was observed the channel complex set characterized by relatively strong reflections and paleocurrent flowing from northeast to southwest on 3-D seismic data. The channel complex set changes into muddy facies in the south direction. The channel complex set is characterized by hemipelagic setting or slope (F1), abandonment mud drape (F2), nonamalgamated channel element (F3), and semiamalgamated channel element (F4). The channel elements (F3, 4) are the fundamental unit and record a single phase of downcutting and filling. The building block of the channel

  1. Analysis and two years of testing of the vee-trough concentrator/evacuated tube solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Aghan, A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper summarizes the mathematical analysis and presents the experimental results for a vee-trough/evacuated tube collector (VTETC). Test results reported represent the performance of the VTETC based on an aperture area. The effectiveness of vee-trough reflectors is demonstrated by comparing the useful heat collected by a receiver tube with and without concentrators.

  2. 9 CFR 82.10 - Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a quarantined area. 82.10 Section 82.10 Animals and... Disease § 82.10 Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a quarantined area. (a) This section does not apply to cages, coops, or other containers...

  3. 9 CFR 82.10 - Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a quarantined area. 82.10 Section 82.10 Animals and... CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.10 Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a quarantined area. (a) This section does not apply to cages, coops,...

  4. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry....

  5. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  6. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  7. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  8. 9 CFR 82.21 - Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., troughs, and other equipment used for infected poultry. 82.21 Section 82.21 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Chlamydiosis in Poultry § 82.21 Vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment used...

  9. Evolution of the Cañadas edifice and its implications for the origin of the Cañadas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancochea, E.; Huertas, M. J.; Cantagrel, J. M.; Coello, J.; Fúster, J. M.; Arnaud, N.; Ibarrola, E.

    1999-02-01

    The volcano-stratigraphic and geochronologic data presented in this work show that the Tenerife central zone has been occupied during the last 3 Ma by shield or central composite volcanoes which reached more than 3000 m in height. The last volcanic system, the presently active Teide-Pico Viejo Complex began to form approximately 150 ka ago. The first Cañadas Edifice (CE) volcanic activity took place between about 3.5 Ma and 2.7 Ma. The CE-I is formed mainly by basalts, trachybasalts and trachytes. The remains of this phase outcrop in the Cañadas Wall (CW) sectors of La Angostura (3.5-3.0 Ma and 3.0-2.7 Ma), Boca de Tauce (3.0 Ma), and in the bottom of some external radial ravines (3.5 Ma). The position of its main emission center was located in the central part of the CC. The volcano could have reached 3000 m in height. This edifice underwent a partial destruction by failure and flank collapse, forming debris-avalanches during the 2.6-2.3 Ma period. The debris-avalanche deposits can be seen in the most distal zones in the N flank of the CE-I (Tigaiga Breccia). A new volcanic phase, whose deposits overlie the remains of CE-I and the former debris-avalanche deposits, constituted a new volcanic edifice, the CE-II. The dyke directions analysis and the morphological reconstruction suggest that the CE-II center was situated somewhat westward of the CE-I, reaching some 3200 m in height. The CE-II formations are well exposed on the CW, especially at the El Cedro (2.3-2.00 Ma) sector. They are also frequent in the S flank of the edifice (2.25-1.89 Ma) in Tejina (2.5-1.87 Ma) as well as in the Tigaiga massif to the N (2.23 Ma). During the last periods of activity of CE-II, important explosive eruptions took place forming ignimbrites, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits of trachytic composition. Their ages vary between 1.5 and 1.6 Ma (Adeje ignimbrites, to the W). In the CW, the Upper Ucanca phonolitic Unit (1.4 Ma) could be the last main episode of the CE-II. Afterwards

  10. Correction of ADA-SCID by stem cell gene therapy combined with nonmyeloablative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Aiuti, Alessandro; Slavin, Shimon; Aker, Memet; Ficara, Francesca; Deola, Sara; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Morecki, Shoshana; Andolfi, Grazia; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Marinello, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federica; Vai, Sergio; Servida, Paolo; Miniero, Roberto; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Bordignon, Claudio

    2002-06-28

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has shown limited clinical efficacy because of the small proportion of engrafted genetically corrected HSCs. We describe an improved protocol for gene transfer into HSCs associated with nonmyeloablative conditioning. This protocol was used in two patients for whom enzyme replacement therapy was not available, which allowed the effect of gene therapy alone to be evaluated. Sustained engraftment of engineered HSCs with differentiation into multiple lineages resulted in increased lymphocyte counts, improved immune functions (including antigen-specific responses), and lower toxic metabolites. Both patients are currently at home and clinically well, with normal growth and development. These results indicate the safety and efficacy of HSC gene therapy combined with nonmyeloablative conditioning for the treatment of SCID. PMID:12089448

  11. Rdesign: A data dictionary with relational database design capabilities in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekkos, Anthony A.; Kwok, Teresa Ting-Yin

    1986-01-01

    Data Dictionary is defined to be the set of all data attributes, which describe data objects in terms of their intrinsic attributes, such as name, type, size, format and definition. It is recognized as the data base for the Information Resource Management, to facilitate understanding and communication about the relationship between systems applications and systems data usage and to help assist in achieving data independence by permitting systems applications to access data knowledge of the location or storage characteristics of the data in the system. A research and development effort to use Ada has produced a data dictionary with data base design capabilities. This project supports data specification and analysis and offers a choice of the relational, network, and hierarchical model for logical data based design. It provides a highly integrated set of analysis and design transformation tools which range from templates for data element definition, spreadsheet for defining functional dependencies, normalization, to logical design generator.

  12. Lessons learned in creating spacecraft computer systems: Implications for using Ada (R) for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomayko, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five years of spacecraft onboard computer development have resulted in a better understanding of the requirements for effective, efficient, and fault tolerant flight computer systems. Lessons from eight flight programs (Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, Mariner, Voyager, and Galileo) and three reserach programs (digital fly-by-wire, STAR, and the Unified Data System) are useful in projecting the computer hardware configuration of the Space Station and the ways in which the Ada programming language will enhance the development of the necessary software. The evolution of hardware technology, fault protection methods, and software architectures used in space flight in order to provide insight into the pending development of such items for the Space Station are reviewed.

  13. AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) prototype component acquisition plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    A component acquisition plan contains the information needed to evaluate, select, and acquire software and hardware components necessary for successful completion of the AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) Management System Prototype. This plan will evolve and be applicable to all phases of the DSI prototype development. Resources, budgets, schedules, and organizations related to component acquisition activities are provided. A purpose and description of a software or hardware component which is to be acquired are presented. Since this is a plan for acquisition of all components, this section is not applicable. The procurement activities and events conducted by the acquirer are described and who is responsible is identified, where the activity will be performed, and when the activities will occur for each planned procurement. Acquisition requirements describe the specific requirements and standards to be followed during component acquisition. The activities which will take place during component acquisition are described. A list of abbreviations and acronyms, and a glossary are contained.

  14. Empirical model of the main ionospheric trough for the nighttime winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpachev, A. T.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Pustovalova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we developed an empirical model of the main ionospheric trough, MIT, for quiet (Kp=2) nighttime (18:00-06:00 LT) winter conditions in the Northern and Southern hemispheres for all levels of solar activity. The model consists of two parts: (1) the MIT position model in terms of geographical latitude and longitude; (2) the MIT shape model in terms of the latitudinal-longitudinal foF2 variations in the range of 45-75 °N latitudes in the Northern hemisphere and of 40-80 °S in the Southern hemisphere. Thus, an empirical model of the quiet nighttime subauroral ionosphere has been developed. To construct this model the Interkosmos-19 and CHAMP satellites data have been used. The in-situ Ne measurements at the CHAMP heights were transformed to the electron density at F2 layer peak height (i.e. to NmF2 and then to foF2). In the frame of the model the diurnal and longitudinal variations in the MIT minimum position were revealed and studied in detail. Also the longitudinal and latitudinal variations in foF2 in the MIT region were investigated. Accuracy of the model was tested according to the ground-based ionospheric stations data. It is shown that the constructed model much more adequately reproduces the variations in the winter nighttime subauroral ionospheric structure, including the MIT position and shape variations, than the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012). The online version of the MIT model is available on the IZMIRAN website: http://www.izmiran.ru/ionosphere/sm-mit/.

  15. Safety and trough concentrations of nevirapine prophylaxis given daily, twice weekly, or weekly in breast-feeding infants from birth to 6 months.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Avinash K; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Mirochnick, Mark M; Maldonado, Yvonne; Mofenson, Lynne M; Eshleman, Susan H; Fleming, Thomas; Emel, Lynda; George, Kathy; Katzenstein, David A; Wells, Jennifer; Maponga, Charles C; Mwatha, Anthony; Jones, Samuel Adeniyi; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bassett, Mary T

    2003-12-15

    Despite the success of antiretroviral prophylaxis in reducing mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, postpartum transmission through breast milk remains a problem. Antiretroviral administration to the infant during the period of breast-feeding could protect against postnatal transmission. An open-label phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety and trough concentrations of nevirapine (NVP) given once weekly (OW), twice weekly (TW), or once daily (OD) to HIV-exposed breast-feeding infants for 24 weeks. Following maternal dosing with 200 mg NVP orally at onset of labor, breast-feeding infants were randomized within 48 hours of birth to 1 of 3 regimens: arm 1, NVP given OW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), arm 2, NVP given TW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), and arm 3, NVP given OD (2 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 4 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks). Trough NVP concentrations and clinical and laboratory abnormalities were monitored. Of the 75 infants randomized (26 to OW, 25 to TW, and 24 to OD dosing), 63 completed the 32-week follow-up visit. No severe skin, hepatic, or renal toxicity related to NVP was observed. Neutropenia occurred in 8 infants. Trough NVP levels were lower than the therapeutic target (100 ng/mL) in 48 of 75 (64.0%) samples from infants in the OW arm, 3 of 65 (4.6%) samples in the TW arm, and 0 of 72 samples in the OD arm. Median (range) trough NVP concentrations were 64 ng/mL (range: <25-1519 ng/mL) with OW dosing; 459 (range: <25-1386 ng/mL) with TW dosing; and 1348 (range: 108-4843 ng/ml) with OD dosing. Our data indicate that NVP prophylaxis for 6 months was safe and well tolerated in infants. OD NVP dosing resulted in all infants with trough concentration greater than the therapeutic target and maintenance of high drug concentrations. A phase 3 study is planned to assess the efficacy of OD infant NVP regimen to prevent breast

  16. From rifting to active spreading in the Lau Basin - Havre Trough backarc system (SW Pacific): Locking/unlocking induced by seamount chain subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruellan, E.; Delteil, J.; Wright, I.; Matsumoto, T.

    2003-05-01

    Associated with Pacific-Australia plate convergence, the Lau Basin - Havre Trough is an active back-arc basin that has been opened since ˜5.5 Ma by rifting and southward propagating oceanic spreading. Current back-arc opening rates decrease from 159 mm yr-1 in the northern Lau Basin to 15 mm y-1 in the southern Havre Trough. Major tectonic changes occur at the transition between Havre Trough rifting and full oceanic spreading of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC), where the oblique-to-trench, westward subducting Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC) sweeps southwards along the Tonga trench. New swath bathymetry, seismic reflection data, and limited rock sampling in this area constrain a tectonic and kinematic back-arc model that incorporates the effects of LSC subduction. The ELSC, which extends southward to 24°55'S, forms a deep rift valley propagating southward through older, rifted arc basement. Present-day seismicity and fresh and fractured pillow lavas at 23°42'S are consistent with rift valley neovolcanism. Conversely, the northern Havre Trough has low seismicity and rifted volcanic basement ridges trending 25-45° oblique to the basin axis consistent with low levels of extensional tectonism and volcanism. This latter structural fabric is interpreted as an early stage of rifting that is now "locked" due to compression on the arc exerted by LSC subduction, while in the Lau Basin such effects have passed as the LSC swept along the Tonga Trench. It is proposed that the Lau-Havre back-arc opening is controlled by tectonic constraints exerted at the limits of the system by the LSC subduction, which determines the southward migration of the Tonga Arc pole of rotation and associated Lau Basin opening. A discrete three-stage back-arc opening evolution is proposed, comprising: (1) an initial phase of back-arc rifting along the whole length of the plate boundary, beginning at ˜6-5 Ma; (2) a subsequent phase, mostly present in the southern part of the back-arc domain

  17. Distribution of Isotopic and Environmental Tracers in Groundwater, Northern Ada County, Southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Residents of northern Ada County, Idaho, depend on groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses. The population of this area is growing rapidly and groundwater resources must be understood for future water-resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, used a suite of isotopic and environmental tracers to gain a better understanding of groundwater ages, recharge sources, and flowpaths in northern Ada County. Thirteen wells were sampled between September and October 2009 for field parameters, major anions and cations, nutrients, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, tritium, radiocarbon, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gasses. Well depths ranged from 30 to 580 feet below land surface. Wells were grouped together based on their depth and geographic location into the following four categories: shallow aquifer, intermediate/deep aquifer, Willow Creek aquifer, and Dry Creek aquifer. Major cations and anions indicated calcium-bicarbonate and sodium-bicarbonate water types in the study area. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes carried an oxygen-18 excess signature, possibly indicating recharge from evaporated sources or water-rock interactions in the subsurface. Chlorofluorocarbons detected modern (post-1940s) recharge in every well sampled; tritium data indicated modern water (post-1951) in seven, predominantly shallow wells. Nutrient concentrations tended to be greater in wells signaling recent recharge based on groundwater age dating, thus confirming the presence of recent recharge in these wells. Corrected radiocarbon results generated estimated residence times from modern to 5,100 years before present. Residence time tended to increase with depth, as confirmed by all three age-tracers. The disagreement among residence times indicates that samples were well-mixed and that the sampled aquifers contain a mixture of young and old recharge. Due to a lack of data, no conclusions about sources of recharge could be drawn

  18. Effects of ADA and ADM when Utilized in the Measure of Educational Need in State School Finance Plans. Occasional Paper #16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    From the 1920s through the 1950s, most states used average daily attendance (ADA) in state equalization plans. Beginning in the middle of the 1950s, many states began to use average daily membership (ADM) in such plans. The essential features of any equalization aid plan are (1) a measure of need (such as ADA or ADM), (2) a measure of wealth or…

  19. When the Americans with Disabilities Act Goes Online: Application of the ADA to the Internet and the Worldwide Web. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses the issue of how the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) applies to commercial and other private sector Web sites. Beginning with a brief discussion of the role electronic communication plays in our lives, the paper then considers the placement of the ADA in the context of current technology and of computer usage in the…

  20. Drilling investigations of crustal rifting processes in the Salton Trough, California. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Duba, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of CSDP activities in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) are briefly described, concentrating on a shallow heat flow survey, but also discussing preliminary results from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP). The hypothesis that localized thermal zones are the source of all the heat in the Salton Trough is examined. (ACR)