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Sample records for adams county colorado

  1. Example evaluation of a permit application for a proposed hazardous-waste landfill in eastern Adams County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    A project was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to demonstrate methods by which RCRA (Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) Part B permit applications might be evaluated. The purpose of the project was to prepare a report that would supplement a series of case studies to be made available to permit writers in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Four sites in the United States were chosen for their potential applicability to geologically similar sites. The Adams County, Colorado, site was chosen to be representative of sites in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The intent of this report is to provide an example of how available earth-science information might be used in evaluating an application and not to evaluate the acceptability of the site. Because this study is an evaluation of a permit application, the data used are limited to the data supplied in the application and in published reports. Of the five criteria required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to be addressed in the permit application considered in the case study, the application was evaluated to be inadequate in addressing three criteria: (1) Site characterization, (2) ability to monitor the location, and (3) flow paths and 100-foot time of travel. Details of the inadequacies and a description of the information needed to eliminate the inadequacies are included in the report. (USGS)

  2. Ground-water resources of the South Platte River Basin in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Rex O.; Schneider, P.A.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    The area described in this report consists of about 970 square miles in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties in northeastern Colorado. It includes that part of the South Platte River valley between Denver and Kuner, Colo., all of Beebe Draw, and the lower part of the valley of Box Elder Creek. The stream-valley lowlands are separated by rolling uplands. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 13 inches; thus, irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. The area contains about 220,000 acres of irrigated land in the stream valleys. Most of the remaining 400,000 acres of land is used for dry farming or grazing because it lacks irrigation water. Most of the lowlands were brought under irrigation with surface water during the early 1900's, and now nearly all the surface water in the area is appropriated for irrigation within and downstream from the area. Because the natural flow of the streams is sometimes less than the demand for water, ground water is used to supplement the surface-water supply. Wells, drilled chiefly since 1930, supply the supplemental water and in some places are the sole supply for irrigation use. Rocks exposed in the area are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Lato Cretaceous to Recent. Those that are consolidated, called 'bedrock' in this report, consist of the Fox Hills sandstone and the Laramie and Arapahoe formations, all of Late Cretaceous age, and the Denver formation and Dawson arkose of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The surface of the bedrock was shaped by ancestral streams, the valleys of which are reflected by the present surface topography. Dune sand, slope wash, and thin upland deposits of Quaternary age mantle the bedrock in the divide areas, and stream deposits ranging in thickness from 0 to about 125 feet partly fill the ancestral valleys. The valley-fill deposits consist of beds and lenses of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Abundant supplies of

  3. Geographic information system datasets of regolith-thickness data, regolith-thickness contours, raster-based regolith thickness, and aquifer-test and specific-capacity data for the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L. Rick

    2010-01-01

    These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082-Hydrogeology and Steady-State Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. The datasets were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Geological Survey. The four datasets are described as follows and methods used to develop the datasets are further described in Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082: (1) ds507_regolith_data: This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith (unconsolidated sediment) thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Data were compiled from published reports, consultant reports, and from lithologic logs of wells and test holes on file with the U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center and the Colorado Division of Water Resources. (2) ds507_regthick_contours: This dataset consists of contours showing generalized lines of equal regolith thickness overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness was contoured manually on the basis of information provided in the dataset ds507_regolith_data. (3) ds507_regthick_grid: This dataset consists of raster-based generalized thickness of regolith overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness in this dataset was derived from contours presented in the dataset ds507_regthick_contours. (4) ds507_welltest_data: This point dataset contains estimates of aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity at selected well locations in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and

  4. Hydrogeology and steady-state numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin (Lost Creek basin) is an important alluvial aquifer for irrigation, public supply, and domestic water uses in northeastern Colorado. Beginning in 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydrologic data and constructed a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Lost Creek basin. The model builds upon the work of previous investigators to provide an updated tool for simulating the potential effects of various hydrologic stresses on groundwater flow and evaluating possible aquifer-management strategies. As part of model development, the thickness and extent of regolith sediments in the basin were mapped, and data were collected concerning aquifer recharge beneath native grassland, nonirrigated agricultural fields, irrigated agricultural fields, and ephemeral stream channels. The thickness and extent of regolith in the Lost Creek basin indicate the presence of a 2- to 7-mile-wide buried paleovalley that extends along the Lost Creek basin from south to north, where it joins the alluvial valley of the South Platte River valley. Regolith that fills the paleovalley is as much as about 190 ft thick. Average annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on native grassland and nonirrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using the chloride mass-balance method to range from 0.1 to 0.6 inch, which represents about 1-4 percent of long-term average precipitation. Average annual recharge from infiltration of ephemeral streamflow was estimated by using apparent downward velocities of chloride peaks to range from 5.7 to 8.2 inches. Average annual recharge beneath irrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using passive-wick lysimeters and a water-balance approach to range from 0 to 11.3 inches, depending on irrigation method, soil type, crop type, and the net quantity of irrigation water applied

  5. 78 FR 37791 - In the Matter of: Jose Guadalupe Reyes-Martinez, Inmate Number #85993-279, CI Adams County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699..., CI Adams County, Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 1600, Washington, MS 39190; Order Denying Export... Adams County, Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 1600, Washington, MS 39190, and when acting for or...

  6. Geochemical survey of the Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas, Clay County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Klein, T.L.; Lesure, F.G.; Hanley, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Reports covering the mineral resources of Clay County and vicinity include Brewer (1896) and Adams (1930) on gold, Prouty (1923) on graphite, and Heinrich and Olson (1953) on mica. The mineral resources of the Talladega National Forest were evaluated by Gilbert and Smith (1973). The mineral resource potential of the two roadless areas is detailed in Robinson and others (1983) and an accompanying geologic report is given in Robinson and others (in press).

  7. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  8. Research Methods in Environmental Studies: A County Planning Application in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruntfest, Eve C.

    To obtain practical experience, a research methods class at the University of Colorado (Colorado Springs) undertook a special project to help a nearby county (Park County), assess its planning needs. The county was chosen for its characteristics as a rapidly growing rural area faced with the problems created by mounting population pressure on…

  9. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  10. The Feasibility of Consolidating the Schools of Mount Joy Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania. Bulletin, 1920, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katherine M.; Deffenbaugh, W. S.

    1920-01-01

    Mount Joy Township is located in southeastern Pennsylvania, in Adams County. It is immediately adjacent to the historic battlefield and town of Gettysburg. Though irregular in shape, it averages about 5 miles from north to south and 41 miles from east to west, and contains approximately 36 square miles. The population of the township in 1910 was…

  11. The Leyden uranium prospect, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gott, Garland B.

    1950-01-01

    The Leyden uranium prospect is in sec. 28, T, 2 S., R. 70 W, Jefferson County, Cplo, Examination of the property was made in February 1950. Uranium was first reported in this locality in 1875 by Captain E. L. Berthoud, who noted uranium minerals associated with the main coal bed. The Old Leyden coal mine workings have long been abandoned and caved, but specimens of the uranium-bearing rock can be seen on the old dump 700 feet to the south. The mineralized coal bed is 10 to 12 feet thick and occurs near the base of the Laramie formation of Upper Cretaceous age. Uranium minerals are present in the form of yellow incrustations and inclusions in fractured and partly silicified coal. Petrographic studies indicate that the silica and uranium minerals were deposited after deposition and carbonization of the coal. Secondary uranium minerals also were found by C. R. Butler along the outcrop of the sandstones in the Laramie formation. No uranium minerals were found in place by the writer, but four samples from the dump contained 0.001, 0,005, 0.17 and 0.69 percent uranium.

  12. Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1976-01-01

    The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

  13. Bathymetry of Groundhog Reservoir, Dolores County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better characterize the water supply capacity of Groundhog Reservoir, Dolores County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Dolores Water Conservancy District, conducted a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir. The study was performed in June 2011 using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system and a terrestrial real-time kinematic global positioning system. The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. A bathymetric map of the reservoir was generated in addition to plots for the stage-area and the stage-volume relations.

  14. Bathymetry of Totten Reservoir, Montezuma County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohn, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better characterize the water supply capacity of Totten Reservoir, Montezuma County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Dolores Water Conservancy District, conducted a bathymetric survey of Totten Reservoir. The study was performed in June 2011 using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global positioning system and a terrestrial real-time kinematic global positioning system. The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. A bathymetric map of the reservoir was generated in addition to plots for the stage-area and the stage-volume relations.

  15. Service Integration in Colorado: Connecting Programs To Provide Better Services in Mesa and El Paso Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Mark

    Efforts to integrate the delivery of human service programs (HSP) in Colorado's El Paso County and Mesa County were examined through site visits and meetings with 34 members of HSP staff in both counties. The site visits confirmed that staff and management of HSP in both counties have implemented a series of client-centered processes to provide…

  16. Geologic map of the Clifton Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Clifton 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Colorado River/I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides interpretations of the Quaternary stratigraphy and geologic hazards in this area of the Grand Valley. The Clifton 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 16 different Quaternary units. Five prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains a large landslide deposit on the southern slopes of Mount Garfield. The landslide developed in the Mancos Shale and contains large blocks of the overlying Mesaverde Group. In addition, the landslide is a source of debris flows that have closed I-70 in the past. The major bedrock unit in the quadrangle is the Mancos Shale of Upper Cretaceous age. The map is accompanied by text containing unit descriptions, and sections on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and economic geology (including sand and gravel). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately 20 references are cited at the end of the report.

  17. Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,189,000 South boundary: approximately 4,170,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 351,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs at Wagon Wheel Gap have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 4. Power lines 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  18. Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,500,000 South boundary: approximately 4,480,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 358,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs and wells in the Routt Hot Spring and Steamboat Springs areahave geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  19. OCCUPATIONS IN COLORADO. PART I, OUTLOOK BY INDUSTRIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    CURRENT AND PROJECTED EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS ARE GIVEN FOR THE STATE AND FOR THE DENVER STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA WHICH INCLUDES ADAMS, ARAPAHOE, BOULDER, DENVER, AND JEFFERSON COUNTIES. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF EMPLOYMENT, DENVER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, U.S. CENSUS, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, MOUNTAIN STATES…

  20. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  1. Mineralogy from Cores in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, San Juan County, Colorado, was the center of a metal mining boom in the San Juan Mountains. Although most mining activity ceased by the 1990s, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In an effort to understand the ground-water flow system in the upper Animas River watershed, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study because of the amount of previous data provided in and around that particular watershed. In support of this ground-water research effort, data was collected from drill core, which included: (1) detailed descriptions of the subsurface geology and hydrothermal alteration patterns, (2) depth of sulfide oxidation, and (3) quantitative mineralogy.

  2. Geologic map of the Palisade quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The Palisade 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 22 different Quaternary units. Two prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains many mass movement deposits. Extensive landslide deposits are present along the eastern part of the quadrangle. These massive landslides originate on the flanks of Grand Mesa, in the Green River and Wasatch Formations, and flow west onto the Palisade quadrangle. In addition, large areas of the eastern and southern parts of the map are covered by extensive pediment surfaces. These pediment surfaces are underlain by debris flow deposits also originating from Grand Mesa. Material in these deposits consists of mainly subangular basalt cobbles and boulders and indicate that these debris flow deposits have traveled as much as 10 km from their source area. The pediment surfaces have been divided into 5 age classes based on their height above surrounding drainages. Two common bedrock units in the map area are the Mancos Shale and the Mesaverde Group both of Upper Cretaceous age. The Mancos shale is common in low lying areas near the western map border. The Mesaverde Group forms prominent sandstone cliffs in the north-central map area. The map is accompanied by a separate pamphlet containing unit descriptions, a section on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and a section on economic geology (including sand and gravel, and coal). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately twenty references are cited at the end of the report.

  3. Analyses of geochemical samples and descriptions of rock samples, Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas, Clay County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, M.S.; Hanley, J.T.; Kelley, D.L.; Sherlock, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements on 105 rocks, 47 stream-sediment, and 70 soil samples from the Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas and vicinity, Talladega National Forest, Clay County, Alabama are reported here in detail. Atomic-absorption analyses for zinc in all samples and for gold in 5 selected rock samples are also reported. Localities for all sables are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. A brief description of each rock sample is included. Rocks analyzed include quartzite, phyllite, vein quartz, and schist.

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGovern, Harold E.

    1964-01-01

    Washington County, in northeastern Colorado, has an area of 2,520 square miles. The eastern two-thirds of the county, part of the High Plains physiographic section, is relatively flat and has been moderately altered by the deposition of loess and dune sand, and by stream erosion. The western one-third is a part of the South Platte River basin and has been deeply dissected by tributary streams. The soils and climate of the county are generally suited for agriculture, which is the principal industry. The rocks that crop out in the county influence the availability of ground water. The Pierre Shale, of Late Cretaceous age, underlies the entire area and ranges in thickness from 2,000 to 4,500 feet. This dense shale is a barrier to the downward movement of water and yields little or no water to wells. The Chadron Formation, of Oligocene age, overlies the Pierre Shale in the northern and central parts of the area. The thickness of the formation ranges from a few feet to about 300 feet. Small to moderate quantities of water are available from the scattered sand lenses and from the highly fractured zones of the siltstone. The Ogallala Formation, of Pliocene age, overlies the Chadron Formation and in Washington County forms the High Plains section of the Great Plains province. The thickness of the Ogallala Formation ranges from 0 to about 400 feet, and the yield from wells ranges from a few gallons per hour to about 1,500 gpm. Peorian loess, of Pleistocene age, and dune sand, of Pleistocene to Recent age, mantle a large pan of the county and range in thickness from a few inches to about 120 feet Although the loess and dune sand yield little water to wells, they absorb much of the precipitation and conduct the water to underlying formations. Alluvium, of Pleistocene and Recent age, occupies most of the major stream valleys in thicknesses of a few feet to about 250 feet. The yield of wells tapping the alluvium ranges from a few gallons per minute to about 3,000 gpm, according

  5. Geologic Map of the San Luis Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    The map area includes San Luis and the primarily rural surrounding area. San Luis, the county seat of Costilla County, is the oldest surviving settlement in Colorado (1851). West of the town are San Pedro and San Luis mesas (basalt-covered tablelands), which are horsts with the San Luis fault zone to the east and the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone to the west. The map also includes the Sanchez graben (part of the larger Culebra graben), a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the east). The oldest rocks exposed in the map area are the Pliocene to upper Oligocene basin-fill sediments of the Santa Fe Group, and Pliocene Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of 3.7?4.8 Ma old flood basalts. Landslide deposits and colluvium that rest on sediments of the Santa Fe Group cover the steep margins of the mesas. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesas and in the graben is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The alluvial deposits are subdivided into three Pleistocene-age units and three Holocene-age units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surfaces, the largest of which is known as the Costilla Plain. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map area are from earthquakes, landslides, and localized flooding. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. The landslides may have seismogenic origins; that is, they may be stimulated by strong ground shaking during large earthquakes. Machette and Thompson based this geologic map entirely on new mapping, whereas Drenth supplied geophysical data and interpretations.

  6. Land resource information needs of county government : a case study in Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1983-01-01

    My two colleagues on the study team, Rex Burns of the Larimer County Planning Department, and Glenn McCarty of the Fort Collins office of the Soil Conservation Service, contributed substantially to this report; many of their written words have found their way directly into the text. Jill O'Gara later replaced Rex Burns as the Larimer County coordinator in the study's final stages. John Rold, Colorado State Geologist, assisted in coordinating our efforts at the beginning of this study. Lou Campbell, State Cartographer, gave valuable advice and assistance throughout the effort. Wallace Hansen and James Blakey of the USGS Geologic and Water Resources Divisions, respectively, read the final manuscript and helped in many other ways. Joanna Trolinger served as research assistant and manuscript typist. Many others in the USGS, SCS, and other organizations helped in supplying information and advice. Tom Bates, then Chairman of the USGS Central Region Earth Science Applications Task Force, was the originator of the study, leader of the USGS participation effort, and guiding inspiration throughout. The study was carried out in association with the Program on Environment and Behavior, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder.

  7. Reservoir characterization using surface geochemistry, Sorrento Field, Cheyenne County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Fausnaugh, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The survey was performed in July of 1994 as part of the Colorado School of Mines Reservoir Characterization Project. In addition to the geochemical survey, the study included a complete geologic and engineering evaluation, a 3-D seismic survey, an electrical resistivity survey, and a radiometric survey. Geochemical methods included soil gas hydrocarbons, pH, Eh, and soil electrical conductivity measurements. The data were analyzed and interpreted for concentration and compositional anomalies. Field analog comparisons provided additional support for the compositional characterization. With the exception of local lineaments, defining anomalies based on direct hydrocarbon concentration proved difficult due to field depletion. The indirect parameters of pH, Eh, and conductivity exhibited a greater degree of anomaly definition by identifying areas of varying reservoir potential and exposing a complex system of faults and fractures. Compositional analysis of the data yielded information regarding reservoir lithology and hydrocarbon type. Surface hydrocarbon ratios were compared to gas compositions from known Pennsylvanian and Mississippian wells within Cheyenne County. Discrimination of these reservoirs, by analog comparison, was possible within the Sorrento Field limits. The final report, released by CSM in August of 1995, asserted that the hydrocarbons and pH parameters reliably detected the major trends. The conclusion stated that the geochemical anomalies were consistent with the geologic and geophysical interpretations.

  8. Bedrock Geology of the Turkey Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Char, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the Turkey Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of fault locations and geologic map units based on age and lithology. Created for use in the Jefferson County Mountain Ground-Water Resources Study, it is to be used at a scale no more detailed than 1:50,000.

  9. Carnotite resources of San Miguel bench, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvord, Donald Clayton

    1955-01-01

    San Miguel bench includes about 4 square miles in the southern part of T. 48 N., R. 17 W., New Mexico principal meridian, Montrose County, Colorado. Production of carnotite ore from the area has been about 15,000 short tons having an estimated average grade of 0.31 percent U3O8 and 1.6 percent V2O5. Nearly all of the carnotite deposits occur in a single continuous sandstone bed near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. These deposits consist chiefly of sandstone impregnated with uranium- and vanadium-bearing minerals. They are irregular tabular-shaped masses ranging in size from a few short tons to 30,000 short tons or more of minable carnotite ore. During the period November 27, 1951, to April 17, 1953, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 309 holes totaling 92,194 feet on the San Miguel bench. Reserves total about 43,000 short tons of material 1 foot or more thick and contain 0.10 percent or More U3O8 or 1.0 percent or more V2O5. Of these reserves 3,300 short tons occur in private land. These reserves are in ten deposits found by Geological Survey drilling. Potential reserves (reserves based on geologic evidence only) are predicted to total about 15,000 short tons, averaging 0.30 percent U3O8 and 1.6 percent V2O5. No additional drilling in the San Miguel bench is planned by the Geological Survey. Some drilling by private enterprise is recommended.

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3), Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Operable Unit 2, Cumberland Township, Adams County, Gettysburg, PA, March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 (Soils) at the Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant Site in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The selected remedy for the soils at the Westinghouse Elevator Plant is No Additional Action for this Operable Unit. The other alternatives evaluated would produce little or no environmental benefit at substantial cost.

  11. Ore deposits of the Gilman District, Eagle County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.S.; Tweto, Ogden; Lovering, T.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Gilman mining district, known also in the past as the Red Cliff district, is in the mountains of southeastern Eagle County, west-central Colorado. The district is the leading source of zinc in Colorado and one of the major base-metal mining districts in the State. As valued at the time of production, total output of zinc, silver, copper, lead, and gold through 1972 was about $328 million. About 90 percent of this total was produced after 1930. The productive part of the district is an area of about 3 square miles (7.8 square kilometers) on the northeast side of the deep canyon of the Eagle River between the small towns of Gilman and Red Cliff. The ore deposits are principally replacement deposits in dolomites of Mississippian and Devonian age and in quartzite of Cambrian age. A few productive veins occur in Precambrian rocks. The replacement deposits crop out in the cliffs of the canyon wall and extend northeastward downdip beneath Battle Mountain, which is composed of a thick sequence of Pennsylvanian clastic rocks. The deposits were originally worked through several separate mines along the canyon wall, but since 1918, all deposits in dolomite rocks, except some small ones near Red Cliff, have been worked through the Eagle mine of the New Jersey Zinc Company at Gilman. The Gilman district lies on the eastern flank of the huge anticline of the Sawatch Range, near the steeply plunging north end of the anticline. Sedimentary rocks on the flank of this part of the anticline dip homoclinally northeastward to a synclinal axis about 8 mi (miles) (13 km (kilometers> northeast of Gilman and then rise more steeply to the Gore fault at the edge of the Gore Range. The homocline is broken by only a few faults most of which have displacements of less than 100 ft (feet) (30 m (meters>. In contrast, the underlying Precambrian rocks are broken by numerous faults and shear zones related to the Homestake shear zone, a northeast-trending master shear zone several miles wide

  12. Evaluation of Radon Outreach Programming in Chaffee and Park Counties, Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorado State University Extension in Chaffee and Park Counties conducted numerous outreach educational activities between 2007 and 2010. A follow-up evaluation was conducted to determine whether one outreach activity was more effective at encouraging individuals to test their homes for radon or to mitigate their homes. Participants in the…

  13. Summary of hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data and hydrogeologic framework at selected well sites, Adams County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Dugas, Diana L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Adams County has increased the demand for ground water and led Adams County planning officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capabilities of existing community water systems to meet future, projected growth and to begin wellhead-protection programs for public-supply wells. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data on a countywide scale and provides hydrogeologic information needed to delineate wellheadprotection areas in three hydrogeologic units (Gettysburg Lowland, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont Lowland). Reported yields, specific capacities, well depths, and reported overburden thickness can vary by hydrogeologic unit, geologic formation, water use (domestic and nondomestic), and topographic setting. The reported yields of domestic wells drilled in the Gettysburg Lowland (median reported yield of 10 gallons per minute) are significantly greater than the reported yields from the Blue Ridge, Piedmont Lowland, and Piedmont Upland (median reported yields of 7.0, 8.0, and 7.0 gallons per minute, respectively). Reported yields of domestic wells completed in the diabase and the New Oxford Formation of the Gettysburg Lowland, and in the metarhyolite and metabasalt of the Blue Ridge, are significantly lower than reported yields of wells completed in the Gettysburg Formation. For nondomestic wells, reported yields from the Conestoga Formation of the Piedmont Lowland are significantly greater than in the diabase. Reported yields of nondomestic wells drilled in the Gettysburg, New Oxford, and Conestoga Formations, and the metarhyolite are significantly greater than those for domestic wells drilled in the respective geologic formations. Specific capacities of nondomestic wells in the Conestoga and Gettysburg Formations are significantly greater than their domestic counterparts. Specific capacities of nondomestic wells in the Conestoga Formation are significantly greater than the specific capacities of nondomestic wells in

  14. An Evaluation of Partners in Parenting: A Parent Education Curriculum Implemented by County Extension Agents in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kristina; Hahn, Laura; Gonzalez, Patricia; Henry, Kimberly; Cerbana, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here evaluated the efficacy of Partners in Parenting (PIP), which, in collaboration with Colorado State University Extension, was implemented in seven counties across Colorado. A total of 54 parents took part in the study. A pretest/posttest design was used to assess short-term changes in parenting practices, parental attitudes,…

  15. Geologic map of the Grand Junction Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Carrara, Paul E.; Hood, William C.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2002-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Grand Junction 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the junction of the Colorado River and the Gunnison River. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale through the Lower Jurassic Wingate Sandstone units. Below the Mancos Shale, which floors the Grand Valley, the Upper and Lower(?)Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation hold up much of the resistant northeast- dipping monocline along the northeast side of the Uncompahgre uplift. The impressive sequence of Jurassic strata below include the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, the Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation and informal 'board beds' unit and Slick Rock Member of the Entrada Formation, and the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and Early Proterozoic meta-igneous gneiss and migmatitic meta- sedimentary rocks, which are exposed in the Colorado National Monument quadrangle to the west, do not crop out here. The monoclinal dip slope of the northeastern margin of the Uncompahgre uplift is apparently a Laramide structural feature. Unlike the southwest-dipping, high-angle reverse faults in the Proterozoic basement and s-shaped fault- propagation folds in the overlying strata found in the Colorado National Monument 7.5' quadrangle along the front of the uplift to the west, the monocline in the map area is unbroken except at two localities. One locality displays a small asymmetrical graben that drops strata to the southwest. This faulted character of the structure dies out to the northwest into an asymmetric fault-propagation fold that also drops strata to the southwest. Probably both parts of this structure are underlain by a northeast-dipping high

  16. Geologic map of the Frisco quadrangle, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bartos, Paul J.; Williams, Cindy L.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Frisco quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, K.S., 1999, Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift?partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 141-152.), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts the northeastern corner of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Tenmile Range and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, Ogden, 1987, Rock units of the Precambrian- basement in Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1321-A, 54 p.). The oldest sedimentary unit is the Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The sedimentary rocks are intruded by sills and dikes of dacite porphyry sills of Swan Mountain, dated at 44 Ma (Marvin, R.F., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., and Zartman, R.E., 1989, U.S. Geological Survey radiometric ages, compilation ?C??Part five?Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming: Isochron/West, no. 53, p. 14-19. Simmons, E.C., and Hedge, C.E., 1978, Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of Tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

  17. Temporal Geochemistry Data from Five Springs in the Cement Creek Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal data from five springs in the Cement Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado provide seasonal geochemical data for further research in the formation of ferricretes. In addition, these data can be used to help understand the ground-water flow system. The resulting data demonstrate the difficulty in gathering reliable seasonal data from springs, show the unique geochemistry of each spring due to local geology, and provide seasonal trends in geochemistry for Tiger Iron Spring.

  18. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. A possible petroleum related helium anomaly in the soil gas, Boulder and Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Alan A.; Dalziel, M.C.; Pogorski, L.A.; Quirt, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the concentrations of helium in the soil gas conducted over a portion of the Denver Basin in Boulder and Weld Counties, Colorado, supports the existence of a potential petroleum prospect that was suggested by earlier geochemical analyses of the outcropping sandstones. The helium survey technique may prove to be a rapid, inexpensive, and valuable surface prospecting tool for detecting buried petroleum deposits.

  20. Photogeologic maps of the Iris SE and Doyleville SW quadrangles, Saguache County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McQueen, Kathleen

    1957-01-01

    The Iris SE and Doyleville SW quadrangles, Saguache County, Colorado include part ot the Cochetopa mining district. Photogeologic maps of these quadrangles show the distribution of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age; precambrian granite, schist, and gneiss; and igneous rocks of Tertiary age. Sedimentary rocks lie on an essentially flat erosion surface on Precambrian rocks. Folds appear to be absent but faults present an extremely complex structural terrane. Uraniferous deposits occur at fault intersections in Precambriam and Mesozoic rocks.

  1. Mineral resources of the Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, M.I.; Patterson, C.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area in Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado, contains flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Triassic to Cretaceous age underlain by Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Investigations by the US Geological Survey and US Bureau of Mines revealed that the wilderness study area has low mineral resource potential for metals, including uranium, oil and gas, coal, and geothermal energy. No identified resources are present.

  2. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A HOMEMAKER'S CLUB, LARIMER COUNTY, FORT COLLINS, COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDGINGTON, ROYAL H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF A HOMEMAKER'S CLUB FOR MOTHERS UNDER AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN WAS PRESENTED. THE CLUB WAS SPONSORED BY THE LARIMER COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE. PERSONNEL FROM THE DEPARTMENT ASSISTED IN EVALUATING A PAST FAILURE OF A HOMEMAKER'S CLUB AND IN FORMULATING PLANS FOR A SECOND CLUB. A DISCUSSION OF THE FAILURE OF THE FIRST…

  4. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  5. Geologic map of the Vail East quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bryant, Bruce; Redsteer, Margaret H.

    2003-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Vail East quadrangle straddles the Gore fault system, the western structural boundary of the Gore Range. The Gore fault system is a contractional structure that has been recurrently active since at least the early Paleozoic and marks the approximate eastern boundary of the Central Colorado trough, a thick late Paleozoic depocenter into which thousands of meters of clastic sediment were deposited from several uplifts, including the ancestral Front Range. The Gore fault was active during both the late Paleozoic and Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary (Laramide) deformations. In addition, numerous north-northwest faults that cut the crystalline rocks of the Gore Range were active during at least 5 periods, the last of which was related to Neogene uplift of the Gore Range and formation of the northern Rio Grande rift. Early Proterozoic crystalline rocks underlie the high Gore Range, north and east of the Gore fault system. These rocks consist predominantly of migmatitic biotite gneiss intruded by mostly granitic rocks of the 1.667-1.750 Ma Cross Creek batholith, part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, 1987). Southwest of the Gore fault, a mostly gently south-dipping sequence of Pennsylvanian Mimturn Formation, as thick as 1,900 m, and the Permian and Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation (only the basal several hundred meters are exposed in the quadrangle)were shed from the ancestral Front Range and overlie a thin sequence of Devonian and Cambrian rocks. The Minturn Formation is a sequence of interlayered pink, maroon, and gray conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and marine limestone. The Maroon Formation is mostly reddish conglomerate

  6. Geologic map of the Silt Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Silt 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift, the Grand Hogback, and the eastern Piceance Basin. The Wasatch Formation was subdivided into three formal members, the Shire, Molina, and Atwell Gulch Members. Also a sandstone unit within the Shire Member was broken out. The Mesaverde Group consists of the upper Williams Fork Formation and the lower Iles Formation. Members for the Iles Formation consist of the Rollins Sandstone, the Cozzette Sandstone, and the Corcoran Sandstone Members. The Cozzette and Corcoran Sandstone Members were mapped as a combined unit. Only the upper part of the Upper Member of the Mancos Shale is exposed in the quadrangle. From the southwestern corner of the map area toward the northwest, the unfaulted early Eocene to Paleocene Wasatch Formation and underlying Mesaverde Group gradually increase in dip to form the Grand Hogback monocline that reaches 45-75 degree dips to the southwest (section A-A'). The shallow west-northwest-trending Rifle syncline separates the northern part of the quadrangle from the southern part along the Colorado River. Geologic hazards in the map area include erosion, expansive soils, and flooding. Erosion includes mass wasting, gullying, and piping. Mass wasting involves any rock or surficial material that moves downslope under the influence of gravity, such as landslides, debris flows, or rock falls, and is generally more prevalent on steeper slopes. Locally, where the Grand Hogback is dipping greater than 60 degrees and the Wasatch Formation has been eroded, leaving sandstone slabs of the Mesa Verde Group unsupported over vertical distances as great as 500 m, the upper part of the unit has collapsed in landslides, probably by a process of beam-buckle failure. In

  7. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  8. Hydrogeology and analysis of ground-water withdrawal from the Catahoula aquifer system in the Natchez area, Adams County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strom, E.W.; Burt, D.E.; Oakley, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    The city of Natchez, located in Adams County, Mississippi, relies on ground water for public supply and industrial needs. Most public supply and industrial wells are developed in Catahoula Formation sands of Miocene age. In 1991, an investigation began to describe the hydrogeology, analyze the effects of ground-water withdrawal from currently pumped wells, and project the possible effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on water levels in the Catahoula aquifer system within the Natchez area. The study area covers about 80 square miles in Adams County, southwestern Mississippi. The study area contains several aquifers; however, the most important aquifers in terms of water supply are the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer and the Catahoula aquifer system. In the Natchez area, the Catahoula aquifer system consists of three main sand intervals that form the upper, middle, and lower Catahoula aquifers. Ground-water withdrawal from the Catahoula aquifer system in the study area currently (March 1995) is from 24 wells screened in the three aquifers. The current daily rate of withdrawal is about 9.2 million gallons of water per day. Analysis of the effect of ground-water withdrawal from these wells was made using the Theis nonequilibrium equation and applying the principle of superposition. The calculated drawdown surfaces under current conditions indicate cones of depression surrounding the principal wells. In the upper Catahoula sand, most of the drawdown is concentrated about 1 mile east of the downtown Natchez area, where a maximum drawdown of 95x11 feet was calculated. Most of the drawdown in the middle Catahoula sand occurred in the same general vicinity as in the upper sand, with a maximum calculated drawdown of about 113 feet. Drawdown in the lower Catahoula sand was concentrated about 4x11 miles northeast of downtown Natchez, with a maximum calculated drawdown of about 31 feet. Drawdown-surface maps were made using calculations based on current pumping

  9. Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

  10. Geology of the Uravan quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Butler, A.P.; McKay, E.J.; Boardman, Robert L.

    1954-01-01

    The Uravan quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to the related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  11. Geology of the Atkinson Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, E.J.

    1953-01-01

    The Atkinson Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that rangein age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Bath". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstone of favorable composition.

  12. Geology of the Pine Mountain quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Pine Mountain quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over mush of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in sizer from irregular masses containing only a few ton of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  13. Geology of the Paradox quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, C.F.

    1954-01-01

    The Paradox quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation, Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  14. Geology of the Juanita Arch quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.

    1954-01-01

    The Juanita Arch quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore ro large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstone of favorable construction.

  15. Geology of the Red Canyon quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, E.J.; Jobin, D.A.

    1953-01-01

    The Red Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium, minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  16. Geology of the Gateway quadrangle, Mesa county Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gateway quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  17. Geology of the Calamity Mesa quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Stager, Harold K.

    1953-01-01

    The Calamity Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks the range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  18. Electrical resistivity surveys in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of naturally occurring and mining related metals to Cement Creek, a tributary of the upper Animas River in southwestern Colorado. Efforts to improve water quality in the watershed have focused on Prospect Gulch because many of its abandoned mines and are located on federal lands. Information on sources and pathways of metals, and related ground-water flow, will be useful to help prioritize and develop remediation strategies. It has been shown that the occurrence of sulfate, aluminum, iron, zinc and other metals associated with historical mining and the natural weathering of pyritic rock is substantial. In this study, direct current resistivity surveys were conducted to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution and to identify faults and fractures that may act as ground-water conduits or barriers to flow. Five lines of resistivity data were collected in the vicinity of Prospect Gulch, and cross-section profiles were constructed from the field data using a two-dimensional inversion algorithm. The conductive anomalies in the profiles are most likely caused by wet or saturated rocks and sediments, clay rich deposits, or high TDS ground water. Resistive anomalies are likely bedrock, dry surficial and sub-surface deposits, or deposits of ferricrete.

  19. Geology of the Roc Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.

    1954-01-01

    The Roc Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan mineral belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary in sandstones of favorable composition.

  20. Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher; Lile, Elizabeth; Briggs, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The USGS Fire Science Initiative is designed to identify potential wildfire risks and related hazards and to mitigate their effects on people, property, and natural resources. The USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) plays an integral role in the fire science demonstration project targeting Grand County, Colo., which uses remote sensing imagery, other geospatial data, and advanced classification techniques to produce inventories and assessments of the current state of the ecosystem. The data gathered - extent of tree mortality and insect infestation, changes in fire fuels, susceptibility to post-fire effects, distribution of wildland-urban interface areas, etc. - will give much needed information to decisionmakers on the Federal, State, and local levels.

  1. Carnotite resources of the Calamity group area, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stager, Harold K.

    1951-01-01

    The Calamity group area, which includes 28 unpatented Government claims and enclosed fractions of public domain, lies along the east rim of Calamity Mesa, Mesa County, Colo.  From 1915 through 1944, about 10,000 tons of carnotite ore, averaging about 1.0 percent U3O8 and 2.5 percent V2O5, was produced from mines in this group (tons in this report are short tons).  Production from this area from August 1949 to January 1, 1951, totaled 8,100 tons of ore with an average grade of 0.36 percent U3O8 and 1.66 percent V2O5, containing about 58,600 pounds of U3O8 and 268,000 pounds of V2O5.

  2. Colorado

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Spectacular Mountain Views of Northwest Colorado     ... portion of the image (across the top in this orientation) mountain ranges pictured here include the Medicine Bow, Front, Gore and the ...

  3. Geochemistry of Standard Mine Waters, Gunnison County, Colorado, July 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Graves, Jeffrey T.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In many hard-rock-mining districts water flowing from abandoned mine adits is a primary source of metals to receiving streams. Understanding the generation of adit discharge is an important step in developing remediation plans. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage basin near Crested Butte, Colorado as a superfund site because drainage from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to the stream. Elk Creek flows into Coal Creek, which is a source of drinking water for the town of Crested Butte. In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity and identified areas of the underground workings for additional work. Mine drainage, underground-water samples, and selected spring water samples were collected in July 2009 for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a follow-up study. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 2 and 3 of the Standard Mine, two spring samples, and an Elk Creek sample. Reported analyses include field measurements (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential), major constituents and trace elements, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic determinations. Overall, water samples collected in 2009 at the same sites as were collected in 2006 have similar chemical compositions. Similar to 2006, water in Level 3 did not flow out the portal but was observed to flow into open workings to lower parts of the mine. Many dissolved constituent concentrations, including calcium, magnesium, sulfate, manganese, zinc, and cadmium, in Level 3 waters substantially are lower than in Level 1 effluent. Concentrations of these dissolved constituents in water samples collected from Level 2 approach or exceed concentrations of Level 1 effluent

  4. Quality of ground water in Routt County, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covay, Kenneth J.; Tobin, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical and bacteriological data were collected to describe the quality of water from selected geologic units in Routt County, Colo. Calcium bicarbonate was the dominant water-chemistry type; magnesium, sodium, and sulfate frequently occurred as codominant ions. Specific conductance values ranged from 50 to 6,000 micromhos. Mean values of specific conductance, dissolved solids , and hardness from the sampled aquifers were generally greatest in waters from the older sedimentary rocks of the Lance Formation, Lewis Shale, Mesaverde Group, and Mancos Shale, and least in the ground waters from the alluvial deposits, Browns Park Formation, and the basement complex. Correlations of specific conductance with dissolved solids and specific conductance with hardness were found within specified concentration ranges. On the basis of water-quality analyses, water from the alluvial desposits, Browns Park Formation, and the basement complex generally is the most suitable for domestic uses. Chemical constituents in water from wells or springs exceeded State and Federal standards for public-water supplies or State criteria for agricultural uses were pH, arsenic, boron, chloride, iron, fluoride, manganese, nitrite plus nitrate, selenium, sulfate, or dissolved solids. Total-coliform bacteria were detected in water from 29 sites and fecal-coliform bacteria were detected in water from 6 of the 29 sites. (USGS)

  5. Alteration and vein mineralization, Ladwig uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium ore at the Ladwig mine, Jefferson County, Colo., occurs in steeply dipping, northwest-striking faults and related fractures with a carbonate-adularia assemblage that forms in altered wallrocks and fills veins. The faults occur between large intrusive pegmatites and garnetiferous gneisses of Precambrian age, and were reactivated as the result of the early Paleocene uplift of the Front Range foothills. Mineralization in the deposit includes both wallrock alteration and vein filling. Alteration was intense but local, and chiefly involved the carbonatization of mafic minerals in the wallrocks. Felsic minerals in the wallrocks are relatively unaltered. The veins are filled with an adularia-pitchblende-carbonate assemblage with minor related sulfides and coffinite. Many of the iron-bearing carbonates in both the alteration and vein assemblages have been altered to hematite. The mineralization and alteration are believed to have formed in response to initially high amounts of CO2 and the subsequent release of dissolved CO2 by boiling or effervescence. Uranium, carried in a dicarbonate complex, was precipitated directly as pitchblende when the CO2 was released. The expulsion of H+ during boiling created a net oxidizing environment which oxidized the iron-bearing carbonates. Late stage calcite and sulfides were deposited in existing voids in the veins.

  6. Geologic map of the Rifle Falls quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Egger, Anne

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Rifle Falls 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Iles Formation through Ordovician and Cambrian units. The Iles Formation includes the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale is divided into three members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, and a lower member. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and the Entrada Sandstone are present. Below the Upper Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, the easternmost limit of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is recognized. Both the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Triassic(?) and Permian State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is divided into two members, the Schoolhouse Member and a lower member. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Evaporite intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group is divided into the Dyer Dolomite, which is broken into the Coffee Pot Member and the Broken Rib Member, and the Parting Formation. Ordovician through Cambrian units are undivided. The southwest flank of the White River uplift is a late Laramide structure that is represented by the steeply southwest-dipping Grand Hogback, which is only present in the southwestern corner of the map area, and less steeply southwest-dipping older strata that flatten to nearly horizontal attitudes in the northern part of the map area. Between these two is a large-offset, mid

  7. Geologic map of the Horse Mountain Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, W.J.; Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.; Maldonado, Florian

    2003-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Horse Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, summarizes available geologic information for the quadrangle. It provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Paleocene and early Eocene Wasatch Formation down through Ordovician and Cambrian units into Precambrian hornblende tonalite. The Wasatch Formation includes the Shire, Molina and Atwell Gulch Members which are mapped separately. The underlying Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group is subdivided into the Willams Fork and Iles Formations. The Cameo-Fairfield clinker zone within the Williams Fork Formation is mapped separately. The Iles Formation includes the Rollins Sandstone Member at the top, mapped separately, and the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale consists of four members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, the Juana Lopez Member, and a lower member, undivided. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and Jurassic Entrada Sandstone are mapped separately. The Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is mapped with the Entrada in the Horse Mountain Quadrangle. The upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Permian and Triassic(?) State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is undivided. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Evaporite are diapiric, intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group consists of the Dyer Dolomite and the underlying Parting Quartzite, undivided. Locally, the Lower Ordovician

  8. Geology of the Cerro Summit quadrangle, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Robert G.

    1966-01-01

    The Cerro Summit quadrangle covers 58 square miles of dissected plateau on the south flank of the Gunnison uplift in southwestern Colorado. It lies east of the Uncompahgre River valley and south of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison River. Rocks dip gently in most of the quadrangle, but they are locally upturned and faulted on the margin of the Gunnison uplift and are intensely deformed in the core of the uplift. The rocks exposed are of Precambrian, late Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age. Precambrian rocks include metasedimentary schist and gneiss, granitic pegmatite, and olivine gabbro. The oldest Mesozoic rocks exposed are continental, fresh-water, and lagoonal deposits in the Late Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, Wanakah Formation, and Morrison Formation. Channel-fill deposits that unconformably overlie the Jurassic rocks are possibly the Burro Canyon Formation of Early Cretaceous age. Upper Cretaceous rocks include marine and nearshore deposits of the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, and the fresh- and brackish-water sandstone, shale, and coal of the Fruitland Formation. Rocks of Late Cretaceous age that crop out in the adjacent Cimarron Ridge area may also have been deposited in this quadrangle but are now eroded; these rocks include the nonmarine Kirtland Shale and an unnamed volcanic conglomerate and tuff breccia. Nine faunal zones in the Mancos Shale help to establish the correct correlation of units in the Upper Cretaceous. The Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, and Kirtland Shale of the Cerro Summit area have been mapped by some geologists as the Mesaverde Formation. Fossils indicate that the rocks are younger than the type Mesaverde. The unnamed volcanic rocks represent major volcanism in nearby areas. A Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) age for the volcanism is indicated by palynological evidence and an isotopic age of approximately 66 million years. Middle Tertiary rocks are conglomerate and tuff breccia. Upper Tertiary or

  9. Carnotite resources of the Dolores bench, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobin, Daniel Alfred

    1953-01-01

    The Dolores bench is about 2 miles northwest of Uravan, Montrose County, Colo. From 1913 to November 1952 about 95,000 short tons of ore averaging 0.40 percent U3O8 and 2.0 percent V2O5 was mined from the Dolores bench. The production represents three periods of activity--1913-18, 1938-43, and 1948-52. The ore deposits are in broad sandstone lenses near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. The deposits are mainly impregnations of sandstone by carnotite and vanadiferous clay minerals. The deposits are irregular tabular layers which occasionally include pod-like masses called “rolls”. The rolls as well as the mineralized areas enclosing them have a poorly defined northeast trend. Between December 4, 1951, and August 1, 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey diamond-drilled 183 holes totaling 53,654 feet. The indicated and inferred reserves of carnotite-bearing material, and the pounds of contained U3O8 and V2O5 area summarized in table 1. At the highest thickness and grade cutoffs (1 foot thick and 0.10 percent U3O8 or 1.0 percent V2O5), indicated and inferred ore reserves total 90,000 short tons, averaging 0.33 percent U3O8 and 2.11 percent V2O5. These reserves include only those discovered by U.S. Geological Survey drilling. Potential reserves, whose existence is based on geologic evidence alone, are estimated to be about 10,000 short tons, averaging about 0.30 percent U3O8 and 2.00 percent V2O5. No additional exploration of the Dolores bench is planned by the Geological Survey. Diamond drilling by claim owners is recommended in several parts of the area.

  10. Shapefile of the Elevation of the Bedrock Surface Beneath the Rocky Flats Alluvial Fan, Boulder and Jefferson Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, Daniel H.

    2003-01-01

    The Rocky Flats alluvial fan is a large early Pleistocene gravel deposit at the mouth of Coal Creek Canyon along the eastern flank of the Colorado Front Range in Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado. Elevations of the bedrock surface beneath the alluvial fan gravels have been compiled at selected points from a variety of sources and recorded in a digital dataset suitable for importing into commonly used GIS and image processing software packages.

  11. Pegmatites of the Crystal Mountain district, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurston, William R.

    1952-01-01

    The Front Range of Colorado is composed chiefly of schists of the pre-Cambrian Idaho Springs formation which have been intruded by a variety of granitic batholiths. In the Crystal Mountain district the Mount Olympus granite, a satellite of the Longs Peak batholith, forms sills and essentially concordant multiple intrusions in quartz-mica schist that dips southward at moderate to steep angles. A great number of pegmatites accompanied and followed the intrusion of the sills, and formed concordant and discordant bodies in schist and granite. Over 1,300 pegmatites in the Hyatt area north of the Big Thompson River are mapped and individually described. There are 27 pegmatites in the area that are made up of a wall zone and a core, and one, the pegmatite at the Hyatt mine, is composed of five zones. The largest pegmatites in the area are discordant in schist and occupy zones that are interpreted to be tear faults and tension fractures produced by the successive intrusions of granite that formed multiple sills. The majority of pegmatites in the large multiple sills were emplaced along the foliation and fractures. The composition of 96 percent of the pegmatites is granitic, 3.5 percent are quartz-rich pegmatites, and a few are tourmaline-rich. The pegmatites were intruded over a period of time and probably were derived from a granitic magma at different stages during differentiation. Solutions escaping from many of the pegmatites tournalinized and silicified the wall rocks for a few inches to two feet, but chemical and spectrographic analyses fail to show the transport of any other constituents. Perthite, plagioclase, and quartz are the essential minerals of the pegmatites, and muscovite is a minor but widespread constituent. Tourmaline, garnet, beryl, and apatite are common accessory minerals, and lithiophillitite-triphylite, bismuthinite, uraninite, columbite-tantalite, and chrysoberyl are rare constituents. Beryl is found in 250 or 27 percent of the pegmatites and makes

  12. Pegmatites of the Crystal Mountain district, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurston, William R.

    1952-01-01

    The Front Range of Colorado is composed chiefly of schists of the pre-Cambrian Idaho Springs formation which have been intruded by a variety of granitic batholiths. In the Crystal Mountain district the Mount Olympus granite, a satellite of the Longs Peak batholith, forms sills and essentially concordant multiple intrusions in quartz-mica schist that dips southward at moderate to steep angles. A great number of pegmatites accompanied and followed the intrusion of the sills, and formed concordant and discordant bodies in schist and granite. Over 1,300 pegmatites in the Hyatt area north of the Big Thompson River are mapped and individually described. There are 27 pegmatites in the area that are made up of a wall zone and a core, and one, the pegmatite at the Hyatt mine, is composed of five zones. The largest pegmatites in the area are discordant in schist and occupy zones that are interpreted to be tear faults and tension fractures produced by the successive intrusions of granite that formed multiple sills. The majority of pegmatites in the large multiple sills were emplaced along the foliation and fractures. The composition of 96 percent of the pegmatites is granitic, 3.5 percent are quartz-rich pegmatites, and a few are tourmaline-rich. The pegmatites were intruded over a period of time and probably were derived from a granitic magma at different stages during differentiation. Solutions escaping from many of the pegmatites tournalinized and silicified the wall rocks for a few inches to two feet, but chemical and spectrographic analyses fail to show the transport of any other constituents. Perthite, plagioclase, and quartz are the essential minerals of the pegmatites, and muscovite is a minor but widespread constituent. Tourmaline, garnet, beryl, and apatite are common accessory minerals, and lithiophillitite-triphylite, bismuthinite, uraninite, columbite-tantalite, and chrysoberyl are rare constituents. Beryl is found in 250 or 27 percent of the pegmatites and makes

  13. Geologic report on the Sand Wash Drilling Project, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.E.; Wayland, T.E.

    1981-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Drilling Project comprises twenty-seven (27) drill holes located in Moffat and Routt Counties, northwest Colorado, having an aggregate depth of 26,107.5 feet (7957.6 m). The holes penetrate the Browns Park Formation of Miocene age, which is a tuffaceous continental sandstone deposited in fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments. Partly based on project drilling results, uranium potential resource estimates for this formation in the $50/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ forward-cost category have been increased by 34,476 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (35,036 metric tons). Three areas between Maybell and Craig, Colorado, considered favorable for uranium occurrences were verified as favorable by project drilling, and a fourth favorable area northwest of Maybell has been expanded. In addition, project drilling results indicate two new favorable areas, one north and northwest and one south of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Anomalous radioactivity was detected in drill holes in all six study areas of the project. The most important factor in concentrating significant amounts of uranium in the target formation appears to be the availability of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons and/or hydrogen sulfide gas as reductants. Where subjacent formations supply these reductants to the Browns Park Formation, project drilling encountered 0.05 percent to 0.01 percent uranium concentrations. Potential, though unproven, sources of these reductants are believed to underlie parts of all six project study areas.

  14. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  15. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  16. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  18. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  19. Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

  20. Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

  1. Effects of irrigation water supply variations on limited resource farming in Conejos County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jerry B.; Wang, Erda

    1993-02-01

    Farms in NE Conejos County, Colorado, are characterized by limited resources, uncertain surface flow irrigation systems, and mixed crop-livestock enterprise combinations which are dependent on public grazing resources. To model decision making on these farms, a linear program is developed stressing enterprise choices under conditions of multiple resource constraints. Differential access to grazing resources and irrigation water is emphasized in this research. Regarding the water resource, the model reflects farms situated alternatively on high-, medium-, and low-priority irrigation ditches within the Alamosa-La Jara river system, each with and without supplemental pumping. Differences are found in optimum enterprise mixes, net returns, choice of cropping technology, level of marketings, and other characteristics in response to variations in the availability of irrigation water. Implications are presented for alternative improvement strategies.

  2. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado, namely the Hansen and the Picnic Tree. Host rocks are respectively the upper Eocene Echo park Alluvium, and the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate. Average ore grade is about 0.08% U3O8. The principal source rock is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the groundwater and deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by groundwater flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. -from Author

  3. Property description and fact-finding report for NOSR 1&3, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-30

    The US Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale No. 1 and No. 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America claims ownership of 100 percent of the minerals and 100 percent of the surface rights in 36,406-acre NOSR-1 and 20,171-acre at NOSR-3. Production has been established on NOSR-3 and currently the DOE owns interests in 53 gas wells that produce on or immediately adjacent to the acreage. NOSR-3 also contains undrilled locations that are classified as proved undeveloped or probable reserves. Recently, the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission (COGCC) approved an increased 40 acre drilling density for the Mesaverde formation that includes portions of NOSR-3.

  4. Geologic Map of the Eaton Reservoir Quadrangle, Larimer County, Colorado and Albany County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2008-01-01

    New geologic mapping of the Eaton Reservoir 7.5' quadrangle defines geologic relationships in the northern Front Range along the Colorado/Wyoming border approximately 35 km south of Laramie, Wyo. Previous mapping within the quadrangle was limited to regional reconnaissance mapping (Tweto, 1979; Camp, 1979; Burch, 1983) and some minor site-specific studies (Carlson and Marsh, 1986; W. Braddock, unpub. mapping, 1982). Braddock and others (1989) mapped the Diamond Peak 7.5' quadrangle to the east, Burch (1983) mapped rocks of the Rawah batholith to the south, W. Braddock (unpub. mapping, 1981) mapped the Sand Creek Pass 7.5' quadrangle to the west, and Ver Ploeg and Boyd (2000) mapped the Laramie 30' x 60' quadrangle to the north. Field work was completed during 2005 and 2006 and the mapping was compiled at a scale of 1:24,000. Minimal petrographic work and isotope dating was done in connection with the present mapping, but detailed petrographic and isotope studies were carried out on correlative map units in surrounding areas as part of a related regional study of the northern Front Range. Classification of Proterozoic rocks is primarily based upon field observation of bulk mineral composition, macroscopic textural features, and field relationships that allow for correlation with rocks studied in greater detail outside of the map area.

  5. Geochemical data from waters in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado, that span pre- and post-Lark Mine remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.; Johnson, Hugh D.

    2011-01-01

    In San Juan County, Colorado, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute dissolved metals to groundwater and surface water. Water samples in Prospect Gulch near Silverton, Colorado, were collected at selected locations that span pre- and post-reclamation activities at the Lark Mine, located in the Prospect Gulch watershed. Geochemical results from those water samples are presented in this report. Water samples were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen with handheld field meters, and metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  6. Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An early-season snowfall accents the Rocky Mountains through western and central Colorado. This true-color image made from data collected by MODIS on October 26, 2001, highlights the contrast between various irrigated areas and the otherwise dry environment at the foothills of the Rockies. One such example is the city of Denver and its outlying suburbs, which can be seen best in the high-resolution image. In areas that would normally harbor drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs and trees, humans are living, watering their lawns, and farming; those watered, green areas differ substantially from the surrounding hues of brown. Numerous National Parks and Monuments dot the Southwestern U.S. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument is one such park. Running along the western base the Sangre de Cristo Range(just below the image's center), a subsection of the Rockies, the monument possesses some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with crests reaching over 700 feet.

  7. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  8. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  9. Depositional environments of a coal-bearing section in the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Routt County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaffke, Thresa M.

    1979-01-01

    A 107-m (350 ft) section of coal-bearing rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group that is exposed along an access road to the Edna Mine in Routt County, Colorado, records deposition of sediment during a regressive phase of the epicontinental sea. Each of the coal beds in the section occurs at the top of a bayfill sequence that records infilling of a bay sufficient to provide swamp conditions and allow formation of peat.

  10. Hydrology and subsidence potential of proposed coal-lease tracts in Delta County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Tom

    1983-01-01

    Potential subsidence from underground coal mining and associated hydrologic impacts were investigated at two coal-lease tracts in Delta County, Colorado. Alteration of existing flow systems could affect water users in the surrounding area. The Mesaverde Formation transmits little ground water because of the neglibile transmissivity of the 1,300 feet of fine-grained sandstone, coal , and shale comprising the formation. The transmissivities of coal beds within the lower Mesaverde Formation ranged from 1.5 to 16.7 feet squared per day, and the transmissivity of the upper Mesaverde Formation, based on a single test, was 0.33 foot squared per day. Transmissivities of the alluvium ranged from 108 to 230 feet squared per day. The transmissivity of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits, determined from an aquifer test, was about 1,900 feet squared per day. Mining beneath Stevens Gulch and East Roatcap Creek could produce surface expressions of subsidence. Subsidence fractures could partly drain alluvial valley aquifers or streamflow in these mines. (USGS)

  11. Relationship between shrubs and foods in mountain plover habitat in Park County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, S.C.; Wunder, Michael B.; Knopf, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    We explored habitat use in terms of vegetation structure and potential forage availability for mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) in Park County, Colorado. We quantified the percentage cover of bare ground, percentage cover of shrubs (Chrysothamnus visadiflorus), linear distance to nearest shrub, arthropod biomass, and grasshopper density for 102 plots of 1,963 m2, 51 of which were occupied by plovers and 51 of which were selected randomly within previously-classified potential habitat. We modeled the probability of habitat use by plovers based on these measurements. We further subdivided the occupied plots to model probability of habitat use by adults with broods as compared with use by pre-nesting and post-nesting adults. Percentage of bare ground and probability of habitat use for adults with broods were related inversely, but not so for adults without broods. Grasshopper density was positively related to probability of habitat use by adults without broods, whereas proximity to nearest shrub was negatively related. We propose that habitat use by plovers in South Park is influenced by the amount of available shrub-grassland edge habitat and the availability of forage.

  12. Slope stability of proposed ski facilities at the southeast side of Snodgrass Mountain, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the proposed expansion of ski facilities at Crested Butte Mountain Resort, Gunnison County, Colorado, is in an area underlain by landslide deposits that are on the southeast side of Snodgrass Mountain. Except for localized movement, the landslides do not appear to be moving at present or to have moved in the past several decades. Shallow sliding and debris flows have occurred in similar materials nearby and are likely to occur in the landslide deposits during the 50-100 year life of the proposed facilities. Hazards related to debris flow, shallow slumping, and expansive soils in the deposits can be reduced by appropriate engineering and remedial measures but maintenance for the proposed facility may become costly. Snow making is likely to aggravate the hazards of shallow slumping, deep-seated sliding, and debris flow. Reactivation and deep-seated movement of a 1.6-million-m3 slide at the east side of the deposits would damage or destroy a proposed gondola, ski lift N-3, and related facilities. Moving the gondola and lift off the slide and prohibiting snow making on the slide will protect the gondola and lift and reduce the chances of debris-flow damage to a proposed development near the toe of the slide. Insufficient data are available to assess the current or future stability of the landslides or to evaluate possible mitigation strategies; detailed stability analyses are needed before developing any facilities on the landslide deposits.

  13. Geology and structure of the Pine River, Florida River, Carbon Junction, and Basin Creek gas seeps, La Plata County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassett, James E.; Condon, Steven M.; Huffman, A. Curtis; Taylor, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction: This study was commissioned by a consortium consisting of the Bureau of Land Management, Durango Office; the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission; La Plata County; and all of the major gas-producing companies operating in La Plata County, Colorado. The gas-seep study project consisted of four parts; 1) detailed surface mapping of Fruitland Formation coal outcrops in the above listed seep areas, 2) detailed measurement of joint and fracture patterns in the seep areas, 3) detailed coal-bed correlation of Fruitland coals in the subsurface adjacent to the seep areas, and 4) studies of deep-seated seismic patterns in those seep areas where seismic data was available. This report is divided into three chapters labeled 1, 2, and 3. Chapter 1 contains the results of the subsurface coal-bed correla-tion study, chapter 2 contains the results of the surface geologic mapping and joint measurement study, and chapter 3, contains the results of the deep-seismic study. A preliminary draft of this report was submitted to the La Plata County Group in September 1996. All of the members of the La Plata Group were given an opportunity to critically review the draft report and their comments were the basis for revising the first draft to create this final version of a geologic report on the major La Plata County gas seeps located north of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation.

  14. Reconnaissance evaluation of surface-water quality in Eagle, Grand, Jackson, Pitkin, Routt, and Summit counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Linda J.

    1979-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from streams in a six-county area in northwest Colorado to determine if the streams were polluted and, if so, to determine the sources of the pollution. Eighty-three stream sites were selected for sampling in Eagle, Grand, Jackson, Pitkin, Routt, and Summit Counties. A summary of data collected prior to this study, results of current chemical and biological sampling, and needs for future water-quality monitoring are reported for each county. Data collected at selected sites included temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and stream discharge. Chemical data collected included nutrients, inorganics, organics, and trace elements. Biological data collected included counts and species composition of total and fecal-coliform bacteria, fecal-streptococcus bacteria, benthic invertebrates, and phytoplankton. Most of the sites were sampled three times: in April-June 1976, August 1976, and January 1977. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Geology of the Ralston Buttes district, Jefferson County, Colorado: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Douglas M.; Maxwell, Charles H.; Albee, Arden L.; Van Horn, Richard

    1956-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes district in Jefferson County is one of the most significant new uranium districts located east of the Continental Divide in Colorado. The district is east of the Colorado Front Range mineral belt, along the east front of the range. From November 1953 through October 1956, about 10,000 tons of uranium ore, much of which was high-grade pitchblende-bearing vein material, was shipped from the district. The ore occurs in deposits that range in size from bodies containing less than 50 tons to ore shoots containing over 1,000 tons. The only other mining activity in the area has been a sporadic production of beryl, feldspar, and scrap mica from Precambrian pegmatites, and quarrying of dimension stone, limestone, and clay from sedimentary rocks. Most of the Ralston Buttes district consists of complexly folded Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks - gneiss, schist, quartzite, amphibolite, and granodiorite. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks crop out in the northeastern part of the district. These rocks are cut by northwesterly-trending fault systems of Laramide age and by small bodies of intrusive rocks that are Tertiary in age. The typical uranium deposits in the district are hydrothermal veins occupying openings in Laramide fault breccias or related fractures that cut the Precambrian rocks. Pitchblende and lesser amounts of secondary uranium minerals are associated with sparse base-mental sulfides in a gangue of carbonate minerals, potash feldspar, and, more rarely, quartz. Less common types of deposits consist of pitchblende and secondary uranium minerals that occupy fractures cutting pegmatites and quartz veins. The uranium deposits are concentrated in two areas, the Ralston Creek area and the Golden Gate Canyon area. The deposits in the Ralston Creek area are located along the Rogers fault system, and the deposits in the Golden Gate Canyon area are along the Hurricane Hill fault system. Two geologic factors were important to the localization

  16. Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad Aquifers in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    Exploration for and production of coalbed methane has increased substantially in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States since the 1990s. During 1999-2004, annual production of natural gas (coalbed methane) from the Raton Basin in Las Animas County, Colorado, increased from 28,129,515 to 80,224,130 thousand cubic feet, and the annual volume of ground water coproduced by coalbed methane wells increased from about 949 million gallons to about 2,879 million gallons. Better definition of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad aquifers in the Raton Basin of southern Colorado is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of coalbed methane development on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado. Geostatistical methods were used to map the altitude of and depths to the bottoms and tops (structure) and the apparent thicknesses of the Trinidad Sandstone, the Vermejo Formation, and the Raton Formation in Las Animas County, based on completion reports and drillers' logs from about 1,400 coalbed methane wells in the Raton Basin. There was not enough subsurface control to map the structural surfaces and apparent thicknesses of the aquifers in Huerfano County. Geostatistical methods also were used to map the regional water table in the northern part of Las Animas County, based on reported depth to water from completion reports of water-supply wells. Although these maps were developed to better define the hydrostratigraphic framework, they also can be used to determine the contributing aquifer(s) of existing water wells and to estimate drilling depths of proposed water wells. These maps of the hydrostratigraphic framework could be improved with the addition of measured sections and mapping of geologic contacts at outcrops

  17. Identification of Water-Quality Trends Using Sediment Cores from Dillon Reservoir, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greve, Adrienne I.; Spahr, Norman E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the construction of Dillon Reservoir, in Summit County, Colorado, in 1963, its drainage area has been the site of rapid urban development and the continued influence of historical mining. In an effort to assess changes in water quality within the drainage area, sediment cores were collected from Dillon Reservoir in 1997. The sediment cores were analyzed for pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements. Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs were used to determine the effects of urban development, and trace elements were used to identify mining contributions. Water-quality and streambed-sediment samples, collected at the mouth of three streams that drain into Dillon Reservoir, were analyzed for trace elements. Of the 14 pesticides and 3 PCBs for which the sediment samples were analyzed, only 2 pesticides were detected. Low amounts of dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyldichloroethane (DDD), metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were found at core depths of 5 centimeters and below 15 centimeters in a core collected near the dam. The longest core, which was collected near the dam, spanned the entire sedimentation history of the reservoir. Concentrations of total combustion PAH and the ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene in the core sample decreased with core depth and increased over time. This relation is likely due to growth in residential and tourist populations in the region. Comparisons between core samples gathered in each arm of the reservoir showed the highest PAH concentrations were found in the Tenmile Creek arm, the only arm that has an urban area on its shores, the town of Frisco. All PAH concentrations, except the pyrene concentration in one segment in the core near the dam and acenaphthylene concentrations in the tops of three cores taken in the reservoir arms, were below Canadian interim freshwater sediment-quality guidelines. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium

  18. Duttonite, a new quadrivalent vanadium oxide from the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Mary Eleanor; Roach, Carl Houston; Meyrowitz, Robert

    1956-01-01

    Duttonite, a new quadrivalent vanadium oxide from the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colo., has the formula VO(OH)2. The mineral occurs as crusts and coatings of pale-brown transparent platy crystals, as one of the first oxidation products of montroseite ore. It is associated with melanovanadite and abundant crystals of hexagonal native selenium. Duttonite is biaxial positive, 2V is about 60°, dispersion is r v, moderate; X = a, pale pinkish brown; Y = c, pale yellow-brown; Z = b, pale brown; α = 1.810 ± 0.003, β = 1.900 ± 0.003, γ > 2.01. The hardness is about 2.5; the calculated specific gravity is 3.24. The chemical analysis shows, in percent: V2o3 2.6, V2O4 75.3, FeO 0.4, H2O 18.1, insoluble 4.2, total 100.6. Duttonite is monoclinic, ao = 8.80 ± 0.02A, bo - 3.95 ± 0.01A, co - 5.96 ± 0.02A, β = 90°401 ± 51. The space group is I2/c, (C62h); the cell contents are 4[VO(OH)2]. The crystals are strongly pseudo-orthorhombic, and the structure departs only slightly from the space group Imcm. Duttonite is named for Captain Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912). A detailed study of the geology, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the vanadium-uranium ore at the Peanut mine, Montrose County, Colo., was begun early in 1954 by Carl H. Roach of the U. S. Geological Survey. A number of rare and new minerals were found in the ore and the study of these samples was undertaken by Mary E. Thompson. Duttonite is the first new vanadium mineral to be described from the Peanut mine. It is named for Captain Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912), who was one of the first geologists to work in the Colorado Plateau region and who was a member of the U. s. Geological Survey from 1879-91. We are indebted to the following members of the Geological Surbey: K. E. Valentine for spectrographic analyses of duttonite, and M. E. Mrose and H. T. Evans, Jr., for measurement of the unit cell constants. This work is part of a program being conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey on behalf of the

  19. Promoting Evidence-Based Decision Making in a Local Health Department, Pueblo City–County, Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Nevin-Woods, Christine; Proud, Sylvia; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based decision making (EBDM) is an effective strategy for addressing population health needs. Assessing and reducing barriers to using EBDM in local health departments may improve practice and provide insight into disseminating EBDM principles among public health practitioners. Community Context Administrative leaders at the Pueblo City–County Health Department, Pueblo, Colorado, used a systematic approach for implementing EBDM. Research partners engaged staff to understand factors that increase or deter its use. Methods A survey was distributed to staff members at baseline to identify gaps in administrative and individual practice of EBDM. In-depth interviews were also conducted with 11 randomly selected staff members. Results were shared with staff and administration, after which activities were implemented to improve application of EBDM. A follow up survey was administered 1 year after the initial assessment. Outcome Survey data showed evidence of progress in engaging and educating staff members, and data showed improved attitudes toward EBDM (ie, several items showed significant improvement from baseline to follow-up). For example, staff members reported having the necessary skills to develop evidence-based interventions (73.9%), the ability to effectively communicate information on evidence-based strategies to policy makers (63.0%), access to current information on improving EBDM processes (65.2%), and a belief that evidence-based interventions are designed to be self-sustaining (43.5%). Interpretation Within a local health department in which leaders have made EBDM a priority, addressing the culture and climate of the department may build EBDM. Future research may provide insight into tailoring EBDM within and across local health departments. PMID:26111156

  20. Radium and uranium concentrations and associated hydrogeochemistry in ground water in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J. Karen; Cadigan, Robert Allen

    1979-01-01

    Radium and uranium concentrations in water from 37 wells tapping the aquifer system of the Dakota Sandstone and Purgatoire Formation in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado, have a wide range of values and define several areas of high radioactivity in the ground water. Radium ranges from 0.3 to 420 picocuries per liter and has a median value of 8.8, and uranium ranges from 0.02 to 180 micrograms per liter and has a median value of 2.4. Radon concentrations, measured in 32 of the 37 wells, range from less than 100 picocuries per liter to as much as 27,000 and have a median value of 580. Relationships among the radioactive elements and 28 other geochemical parameters were studied by using correlation coefficients and R-mode factor analysis. Five factor groups were determined to represent major influences on water chemistry: (1) short-term solution reactions, (2) oxidation reactions, (3) hydrolysis reactions, (4) uranium distribution, and (5) long-term solution reactions. Uranium concentrations are most strongly influenced by oxidation reactions but also are affected by solution reactions and distribution of uranium in the rocks of the aquifer system. Radon and radium concentrations are mostly controlled by uranium distribution; radium also shows a moderate negative relationship with oxidation. To explain the statistical and spatial relationships among the parameters, a model was developed involving the selective leaching of uranium-bearing phases and metal sulfides which occur in discontinuous zones in sandstone and shale. When reducing conditions prevail, uranium is immobile, but radium can be taken into solution. When faults and associated fractured rocks allow oxidizing conditions to dominate, uranium can be taken into solution; radium can also be taken into solution, or it may become immobilized by coprecipitation with iron and manganese oxides or with barite. Several areas within the study area are discussed in terms of the model.

  1. Uranium occurrences in the Golden Gate Canyon and Ralston Creek areas, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, John Wagstaff; Gude, A.J.; Beroni, E.P.

    1953-01-01

    Pitchblende, associated with base-metal sulfides, has been found at nine localities in the northern part of Jefferson County, Colo., in shear zones that cut pre-Cambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, chiefly hornblende gneiss, biotite schist, and granite pegmatite. The known deposits are in the vicinity of Halston Creek and Golden Gate Canyon, in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range and about 15 miles east of the pitchblende-producing area of the Central City district. Two of the pitchblende occurrences were found by a local prospector in 1949; the seven other deposits were found by Geological Survey. personnel in 1951-52. The pitchblende deposits, with one exception, are in major shear zones that contain veinlike bodies of carbonate-rich breccia that ranges from 1 to 5 feet in thickness. The breccias probably are related to the Laramide faults, or 'breccia reefs' of similar trend, mapped by Loverinq and Goddard (1950). The breccias are composed of fragments of bleached and iron-stained wall rock, usually hornblende gneiss, that have been cut by veins and cemented by carbonate minerals, quartz, and orthoclase(?). Pitchblende and associated ore minerals, chiefly copper sulfides, occur in and along the margins of the breccias and apparently were introduced at a late stage of the carbonate deposition. At one deposit, the Buckman, the pitchblende is in narrow shear zones not closely related to any large breccia bodies. Secondary uranium minerals are subordinate except at the Schwartzwalder mine, where torbernite and metatorbernite are common. Some alteration of pitchblende to non-opaque materials, believed to be hydrated oxides, has been noted in ore from two of the deposits.

  2. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  3. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado. They are the Hansen orebody, which contains about 12 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and the Picnic Tree orebody, which contains about 1 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Host rock for the Hansen is the upper Eocene Echo Park Alluvium, and host rock for the Picnic Tree is the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek onglomerate. Average ore grade for both deposits is about 0.08 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The principal source rock for the uranium depsoits is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff, although a younger volcanic rock, the Oligocene Thirtynine Mile Andesite, and Precambrian granitic rocks probably also contributed some uranium. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the ground water to favorable sites where it was deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by ground-water flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. Ground-water flow, which was apparently to the southeast in Echo Park Alluvium that is confined in the Echo Park graben, was impeded by a fault that offsets the southern end of the graben. This offset prevented efficient discharge into the ancestral Arkansas River drainage, and protected chemically reducing areas from destruction by the influx of large amounts of oxidizing ground water. The location of orebodies in the Echo Park Alluvium also may be related to areas where overlying rocks of low permeability were breached by erosion during deposition of the fluvial Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate allowing localized entry of uranium-bearing water.

  4. Chemistry and age of groundwater in the Piceance structural basin, Rio Blanco county, Colorado, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Thomas, Judith C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells were sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, to better understand the chemistry and age of groundwater in the Piceance structural basin in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, and how they may relate to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs. Natural gas extraction in the area has been ongoing since at least the 1950s, and the area contains about 960 producing, shut-in, and abandoned natural-gas wells.

  5. Preliminary report on the geology, geophysics and hydrology of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.; Carroll, R.D.; Welder, F.A.

    1967-01-01

    Approximately 1,400 feet of continuous core was taken .between 800-2,214 feet in depth from USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2. The drill, site is located in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. From ground surface the drill hole penetrated 1,120 feet of the Evacuation Creek Member and 1,094 feet of oil shale in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. Oil shale yielding more than 20 gallons per ton occurs between 1,260-2,214 feet in depth. A gas explosion near the bottom of the hole resulted in abandonment of the exploratory hole which was still in oil shale. The top of the nahcolite zone is at 1,693 feet. Below this depth the core contains common to abundant amounts of sodium bicarbonate salt intermixed with oil shale. The core is divided into seven structural zones that reflect changes in joint intensity, core loss and broken core due to natural causes. The zone of poor core recovery is in the Interval between 1,300-1,450 feet. Results of preliminary geophysical log analyses indicate that oil yields determined by Fischer assay compare favorably with yields determined by geophysical log analyses. There is strong evidence that analyses of complete core data from Colorado core holes No. 1 and No. 2 reveal a reliable relationship between geophysical log response and oil yield. The quality of the logs is poor in the rich shale section and the possibility of repeating the logging program should be considered. Observations during drilling, coring, and hydrologic testing of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2 reveal that the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation is the principal aquifer water in the Parachute Creek Member is under artesian pressure. The upper part of the aquifer has a higher hydrostatic head than, and is hydrologically separated from the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissibility of the aquifer is about 3500 gpd per foot. The maximum water yield of the core hole during testing was about 500 gpm. Chemical

  6. Geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado, portrays the geology in the upper Arkansas valley and along the lower flanks of the Sawatch Range and Mosquito Range near the town of Granite. The oldest rocks, exposed in the southern and eastern parts of the quadrangle, include gneiss and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age. These rocks are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. Felsic hypabyssal dikes, plugs, and plutons, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous or Paleocene to late Oligocene, locally intruded Proterozoic rocks. A small andesite lava flow of upper Oligocene age overlies Paleoproterozoic rock, just south of the Twin Lakes Reservoir. Gravelly fluvial and fan deposits of the Miocene and lower Pliocene(?) Dry Union Formation are preserved in the post-30 Ma upper Arkansas valley graben, a northern extension of the Rio Grande rift. Mostly north-northwest-trending faults displace deposits of the Dry Union Formation and older rock units. Light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery suggests that two short faults, near the Arkansas River, may displace surficial deposits as young as middle Pleistocene. Surficial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age are widespread in the Granite quadrangle, particularly in the major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Dry Union Formation. The main deposits are glacial outwash and post-glacial alluvium; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; till deposited during the Pinedale, Bull Lake, and pre-Bull Lake glaciations; rock-glacier deposits; and placer-tailings deposits formed by hydraulic mining and other mining methods used to concentrate native gold. Hydrologic and geologic processes locally affect use of the land and locally may be of concern regarding the stability of buildings and infrastructure, chiefly in low-lying areas along and near stream channels and locally in areas of moderate to steep slopes. Low

  7. Geology of the Copper King Mine area, Prairie Divide, Larimer County, Colorado (Part 1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, Paul Kibler; Phair, George

    1952-01-01

    The Copper King mine, in Larimer County, Colo., in the northern part of the Front Range of Colorado, was operated for a short time prior to World War II for copper and zino, but since 1949, when pitchblende was discovered on the mine dump, it has been worked for uranium. The bedrock in the mine area consists predominantly of pre-Cambrian (Silver Plums) granite with minor migmatite and metasediments--biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss, biotite schist, quartzite, amphibolite, amphibole skarn, and biotite skols. The metasediments occur as inclusions that trend northeast in the granite. This trend is essentially parallel to the prevailing foliation in the granite. At places the metasediments are crosscut sharply by the granite to form angular, partly discordant, steep-walled bodies in the granite. Faults, confined to a narrow zone that extends through the mine, cut both the pre-Cambrian rocks and the contained sulfide deposits. The Copper King fault, a breccia zone, contains a deposit of pitchblende; the other faults are believed to be later than the ore. The two types of mineral deposits--massive sulfide and pitchblende deposits--in the mine area, are of widely different mineralogy, age, and origin. The massive sulfide deposits are small and consist of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and in places magnetite in amphibole skarn, mice skols, and quartzite. The deposit at the Copper King mine has yielded small quantities of high-grade sphalerite ore. The massive sulfides are pyrometasomatic deposits of pre-Cambrian age. The pitchblende at the Copper King mine is principally in the Copper King vein, a tight, hard breccia zone that cuts through both granite and the massive sulfide deposit. A small part of the pitchblende is in small fractures near the vein and in boxwork pyrite adjacent to the vein; the post-ore faults, close to their intersection with the Copper King vein, contain some radioactive material, but elsewhere, so far as is known, they are barren

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Landslides Along the Florida River Downstream from Lemon Reservoir, La Plata County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, William L.; Kibler, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly two-dozen shallow landslides were active during spring 2005 on a hillside located along the east side of the Florida River about one kilometer downstream from Lemon Reservoir in La Plata County, southwestern Colorado. Landslides on the hillside directly threaten human safety, residential structures, a county roadway, utilities, and the Florida River, and indirectly threaten downstream areas and Lemon Dam. Most of the area where the landslides occurred was burned during the 2002 Missionary Ridge wildfire. We performed geologic mapping, subsurface exploration and sampling, radiocarbon dating, and shallow ground-water and ground-displacement monitoring to assess landslide activity. Active landslides during spring 2005 were as large as 35,000 m3 and confined to colluvium. Debris flows were mobilized from most of the landslides, were as large as 1,500 m3, and traveled as far as 250 m. Landslide activity was triggered by elevated ground-water pressures within the colluvium caused by infiltration of snowmelt. Landslide activity ceased as ground-water pressures dropped during the summer. Shallow landslides on the hillside appear to be much more likely following the Missionary Ridge fire because of the loss of tree root strength and evapotranspiration. We used monitoring data and observations to develop preliminary, approximate rainfall/snowmelt thresholds above which shallow landslide activity can be expected. Landslides triggered during spring 2005 occurred within a 1.97 x 107 m3 older landslide that extends, on average, about 40 m into bedrock. The south end of this older landslide appears to have experienced deep secondary landsliding. Radiocarbon dating of sediments at the head of the older landslide suggests that the landslide was active about 1,424-1,696 years ago. A relatively widespread wildfire may have preceded the older landslide, and the landslide may have occurred during a wetter time. The wetter climate and effects of the wildfire would likely have

  9. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World

  10. Structural reinterpretation of Ruedi and Woody Creek quadrangles, Pitkin and Eagle Counties, Colorado: a central Colorado overthrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Zoerner, F.P.

    1986-08-01

    The mountains northwest of Aspen, Colorado, are composed of Pennsylvanian through Triassic evaporites and molasse of the Eagle Valley, Belden, Minturn, Maroon, and State Bridge formations. Southwest of the Roaring Fork River and its tributary, Woody Creek, are Jurassic through Cretaceous sediments that unconformably overlie these older rocks. This entire sequence is located in the Elk Range thrust sheet. Along Woody Creek and the Roaring Fork River, Bryant and Freeman have mapped the continuation of the Castle Creek fault zone. These writers interpreted the fault zone as a southeast-dipping normal fault with a horst of Eagle Valley formation continuously present between the Pennsylvanian-Triassic and Cretaceous beds within the fault zone. Southwestward thrusting on a decollement within the Eagle Valley evaporite sequence would explain (1) its presence in the fault zone, (2) the 17,000 + ft of stratigraphic throw, and (3) the structural discordance across the fault zone. The author interprets the fault zone to be a northeast-dipping gravity slide that has been thrust off and possibly pushed by the Laramide Sawatch uplift. Cross sections through the area have similar geometry to those for the Elk Range and Hunters Hill thrusts to the south-southwest. The upturned heel is exposed along the Sawatch structural front between Hunter Creek (north of Aspen) and Lenado. These relationships suggest that another thrust paralleling the Fryingpan River is possible to the north. The author proposes the name Roaring fork thrust for the fault zone in the Woody Creek and Roaring Fork River valleys. The Castle Creek fault zone should be reserved for the fault zone in the drainage south of Aspen and the southwest projection of the Homestake shear zone, against which is appears to terminate.

  11. Supporting People in the Community: A Case Study of the Residential Support Program, Centennial Developmental Services, Weld County, Colorado. Site Visit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam; Salon, Rebecca

    The site visit report describes the Residential Support Program of the Centennial Developmental Services, a community-centered board providing residential services and support to persons (currently 67) with disabilities in Weld County, Colorado. Residential settings include a group home, supported apartments, foster homes, natural family homes, or…

  12. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal

  13. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB

  14. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  15. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  16. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  17. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code

  18. Isotopic composition of water from a mine drainage site in Creede County in south central Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. L.; Williams, M. W.; Krupicka, A.; Wireman, M.; Graves, J.

    2011-12-01

    Creede County in South Central Colorado was an active area of silver mining beginning in the early 1890s. To relieve flooding in some of the mines, the Nelson Tunnel was built in the late 1890s. This tunnel still exists and acid mine drainage from the tunnel eventually flows into the Willow Creek Watershed which eventually flows into the Upper Rio Grande. The water coming out of the tunnel is high in toxic metals and the area has become part of an EPA Superfund site in an effort to find a suitable method to remediate the metal problems. Among the approaches used in the program is the use of isotopes of water and carbon to identify sources and estimate ages of the water in the drainage. Samples were collected for analysis of isotopic ratios and tritium concentrations at a series of sites within the tunnel complex from 2008-2010. In 2009 samples were also collected for analysis of isotopes in groundwater and surface water. In 2010 sampling was expanded to include four precipitation and one snow sample. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and snowfall in 2010 ranged from 3-6 tritium units with the lowest concentration found in the snow sample. The 18O isotopic ratios in precipitation for this site ranged from an average of -8.9 o/oo in summer to about -19 o/oo in winter. The six groundwater samples collected in 2009 had an average 18O isotopic concentration of -15 o/oo and tritium concentrations ranging from 7.4-9.3 TU. These results suggest that the groundwater sampled is composed largely of a mixture of summer and winter precipitation with the latter source being dominant. The tritium concentrations in groundwater exceed recent precipitation concentrations, suggesting the presence of water from the bomb-tritium transient and an age of a decade or more for the groundwater. Eight sites in the tunnel were sampled I from 2008-2010, although not all sites were sampled every year. The sampling sites included waters seeping into the tunnel as well as the outlet water

  19. Geology and ore deposits of the Whitepine area, Tomichi mining district, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    The Tomichi mining district is on the western slope of the Continental Divide near the southern end of the Sawatch Range in southeastern Gunnison County, Colorado. The most productive part of the Tomichi district was the Whitepine area. It is estimated that since the discovery of ore in 1879 the area has produced approximately $7,000,000, principally in lead and zinc, with lesser amounts of silver, copper, and gold. Geologically, the Whitepine area is a faulted syncline of Paleozoic rocks that was intruded by Tertiary igneous rocks. The oldest rock of the area is the Silver Plume granite of pre-Cambrian age. Deposited upon this successively were the Sawatch quartzite (Late Cambrian), Manitou dolomite (Early Ordovician), Harding quartzite (Middle Ordovician), Fremont dolomite (Lade Ordovician), Chaffee formation (Late Devonian), Leadville limestone (Late Mississippian), and Beldon shale (Late Pennsylvanian); a total thickness of about 1,450 feet. During the Laramide Revolution, the sedimentary rocks were folded into a broad northward-plunging syncline, faulted, and intruded by a series of igneous rocks. The igneous rocks, in order of relative age from oldest to youngest, are: a rhyolite stock, the Princeton quartz monzonite batholith, quartz monzonite or quartz latite porphyry dikes, and rhyolite or pitchstone porphyry dikes. The ore deposits of the Whitepine area may be classified into replacement deposits, vein deposits, and contact metamorphic deposits. The replacement deposits may be further subdivided into deposits along faults and bedded deposits. Of the types of deposits, the most productive have been the replacement deposits along faults. The major replacement deposits along faults are those of the Akron, Morning Star, and Victor mines. The ore deposits of these mines are in the foot wall of the Star faults in the Akron mine in the Manitou dolomite and in the Morning Star and Victor mines in the Leadville limestone. The chief bedded replacement deposits are

  20. Geology and uranium deposits of the Cochetopa and Marshall Pass districts, Saguache and Gunnison counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Jerry C.

    1988-01-01

    The Cochetopa and Marshall Pass uranium districts are in Saguache and Gunnison Counties, south-central Colorado. Geologic mapping of both districts has shown that their structural history and geologic relationships have a bearing on the distribution and origin of their uranium deposits. In both districts, the principal uranium deposits are situated at the intersection of major faults with Tertiary erosion surfaces. These surfaces were buried by early Tertiary siliceous tuffs-- a likely source of the uranium. That uranium deposits are related to such unconformities in various parts of the world has been suggested by many other authors. The purpose of this study is to understand the geology of the two districts and to define a genetic model for uranium deposits that may be useful in the discovery and evaluation of uranium deposits in these and other similar geologic settings. The Cochetopa and Marshall Pass uranium districts produced nearly 1,200 metric tons of uranium oxide from 1956 to 1963. Several workings at the Los Ochos mine in the Cochetopa district, and the Pitch mine in the Marshall Pass district, accounted for about 97 percent of this production, but numerous other occurrences of uranium are known in the two districts. As a result of exploration of the Pitch deposit in the 1970's, a large open-pit mining operation began in 1978. Proterozoic rocks in both districts comprise metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and igneous units. Granitic rocks, predominantly quartz monzonitic in composition, occupy large areas. In the northwestern part of the Cochetopa district, metavolcanic and related metasedimentary rocks are of low grade (lower amphibolite facies). In the Marshall Pass district, layered metamorphic rocks are predominantly metasedimentary and are of higher (sillimanite subfacies) grade than the Cochetopa rocks. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Marshall Pass district range from Late Cambrian to Pennsylvanian in age and are 700 m thick. The Paleozoic rocks

  1. Sources of water and nitrogen to the Widefield Aquifer, southwestern El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Cain, Doug

    1985-01-01

    The Widefield aquifer near Colorado Springs, Colorado, is recharged primarily by Fountain Creek and, to a lesser extent, by infiltration and percolation of water from the land surface and from groundwater inflow. During the past 20 to 30 years, concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the Widefield aquifer have increased from 0.5 to 3.0 milligrams/L to nearly 10 milligrams/L, and occasionally exceed the drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams/L as nitrogen. During the summer of 1982, the concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen in water in the aquifer ranged from 3.2 to 15 milligrams/L with a mean concentration of 6.9 milligrams/L. In general, the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations are greatest near the north end of the aquifer, probably resulting from effluent from Colorado Springs Sewage Treatment Plant being discharged to Fountain Creek. During 1982, 93% of the total estimated 160 tons of nitrogen available to enter the Widefield aquifer was from the Colorado Springs Sewage Treatment Plant. However, a significant proportion of this nitrogen may have been lost through denitrification. (USGS)

  2. Monitoring-well installation, slug testing, and groundwater quality for selected sites in South Park, Park County, Colorado, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Larry R. Rick

    2015-01-01

    During May–June, 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, drilled and installed four groundwater monitoring wells in areas identified as needing new wells to provide adequate spatial coverage for monitoring water quality in the South Park basin. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Slug tests were performed to estimate hydraulic-conductivity values for aquifer materials in the screened interval of each well, and groundwater samples were collected from each well for analysis of major inorganic constituents, trace metals, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, ethane, methane, and radon. Documentation of lithologic logs, well construction, well development, slug testing, and groundwater sampling are presented in this report.

  3. What's an Adam's Apple?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  4. Water-quality characteristics and ground water quantity of the Fraser River Watershed, Grand County, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand County Board of County Commissioners, conducted a 4-year study to assess ground- and surface-water-quality conditions and ground-water quantity in the 302-square-mile Fraser River watershed in north-central Colorado. The Fraser River flows north about 28 miles from the headwaters near the Continental Divide, through the towns of Winter Park, Fraser, Tabernash, and Granby, and is one of the major tributaries to the Upper Colorado River. Increasing urban development, as well as the seasonal influx of tourists, is placing more demands on the water resources in the Fraser River watershed. A ground-water sampling network of 11 wells was established to represent different aquifer systems (alluvial, Troublesome Formation, Precambrian granite), land uses (urban, nonurban), and areas with or without individual septic disposal system use. The well network was sampled for ground-water quality on a semiannual basis from August 1998 through September 2001. The sampling included field properties and the collection of water samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacteria, methylene blue active substances, and radon-222. One surface-water site, on the Fraser River just downstream from the town of Tabernash, Colorado, was sampled bimonthly from August 1998 through September 2001 to assess the cumulative effects of natural and human processes on water quality in the upper part of the Fraser River watershed. Surface-water-quality sampling included field properties and the collection of water-quality samples for analysis of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, organic carbon, and bacteria. Ground water was a calcium-bicarbonate type water and is suitable as a drinking-water, domestic, municipal, industrial, and irrigation source. In general, no widespread ground-water-quality problems were indicated. All pH values and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, fluoride

  5. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  6. Streamwater quality at selected sites in the Fraser River basin, Grand County, Colorado, water years 1991-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of population growth on streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Grand County Commissioners and the East Grand County Water Quality Board. During water years 1991 through 2000, the study determined that concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate in the streamwater of the basin are within Colorado State streamwater?quality standards. The study also found that concentrations of chloride are largest at the headwaters and decrease downstream; however, chloride loading in the stream has the opposite relation. Most nutrient loading to the Fraser River happens January through May. Concentrations of ammonia at Fraser River downstream from Vasquez Creek at Winter Park had a downward trend through the period of the study. Nitrite plus nitrate had upward and downward trends at different sites and over different time spans. Orthophosphorus concentrations had upward trends at two sites. In general, the streamwater quality in the Fraser River Basin is good and is not out of compliance with State standards.

  7. Non-market valuation of off-highway vehicle recreation in Larimer County, Colorado: Implications of trail closures.

    PubMed

    Deisenroth, Daniel; Loomis, John; Bond, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Few economic studies are available to measure off-highway vehicle recreation benefits foregone when trails must be closed to protect the environment. This paper estimates the non-market benefits associated with off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation on National Forest lands in Larimer County, Colorado. We use a contingent valuation model (CVM) to estimate benefits to OHV users, which includes dirt bike riders, all terrain vehicle (ATV) riders, and 4-wheel drive (4x4) users. Using CVM we find the mean consumer surplus estimates to be $78 per person per day. These results are consistent with the few previous estimates of OHV recreation benefits. This equates to a per trail per summer consumer surplus of at least between $219,467 and $296,876, and a county level surplus per summer to be at least between $796,447 and $1,077,367. These benefits can be compared to environmental costs to obtain a more complete picture of the effects of trail closure, as well as the negative spillovers to non-motorized users.

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, C. C. Adams, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, C. C. Adams, Photographer August 1931, SEED PACKING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Washhouse (first), Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  9. Flow pattern in regional aquifers and flow relations between the lower Colorado River valley and regional aquifers in six counties of southeastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    The lower Colorado River discussed in this report consists of the 318- river-mile reach from Mansfield Dam near Austin, Texas, to the Gulf of Mexico. The river is underlain directly or indirectly by six regional aquifers the Trinity Group, Edwards, Carrizo-Wilcox, Queen City, Sparta, and Gulf Coast; the Trinity Group aquifer is further subdivided into the lower Trinity, middle Trinity, and upper Trinity aquifers. Generalized potentiometric-surface maps of each regional aquifer show the ground-water-flow pattern near the river valley. Each regional aquifer discharges water to the lower Colorado River valley, particularly in the outcrop area of each aquifer. Only the Gulf Coast aquifer in central Wharton County appears to be recharged by water in the river valley. A summary map shows those subreaches of the lower Colorado River that gain water from the aquifers and those subreaches that lose water to the aquifers.

  10. Geologic map of the Masters 7.5' Quadrangle, Weld and Morgan Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Margaret E.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The Masters 7.5' quadrangle is located along the South Platte River corridor on the semiarid plains of eastern Colorado and contains surficial deposits that record alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes that have operated in concert with environmental changes from Pleistocene to present time. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Front Range, has played a major role in shaping the surficial geology of the quadrangle, which is situated downstream of where the last of the major headwater tributaries (St. Vrain, Big Thompson, and Cache la Poudre) join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and terrace formation in the Masters quadrangle. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks, unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range and joining the South Platte River just downstream of the Masters quadrangle, also have played a major role by periodically delivering large volumes of sediment to the river during flood events, which may have temporarily dammed the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Greeley (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow sandy braided river with highly seasonal discharge to a much narrower, deeper river with braided-meandering transition morphology and more uniform discharge. Along the reach of river in the Masters quadrangle, the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, which, although buried by alluvial deposits here, is locally exposed downstream along the South Platte River bluff near the Bijou Creek confluence, in some of the larger draws, and along Wildcat Creek.

  11. Geologic map of the Masters 7.5' Quadrangle, Weld and Morgan Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Margaret E.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2015-09-28

    The Masters 7.5' quadrangle is located along the South Platte River corridor on the semiarid plains of eastern Colorado and contains surficial deposits that record alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes that have operated in concert with environmental changes from Pleistocene to present time. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Front Range, has played a major role in shaping the surficial geology of the quadrangle, which is situated downstream of where the last of the major headwater tributaries (St. Vrain, Big Thompson, and Cache la Poudre) join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and terrace formation in the Masters quadrangle. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks, unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range and joining the South Platte River just downstream of the Masters quadrangle, also have played a major role by periodically delivering large volumes of sediment to the river during flood events, which may have temporarily dammed the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Greeley (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow sandy braided river with highly seasonal discharge to a much narrower, deeper river with braided-meandering transition morphology and more uniform discharge. Along the reach of river in the Masters quadrangle, the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, which, although buried by alluvial deposits here, is locally exposed downstream along the South Platte River bluff near the Bijou Creek confluence, in some of the larger draws, and along Wildcat Creek.

  12. Leptospirosis and tularaemia in raccoons (Procyon lotor) of Larimer County, [corrected] Colorado.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C; Krafsur, G; Podell, B; Baeten, L A; LeVan, I; Charles, B; Ehrhart, E J

    2012-02-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are commonly implicated as carriers of many zoonotic pathogens. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to look for Leptospira interrogans and Francisella tularensis in opportunistically sampled, free-ranging raccoons of Larimer Country, Colorado, USA. Sixty-five animals were included in the study and testing consisted of gross post-mortem examination, histopathology, and both immunohistochemistry and PCR for L. interrogans and F. tularensis. No significant gross lesions were identified and the most common histological lesions were lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis and pulmonary silicosis; rare periportal hepatitis, splenic lymphoid hyperplasia and small pulmonary granulomas were also identified. Of 65 animals, 20 (30%) were positive for Leptospira on IHC but only one by PCR. Animals with inflammation in their kidneys were seven times more likely to be positive for Leptospira than animals without inflammation. The severity of inflammation was variable but often mild with minimal associated renal pathology. One animal was positive for Francisella on both IHC and PCR; IHC staining was localized to histiocytic cells within a pulmonary granuloma. In Colorado the significance and epidemiology of Leptospira is poorly understood. The high prevalence of infection in raccoons in this study population suggests that this species may be important in the regional epidemiology or could be used to estimate risk to domestic animals and humans. Identification of a single Francisella positive animal is significant as this is an uncommon disease in terrestrial animals within the state; the apparently higher prevalence in this peridomestic species implies that raccoons may be good indicators of the pathogen in the region. The results of this study suggest that raccoons may serve as effective sentinels for both Leptospira and Francisella in the state of Colorado. Further studies are needed to better characterize the prevalence and epidemiology of

  13. Selected climatological and hydrologic data, Raton basin, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, and Colfax County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Abbott, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrology of the coal-bearing Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Data in the report were collected from 1977 to 1982, mainly in the watersheds of the Apishapa and Purgatoire Rivers; data from the Cucharas, Canadian, and Vermejo River watersheds are also included in the report. The report contains records of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, evaporation, and wind movement at U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers meteorological stations; records of soil water collected by the U.S. Geological Survey; records of stream discharge and quality at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations and miscellaneous sites; and a variety of ground-water data. The ground-water data includes records of 231 wells, springs, and mines, including 87 chemical analyses of the water, recorded water levels in 29 observation wells, results of 125 aquifer tests, and 87 logs of wells and test holes. (USGS)

  14. Hydraulic geometry and streamflow of channels in the Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco and Garfield counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Cartier, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of streamflow and basin characteristics on channel geometry was investigated at 18 perennial and ephemeral stream reaches in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that the variabilities of mean bankfull depth (D) and bankfull cross-sectional flow area (Af) were predominantly a function of bankfull discharge (QB), and that most of the variability in channel slopes (S) could be explained by drainage area (DA). None of the independent variables selected for the study could account for a large part of the variability in bankfull channel width (W). (USGS)

  15. Geologic map of the Tennessee Pass area, Eagle and Lake counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweto, Ogden

    1956-01-01

    The triangular area bounded by the most productive mining districts of central Colorado- Leadville, Climax-Kokomo, and Gilman-Red Cliff- is of economic interest not only because of its close spatial relation to these districts but because it is closely related geologically.  It contains the same rocks as the adjoining mining districts and is closely related to them structurally.  It shows widespread evidence of weak mineralization at the surface and may contain ore deposits at depth, as the zones that have been productive in the adjoining mining districts lie beneath a cover of younger rocks in much of the area.

  16. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants inmore » 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.« less

  17. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants in 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.

  18. Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,215,000 South boundary: approximately 4,160,000 West boundary: approximately 216,000 East boundary: approximately 245,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. In addition, the explorationists discovered a very young Climax-style molybdenum porphyry system northeast of Rico, and drilling intersected thermal waters at depth. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Structural data collected by Flint Geothermal 2. Point information 3. Mines and prospects from the USGS MRDS dataset 4. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 5. Air photo lineaments 6. Areas covered by travertine 7. Groundwater geochemistry 8. Land ownership in the Rico area 9. Georeferenced geologic map of the Rico Quadrangle, by Pratt et al. 10. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  19. Digital aeromagnetic data and derivative products from a helicopter survey over the town of Blanca and surrounding areas, Alamosa and Costilla counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during a helicopter geophysical survey in southern Colorado during October 2003. The survey covers the town of Blanca and surrounding communities in Alamosa and Costilla Counties. Several derivative products from these data are also presented, including reduced-to-pole, horizontal gradient magnitude, and downward continued grids and images.

  20. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950.

  1. Geologic map of the Dillon quadrangle, Summit and Grand Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    1997-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Dillon quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, 1999), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts through the center of the quadrangle, although is mostly covered by surficial deposits. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Williams Fork Mountains and the ridge immediately east of South Fork Middle Fork River, and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, 1987). The oldest exposed sedimentary unit is the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, but Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale, underlies the southern part of the quadrangle. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. Surficial deposits include (1) an old, deeply dissected landslide deposit, possibly as old as Pliocene, on the west flank of the Williams Fork Mountains, (2) deeply weathered, very coarse gravel deposits underlying a mesa in the southwest part of the quadrangle (the Mesa Cortina subdivision. The gravels are gold bearing and were mined by hydraulic methods in the 1800s), (3) moderately to deeply weathered, widespread, bouldery material that is a combination of till of the Bull Lake glaciation, debris

  2. Geologic map of the Dillon quadrangle, Summit and Grand Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Dillon quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, 1999), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts through the center of the quadrangle, although is mostly covered by surficial deposits. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Williams Fork Mountains and the ridge immediately east of South Fork Middle Fork River, and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, 1987). The oldest exposed sedimentary unit is the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, but Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale, underlies the southern part of the quadrangle. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. Surficial deposits include (1) an old, deeply dissected landslide deposit, possibly as old as Pliocene, on the west flank of the Williams Fork Mountains, (2) deeply weathered, very coarse gravel deposits underlying a mesa in the southwest part of the quadrangle (the Mesa Cortina subdivision. The gravels are gold bearing and were mined by hydraulic methods in the 1800s), (3) moderately to deeply weathered, widespread, bouldery material that is a combination of till of the Bull Lake glaciation, debris

  3. Geology and uranium deposits of the Caribou area, Boulder County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, F.B.; Cavender, W.S.; Kaiser, E.P.

    1954-01-01

    The writers wish to acknowledge the cooperation of the staff of the Consolidated Caribou Silver Mines incorporated, who made the Caribou mine available for examination at all times and who furnished maps and suggestions that were of great assistance. Mr. A.E. Blakesley, owner of the Comstock mine, was also most cooperative in making possible the examination of his mine. Thanks are due Dr., E.E. Wahlstrom of the University of Colorado and to the Boulder Daily Camera for the use of their files containing information on the Caribou mine. To S. Lovering of the U.S. Geological Survey made many valuable suggestions on the identification of alteration products in thin section.

  4. Geochemical and geostatistical evaluation, Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit, Fremont and Custer Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiland, E.F.; Connors, R.A.; Robinson, M.L.; Lindemann, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    A mineral assessment of the Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit was undertaken by Barringer Resources Inc., under the terms of contract YA-553-CTO-100 with the Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office. The study was based on a geochemical-geostatistical survey in which 700 stream sediment samples were collected and analyzed for 25 elements. Geochemical results were interpreted by statistical processing which included factor, discriminant, multiple regression and characteristic analysis. The major deposit types evaluated were massive sulfide-base metal, sedimentary and magmatic uranium, thorium vein, magmatic segregation, and carbonatite related deposits. Results of the single element data and multivariate geostatistical analysis indicate that limited potential exists for base metal mineralization near the Horseshoe, El Plomo, and Green Mountain Mines. Thirty areas are considered to be anomalous with regard to one or more of the geochemical parameters evaluated during this study. The evaluation of carbonatite related mineralization was restricted due to the lack of geochemical data specific to this environment.

  5. THIN SECTION DESCRIPTIONS: LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field in Utah (figure 1). However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  6. Bedrock erosion surface beneath the rocky flats alluvial fan, Jefferson and Boulder counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    The early Pleistocene Rocky Flats alluvial fan formed at the mouth of unglaciated Coal Creek Canyon along the eastern flank of the Colorado Front Range. The fan consists of boulder, cobble, and pebble gravel deposited on an erosional surface cut on tilted Mesozoic sedimentary strata. A north-trending hogback of steeply dipping Cretaceous Laramie Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone is exposed through the gravel across the central portion of the fan. Elevations on the gravel-bedrock contact were used in a GIS to reconstruct the bedrock surface at the base of the gravel, providing a glimpse of the geomorphology of the early Pleistocene Colorado Piedmont. The reconstructed erosional bedrock surface portrays a landscape carved by a series of easterly flowing streams that eroded headward to the resistant hogback units, creating a bedrock step up to 37 m high. East-trending ridges on the bedrock surface are remnants of drainage divides between the Pleistocene streams. Water gaps in the bedrock step allowed the streams access to the upper surface of the step. This entire surface, except the hogback, was covered by gravel about 1.35 to 1.5 Ma ago. Subsequent erosion of the alluvial fan has been by headward (westward) erosion of easterly flowing streams incising into the eastern portion of the fan. Because the gravel is more resistant than the underlying bedrock, modern streams are established over the Pleistocene drainage divides, where the gravel was thinnest. Thicker gravel in the Pleistocene paleovalleys now caps modern drainage divides, producing an inverted topography.

  7. Geologic map of the Orchard 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Margaret E.; Slate, Janet L.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The Orchard 7.5' quadrangle is located along the South Platte River corridor on the semi-arid plains of eastern Colorado, and contains surficial deposits that record alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes that have operated through environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Front Range, has played a major role in shaping the geology of the quadrangle, which is situated downstream of where the last of the major headwater tributaries (St. Vrain, Big Thompson, and Cache la Poudre) join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing alluvium deposition and terrace formation in the Orchard quadrangle. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks, unglaciated tributaries originating east of the Front Range also have played a major role by periodically delivering large volumes of sediment to the river during flood events, which may have temporarily dammed the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Greeley (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of drought. With the onset of irrigation during historic times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly seasonal discharge to a much narrower, deeper river with braided-meandering transition morphology and more uniform discharge. Along this reach, the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, which, although buried by alluvial deposits in Orchard quadrangle, is locally exposed downstream along the South Platte River bluff near the Bijou Creek confluence, in some of the larger draws, and along Wildcat Creek.

  8. Hydrologic effects of pumpage from the Denver basin bedrock aquifers of northern El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Denver groundwater basin underlies a 6,700 sq-mi area in eastern Colorado. To assess current conditions of the four bedrock aquifers in the basin, water levels, streamflow gain and loss, and other data were collected. Current aquifer conditions in the southern part of the basin and likely response to various 100-year pumping scenarios were analyzed using a digital finite-difference model. Simulated predevelopment flow through the bedrock aquifers was about 59 cu ft/sec. Water level changes between 1978 and 1985, likely caused by variations in precipitation and in pumping and by lowering of the water table in the overlying Black Squirrel Creek alluvial aquifer, ranged from rises of more than 40 ft to declines of as much as 80 ft. In 1985, pumping from the bedrock aquifers was about 56 cu ft/sec. Simulations indicate that 43% of the pumpage came from a decrease in volume of groundwater in storage; 37% came from induced recharge and captured discharge. The remaining 20% came from a transient high rate of recharge from precipitation. A baseline 100-yr simulation, beginning in 1985, indicated minimal drawdowns for constant pumping at 1985 rates in the southern part of the basin. Other simulations indicated that the pumpage required to supply the needs of the projected population would be accompanied by drawdowns of as much as 1,300 ft and by large decreases in amount of groundwater in storage. Pumpage from a hypothetical well field, located where the aquifers are thickest , and from the aquifers underlying Colorado Springs also was simulated. (USGS)

  9. Nationwide forestry applications program: Procedure 1 applicability to rangeland classification. [Weld County, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An assumption that short prairie grass and salt grass could be differentiated on aircraft photographs was inaccurate for the Weld County site. However, rangeland could be differentiated using procedure 1 from LACIE. Estimates derived from either random or systematic sampling were satisfactory. Level 1 features were separated and mapped, and proportions were estimated with accompanying confidence statements.

  10. Notes from the Field: Typhoid Fever Outbreak Associated with an Asymptomatic Carrier at a Restaurant - Weld County, Colorado, 2015.

    PubMed

    Hancock-Allen, Jessica; Cronquist, Alicia B; Peden, JoRene; Adamson, Debra; Corral, Nereida; Brown, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    On September 11, 2015, a single case of typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi infection, was reported to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE). Because the patient (patient A) had symptom onset September 2 and had traveled internationally for 4 days 60 days before symptom onset, the case initially was thought to be travel-associated* (1,2). On October 1, a second case of S. Typhi infection was reported in patient B, with symptom onset September 20. Patient B reported no international travel or contact with ill persons or known carriers. Patients A and B resided approximately 6 miles (10 kilometers) apart and had no discernible epidemiologic connection. Family members of patients A and B tested negative for S. Typhi. CDPHE and the Weld County Department of Public Health and Environment (WCDPHE) investigated to 1) determine whether these cases represented a larger outbreak, 2) identify common exposure sources, and 3) stop transmission. Investigators determined that the typhoid fever in both patients and in a third patient (patient C) was associated with eating in the same restaurant during a 5-day period. PMID:27310090

  11. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  12. Values of Deploying a Compact Polarimetric Radar to Monitor Extreme Precipitation in a Mountainous Area: Mineral County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, B. L.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Yu, T. Y.; Busto, J.; Speeze, T.; Dennis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation in mountainous regions can trigger flash floods and landslides especially in areas affected by wildfire. Because of the small space-time scales required for observation, they remain poorly observed. A light-weighted X-band polarimetric radar can rapidly respond to the situation and provide continuous rainfall information with high resolution for flood forecast and emergency management. A preliminary assessment of added values to the operational practice in Mineral county, Colorado was performed in Fall 2014 and Summer 2015 with a transportable polarimetric radar deployed at the Lobo Overlook. This region is one of the numerous areas in the Rocky Mountains where the WSR-88D network does not provide sufficient weather coverage due to blockages, and the limitations have impeded forecasters and local emergency managers from making accurate predictions and issuing weather warnings. High resolution observations were collected to document the precipitation characteristics and demonstrate the added values of deploying a small weather radar in such context. The analysis of the detailed vertical structure of precipitation explain the decreased signal sampled by the operational radars. The specific microphysics analyzed though polarimetry suggest that the operational Z-R relationships may not be appropriate to monitor severe weather over this wildfire affected region. Collaboration with the local emergency managers and the National Weather Service shows the critical value of deploying mobile, polarimetric and unmanned radars in complex terrain. Several selected cases are provided in this paper for illustration.

  13. Completion reports, core logs, and hydrogeologic data from wells and piezometers in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, San Juan County, Colorado, was the center of a metal mining boom in the San Juan Mountains. Although most mining activity ceased by the 1990s, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In an effort to understand the ground-water flow system in the upper Animas River watershed, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study because of the amount of previous data provided in and around that particular watershed. In support of this ground-water research effort, wells and piezometers were installed to allow for coring during installation, subsurface hydrologic testing, and the monitoring of ground-water hydraulic heads and geochemistry. This report summarizes the data that were collected during and after the installation of these wells and piezometers and includes (1) subsurface completion details, (2) locations and elevations, (3) geologic logs and elemental data, (4) slug test data for the estimation of subsurface hydraulic conductives, and (5) hydraulic head data.

  14. Review and analysis of available streamflow and water-quality data for Park County, Colorado, 1962-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on streamflow and surface-water and ground-water quality in Park County, Colorado, was compiled from several Federal, State, and local agencies. The data were reviewed and analyzed to provide a perspective of recent (1962-98) water-resource conditions and to help identify current and future water-quantity and water-quality concerns. Streamflow has been monitored at more than 40 sites in the county, and data for some sites date back to the early 1900's. Existing data indicate a need for increased archival of streamflow data for future use and analysis. In 1998, streamflow was continuously monitored at about 30 sites, but data were stored in a data base for only 10 sites. Water-quality data were compiled for 125 surface-water sites, 398 wells, and 30 springs. The amount of data varied considerably among sites; however, the available information provided a general indication of where water-quality constituent concentrations met or exceeded water-quality standards. Park County is primarily drained by streams in the South Platte River Basin and to a lesser extent by streams in the Arkansas River Basin. In the South Platte River Basin in Park County, more than one-half the annual streamflow occurs in May, June, and July in response to snowmelt in the mountainous headwaters. The annual snowpack is comparatively less in the Arkansas River Basin in Park County, and mean monthly streamflow is more consistent throughout the year. In some streams, the timing and magnitude of streamflow have been altered by main-stem reservoirs or by interbasin water transfers. Most values of surface-water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH were within recommended limits set by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Specific conductance (an indirect measure of the dissolved-solids concentration) generally was lowest in streams of the upper South Platte River Basin and higher in the southern one-half of the county in the Arkansas River Basin and in the South

  15. 75 FR 51519 - Regional Transportation District-Acquisition Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company in Adams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Railroad Company in Adams, Denver, and Jefferson Counties, CO Regional Transportation District (RTD) \\1... Subdivision extending approximately 8.96 miles, from milepost 628.50, in Adams County, CO., to milepost 637.46... operations as a result of this transaction will not result in the creation of a Class II or Class I...

  16. Fossils from lower part of the Mancos Shale, Disappointment Valley, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B.; Shawe, Daniel R.

    1963-01-01

    About 400 fossiliferous segments of drill core from the lower part of the Mancos Shale of Late Cretaceous age were collected by the author during an exploratory drilling program for uranium deposits conducted in 1955 and 1956 by the Geological Survey in the Disappointment Valley area, San Miguel County, Colo. "The samples were submitted to the late J. B. Reeside, Jr., of the Geological Survey for identification. Reeside's identifications are being released in open file in order to make them available to those interested.

  17. Selected hydrologic data, Arkansas River basin, Pueblo and southeastern Fremont counties, Colorado, 1975-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug; Edelmann, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    Selcted hydrologic data collected in 1975-80 as part of water-quality investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey in Pueblo and southeastern Fremont Counties, Colo., are presented in this report. The data, in tabular form, consist of streamflow-discharge measurements for 33 sites, channel-geometry measurements for 97 sites, traveltime data for 12 sites, and field and laboratory water-quality analyses for 194 sites. Federal, state, and local officials may find these data useful in making decisions relating to the management of water resources of the area. (USGS)

  18. Selected Water-Quality Data for the Standard Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Adams, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Mine drainage and underground water samples were collected for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a 1-year, hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage near Crested Butte, Colorado, as a Superfund Site because discharge from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to Coal Creek, which is the primary drinking-water supply for the town of Crested Butte. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 3 and 5 of the Standard Mine, mine effluent from an adit located on the Elk Lode, and two spring samples that emerged from waste-rock material below Level 5 of the Standard Mine and the adit located on the Elk Lode. Reported analyses include field parameters (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential) and major constituents and trace elements.

  19. Geologic map of the Lazy Y Point Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, G.I.; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Lazy Y Point quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Skull Creek quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Lazy Y Point quadrangle on the east, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2647). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the eastern half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Lazy Y Point quadrangle includes parts of the Willow and Skull Creek Wilderness Study Areas, which were assessed for their mineral resource potential.

  20. Geologic map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5' quadrangle, Park and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Lee, Keenan; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The Harvard Lakes 1:24,000-scale quadrangle spans the Arkansas River Valley in central Colorado, and includes the foothills of the Sawatch Range on the west and Mosquito Range on the east. The Arkansas River valley lies in the northern end of the Rio Grande rift and is structurally controlled by Oligocene and younger normal faults mostly along the west side of the valley. Five separate pediment surfaces were mapped, and distinctions were made between terraces formed by the Arkansas River and surfaces that formed from erosion and alluviation that emanated from the Sawatch Range. Three flood deposits containing boulders as long as 15 m were deposited from glacial breakouts just north of the quadrangle. Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill deposits of the Dry Union Formation are exposed beneath terrace or pediment deposits in several places. The southwestern part of the late Eocene Buffalo Peaks volcanic center, mostly andesitic breccias and flows and ash-flow tuffs, occupy the northeastern corner of the map. Dated Tertiary intrusive rocks include Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene hornblende gabbro and hornblende monzonite. Numerous rhyolite and dacite dikes of inferred early Tertiary or Late Cretaceous age also intrude the basement rocks. Basement rocks are predominantly Mesoproterozoic granites, and subordinately Paleoproterozoic biotite gneiss and granitic gneiss.

  1. Geology of the Egnar quadrangle, Dolores and San Miguel counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry

    1954-01-01

    The Egnar quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  2. Geology of the Joe Davis Hill quadrangle, Dolores and San Miguel counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Bell, Henry

    1953-01-01

    The Joe Davis Hill quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  3. Geology of Bull Canyon quadrangle, Montrose and San Miguel counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Bull Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite depots. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tones. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  4. Geologic and aeromagnetic maps of the Fossil Ridge area and vicinity, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Zech, R.S.; Chase, C.G.; Zartman, R.E.; Kucks, R.P.; Bartelson, Bruce; Rosenlund, G.C.; Earley, Drummond

    2002-01-01

    This data set includes a GIS geologic map database of an Early Proterozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary terrane extensively intruded by Early and Middle Proterozoic granitic plutons. Laramide to Tertiary deformation and intrusion of felsic plutons have created numerous small mineral deposits that are described in the tables and are shown on the figures in the accompanying text pamphlet. Also included in the pamphlet are numerous chemical analyses of igneous and meta-igneous bodies of all ages in tables and in summary geochemical diagrams. The text pamphlet also contains a detailed description of map units and discussions of the aeromagnetic survey, igneous and metmorphic rocks, and mineral deposits. The printed map sheet and browse graphic pdf file include the aeromagnetic map of the study area, as well as figures and photographs. Purpose: This GIS geologic map database is provided to facilitate the presentation and analysis of earth-science data for this region of Colorado. This digital map database may be displayed at any scale or projection. However, the geologic data in this coverage are not intended for use at a scale other than 1:30,000. Supplemental useful data accompanying the database are extensive geochemical and mineral deposits data, as well as an aeromagnetic map.

  5. A digital photogrammetric method for measuring horizontal surficial movements on the slumgullion earthflow, Hinsdale county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, P.S.; Chiarle, M.; Savage, W.Z.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional approach to making aerial photographic measurements uses analog or analytic photogrammetric equipment. We have developed a digital method for making measurements from aerial photographs which uses geographic information system (GIS) software, and primarily DOS-based personal computers. This method, which is based on the concept that a direct visual comparison can be made between images derived from two sets of aerial photographs taken at different times, was applied to the surface of the active portion of the Slumgullion earthflow in Colorado to determine horizontal displacement vectors from the movements of visually identifiable objects, such as trees and large rocks. Using this method, more of the slide surface can be mapped in a shorter period of time than using the standard photogrammetric approach. More than 800 horizontal displacement vectors were determined on the active earthflow surface using images produced by our digital photogrammetric technique and 1985 (1:12,000-scale) and 1990 (1:6,000-scale) aerial photographs. The resulting displacement field shows, with a 2-m measurement error (??? 10%), that the fastest moving portion of the landslide underwent 15-29 m of horizontal displacement between 1985 and 1990. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Availability and chemical characteristics of ground water in central La Plata County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, R.E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The central part of La Plata County, Colo., has undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in central La Plata County include: alluvium, Animas Formation of Quaternary and Tertiary age, Fruitland Formation, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, three formations of the Mesa Verde Group, the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation of Cretaceous and Jurassic age, and undifferentiated formations. Well yields generally are low, usually less than 25 gallons per minute. However, higher yields, 25 to 50 gallons per minute may be found locally in aquifers in the alluvium and the Animas Formation. The quality of water from the aquifers is dependent on rock type. Most of the water is a calcium bicarbonate type. However, aquifers that are predominantly fine-grained or contain interbeds of shale may contain sodium bicarbonate type water. The dissolution of minerals in the coal beds, which are present in the Mesa Verde Group and the Dakota Sandstone, can contribute high concentrations of iron, sulfate, and chloride to ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Hydrology and chemical quality of ground water in Crowley County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug; Ryan, Barbara J.; Emmons, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    Significant quantities of groundwater can be obtained from several alluvial water-table aquifers possibly from two deep confined sandstone aquifers in Crowley County, Colo. The major water-table aquifer is the alluvium along the Arkansas River valley where well yields may be as much as 2,000 gallons per minute. Minor alluvial aquifers with well yields ranging from 5 to 200 gallons per minute occur in the drainage basins of Horse Creek, Bob Creek, and Sand Arroyo, and in alluvium underlying dune sand in the western part of the county. The Dakota Sandstone and the underlying Cheyenne Sandstone are the confined aquifers. The depth to the top of the Dakota Sandstone ranges from 700 to 3,600 feet below land surface. These aquifers are currently undeveloped but well yields may be as much as 275 gallons per minute. The chemical quality of water in the aquifers varies widely with dissolved solids ranging from about 400 to 8,000 milligrams per liter. On the basis of 35 analyses of water samples, only 2 samples met drinking-water standards for all constituents determined. In most instances, the water is suitable for agricultural uses. (USGS)

  8. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft

  9. Radiometric reconnaissance in the Garfield and Taylor park quadrangles, Chaffee and Gunnison counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dings, M.G.; Schafer, Max

    1953-01-01

    During the summer of 1952 most of the mines and prospects in the Garfield and Taylor Park quadrangles of west-central Colorado were examined radiometrically by the U. S. Geological Survey to determine the extent, grade, and mode of occurrence of radioactive substances. The region contains a relatively large number of rock types, chiefly pre-Cambrian schists, gneisses, and granites; large and small isolated areas of sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages; and a great succession of intrusive rocks of Tertiary age that range from andesite to granite and occur as stocks, chonoliths, sills, dikes, and one batholith. The prevailing structures are northwest-trending folds and faults. Ores valued at about $30,000,000 have been produced from this region. Silver, lead, zinc, and gold have accounted for most of this value, but small tonnages of copper, tungsten, and molybdenum have also been produced. The principal ore minerals are sphalerite, silver-bearing galena, cerussite, smithsonite, and gold-bearing pyrite and limonite; they occur chiefly as replacement bodies in limestone and as shoots in pyritic quartz veins. Anomalous radioactivity is uncommon and the four localities at which it is known are widely separated in space. The uranium content of samples from these localities is low. Brannerite, the only uranium-bearing mineral positively identified in the region, occurs sparingly in a few pegmatites and in one quartz-beryl-pyrite vein. Elsewhere radioactivity is associated with (l) black shale seams in the Manitou dolomite, (2) a quartz-pyrite-molybdenite vein, (3) a narrow border zone of oxidized material surrounding a small lead zinc ore body in the Manitou dolomite along a strong fault zone.

  10. The geology and ore deposits of Upper Mayflower Gulch, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, John Alexander

    1958-01-01

    Upper Mayflower Gulch is on the highly glaciated western side of the Tenmile Range near Kokomo in central Colorado. Somewhat less than $500,000 in silver and gold has been produced from the area since the first mining in the 1880' s. In the mapped area high grade regional metamorphism has produced two varieties of gneiss and a granulite. Total thickness of the rocks is about 5,000 feet. Relict bedding is preserved in compositional banding which strikes north to N. 20 ? E. and dips 70 ? to 80 ? southeast. No significant folding was observed. Normal faulting has occurred since the Precambrian; two major sets of faults are recognizable: (1) a set striking N. 70 ? to 85 ? E. and dipping 75?-85 ? NW; and (2) a set striking N. 70?-50 ? W. and dipping 50?-60 ? SW. Tabular bodies of pegmatite and retrogressively metamorphosed schist along many faults indicate Precambrian movement. The Mayflower fault, a 90 to 300 foot wide zone of siltification and shattered rock, strikes about N. 40 ? W. It extends the entire length of the gulch and appears to form the northern terminus for the northeast trending Mosquito Fault. The Mayflower fault shows repeated movement since the Precambrian, totaling about 3,000 feet of apparent dip slip and 640 feet of apparent strike slip. Faulting during the Tertiary includes both additional movement along Precambrian faults and development of shears trending N. to N. 20 ? E. The shears served as channels for the intrusion of two varieties of quartz latite porphyry dikes. Specular hematite and base-metal sulfide mineralization followed intrusion of the porphyry dikes; the minerals were deposited in open fault zones by high temperature solutions in a low pressure environment. The principal metallic minerals in order of deposition are: hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and rarer argentite. The major mines are the Gold Crest, Payrock, Nova Scotia Boy, and Bird's Nest.

  11. Hydrology of the U.S. Army Pinon Canyon maneuver site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul; Abbott, P.O.; Nickless, Raymond C.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Army (Fort Carson Military Reservation) has acquired 381 sq mi of semiarid rangeland in southeastern Colorado for mechanized military maneuvers. The study area, known as the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, drains into the Purgatoire River, a major tributary of the upper Arkansas River. A multidisciplined hydrologic investigation began in October 1982. The primary aquifer in the Maneuver Site is the Dakota-Purgatoire. Well yields generally range from 10 to 500 gal/min. Dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 195 to 6,150 mg/L. Streamflow in the Purgatoire River is perennial. Tributaries draining the Maneuver Site are intermittent or ephemeral and contribute only about 4.4% of the streamflow of the Purgatoire River downstream from the Maneuver Site. Flood frequencies were calculated by using the log Pearson III procedure and compared well with a regional estimating technique that was developed that uses physical drainage-basin characteristics. Calcium and sulfate are the predominant ions in the surface water of the area. Time-series plots indicate that instream water-quality standards for nitrate and metals are exceeded. About 80% of the suspended-sediment load is transported by rainfall runoff, which occurs less than 8% of the time. Ephermal tributaries contributed less than 25% of the suspended-sediment load transported to the Purgatoire River downstream from the Maneuver Site. Historic annual mean sediment yields were measured for 29 small watersheds. Sediment yields were measured for 29 small watersheds. Sediment yields ranged from 9.5 to 1,700 tons/sq mi. Sediment yields were estimated by a multiple-linear-regression model developed by using physical drainage-basin characteristics and by the Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee method. (USGS)

  12. Geologic map of the Mount Sherman 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Park Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Ruleman, Chester A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Sherman 7.5- minute quadrangle is located along the crest of the Mosquito Range in between Leadville and Fairplay, Colorado. There are eleven 13,000-foot peaks and one fourteener, Mount Sherman, within the quadrangle. General elevations range from 10,400–14,036 feet (3,200–4,278 meters). The western half of the quadrangle primarily consists of Proterozoic granitic rocks reverse faulted over Paleozoic sedimentary rocks during the Laramide orogeny of late Cretaceous and Paleocene time. Coeval to this contractional event, sills and laccoliths of the White porphyry group (which probably includes rocks equivalent to the Pando Porphyry) were emplaced in the surrounding country rocks. Igneous activity continued into the Late Eocene with the emplacement of the Sacramento Porphyry (about 43.9 Ma) and the Gray porphyry group (about 36.7 Ma), and as young as 29 Ma to the north within the Climax quadrangle. With the inception of the Rio Grande rift within the region, the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Late Cretaceous to early Oligocene igneous rocks were extensionally faulted and tilted to the east. This resulted in the present 20–30 degree dip-slope of these rocks on top of Proterozoic basement rocks within the eastern half of the quadrangle. This extensional regime has continued well into the Pliocene. Within the southwestern quadrant, suspicious lineaments, alignment of springs, and continuous, measureable escarpments provide reasonable evidence for Quaternary tectonic activity along the western flank of the range. Pleistocene glaciers have dramatically sculpted the region, providing exceptional exposure of the region’s bedrock and structure.

  13. Ground-water resources of the alluvial aquifers in northeastern Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R.T.; Schneider, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Ground water is a source of municipal, domestic, stock, and irrigation supply for most of northeastern Larimer County, Colo. A study of the alluvial aquifers in the northeastern part of the county was conducted to determine volume of water in storage, rate and location of ground-water withdrawals, and chemical quality of the water with particular attention to dissolved solids, hardness, sulfate, and selenium. There are 251 large-capacity wells in the study area. Well yields range from about 80 gpm (gallons per minute) to a little over 1,800 gpm. Total volume of water in storage is about 133,000 acre-feet--32 ,000 acre-feet in the alluvium of Buckeye terrace and 101,000 acre-feet in the valley-fill aquifer associated with Boxelder Creek. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation are about 25,000 acre-feet annually. The municipal wells pumped 210 acre-feet in 1974. The factors affecting ground-water quality are the quality of applied irrigation water, the amount of water lost to evapotranspiration during irrigation, and, to a lesser degree, solution of soluble material in the alluvium and in the bedrock at the base of the alluvium. Ground water at the north end of the Buckeye terrace contains only about 300 mg/liter dissolved solids. Recharge is from surface water containing less than 90 mg/liter dissolved solids. Concentrations of all constituents increase downgradient to the south due to solution and evaporative concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    deWolfe, V.G.; Santi, P.M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6??metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84??kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000??m3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm

  15. Geologic map of the Storm King Mountain quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.; Harding, Anne E.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Storm King Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new data on the structure on the south margin of the White River uplift and the Grand Hogback and on the nature, history, and distribution of surficial geologic units. Rocks ranging from Holocene to Proterozoic in age are shown on the map. The Canyon Creek Conglomerate, a unit presently known to only occur in this quadrangle, is interpreted to have been deposited in a very steep sided local basin formed by dissolution of Pennsylvanian evaporite late in Tertiary time. At the top of the Late Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation is a unit of sandstone, siltstone, and claystone from which Late Cretaceous palynomorphs were obtained in one locality. This interval has been mapped previously as Ohio Creek Conglomerate, but it does not fit the current interpretation of the origin of the Ohio Creek. Rocks previously mapped as Frontier Sandstone and Mowry Shale are here mapped as the lower member of the Mancos Shale and contain beds equivalent to the Juana Lopez Member of the Mancos Shale in northwestern New Mexico. The Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation in this quadrangle grades into Eagle Valley Evaporite as mapped by Kirkham and others (1997) in the Glenwood Springs area. The Storm King Mountain quadrangle spans the south margin of the White River uplift and crosses the Grand Hogback monocline into the Piceance basin. Nearly flat lying Mississippian through Cambrian sedimentary rocks capping the White River uplift are bent into gentle south dips and broken by faults at the edge of the uplift. South of these faults the beds dip moderately to steeply to the south and are locally overturned. These dips are interrupted by a structural terrace on which are superposed numerous gentle minor folds and faults. This terrace has an east-west extent similar to that of the Canyon Creek Conglomerate to the

  16. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  17. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deWolfe, Victor G.; Santi, Paul M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2008-04-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6 metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84 kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000 m 3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm-induced debris

  18. Final report of a class iii cultal resources inventory of potential coal production areas in North Park, Jackson County, Colorado. Report for Sep 77-Aug 78

    SciTech Connect

    Lischka, J.J.; Miller, M.E.; Reynolds, R.B.; Dahms, D.; Joyner-McGuire, K.

    1980-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and under a contract administered by the Department of the Interior, the Department of Anthropology at the University of Colorado conducted an archeological survey during the 1977 and 1978 field seasons on 25,100 acres of land administered by BLM in North Park, Jackson County, Colorado. The purpose of the survey was to provide a data base that could be used to assess the impact of possible coal mining operations on the cultural resource of the area inventoried. A total of 151 prehistoric sites, 14 historic sites, and 322 isolated finds were recorded during the survey. The artifactual remains recovered from these sites and environmental characteristics of the sites and their catchment areas were used to further define the prehistoric chronology of North Park, construct a typology of prehistoric settlements, and analyze prehistoric subsistence-settlement systems in the Park.

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  20. Application of a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek for development of a method to estimate transit losses for reusable water, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Arnold, L. Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 to (1) apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise the existing transit-loss accounting program for Fountain Creek to incorporate new water-management strategies and allow for incorporation of future changes in water-management strategies, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program with a Web-based user interface. The purpose of this report is to present the results of applying a stream-aquifer model to the Monument Creek study reach. More...

  1. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  2. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2010 Fourmile burn area, Boulder County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.; Stevens, Michael R.; Verdin, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the Fourmile Creek fire in Boulder County, Colorado, in 2010. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volumes of debris flows for selected drainage basins. Data for the models include burn severity, rainfall total and intensity for a 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainstorm, and topographic and soil property characteristics. Several of the selected drainage basins in Fourmile Creek and Gold Run were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 60 percent, and many more with probabilities greater than 45 percent, in response to the 25-year recurrence, 1-hour rainfall. None of the Fourmile Canyon Creek drainage basins selected had probabilities greater than 45 percent. Throughout the Gold Run area and the Fourmile Creek area upstream from Gold Run, the higher probabilities tend to be in the basins with southerly aspects (southeast, south, and southwest slopes). Many basins along the perimeter of the fire area were identified as having low probability of occurrence of debris flow. Volume of debris flows predicted from drainage basins with probabilities of occurrence greater than 60 percent ranged from 1,200 to 9,400 m3. The predicted moderately high probabilities and some of the larger volumes responses predicted for the modeled storm indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow effects to buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and immediately downstream from the burned area. However, even small debris flows that affect structures at the basin outlets could cause considerable damage.

  3. Photogeologic map showing distribution of sinkholes south of Fairplay, Park County, Colorado--a possible geologic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shawe, D.R.; Steven, T.A.; Taylor, R.B.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    A large group of at least 50, and perhaps significantly more, sinkholes partially surrounds Black Mountain 6-10 mi south Fairplay in South Park, Park County, Colorado. The sinkholes occur in bedrock in the evaporite facies of the Middle Pennsylvania Minturn Formation, and in Quaternary soil, alluvium, and glacial outwash gravels that overlie the evaporite beds. Sinkholes range in size from small depressions a few feet across to large holes several hundred feet across. Measured sinkholes range in size from about 25 ft in diameter and 2 ft deep to about 235 ft in diameter and 25 ft deep. In places, several sinkholes have coalesced to form depressions as much as 750 ft long and 400 ft wide. One large cluster of small craters is about 1,8000 ft long and 600 ft wide. As reported to us by a resident rancher, one small sinkhole collapsed about 10 years ago. The area of sinkholes extends into land now under development for residences, and the sinkholes thus pose a potential hazard that needs to be considered in future development. Also, they might jeopardize existing farmland, structures, ans roads (including U.S. Highway 285), as well as projected roads and airstrips. This report is not a comprehensive evaluation of the distribution and origin of the sinkholes; its intent is to call attention to their presence and to encourage further study. Many by not all of the sinkholes were visited; the geologic map is based mainly on the interpretation of aerial photographs by D.R. Shawe.

  4. Reconnaissance for radioactivity in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, R.H.

    1955-01-01

    Several radioactive deposits were found as a result of reconnaissance in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder County, Colo. The ore deposits of the area have been worked chiefly for gold. All ore shipped has come from fissure veins, mist of which are gold telluride veins. There are, however, some important sulfide veins which show a vague zonal distribution of pyritic gold ores and silver-lead ores. The results of this reconnaissance suggest a possible relationship of the radioactive deposits to this indistinct sulfide zoning; however, the zoning is so obscure that its practical application to prospecting for uranium is of doubtful value at the present time. Pitchblende, tobernite, metatrobernite, and schroeckingerite have been identified in specimens from the area; however, no uranium minerals have yet been identified from most of the radioactive deposits, and the uraniferous material present is probably in disseminated small particles. Although selected sampled from several localities assay 0.10 percent uranium or more, the known deposits are small and probably are not of immediate economic importance.

  5. Pitchblende deposits at the Wood and Calhoun mines, Central City mining district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Frank R.; Butler, C.R.

    1952-01-01

    Pitchblende has been mined in commercial quantities from four gold- and silver-bearing pyrite-sphalerite-galena veins that occur in an area about one-half mile square on the south side of Quartz Hill, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo. These veins are the Kirk, the German-Belcher, the Wood, and the Calhoun. Two of these veins, the Wood and the Calhoun, were studied in an attempt to determine the geologic factors favorable for pitchblende deposition. All accessible workings at the Wood and East Calhoun mines were mapped by tape and compass, and the distribution of radioactivity was studied in the field. Channel and chip samples were taken for chemical assay to compare radioactivity with uranium content. The pitchblende-bearing veins cat both pre-Cambrian granite gneiss and quartz-biotite schist; however, the gneiss was the more favorable host rock. Two bostonite porphyry dikes of Tertiary(?) age were crosscut by the Wood and Calhoun veins. The pitchblende occurs in lenses erratically distributed along the veins and in stringers extending outward from the veins. In the lenses it forms hard'. masses, but elsewhere it is Soft and powdery. The pitchblende is contemporaneous with the pyrite bat earlier than the sphalerite and galena in the same vein. All the observed pitchblende was at depths of less than 400 ft. The veins probably cannot be mined profitably for the pitchblende alone under present conditions.

  6. Results of reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in parts of the Alma district, Park County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1953-01-01

    Pitchblende was discovered in July 1951 in the Alma mining district, Park County, Colo., by the U. S. Geological Survey acting on behalf of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. The pitchblende is associated with Tertiary veins of three different geologic environments: (1) veins in pre-Cambrian rocks, (2) the London vein system in the footwall block of the London fault, and (3) veins in a mineralized area east of the Cooper Gulch fault. Pitchblende is probably not associated with silver-lead replacement deposits in dolomite. Secondary uranium minerals, as yet undetermined, are associated with pitchblende on two London vein system mine dumps and occur in oxidized vein material from dumps of mines in the other environments. Although none of the known occurrences is of commercial importance, the Alma district is considered a moderately favorable area in which to prospect for uranium ore because 24 of the 43 localities examined show anomalous radioactivity; samples from anomalously radioactive localities, which include mine dumps and some underground workings, have uranium contents ranging from 0.001 to 1.66 percent.

  7. Distribution of leached radioactive material in the Legin Group Area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Allen S.

    1950-01-01

    Radioactivity anomalies, which are small in magnitude, and probably are not caused by extensions of known uranium-vanadium ore bodies, were detected during the gamma-ray logging of diamond-drill holes in the Legin group of claims, southwest San Miguel County, Colo. The positions of these anomalies are at the top surfaces of mudstone strata within, and at the base of, the ore-bearing sandstone of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation. The distribution of these anomalies suggests that ground water has leached radioactive material from the ore bodies and has carried it down dip and laterally along the top surfaces of underlying impermeable mudstone strata for distance as great as 300 feet. The anomalies are probably caused by radon and its daughter elements. Preliminary tests indicate that radon in quantities up to 10-7 curies per liter may be present in ground water flowing along sandstone-mudstone contacts under carnotite ore bodies. In comparison, the radium content of the same water is less than 10-10 curies per liter. Further substantiation of the relationship between ore bodies, the movement of water, and the radon-caused anomalies may greatly increase the scope of gamma-ray logs of drill holes as an aid to prospecting.

  8. Geology of the Aspen 15-minute quadrangle, Pitkin and Gunnison counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Bruce

    1979-01-01

    The Aspen area, located 170 km southwest of Denver, Colo., lies at the intersection of the northeast-trending Colorado mineral belt and the west margin of the north-trending Sawatch uplift of Laramide age; it is within the southwest part of the northwest-trending late Paleozoic Eagle basin. Precambrian shales and graywackes, perhaps as old as 2 billion years (b.y.), were converted to sillimanite-bearing gneiss and muscovite-biotite schist 1.65-1.70 b.y. ago. They were deformed into northeast-plunging folds and were migmatized, and they were intruded by quartz diorite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, and granite. Muscovite-biotite quartz monzonite intruded this older Precambrian terrane about 1.45 b.y. ago and is the predominant Precambrian rock near Aspen. Uplift, some faulting, and much erosion occurred during the 900-million year (m.y.) interval between emplacement of the plutonic rocks and deposition of Upper Cambrian sediments. From Late Cambrian through Mississippian the region was part of a broad area alternately covered by shallow seas or occupied by low-lying land. Quartzite, dolomite, and limestone 200-320 m thick, comprising the Sawatch Quartzite and Peerless Formation (Cambrian), Manitou Dolomite (Ordovician), Chaffee Group (Mississippian(?) and Devonian), and Leadville Limestone (Mississippian) were deposited during this interval. After an hiatus during which soil formation and solution of the Leadville Limestone took place in the Late Mississippian, a thick sequence of marine and nonmarine clastic rocks was deposited in the newly developing Eagle basin during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Deposition of about 300 m of carbonaceous shale, limestone, dolomite, and minor siltstone and evaporite of the Belden Formation began in a shallow sea in Early and Middle Pennsylvanian time. Facies relations indicate that the northwest-trending Uncompahgre uplift southwest of Aspen, if present at that time, had very low relief. The overlying Middle

  9. Geologic map and sections of the Holy Cross Quadrangle, Eagle, Lake, Pitkin, and Summit counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweto, Ogden; Digital edition and database by Brandt, Theodore R.

    1974-01-01

    This map was first published as a printed edition in 1974. The geologic data have now been captured digitally and are presented here along with images of the printed map sheets. The map encompasses the area of four 7.5-minute quadrangles between 39º15' and 39º 30'N and 106º15' and 106º30'W in the Sawatch and Gore mountain ranges, and upper part of the Arkansas River drainage in central Colorado. The Holy Cross geologic map depicts in detail the complex geology at the north end of the Sawatch Range on the west at its junction with south end of the Gore Range on the east. The ranges are separated in the southern part of the map area by the upper reaches of the Arkansas River, and in the northeast part by the narrow valley of the upper Eagle River. Sixty map units and numerous individual beds and thin units within the principal map units are shown. Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are the principal rocks of the Sawatch Range. In the Gore Range, lower and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks rest unconformably on the Precambrian metamorphic rocks. Paleozoic rocks that range in age from Upper Cambrian though Middle Pennsylvanian support the Gore Range along the eastern quarter of the map. The sequence includes a basal quartzite overlain by interbedded, shale, dolomite, quartzite, and sandstone. The Leadville Dolomite, below the dark shale, is the host rock for the ore deposits at Leadville and the neighboring lead-zinc-silver districts. A wide range of Miocene to Cretaceous intrusive rocks dip east off the Sawatch Range. The Dry Union Formation of Pliocene and Miocene age fills the valley of the Arkansas River and is covered by Quaternary alluvium and glacial sediment. Glacial deposits of Bull Lake, Pinedale, and neoglacial age are present in many of the mountain valleys. The geologic structure of the quadrangle is complex in geometry and time with a distinct structural and geographic break along the west front of the Gore Range in the eastern

  10. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  11. Uranium in the Copper King Mine, Black Hawk No. 1 Claim, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry Clifford; King, Robert Ugstad

    1951-01-01

    Radioactive rock was discovered on the dump of the Copper King mine, sec. 8, T. 10 N., R. 72 W., Larirrier County, Colo., in the summer of 1949. The mine had been prospected intermittently for copper and zinc since 1,916, but there is no record that ore was produced. The country rock is pre-Cambrian granite containing many schist inclusions and narrow pegmatite dikes. Pitchblende disseminated in chlorite and sulfides was deposited in an obscure vein system during an intermediate stage of mineralization. This stage was preceded by biotitic alteration of amphiboles and sulfide deposition. The latest stage of mineralization is represented-by the limonitic dense quartz vein followed during mining. The uranium-bearing vein is about 2-3 feet wide and the dense quartz vein is less than 6 inches wide. Both veins are bordered by 1-3 feet of biotite- and sulfide-bearing granite and arriphibole schist. The uranium content of 26 samples taken in the mine and on the dump ranges from 0.002 to 1.40 percent. These samples contained as much as 2.97 percent copper and 5.96 percent zinc. The general outlook for further prospecting near the Copper King shaft is not favorable, because much of the 'immediately surrounding area has been thoroughly investigated without finding abnormal radioactivity. The most favorable environment for concentration of uranium minerals appears to have been in or near schist inclusions in granite, and further exploration in nearby prospects may result in the discovery of other uranium-bearing deposits. In the Copper King mine, additional exploration would aid in determining the extent of the uranium-bearing material.

  12. Geologic map of the Fraser 7.5-minute quadrangle, Grand County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Bryant, Bruce; Kellogg, Karl S.; Theobald, Paul K.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    The geologic map of the Fraser quadrangle, Grand County, Colo., portrays the geology along the western boundary of the Front Range and the eastern part of the Fraser basin near the towns of Fraser and Winter Park. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle include gneiss, schist, and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age that are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. These basement rocks are exposed along the southern, eastern, and northern margins of the quadrangle. Fluvial claystone, mudstone, and sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and fluvial sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, overlie Proterozoic rocks in a small area near the southwest corner of the quadrangle. Oligocene rhyolite tuff is preserved in deep paleovalleys cut into Proterozoic rocks near the southeast corner of the quadrangle. Generally, weakly consolidated siltstone and minor unconsolidated sediments of the upper Oligocene to upper Miocene Troublesome Formation are preserved in the post-Laramide Fraser basin. Massive bedding and abundant silt suggest that loess or loess-rich alluvium is a major component of the siltstone in the Troublesome Formation. A small unnamed fault about one kilometer northeast of the town of Winter Park has the youngest known displacement in the quadrangle, displacing beds of the Troublesome Formation. Surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age are widespread in the Fraser quadrangle, particularly in major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Troublesome Formation. Deposits include glacial outwash and alluvium of non-glacial origin; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; pediment deposits; tills deposited during the Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations; and sparse diamictons that may be pre-Bull Lake till or debris-flow deposits. Some of the oldest surficial deposits may be as old as Pliocene.

  13. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  14. Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial-Recharge Project : Morgan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Alan W.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks artificial-recharge project in Morgan County, Colo., was made with the aid of three digital computer models: A canal-distribution model, a ground-water flow model, and a stream-aquifer model. Statistical summaries of probable diversions from the South Platte River based on a 27-year period of historical flows indicate that an average-annual diversion of 96,000 acre-feet and a median-annual diversion of 43,000 acre-feet would be available. Diversions would sustain water in ponds for waterfowl habitat for an average of about five months per year, with a miximum pond surface area of about 300 acres with the median diversions and a maximum pond surface area of about 1,250 acres at least one-half of the years with the historic diversions. If the annual diversion were 43,000 acre-feet, recharge to the two alluvial aquifers would raise water levels sufficiently to create flowing streams in the channels of Beaver and Badger Creeks while allowing an increase in current ground-water pumping. The only area of significant waterlogging would be along the proposed delivery canal on the west edge of Badger Creek valley. If the total water available were diverted, the aquifer system could not transmit the water fast enough to the irrigation areas to avoid considerable waterlogging in the recharge areas. The impact of the proposed project on the South Platte River basin would be minimal once the ground-water system attained steady-state conditions, but that may take decades with a uniform diversion of the 43,000 acre-feet annually. (USGS)

  15. Geology and ore deposits of the Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, J.E.; Wells, J.D.

    1956-01-01

    The Chicago Creek area, Clear Creek County, Colo., forms part of the Front Range mineral belt, which is a northeast-trending belt of coextensive porphyry intrusive rocks and hydrothermal veins of Tertiary age. More than $4.5 million worth of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium was produced from the mines in the area between 1859 and 1954. This investigation was made by the Geological survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The bedrock in the area is Precambrian and consists of igneous rocks, some of which have been metamorphosed , and metasedimentary rocks. The metasedimentary rocks include biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss that is locally garnetiferous, sillimanitic biotite-quartz gneiss, amphibolite, and lime-silicate gneiss. Rocks that may be metasedimentary or meta-igneous are quartz monzonite gneiss and granite gneiss and pegmatite. The granite gneiss and pegmatite locally form a migmatite with the biotitic metasedimentary rocks. These older rocks have been intruded by granodiorite, quartz, and granite pegmatite. During Tertiary time the Precambrian rocks were invaded by dikes and plugs of quartz monzonite porphyry, alaskite porphyry, granite porphyry, monzonite porphyry, bostonite and garnetiferous bostonite porphyry, quartz bostonite porphyry, trachytic granite porphyry, and biotite-quartz latite-porphyry. Solifluction debris of Wisconsin age forms sheets filling some of the high basins, covering some of the steep slopes, and filling parts of some of the valleys; talus and talus slides of Wisconsin age rest of or are mixed with solifluction debris in some of the high basins. Recent and/or Pleistocene alluvium is present along valley flats of the larger streams and gulches. Two periods of Precambrian folding can be recognized in the area. The older folding crumpled the metasedimentary rocks into a series of upright and overturned north-northeast plunging anticlines and synclines. Quartz monzonite

  16. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1953-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950. The Robinson property, half a mile east of Placerville, consists of the White Spar, New Discovery Lode, and Barbara Jo claims. The rocks in this area are nearly horizontal sandstones, shales, limestones, and conglomerates of the Cutler formation of Permian age and the Dolores formation of Triassic and Jurassic (?) age. These rocks have been faulted extensively and intruded by a Tertiary (?) andesite porphyry dike. Uranium-bearing pyrobitumen associated with tennantite, tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, azurite, malachite, calcite, barite, and quartz occurs in a lenticular body as much as 40 feet long and 6 feet wide along a northwest-trending, steeply dipping normal fault. The uranium content of eleven samples from the uranium deposit ranges from 0.001 to 0.045 percent uranium and averages about 0.02 percent uranium. The Weatherly property, about a mile northwest of Placerville, consists of the Black King claims nos. 1, 4, and 5. The rocks in this area include the complexly faulted Cutler formation of Permian age and the Dolores formation of Triassic and Jurassic (?) age. Uranium-bearing pyrobitumen arid uranophane occur, along a northwest-trending, steeply dipping normal fault and in the sedimentary rocks on the hanging wall of the fault. Lens-shaped deposits in the fault zone are as much as 6 feet long and 2 feet wide and contain as much as 9 percent uranium; whereas channel samples across the fault zone contain from 0.001 to 0.014 percent uranium. Tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, fuchsite, malachite, azurite, erythrite, bornite, and molybdite in a gangue of pyrite, calcite, barite, and quartz are associated with the uraniferous material

  17. Map and description of the active part of the Slumgullion Landslide, Hinsdale County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, R.W.; Baum, Rex L.; Giardino, Marco

    1999-01-01

    This text accompanies a map of many of the features on the active part of the Slumgullion landslide, Hinsdale County, Colo. Long-term movement creates and destroys a variety of structural features on the surface of the landslide including faults, fractures, and folds, as well as basins and ridges. The Slumgullion landslide consists of a large volume of inactive landslide deposits and a much smaller volume that is actively moving within the deposits of the older landslide. Previously, collapse of the south side of the scarp on Mesa Seco produced materials that blocked the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River and created Lake San Cristobal. The current landslide activity was triggered by a collapse, which apparently extended the preexisting headscarp toward the north. The loading induced by the deposition of the collapsed materials reactivated some of the older landslide deposits. Displacement rates in the active part of the landslide range from about 0.2 m/yr at the uppermost fractures to a maximum of 7.4 m/yr in the narrowest part of the landslide. From this maximum rate, displacement rate declines to 2 or less m/yr at the toe. The interplay between different displacement rates, varying width, and curving boundaries gives rise to the structures within the landslide. For purposes of description, the landslide has been divided into seven zones: head, zone of stretching, the hopper and neck, zone of pull-apart basins, pond deposits and emergent toe, zone of shortening and spreading, and active toe. Each zone has its characteristic kinematic expression that provides information on the internal deformation of the landslide. In general, the upper part of the landslide is characterized by features such as normal faults and tension cracks associated with stretching. The lowermost part of the landslide is characterized by thrust faults and other features associated with shortening. In between, features are a result of widening, bending, or narrowing of the landslide. Also, in

  18. Ansel Adams: early works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, Jodi

    2010-02-01

    Ansel Adams (1902-1984), photographer, musician, naturalist, explorer, critic, and teacher, was a giant in the field of landscape photography. In his images of the unspoiled Western landscape, he strove to capture the sublime: the transcendentalist concept that nature can generate the experience of awe for the viewer. Many viewers are familiar with the heroic, high-contrast prints on high-gloss paper that Adams made to order beginning in the 1970s; much less well known are the intimate prints that the artist crafted earlier in his career. This exhibition focuses on these masterful small prints from the 1920s into the 1950s. During this time period, Adams's printing style changed dramatically. The painterly, soft-focus, warm-toned style of the Parmelian Prints of the High Sierras from the 1920s evolved into the sharp-focus style of the f/64 school of photography that Adams co-founded in the 1930s with Edward Weston and Imogen Cunningham. After World War II, Adams opted for a cooler, higher-contrast look for his prints. Throughout the various styles in which he chose to work, Adams explored the power of nature and succeeded in establishing landscape photography as a legitimate form of modern art.

  19. Carnotite resources of the Spud Patch area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Henry

    1953-01-01

    The Spud Patch area comprises about 8 square in T. 43 M., R. 18 and 19 W., San Miguel County, Colo., and is about 4 miles northeast of Egnar, Colo. Claims of the United States Vanadium Co. and the Vanadium Corp. of America cover about half the area. Claims of other owners, public land, and patented agricultural land, comprise the remainder of the area. The area is about 38 miles from the Government mill at Montecello, Utah, and 55 miles from the Vanadium Corp. of America mill at Naturita, Colo. Between 1940 and 1951, the Spud Patch area yielded about 24,000 short tons of carnotite ore that probably averaged 0.21 percent U3O8 and 2.2 percent V2O5. The deposits are in a broad sandstone lens near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Although the deposits mined have been mainly impregnations of sandstone by carnotite and gray vanadium-bearing clay minerals, some of the richer deposits found by Geological Survey drilling have a finely disseminated black uranium mineral but no carnotite. The deposits commonly are thin irregular tabular layers, which locally thicken to form elongate masses called "rolls". These rolls have a dominant northeasterly trend. Geologic features found to be most useful as guides to ore are listed. From November 1949 to May 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 415 diamond-drill holes totaling 67,215 feet in the Spud Patch area. The purpose of this drilling was to find deposits that would make new mines and to appraise the reserves in the unexplored area. As a result of Geological Survey drilling, indicated and inferred reserves computed at the cutoff of 1 foot or more thick and 0.10 percent U3O8 or 1.0 percent V2O5 total 20,500 short tons, averaging 0.28 percent U3O8 and 2.1 percent V2O5. These reserves and those computed at a lower grade cutoff of 0.05 percent U3O8 or 0.50 percent V2O5 and the pounds of contained metal are summarized in table 1. Potential reserves, whose existence is based on geologic evidence

  20. Thorium and rare earth minerals in the Powderhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Jerry C.; Wallace, Stewart R.

    1954-01-01

    Thorium has been found since 1949 in at least 33 deposits in an area 6 miles wide and 20 miles long in the Powderhorn district, Gunnison County, Colo. The district is composed largely of pre-Jurassic metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are chiefly if not entirely pre-Cambrian in age. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are overlain by sandstone of the Morrison formation of Jurassic age, and by volcanic rocks of the Alboroto group and Hinsdale formation of Miocene and Pliocene (?) age, respectively. The thorium deposits occur in or near alkalic igneous rocks in which such elements as titanium, rare earths, barium, strontium, and niobium occur in greater-than-average amounts. The greatest mass of the alkalic igneous rocks the Iron Hill composite stoc,- occupies an area of 12 square miles in the southeastern part of the district. The age of the thorium deposits, like that of the alkalic igneous rocks, is not known other than pre-Jurassic. The thorium veins and mineralized shear zones range from a few inches to 18 feet in thickness and from a few feet to 3,500 feet in length. The veins are composed of calcite,.dolomite, siderite, ankerite, quartz, barite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, goethite,. apatite, alkali feldspar, and many other minerals. The thorium occurs at least partly in thorite or hydrothorite. Sparse xenotime has been tentatively identified in one deposit. Several minerals containing rare earths of the cerium group as major constituents are found in carbonate veins near Iron Hill. Bastnaesite has been identified by X-ray methods, and cerite and synchisite are probably present also.The fluorapatite in some veins and in parts of the carbonate rock mass that occupies 2 square miles in the central part of the Iron Hill complex contains rare earths of the cerium group, generally in amounts of a fraction of a percent of the rock. The radioactivity of the deposits appears to be due almost entirely to thorium and its daughter products The ThO2 content of selected

  1. Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

  2. Was Adam a Real Person?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Denis O.

    2011-01-01

    Belief in the historicity of Adam has been held firmly throughout the history of the church. In the light of modern biblical criticism and the evolutionary sciences, some conservative Christians are now questioning whether or not Adam was a real person. This paper argues that the existence of Adam in the opening chapters of scripture reflects an…

  3. The Adams Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2010-01-01

    According to Adams's Thesis, the acceptability of an indicative conditional sentence goes by the conditional probability of its consequent given its antecedent. We test, for the first time, whether this thesis is descriptively correct and show that it is not; in particular, we show that it yields the wrong predictions for people's judgments of the…

  4. Evaluation of thrusting and folding of the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault, Sangre de Cristo range, Saguache County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Jacob F., II

    The Deadman Creek Thrust Fault was mapped in a structural window on the west side of the Sangre de Cristo Range. The study area, located in southern Colorado, is a two square mile area halfway between the town of Crestone and the Great Sand Dunes National Park. The Deadman Creek Thrust Fault is the center of this study because it delineates the fold structure in the structural window. The fault is a northeast-directed low-angle thrust folded by subsequent additional compression. This study was directed at understanding the motion of the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault as affected by subsequent folding, and the driving mechanism behind the folding of the Pole Creek Anticline as part of a broader study of Laramide thrust faulting in the range. This study aids in the interpretation of the geologic structure of the San Luis Valley, which is being studied by staff of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), to understand Rio Grande Rift basin evolution by focusing on rift and pre-rift tectonic activity. It also provides a geologic interpretation for the Saguache County Forest Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park, and its visitors. The Sangre de Cristo Mountain Range has undergone tectonic events in the Proterozoic, Pennsylvanian (Ancestral Rocky Mountains), Cretaceous-Tertiary (Laramide Orogeny) and mid-Tertiary (Rio Grande Rift). During the Laramide Orogeny the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault emplaced Proterozoic gneiss over Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Proterozoic granodiorite in the area. Continued deformation resulted in folding of the fault to form the Pole Creek Anticline. The direction of motion of both the fault and fold is northeastward. A self-consistent net of cross-sections and stereonet plots generated from existing and new field data show that the anticline is an overturned isoclinal fold in Pole Creek Canyon, which shows an increasing inter-limb angle and a more vertical axial surface northwestward toward Deadman Creek Canyon. Southwest-directed apparent

  5. Hydrologic conditions and assessment of water resources in the Turkey Creek watershed, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossong, Clifford R.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Stannard, David I.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stevens, Michael R.; Heiny-Dash, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    The 47.2-square-mile Turkey Creek watershed, in Jefferson County southwest of Denver, Colorado, is relatively steep with about 4,000 feet of relief and is in an area of fractured crystalline rocks of Precambrian age. Water needs for about 4,900 households in the watershed are served by domestic wells and individual sewage-disposal systems. Hydrologic conditions are described on the basis of contemporary hydrologic and geologic data collected in the watershed from early spring 1998 through September 2001. The water resources are assessed using discrete fracture-network modeling to estimate porosity and a physically based, distributed-parameter watershed runoff model to develop estimates of water-balance terms. A variety of climatologic and hydrologic data were collected. Direct measurements of evapotranspiration indicate that a large amount (3 calendar-year mean of 82.9 percent) of precipitation is returned to the atmosphere. Surface-water records from January 1, 1999, through September 30, 2001, indicate that about 9 percent of precipitation leaves the watershed as streamflow in a seasonal pattern, with highest streamflows generally occurring in spring related to snowmelt and precipitation. Although conditions vary considerably within the watershed, overall watershed streamflow, based on several records collected during the 1940's, 1950's, 1980', and 1990's near the downstream part of watershed, can be as high as about 200 cubic feet per second on a daily basis during spring. Streamflow typically recedes to about 1 cubic foot per second or less during rainless periods and is rarely zero. Ground-water level data indicate a seasonal pattern similar to that of surface water in which water levels are highest, rising tens of feet in some locations, in the spring and then receding during rainless periods at relatively constant rates until recharged. Synoptic measurements of water levels in 131 mostly domestic wells in fall of 2001 indicate a water-table surface that

  6. Colorado amethyst.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michalski, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Of the 20 or so amethyst localities reported in Colorado, four are described in some detail and comments are given on their geology. The Crystal Hill mine, near La Garita, Saguache County, contains rock crystal (long slender prisms with small rhombohedral terminations) and pale lavender amethyst (generally <3 in. in length). The deposit was worked as early as the 1800's as a gold mine and also contains abundant manganese oxides. Amethyst, associated with argentiferous galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite, occurs in the Amethyst mine, in the Creede district, on West Willow Creek, Mineral County. The specimens here consist of small pale pinkish-purple crystals interlayered with milky quartz, some as banded forms ("sowbelly agate') and as geode-like vugs. Amethyst also occurs in Unaweep Canyon south of Grand Junction in Mesa County. Pale to very dark amethyst occurs as crystals dominated by large rhombohedra and small prisms (approx 1 in. across). At Red Feather Lakes, Larimer County, amethyst crystals are medium to dark purple and have prism and rhombohedral faces nearly equally developed; some are doubly terminated. -R.S.M.

  7. Summary of water-quality data, October 1987 through September 1997, for Fountain and Monument Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossong, Clifford R.

    2001-01-01

    Fountain and Monument Creeks, which drain parts of El Paso and Pueblo Counties in Colorado, have been sampled systematically by the U.S. Geological Survey for many years to obtain records of water-quality properties and constituents; the data are stored in the National Water Inventory System. Statistical summaries of these data indicate that they have spatial and temporal trends. Comparison of water-quality data to in-stream regulatory standards, some of which were calculated in this report, indicate that some exceedances are widespread in the system and that some occur locally. Nonparametric tests to quantitatively detect monotonic trends in water-quality data indicate that many water-quality properties and constituents do not have significant monotonic trends; detected trends were mostly downward.

  8. Digital data from the Questa-San Luis and Santa Fe East helicopter magnetic surveys in Santa Fe and Taos Counties, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, B.J.; ,

    2006-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for aeromagnetic data collected during high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in December, 2005. One survey covers the eastern edge of the San Luis basin, including the towns of Questa, New Mexico and San Luis, Colorado. A second survey covers the mountain front east of Santa Fe, New Mexico, including the town of Chimayo and portions of the Pueblos of Tesuque and Nambe. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including reduced-to-pole data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  9. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  10. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State Route 100 center, duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 100 center right, State Route 92 below center right, Brandywine Creek State Park center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  12. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis.

  13. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  14. Investigation of water quality in the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado, February 1999 through September 2000: Qualifying for outstanding waters designation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Sheryl A.

    2003-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve is located on the eastern side of the San Luis Valley in south-central Colorado. The monument covers 60.4 square miles in Saguache and Alamosa Counties and lies at the base of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, where a unique combination of climate, topography, and hydrology has created and maintained the Nation?s tallest inland sand dunes. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which rise to more than 14,000 feet to the north and east of the dunes, are the source of several streams that flow around the dunes and eventually recharge the aquifer beneath the valley. Sand Creek and Medano Creeks are the largest of the streams in the monument that originate in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains; several ephemeral streams flow into Sand Creek and Medano Creek. Maintaining the high surface-water quality in the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve is identified as a critical issue by the National Park Service. Additionally, the National Park Service has indicated a desire to pursue an Outstanding Waters Designation, which offers the highest level of water-quality protection available under the Clean Water Act and Colorado regulations. This designation is designed to prevent any degradation from existing conditions (Chatman and others, 1997). Assessment is needed to evaluate whether the water quality of the streams in the monument meets the requirements for an Outstanding Waters Designation. Historically, prospecting and mining activities have occurred in the watersheds of Sand and Medano Creeks; currently, however, there is no mining activity in those watersheds. In addition, the camping and recreation that occur upstream from the monument on national preserve lands and water activities that occur in Medano Creek during the summer are a potential source of human-waste contamination. Figure 1. Location of study area, sampling sites, and indication of sites that meet or exceed instream standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS

  15. Aeromagnetic and complete Bouguer gravity anomaly maps of the Hunter-Fryingpan Wilderness area, Pitkin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Behrendt and others (1968) pointed out the close correlation between a belt of extreme gravity lows (Behrendt and Bajwa, 1974) and a zone of precious and base mineral deposits (Tweto and Simms, 1963, fig. 1).  Tweto and Case (1972) showed that this belt of gravity lows probably reflects a series of Laramide and post-Laramide intrusions of relatively low density which may have influenced the hydrothermal systems responsible for much of the mineralization in the Colorado Mineral Belt.

  16. Colorado Local History: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Carol M., Comp.; Mood, Terry Ann, Comp.

    This directory lists by county 135 collections of local history to be found in libraries, museums, historical societies, schools, colleges, and private collections in Colorado. The directory includes only collections available in Colorado which contain bibliographic holdings such as books, newspaper files or clippings, letters, manuscripts,…

  17. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  18. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  19. 2009 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  20. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource for…

  1. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  2. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek valley, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radell, Mary Jo; Lewis, Michael E.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer in Fountain Creek Valley between Colorado Springs and Widefield is the source for several public-supply systems. Because of the importance of this aquifer, defining aquifer boundaries, areas where underflow occurs, and where Fountain Creek is hydraulically connected to the aquifer will greatly add to the understanding of the alluvial aquifer and management of the public- supply systems. Bedrock altitude, water-table altitude for October 1991, saturated thickness for October 1991, selected hydrogeologic sections in the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek Valley, and estimated underflow rates are mapped or tabulated for the area between Colorado Springs and Widefield, Colorado. Results from test drilling indicate that the bedrock surface is highly irregular and that several ridges and buried channels exist in the study area. These features affect the direction of ground-water flow on a local scale. In places, a shale ridge prevents exchange of water between Fountain Creek and the aquifer. Generally, ground water flowed toward Fountain Creek during the study (June 1991 to September 1992) in response to relatively high hydraulic heads in the aquifer and the steep gradients on the boundaries of the study area. Water levels, which were measured monthly, varied little during the study, except in areas near pumping wells or adjacent to Fountain Creek. Hydraulic-conductivity values, estimated from 30 bail tests in wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, were used to determine underflow across the saturated boundaries of the alluvial aquifer. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity values range from 1 to about 1,300 feet per day; the larger values occur in the buried channel of the alluvial aquifer and the smaller values occur near the boundaries of the saturated alluvium. Estimated underflow into the study area exceeded underflow out of the study area by about 10 times. Gain-loss investigations along Fountain Creek indicated that the

  3. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  4. [Hakim-Adams syndrome].

    PubMed

    Shamov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Hakim-Adams syndrome is little known, although quite common disease. The etiology is not fully clear. Pathogenetic mechanisms included the blockage of cerebrospinal fluid outflow along the upper lateral surface of the brain, development of hydrocephalus with the expansion of the brain ventricles while maintaining normotensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Main manifestations are ataxia, apraxia, symptoms of dementia and urinary disturbances, up to incontinence. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, exploratory lumbar and neuroimaging. Main treatment is ventriculoperitoneal (stomach) shunt placement for fluid drainage. Timely surgical intervention gives good results and improves quality of life of patients. PMID:26525816

  5. Structural implications of underground coal mining in the Mesaverde Group in the Somerset Coal Field, Delta and Gunnison Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Carroll; Eric Robeck; Greg Hunt; Wendell Koontz

    2004-07-01

    Paleogene and Neogene faults and fractures on the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau are present in Mesaverde Group coal and sandstone beds. Recent observations of coal cleat orientation in relation to faults in coal mines have significant impacts for mine planning in the area. Faults, coal cleats, and natural fractures are interpreted to show a structural evolution of the Mesaverde Group through time. This field trip included a visit to two active underground coal mines, the Bowie Resources' Bowie No. 2 Mine, and Mountain Coal's West Elk Mine. Mine geologists discussed structural styles including fault orientations and timing, cleat development, and rotation. Geologic encounters ranging from fault flooding, subsidence, mine fires, methane gas problems, and land use restrictions were also discussed. Coal cleat development and open-mode fractures in adjacent sandstones were observed on outcrops and compared to underground measurements in coal mines in the Somerset Coal Field, Colorado's most productive. Coal cleat orientations along a reverse fault in one mine showed rotation in relation to possible Neogene age displacement.

  6. Geohydrology, water quality, and preliminary simulations of ground-water flow of the alluvial aquifer in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckles, D.R.; Watts, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Black Squirrel Creek basin in eastern El Paso County, Colorado, is underlain by an alluvial aquifer and four bedrock aquifers. Groundwater pumpage from the alluvial aquifer has increased since the mid-1950's, and water level declines have been substantial; the bedrock aquifers virtually are undeveloped. Groundwater pumpage for domestic, stock, agricultural, and municipal uses have exceeded recharge for the past 25 years. The present extent of the effect of pumpage on the alluvial aquifer was evaluated, and a groundwater flow model was used to simulate the future effect of continued pumpage on the aquifer. Measured water level declines from 1974 through 1984 were as much as 30 ft in an area north of Ellicott, Colorado. On the basis of the simulations, water level declines from October 1984 to April 1999 north of Ellicott might be as much as 20 to 30 ft and as much as 1 to 10 ft in most of the aquifer. The groundwater flow models provided a means of evaluating the importance of groundwater evapotranspiration at various stages of aquifer development. Simulated groundwater evapotranspiration was about 43% of the outflow from the aquifer during predevelopment stages but was less than 3% of the outflow from the aquifer during late-development stages. Analyses of 36 groundwater samples collected during 1984 indicated that concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen generally were large. Samples from 5 of the 36 wells had concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen that exceeded drinking water standards. Water from the alluvial aquifer generally is of suitable quality for most uses. (USGS)

  7. New Mathematical Dimensions: Adam's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manizade, Agida

    2009-01-01

    Adam, an 11th grader, was identified as gifted and accepted into a two week summer enrichment program. He signed up for "Geometry with Flash Programming." He had no prior programming experience but had a strong and healthy self-image as mathematics student. Although Adam had a positive attitude toward mathematics and saw himself as a successful…

  8. Changing Perceptions in "Adam Bede."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loges, Max L.

    From the very beginning of "Adam Bede," the idea of sight or perception is emphasized. Indeed by reference to a quotation from Wordsworth, George Eliot announces the purpose of the novel: to reveal clearly, to remove from the shade. While most of the characters in "Adam Bede" do not perceive events clearly and must have their erroneous opinions…

  9. POROSITY/PERMEABILITY CROSS-PLOTS: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  10. GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOG/CORE DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  11. CROSS SECTIONS AND FIELD MAPS: CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  12. The disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM9, ADAM12, and ADAM15 are upregulated in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Carl-McGrath, Stacy; Lendeckel, Uwe; Ebert, Matthias; Roessner, Albert; Röcken, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    The ADAMs (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a family of cell-surface membrane glycoproteins, whose multidomain structure enables diverse roles in a wide range of cellular processes. Accumulating evidence associates an increased expression of individual ADAM family members with various types of cancer, and we investigated the possible involvement of ADAM9, 12 and 15 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, we examined the transcription and expression pattern of ADAM9, 12, and 15 in GCs and the corresponding non-tumor tissue, and in GC cell lines (AGS, MKN45, MKN28, NCI-N87, KATOIII). All three ADAMs were found to be significantly upregulated in GC compared to non-neoplastic foveolar epithelium, with ADAM12 expression being higher in intestinal- than in diffuse-type tumors. In vitro proliferation assays were used to evaluate the effects of ADAM-specific antibodies on the growth of GC cell lines. The administration of anti-ADAM9 and anti-ADAM15 antibodies inhibited cell growth, whereas anti-ADAM12 enhanced the proliferation of the GC cell lines. ADAM9, 12 and 15 are implicated in the malignant growth of GC cells, perhaps via the interaction with adhesion molecules, or the proteolytic 'shedding' of signaling molecules and the consequent transactivation of their receptors, such as the epithelial growth factor receptor and its ligands. The resultant modulation of the tumor-host interface may contribute to the pathogenesis, development or progression of gastric cancer. PMID:15586220

  13. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making

  14. Preliminary Geologic Map of the North-Central Part of the Alamosa 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Alamosa, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts) and line (terrace and lacustrine spit/barrier bar) vector data for a map comprised of four 7.5' quadrangles in the north-central part of the Alamosa, Colorado, 30' x 60' quadrangle. The quadrangles include Baldy, Blanca, Blanca SE, and Lasauses. The map database, compiled at 1:50,000 scale from new 1:24,000-scale mapping, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The mapped area is located primarily in Costilla County, but contains portions of Alamosa and Conejos Counties, and includes the town of Blanca in its northeastern part. The map area is mainly underlain by surficial geologic materials (fluvial and lacustrine deposits, and eolian sand), but Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks crop out in the San Luis Hills, which are in the central and southern parts of the mapped area. The surficial geology of this area has never been mapped at any scale greater than 1:250,000 (broad reconnaissance), so this new map provides important data for ground-water assessments, engineering geology, and the Quaternary geologic history of the San Luis Basin. Newly discovered shoreline deposits are of particular interest (sands and gravels) that are associated with the high-water stand of Lake Alamosa, a Pliocene to middle Pleistocene lake that occupied the San Luis basin prior to its overflow and cutting of a river gorge through the San Luis Hills. After the lake drained, the Rio Grande system included Colorado drainages for the first time since the Miocene (>5.3 Ma). In addition, Servilleta Basalt, which forms the Basaltic Hills on the east margin of the map area, is dated at 3.79+or-0.17 Ma, consistent with its general age range of 3.67-4.84 Ma. This map provides new geologic information for better understanding ground-water flow paths in and adjacent to the Rio Grande system. The map abuts U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1392 (a map of

  15. Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; Von Guerard, Paul; Finger, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This publication comprises a Volume Contents of chapters (listed below) and a CD-ROM of data (contents shown in column at right). The Animas River watershed in southwest Colorado is one of many watersheds in the western United States where historical mining has left a legacy of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements in surface streams. U.S. Geological Survey scientists have completed a major assessment of the environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed focusing on the area upstream of Silverton, Colo.?the Mineral Creek, Cement Creek, and upper Animas River basins. The study demonstrated how the watershed approach can be used to assess and rank mining-affected sites for possible cleanup. The study was conducted in collaboration with State and Federal land-management agencies and regional stakeholders groups. This book is available for purchase at Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  16. Digital model of ground-water flow in the Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco and Garfield Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The digital model used to simulate ground-water flow in the aquifer system in the basin drained by Piceance and Yellow Creeks in northwestern Colorado is described in detail. The model is quasi three-dimensional in that it simulates ground-water flow in a multiaquifer system by assuming horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow through the confining layers separating the aquifers. The model uses the iterative alternating-direction implicit procedure to solve the finite-difference flow equations. The digital model is documented by a program listing and flow charts. Data used in the model and sample output are presented to document the simulation of steady-state flow in the aquifer system. The variables used in the computer program and program options are discussed in detail. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Streamflow gains and losses in the Colorado River in northwestern Burnet and southeastern San Saba Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Grzyb, Scott D.

    2015-08-12

    During the spring 2014 gain-loss survey, 11 reaches were combined into 3 in an attempt to consolidate gains and losses as well as group reaches within the same hydrogeologic units. An unverifiable loss was measured in the reach farthest upstream, which crosses a combination of alluvium and Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer outcrop, whereas an unverifiable gain was measured in the middle reach, which crosses each of the different hydrogeologic units represented in the study area. The reach farthest downstream crosses an area where only the Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer crops out; a streamflow gain of 123 ft3/s was measured in this reach, exceeding the potential error of 93.9 ft3/s. The verifiable streamflow gain in this downstream reach implies the Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer was discharging groundwater to the Colorado River in this part of the study area under the hydrologic conditions of the spring 2014 gain-loss survey.

  18. The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado - A Potential Source of Several Uncommon Mineral Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    A similar version of this slide show was presented on three occasions during 2008: two times to local chapters of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME), as part of SME's Henry Krumb lecture series, and the third time at the Northwest Mining Association's 114th Annual Meeting, held December 1-5, 2008, in Sparks (Reno), Nevada. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the diverse and uncommon mineral resources associated with carbonatites and associated alkaline igneous rocks. Most of these deposit types have not been studied by the USGS during the last 25 years, and many of these mineral resources have important applications in modern technology. The author chose to begin this study at Iron Hill in southwestern Colorado because it is the site of a classic carbonatite complex, which is thought to host the largest known resources of titanium and niobium in the United States.

  19. Public health assessment for Smeltertown/Koppers, Salida, Chaffee County, Colorado, Region 8. Cerclis No. COD983769738. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-09

    The Smeltertown (SMT) site near Salida, Colorado, was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List in February 1992. Wastes generated on-site included smelter slags, soils contaminated with creosote drippings, other contaminated soils, process water holding ponds and associated sludges, spilled ores, and combined soils and sludges. Site contaminants include a wide array of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and numerous metals which include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, manganese, lead, beryllium, zinc, and copper among others. Although some contaminant sources remain on site, many of the original site contamination sources have been removed from the site. Most off-site contamination in soils (PAHs and metals) has been removed. However, further an evaluation of past air-born deposition of contaminants needs to be made to determine if all contaminated soils have been identified.

  20. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Culebra Peak Area, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Kirkham, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map provides new geologic mapping at 1:50,000-scale in the Culebra Peak area of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south-central Colorado. The map area includes all of the El Valle Creek, Stonewall, Culebra Peak, and Torres 7.5' quadrangles. Paleoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks are exposed along the crest of the Culebra Range which include a calc-alkaline gneiss sequence and a metasedimentary and bimodal metavolcanic sequence which are strongly foliated and display a northeast-southwest oriented structural trend. These rocks are intruded by several large granitic bodies and smaller amphibolitic and pegmatitic bodies which are also foliated. These basement rocks are intruded by a set of younger Neoproterozoic to lower Paleozoic gabbro dikes which are nonfoliated. These crystalline rocks are overlain to the east of the Culebra Range by a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks which include upper Paleozoic syn-tectonic sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Trough related to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, Mesozoic post-tectonic sedimentary rocks, Cretaceous interior seaway sediments, and Laramide-age syn-tectonic sedimentary rocks of the Raton Basin. These rocks are faulted and folded by Laramide-age deformation. Tertiary igneous and volcaniclastic rocks that postdate the Laramide Orogeny are exposed throughout the map area and to the west of the Culebra Range, syntectonic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Sante Fe Group were deposited as fill in basins of the Rio Grande rift. These deposits are cut by rift-related extensional faults. Surficial units include alluvial, lacustrine, glacial, and mass-wasting deposits.

  1. 2011 Kids Count in Colorado! The Impact of the Great Recession on Colorado's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource…

  2. Aeromagnetic map of the Powderhorn wilderness study area and Cannibal Plateau Roadless Area, Gunnison and Hinsdale counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.A.; Sharp, William N.

    1983-01-01

    The Powderhorn Wilderness Study Area (51,000 acres or 20,640 hectares) and the contiguous Cannibal Plateau Roadless Area (29,500 acres or 11,959 hectares) are on the Gunnison County-Hinsdale County boundary, approximately 50mi (80 km) southwest of Gunnison and a few miles east of Lake City, Colo. Part of the area has been known as the Powderhorn Primitive Area. The mineral resource potential of the study area has been assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines; this assessment involved, besides the geologic study and economic appraisal (Sharp and others, 1983), a geophysical survey (this report) by the Geological Survey, and a geochemical survey (Sharp and Lane, 1983) by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines. 

  3. Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. View of the Nevada side where new bridge will cross canyon, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. View of Nevada side of Colorado River Canyon taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada side of Colorado River Canyon taken from Lower Portal Road looking up towards area where new bridge will be located, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. View of the Colorado River Canyon showing lower portal road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Colorado River Canyon showing lower portal road in background taken from the rim of Hoover Dam, view south - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. View of Arizona side of Colorado River Canyon taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arizona side of Colorado River Canyon taken from Lower Portal Road looking up towards area where new bridge will be located, view northeast - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  7. 2. Lake Havasu on left, Colorado River on right below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Lake Havasu on left, Colorado River on right below Parker Dam; View southeast from TV Hill above Whitsett Pump Plant. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  8. Anomalous occurrence of uranium in alpine peats, Summit County, Colorado, and results of a simple sample fractionation procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, Joel S.; Jennings, Joan K.; Lemke, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    Samples from Summit County, Colo., were fractionated for analyses of organic content and uranium. The uranium is related to organic content but not to type of organic matter. In one area uranium values are around 100 ppm in bulk samples and as much as 200 ppm in certain separated fractions of the samples; this is much higher than the 1-10 ppm normal uranium values for peat.

  9. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Vermejo Peak area, Colfax and Taos Counties, New Mexico and Las Animas and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Pillmore, Charles L.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2009-01-01

    This geologic map covers four 7.5-minute quadrangles-The Wall, NM-CO (New Mexico-Colorado), Vermejo Park, NM-CO, Ash Mountain, NM, and Van Bremmer Park, NM. The study area straddles the boundary between the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the western margin of the Raton Basin, with about two-thirds of the map area in the basin. The Raton Basin is a foreland basin that formed immediately eastward of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains during their initial uplift, in the Late Cretaceous through early Eocene Laramide orogeny. Subsequently, these mountains have been extensively modified during formation of the Rio Grande rift, from late Oligocene to present. The map area is within that part of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains that is called the Culebra Range. Additionally, the map covers small parts of the Devil's Park graben and the Valle Vidal half-graben, in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the map area, respectively. These two grabens are small intermontaine basins, that are satellitic to the main local basin of the Rio Grande rift, the San Luis Basin, that are an outlying, early- formed part of the rift, and that separate the Culebra Range from the Taos Range, to the southwest.

  10. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, De Witt and Colorado counties, Texas. Final report, March 1 - August 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C.; Reeder, F.S.; Badger, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Information collected and analyzed for a preliminary environmental analysis of geopressured geothermal prospect areas in Colorado and DeWitt Counties, Texas is presented. Specific environmental concerns for each geopressured geothermal prospect area are identified and discussed. Approximately 218 km/sup 2/(85 mi/sup 2/) were studied in the vicinity of each prospect area to: (1) conduct an environmental analysis to identify more and less suited areas for geopressured test wells; and (2) provide an environmental data base for future development of geopressured geothermal energy resources. A series of maps and tables are included to illustrate environmental characteristics including: geology, water resources, soils, current land use, vegetation, wildlife, and meteorological characteristics, and additional relevant information on cultural resources, power- and pipelines, and regulatory agencies. A series of transparent overlays at the scale of the original mapping has also been produced for the purposes of identifying and ranking areas of potential conflict between geopressured geothermal development and environmental characteristics. The methodology for ranking suitability of areas within the two prospect areas is discussed in the appendix. (MHR)

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at vicinity properties associated with the former Climax Uranium Company Uranium Mill Site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the UMTRA Project vicinity properties in Mesa County, Colorado. Vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as a building material or as fill material before the hazards associated with this material were known. It is estimated that 3585 contaminated properties remain to be formally included on the vicinity property list and thereby require remedial action. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy to perform remedial action at these properties. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulqated standards for remedial action (40 CRF Part 192). The alternatives addressed in this environmental assessment (EA) including taking no action toward remedial action at the vicinity properties, conducting remedial action at a rate of 500 properties per year, and conducting remedial action at a rate of 800 properties per year. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Chemistry and age of groundwater in bedrock aquifers of the Piceance and Yellow Creek watersheds, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hunt, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells completed in the Uinta and Green River Formations in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek watersheds in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to provide information on the overall groundwater quality, the occurrence and distribution of chemicals that could be related to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs, and to better understand groundwater residence times in the flow system. Methane concentrations in groundwater ranged from less than 0.0005 to 387 milligrams per liter. The methane was predominantly biogenic in origin, although the biogenic methane was mixed with thermogenic methane in water from seven wells. Three BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) were detected in water from six of the wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards. The presence of thermogenic methane in the aquifers indicates a connection and vulnerability to chemicals in deeper geologic units. Helium-4 data indicate that groundwater had ages ranging from less than 1,000 years to greater than 50,000 years. The presence of old groundwater in parts of the aquifers indicates that these aquifers may not be useful for large-scale water supply because of low recharge rates.

  13. Analysis of geophysical logs from six boreholes at Lariat Gulch, former U.S. Air Force site PJKS, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hodges, Richard E.; Corland, Barbara S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and describes geophysical logs for six boreholes in Lariat Gulch, a topographic gulch at the former U.S. Air Force site PJKS in Jefferson County near Denver, Colorado. Geophysical logs include gamma, normal resistivity, fluid-column temperature and resistivity, caliper, televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. These logs were run in two boreholes penetrating only the Fountain Formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age (logged to depths of about 65 and 570 feet) and in four boreholes (logged to depths of about 342 to 742 feet) penetrating mostly the Fountain Formation and terminating in Precambrian crystalline rock, which underlies the Fountain Formation. Data from the logs were used to identify fractures and bedding planes and to locate the contact between the two formations. The logs indicated few fractures in the boreholes and gave no indication of higher transmissivity in the contact zone between the two formations. Transmissivities for all fractures in each borehole were estimated to be less than 2 feet squared per day.

  14. Quantification and Simulation of Metal Loading to the Upper Animas River, Eureka to Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado, September 1997 and August 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    the 1998 study. The second affected reach was downstream from Arrastra Gulch, where the increase in zinc load seems related to a series of right-bank inflows with low pH Quantification and Simulation of Metal Loading to the Upper Animas River, Eureka to Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado, September 1997 and August 1998By Suzanne S. Paschke, Briant A. Kimball, and Robert L. Runkeland elevated dissolved zinc concentrations. A third increase in zinc load occurred 6,100 meters downstream from the 1997 injection site and may have been from ground-water discharge with elevated zinc concentrations based on mass-loading graphs and the lack of visible inflow in the reach. A fourth but lesser dissolved zinc load increase occurred downstream from tailings near the Lackawanna Mill. Results of the tracer-injection studies and the effects of potential remediation were analyzed using the one- dimensional stream-transport computer code OTIS. Based on simulation results, instream zinc concentrations downstream from the Kittimack tailings to upstream from Arrastra Gulch would approach 0.16 milligram per liter (the upper limit of acute toxicity for some sensitive aquatic species) if zinc inflow concentrations were reduced by 75 percent in the stream reaches receiving inflow from the Forest Queen mine, the Kittimack tailings, and downstream from Howardsville. However, simulated zinc concentrations downstream from Arrastra Gulch were higher than approximately 0.30 milligram per liter due to numerous visible inflows and assumed ground-water discharge with elevated zinc concentrations in the lower part of the study reach. Remediation of discrete visible inflows seems a viable approach to reducing zinc inflow loads to the upper Animas River. Remediation downstream from Arrastra Gulch is more complicated because ground-water discharge with elevated zinc concentrations seems to contribute to the instream zinc load.

  15. Initial-phase investigation of multi-dimensional streamflow simulations in the Colorado River, Moab Valley, Grand County, Utah, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to aid in the assessment of the potential hazard posed to the uranium mill tailings near Moab, Utah, by flooding in the Colorado River as it flows through Moab Valley. Discharge estimates for the 100- and 500-year recurrence interval and for the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) were evaluated with the model for the existing channel geometry. These discharges also were modeled for three other channel-deepening configurations representing hypothetical scour of the channel at the downstream portal of Moab Valley. Water-surface elevation, velocity distribution, and shear-stress distribution were predicted for each simulation. The hydrodynamic model was developed from measured channel topography and over-bank topographic data acquired from several sources. A limited calibration of the hydrodynamic model was conducted. The extensive presence of tamarisk or salt cedar in the over-bank regions of the study reach presented challenges for determining roughness coefficients. Predicted water-surface elevations for the current channel geometry indicated that the toe of the tailings pile would be inundated by about 4 feet by the 100-year discharge and 25 feet by the PMF discharge. A small area at the toe of the tailings pile was characterized by velocities of about 1 to 2 feet per second for the 100-year discharge. Predicted velocities near the toe for the PMF discharge increased to between 2 and 4 feet per second over a somewhat larger area. The manner to which velocities progress from the 100-year discharge to the PMF discharge in the area of the tailings pile indicates that the tailings pile obstructs the over-bank flow of flood discharges. The predicted path of flow for all simulations along the existing Colorado River channel indicates that the current distribution of tamarisk in the over-bank region affects how flood-flow velocities are spatially distributed. Shear-stress distributions were predicted throughout the study reach

  16. Change in the magnetic properties of bituminous coal intruded by an igneous dike, Dutch Creek Mine, Pitkin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Bostick, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (~400-525??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (approximately 400-525 ??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.

  17. Geomorphic, hydrologic, and erosion data for selected reclaimed hillslopes, the Seneca II Mine, Routt County, Colorado, October 1988 - July 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Geomorphic, hydrologic, and erosion data were collected from five reclaimed hillslopes at the Seneca II mine near Hayden, Colorado. Hillslope surveys were used to determine hillslope lengths, which range from 670 to 1,280 ft, and hillslope gradients, which range from 0.17 to 0.23 ft/ft (17 to 23 percent). Elevations in the study area range from 6,890 to 7,140 feet and hillslope aspect generally is west or south. Mean total vegetation cover ranges from 74 to 91 percent. Total monthly precipitation for December 1988 through May 1990 was computed from daily measurements made with weighing-bucket precipitation gages. Several snowpack measurements were made during 2 winters. Volumetric soil-water content was determined at incremental depths using a neutron probe and in the upper 11.8 in of soil using a time-domain reflectometer. Active and recent soil erosion was indicated by the presence of rills. Rill density (the sum of rill lengths/unit area) was computed at 50-feet intervals along each hillslope study area. Differences in soil-surface elevations between September or October 1989 and June 1990 were determined with an erosion frame and replicate soil-surface surveys at 16 erosion-study plots.

  18. Analysis of waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River, Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Routt County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Daniel P.; Steele, Timothy Doak; Anderson, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River from Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Colo., a distance of 38 miles, was made during September 1975 to obtain information on the effects of projected waste loadings on this stream reach. Simulations of effects of waste loadings on streamflow quality were made using a steady-state water-quality model. The simulations were based on 7-day low-flow values with a 10-year recurrence interval and population projections for 2010. Model results for December and September streamflow conditions indicated that the recommended 1978 Colorado and 1976 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality standard of 0.02 milligram per liter for nonionized ammonia concentration would be exceeded. Model simulations also included the effect of a flow augmentation of 20 cubic feet per second from a proposed upstream reservoir. The permissible ammonia loading in the study reach could be increased approximately 25 percent with this amount of flow augmentation. Simulations of concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fecal-coliform bacteria, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the State 's water-quality goals proposed for 1978, 1983, or 1985 would not be exceeded. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Reconnaissance evaluation of water resources for hydraulic coal mining, Grand Hogback coal field: Garfield and Rio Blanco Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Britton, Linda J.; Boyd, Elaine L.

    1978-01-01

    Surface-water and ground-water data were compiled for the parts of the Colorado River and the White River basins in and adjacent to the Grand Hogback coal field. The data were evaluated to assess the quantity and quality of water resources available in the area for use in hydraulic coal mining. Based on discharge records, surface-water supplies of most streams should be adequate to meet the demands for hydraulic mining of 1 million tons of coal per year with a recycled water system. However, on some of the smaller streams in the area, some storage of water may be required for use during low-flow periods to meet minimum-flow requirements for downstream reaches. Other potential sources of water include Rifle Gap Reservoir, Harvey Gap Reservoir, and ground water from valley-fill deposits along major streams and rivers. The surface water and ground water should be of adequate quality for use in hydraulic mining, with the possible exceptions of suspended-sediment concentrations that periodically may be as much as 18,800 milligrams per liter in streams in the Rifle Creek drainage, and dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 20,000 milligrams per liter in some aquifers. Data are insufficient to assess the potential impact of hydraulic coal mining on downstream water quality. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and potential for underground water storage in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2014-01-01

    By 2030, the population of the Arkansas Headwaters Region, which includes all of Chaffee and Lake Counties and parts of Custer, Fremont, and Park Counties, Colorado, is forecast to increase about 73 percent. As the region’s population increases, it is anticipated that groundwater will be used to meet much of the increased demand. In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Arkansas Water Conservancy District and with support from the Colorado Water Conservation Board; Chaffee, Custer, and Fremont Counties; Buena Vista, Cañon City, Poncha Springs, and Salida; and Round Mountain Water and Sanitation District, began a 3-year study of groundwater and surface-water conditions in the Buena Vista-Salida Basin. This report presents results from the study of the Buena Vista-Salida Basin including synoptic gain-loss measurements and water budgets of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, changes in groundwater storage, estimates of specific yield, transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity from aquifer tests and slug tests, an evaluation of areas with potential for underground water storage, and estimates of stream-accretion response-time factors for hypothetical recharge and selected streams in the basin. The four synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood, Chalk, and Browns Creeks, suggest quantifiable groundwater gains and losses in selected segments in all three perennial streams. The synoptic measurements of flow of Cottonwood and Browns Creeks suggest a seasonal variability, where positive later-irrigation season values in these creeks suggest groundwater discharge, possibly as infiltrated irrigation water. The overall sum of gains and losses on Chalk Creek does not indicate a seasonal variability but indicates a gaining stream in April and August/September. Gains and losses in the measured upper segments of Chalk Creek likely are affected by the Chalk Cliffs Rearing Unit (fish hatchery). Monthly water budgets were estimated for

  1. Evolution of Vertebrate Adam Genes; Duplication of Testicular Adams from Ancient Adam9/9-like Loci.

    PubMed

    Bahudhanapati, Harinath; Bhattacharya, Shashwati; Wei, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Members of the disintegrin metalloproteinase (ADAM) family have important functions in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as cell signaling. There are two major types of ADAMs: the somatic ADAMs (sADAMs) that have a significant presence in somatic tissues, and the testicular ADAMs (tADAMs) that are expressed predominantly in the testis. Genes encoding tADAMs can be further divided into two groups: group I (intronless) and group II (intron-containing). To date, tAdams have only been reported in placental mammals, and their evolutionary origin and relationship to sAdams remain largely unknown. Using phylogenetic and syntenic tools, we analyzed the Adam genes in various vertebrates ranging from fishes to placental mammals. Our analyses reveal duplication and loss of some sAdams in certain vertebrate species. In particular, there exists an Adam9-like gene in non-mammalian vertebrates but not mammals. We also identified putative group I and group II tAdams in all amniote species that have been examined. These tAdam homologues are more closely related to Adams 9 and 9-like than to other sAdams. In all amniote species examined, group II tAdams lie in close vicinity to Adam9 and hence likely arose from tandem duplication, whereas group I tAdams likely originated through retroposition because of their lack of introns. Clusters of multiple group I tAdams are also common, suggesting tandem duplication after retroposition. Therefore, Adam9/9-like and some of the derived tAdam loci are likely preferred targets for tandem duplication and/or retroposition. Consistent with this hypothesis, we identified a young retroposed gene that duplicated recently from Adam9 in the opossum. As a result of gene duplication, some tAdams were pseudogenized in certain species, whereas others acquired new expression patterns and functions. The rapid duplication of Adam genes has a major contribution to the diversity of ADAMs in various vertebrate species. PMID:26308360

  2. Evolution of Vertebrate Adam Genes; Duplication of Testicular Adams from Ancient Adam9/9-like Loci

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Members of the disintegrin metalloproteinase (ADAM) family have important functions in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as cell signaling. There are two major types of ADAMs: the somatic ADAMs (sADAMs) that have a significant presence in somatic tissues, and the testicular ADAMs (tADAMs) that are expressed predominantly in the testis. Genes encoding tADAMs can be further divided into two groups: group I (intronless) and group II (intron-containing). To date, tAdams have only been reported in placental mammals, and their evolutionary origin and relationship to sAdams remain largely unknown. Using phylogenetic and syntenic tools, we analyzed the Adam genes in various vertebrates ranging from fishes to placental mammals. Our analyses reveal duplication and loss of some sAdams in certain vertebrate species. In particular, there exists an Adam9-like gene in non-mammalian vertebrates but not mammals. We also identified putative group I and group II tAdams in all amniote species that have been examined. These tAdam homologues are more closely related to Adams 9 and 9-like than to other sAdams. In all amniote species examined, group II tAdams lie in close vicinity to Adam9 and hence likely arose from tandem duplication, whereas group I tAdams likely originated through retroposition because of their lack of introns. Clusters of multiple group I tAdams are also common, suggesting tandem duplication after retroposition. Therefore, Adam9/9-like and some of the derived tAdam loci are likely preferred targets for tandem duplication and/or retroposition. Consistent with this hypothesis, we identified a young retroposed gene that duplicated recently from Adam9 in the opossum. As a result of gene duplication, some tAdams were pseudogenized in certain species, whereas others acquired new expression patterns and functions. The rapid duplication of Adam genes has a major contribution to the diversity of ADAMs in various vertebrate species. PMID:26308360

  3. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  4. Geohydrology and potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the Rapid Creek Basin, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management may lease additional coal tracts in the Rapid Creek basin, Colorado. Springs in this basin are used as a water supply for the town of Palisade. The geohydrology of the basin is described and the potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the basin summarized. Geologic formations in the basin consists of Cretaceous sandstone and shale, Tertiary sandstone, shale, and basalt, and unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. Some sandstone and coal beds are permeable, although bedrock in the basin typically is a confining bed. Unconsolidated deposits contain aquifers that are the source of spring discharge. Stream discharge was measured on Rapid and Cottonwood Creeks, and inventories were made of 7 reservoirs, 25 springs, and 12 wells. Specific conductance of streams ranged from 320 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 7.8 to 8.6. Specific conductance of springs ranged from 95 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.3. Discharge from the basin includes about 18,800 acre-ft/yr as evapotranspiration, 1,300 acre-ft/yr as springflow, 1,280 acre-ft/yr as streamflow, and negligible groundwater flow in bedrock. With appropriate mining methods, underground mining would not decrease flow in basin streams or from springs. The potential effects of mining-caused subsidence might include water-pipeline damage and temporary dewatering of bedrock adjacent to coal mining. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Geohydrology and potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the Rapid Creek basin, Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, T.

    1986-01-01

    The US Bureau of Land Management may lease additional coal tracts in the Rapid Creek basin, Colorado. Springs in this basin are used as a water supply for the town of Palisade. The geohydrology of the basin is described and the potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the basin summarized. Geologic formations in the basin consists of Cretaceous sandstone and shale, Tertiary sandstone, shale, and basalt, and unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. Some sandstone and coal beds are permeable, although bedrock in the basin typically is a confining bed. Unconsolidated deposits contain aquifers that are the source of spring discharge. Stream discharge was measured on Rapid and Cottonwood Creeks, and inventories were made of 7 reservoirs, 25 springs, and 12 wells. Specific conductance of streams ranged from 320 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25c; pH ranged from 7.8 to 8.6. Specific conductance of springs ranged from 95 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 7.8 to 8.6. Specific conductance of springs ranged from 95 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.3. Discharge from the basin includes about 18,800 acre-ft/yr as evapotranspiration, 1,300 acre-ft/yr as springflow, 1,280 acre-ft/yr as streamflow, and negligible groundwater flow in bedrock. With appropriate mining methods, underground mining would not decrease flow in basin streams or from springs. The potential effects of mining-caused subsidence might include water-pipeline damage and temporary dewatering of bedrock adjacent to coal mining. 19 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Geohydrologic data from twenty-four test holes drilled in the Piceance Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, Frank A.; Saulnier, George J.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-four test holes were drilled in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado, to obtain geohydrologic data from the Uinta and Green River Formations of Eocene age. Depths of test holes ranged from 640 to 2,800 feet. The maximum quantity of water discharged during the air drilling of individual test holes ranged from 14 to 880 gallons per minute. The specific conductance of water discharged during drilling ranged from 100 to 50,000 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Aquifer tests made during drilling indicate transmissivity at four sites ranged from 100 to 1,600 feet squared per day and the storage coefficient at two sites ranged from 0.0004 to 0.00016. Depths to the static water level ranged from 30 to 695 feet. Water levels were measured in each test well, and potentiometric maps constructed from these measurements are comparable in configuration and altitude to those previously drawn from composite-head data. Water samples taken during drilling indicate that, except for water from the Uinta Formation, the water in Piceance basin is generally not suited for domestic water supply due to the presence of excessive amounts of certain trace constituents, notably fluoride. The average concentration of dissolved solids, based on data from the test holes, was 909 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for the Uinta Formation, 828 mg/L for the upper part of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, and 3,460 mg/L for the lower part of the Parachute Creek Member. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Calibration and potential uses of a digital water-quality model for the Arkansas River in Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 1-year study to calibrate and demonstrate the use of a steady-state water quality model for a 42-mile reach of the Arkansas River in Pueblo County, Colo. Based on the calibration, the model is capable of accurately predicting concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic nitrogen, total nitrite, and total orthophosphate; predicted concentrations of total ammonia, total nitrate, and dissolved oxygen will be somewhat less accurate. Additional data are needed to determine the model 's capability to predict concentrations of coliform bacteria. Potential uses of the model were demonstrated by simulating the effects of different waste water discharges on streamflow quality, using water-quality and stream-discharge data provided by the Pueblo Area Council of Governments. Selected results for carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and total ammonia from three simulations illustrate the capability of the model. (USGS)

  8. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing. PMID:22712591

  9. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing.

  10. Evaluation of possible alternatives to lower the high water table of St. Charles Mesa, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brendle, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    St. Charles Mesa, an upland terrace southeast of Pueblo, Colorado, has become increasingly urbanized as cultivated fields have been subdivided and converted to residential areas. In some areas, the water table in the terrace alluvial aquifer underlying St. Charles Mesa is very shallow. Bessemer Ditch, which delivers irrigation water to farms on the mesa and other areas of the lower Arkansas River Valley, traverses St. Charles Mesa along its southern side and is the principal source of recharge to the terrace alluvial aquifer. The ground-water flow system was assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium (steady-state condition) for this study. A steady-state ground-water flow model of the terrace alluvial aquifer was constructed and calibrated. The model was run in transient state to evaluate possible alternatives of lowering the water table. The possible alternatives evaluated were (1) reducing areal recharge by reducing recharge to irrigated areas by 25 percent, (2) lining Bessemer Ditch from (a) Aspen Street to 21st Lane; (b) Aspen Street to 23rd Lane; (c) Aspen Street to 25th Lane; and (d) Aspen Street to Nicholson Road, (3) installing two drains at a depth of 10 feet below land surface upgradient from the high water table areas, and (4) installing 22 dewatering wells within the high water table areas, each pumping at 80 gallons per minute. All alternatives evaluated were at least partly effective in lowering the water table. As the simulated extent of Bessemer Ditch lining was increased, the extent and magnitude of simulated water-table declines also increased. The maximum simulated declines in the water table were 3 feet when simulated areal recharge to irrigated areas was reduced by 25 percent, 29 feet when lining of Bessemer Ditch was simulated from Aspen Street to Nicholson Road, 6.8 feet when two drains were simulated at 10-foot depth, and 14.4 feet when 22 dewatering wells, each pumping at 80 gallons per minute, were simulated. Lining Bessemer Ditch

  11. Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbrustmacher, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Thorium in potentially economic amounts occurs in three types of deposits in the Wet Mountains area of Colorado: (1) quartz-baritethorite veins and fracture zones, (2) carbonatite dikes, and (3) red syenite dikes. The quartz-barite-thorite veins and fracture zones contain the largest resources of thorium; they cut all Precambrian and Paleozoic rock types in the area and tend to strike normal to the foliation in the Proterozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The veins and fracture zones are end products of the episode of Cambrian alkaline magmatism that also produced rocks of the McClure Mountain Complex, the Gem Park Complex, the complex at Democrat Creek, and associated dikes of carbonatite, lamprophyre, and red syenite. The veins and fracture zones contain an average of 0.46 percent ThO2, 0.21 percent SLREE (total light rare-earth elements), 0.14 percent SHREE (total heavy rare-earth elements), and 0.012 percent Nb2O5; They contain reserves of 64,200 tons ThO2, 29,300 tons SLREE, 19,540 tons SHREE, 1,675 tons Nb2O5; they contain probable potential resources of 160,500 tons ThO2, 73,270 tons SLREE, 48,850 tons SHREE, and 4,185 tons Nb2O5. The carbonatite dikes form two distinct groups: replacement carbonatites and primary magmatic carbonatites. The latter group appears to be the better source of potentially economic commodities. The primary magmatic carbonatites contain an average of 0.17 percent ThO2, 0.0097 percent Nb2O5, 0.0031 percent U3O5, and 2.15 percent total rare-earth oxides. The seven largest dikes contain reserves of 131 tons ThO2, 40 tons Nb2O5, 17 tons U3O5, and 2,500 tons SRE203 (total rare-earth oxides), and probable potential resources of 753 tons ThO2, 228 tons Nb2O5, 105 tons U3O5, and 14,300 tons SRE2O3. The red syenite dikes contain anomalous amounts of thorium, uranium, niobium, and rare-earth elements. Although reserves and probable potential resources have not been calculated, they are likely to be small.

  12. Geology, petrology, and chemistry of the Leadville Dolomite: host for uranium at the Pitch Mine, Saguache County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Newly documented uranium ore in the Pitch Mine occurs chiefly in brecciated Mississippian Leadville Dolomite along the Chester reverse fault zone, and to a lesser extent in sandstone, siltstone, and carbonaceous shale of the Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and in Precambrian granitic rocks and schist. Uranium-mineralized zones are generally thicker, more consistent, and of higher grade in dolomite than in other hosts, and roughly 50 percent of the new reserves are in dolomite. Strong physical control by dolomite is evident, as this is the only lithology that is pervasively brecciated within the fault slices that make up the footwall of the reverse fault zone. Other lithologies tend to either remain unbroken or undergo ductile deformation. Chemical controls are subtle and appear to involve chiefly formation of FeS2 as pyrite and marcasite, which accompany uranium. Leadville Dolomite in the area is about 130 m thick and is predominantly nonfossiliferous dolomicrite. In the Pitch Mine, Leadville Dolomite is bound by faults and maximum known thickness is about 17 m. Mud texture, paucity of fossils and other allochems, thin laminations, and probable algal mat structures suggest sedimentation in a tidal-flat (possibly supratidal) environment. Preservation of mud texture and lack of replacement features indicate that dolomitization was an early, prelithification process, as in modern tidal flats, and produced a chemically and texturally uniform rock over tens of meters with relatively few limestone beds surviving. The sedimentary and diagenetic environment of the tidal-flat dolomite, apparently most favorable for uranium deposits, probably obtained over a large area and should consistute an exploration target over a broad area of central Colorado. Carbonate rocks of the Belden Formation, in contrast to those of the Leadville, contain calcite in great excess of dolomite, more than 5 percent silt-size quartz and clay, and abundant fossils and oolites. Belden limestones

  13. Application of the US Geological Survey's precipitation-runoff modeling system to Williams Draw and Bush Draw basins, Jackson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's precipitation-runoff modeling system was calibrated for this study by using daily streamflow data for April through September, 1980 and 1981, from the Williams Draw basin in Jackson County, Colorado. The calibrated model then was verified by using daily streamflow data for April through September, 1982 and 1983. Transferability of the model was tested by application to adjoining Bush Draw basin by using daily streamflow data for April through September, 1981 through 1983. Four model parameters were optimized in the calibration: (1) BST, base air temperature used to determine the form of precipitation (rain, snow, or a mixture); (2) SMAX, maximum available water-holding capacity of the soil zone; (3) TRNCF, transmission coefficient for the vegetation canopy over the snowpack; and (4) DSCOR, daily precipitation correction factor for snow. For calibration and verification, volume and timing of simulated streamflow were reasonably close to recorded streamflow; differences were least during years that had considerable snowpack accumulation and were most during years that had minimal or no snowpack accumulation. Calibration and optimization of parameters were facilitated by snowpack water-equivalent data. Application of the model to Bush Draw basin to test for transferability indicated inaccurate results in simulation of streamflow volume. Weighted values of SMAX, TRNCF, and DSCOR from the calibration basin were used for Bush Draw. The inadequate results obtained by use of weighted parameters indicate that snowpack water-equivalent data are needed for successful application of the precipitation-runoff modeling system in this area, because frequent windy conditions cause variations in snowpack accumulation. (USGS)

  14. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This statement evaluates and compares the environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions of the residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site and associated vicinity properties at Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. This statement is also intended to aid the BLM in amending their management framework plans and final resource management plan, as well as assisting in compliance with the withdrawal application as appropriate. The site is a 114-acre tract of private and state owned land which contains approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of tailings and associated contaminated soils. The vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as building material. An estimated 3465 vicinity properties would be cleaned up during remedial action of the tailings pile. The tailings were produced by the former Climax Uranium Company which processed uranium ore, which it sold to the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1951 to 1966 and to private sources from 1966 to 1970. This statement evaluates six alternatives for stabilization and disposal of the tailings and other contaminated materials: (1) No action. (2) Stabilization at the Grand Junction site. (3) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with truck transport. (4) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with train and truck transport. (5) Disposal at the Two Road site with truck transport. (6) Disposal at the Two Road site with train and truck transport. All of the alternatives except no action include remedial action at an estimated 3465 vicinity properties. Alternative 3 is DOE`s preferred alternative.

  15. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and Arc

  16. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  17. Assessment of metal transport into and out of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, April 1994 through March 1995; interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Sheryl; Edelmann, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir is the primary source of water for crops and livestock in the southwestern part of the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado. Mining activities have occurred in the basin for more than 100 years, and substantial mining of gold has occurred intermittently at the Summitville Mine.Historically, the Summitville Mine site has produced highly acidic, metal-enriched water that drained from the mine site into Wightman Fork and flowed to the Alamosa River and Terrace Reservoir. In 1994, a study was begun as part of risk-assessment and remediation efforts and to evaluate metal transport into and out of Terrace Reservoir. During the study period, the pH immediately upstream from Terrace Reservoir ranged from 4.3 to 7.8. The highest pH occurred during the pre-peak snowmelt period; the lowest pH occurred during storm runoff during summer. Downstream from Terrace Reservoir, the pH ranged from 4.6 to 7.6. The highest pH occurred during the pre-peak snowmelt period, and the lowest pH occurred during summer in mid-July. A comparison of the streamflow hydrographs upstream and downstream from Terrace Reservoir indicated that there was only a small difference between the annual volume of water that entered the reservoir and the annual volume of water that was released from the reservoir. Large spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of the metals of concern occurred during the study.The median and maximum concentrations of dissolved and total aluminum, iron, copper, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were larger upstream from the reservoir than downstream from the reservoir. The largest concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, copper, cadmium, manganese, and zinc generally occurred between mid-June and November. Throughout the study, aluminum was transported into the reservoir predominantly in the particulate or suspended form. Downstream from the reservoir, the suspended-aluminum fraction was predominant only during the pre-peak snowmelt and peak snowmelt

  18. Evaluation of biological data, Guanella Pass Area, Clear Creek and Park counties, Colorado, water years 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox-Lillis, Jennifer R.

    2000-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate and algal community samples were collected during a 3-year period at sites located near Guanella Pass, Colorado, to provide baseline characterization data. Water-quality sampling and habitat evaluations were used to aid in the interpretation of the biological data. The study was part of an environmental investigation for a proposed roadway reconstruction project on Guanella Pass. Discharge was strongly affected by snowmelt during May?July. Habitat scores were optimal (147?199), as determined by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocol methods. Generally, low median concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus (less than 0.02 milligram per liter) were detected at all sites. The water temperatures ranged from 0.4 to 11.2 degrees Celsius. The average pH for all sites was neutral, and specific conductivities were dilute (less than 160 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). The median suspended-sediment concentration was less than 20 milligrams per liter at all sites. During the study, 100 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified. The dominant taxonomic groups of macroinvertebrates were Diptera (true flies), Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies). Macroinvertebrate density ranged from 6.6 to 4,300 organisms per square meter at sampled sites. Shannon-Weaver diversity values for the macroinvertebrate samples ranged from 1.6 to 4.5. Collector-gatherers dominated the functional feeding groups at most sites. Average abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) was 56.7 percent; EPT:Chironomidae ratios were greater than 2:1 for every site except during water years 1996 and 1997. Chironomids were greater than EPT at four sites in water year 1996 and at one site in water year 1997. The percentage of macroinvertebrate community similarity between site pairs varied from 0 to 80 percent. The number of algal taxa identified was 280. The dominant algal divisions, in terms of

  19. Distribution of elements in the Salt Wash member of the Morrison Formation in the Jo Dandy area, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.; Elston, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    A study of the distribution of elements in the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation of Jurassic age from samples taken in the Jo Dandy area, Montrose County, Colo., was made to determine average chemical composition of mudstone and sandstone and to determine the magnitude of variations in concentrations of elements within similar rock types. Analytical data were obtained by semiquantitative spectrographic and radiometric methods. Results of the study show that variations in concentrations of about 20 elements commonly detected by semiquantititive spectrographic analyses of sedimentary rocks are small for a specific rock type; therefore, considerable confidence may be placed upon the average chemical appears to be no significant relation between chemical composition of mudstone or sandstone and distance from known uranium-vanadium ore or mineralization rock. Mudstone generally contains greater concentrations of the elements studied than sandstone. The chemical composition of red mudstone is similar to the chemical composition of green mudstone except that red mudstone was found to contain almost twice as much calcium as green mudstone in the Jo Dandy area. Samples of the unoxidized sandstone from the Jo Dandy area contain about twice as much calcium, three times as much strontium, but only about one-half as much as zirconium as oxidized sandstone; except for these elements the chemical compositions of both categories of sandstone are similar. Samples of sandstone of the Salt Wash member in the Jo Dandy area contain more potassium, magnesium, vanadium, and nickel than “average sandstone” of the Salt Wash member. The distribution of bismuth in rocks of the Jo Dandy area suggests that bismuth and perhaps part of the potassium and magnesium found in rocks of the Salk Wash member were either derived from solutions which ascended from the underlying salt- and gypsum-bearing Paradox member that was incorporated with rocks of the Salt Wash during sedimentation.

  20. The ADAM environment and transputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, B. D.; Stewart, J. M.; Mcnally, B. V.

    1992-01-01

    The ADAM environment is both used for data analysis by Starlink and for data acquisition by the UK-involved observatories in Australia, Hawaii, and the Canary Islands. ADAM was originally hosted under VAX/VMS but is now at an advanced stage of a Unix port. ADAM comprises a parameter system, hierarchical data system, noticeboard system, error handling system, and other components. Originally a multi-tasking single processor environment, it has been enhanced to a multiprocessor environment using local or wide area networking. The Royal Observatory Edinburgh is producing a transputer version of the ADAM kernel to allow instruments which make use of transputers for data acquisition/control to integrate more closely with the ADAM software running at the telescopes. Communication into the transputer system is based on Ethernet carrying TCP/IP, which eases development toward a network of mixed VMS/Unix/transputer Telescope systems. The transputer system is being applied to instruments under development for the UKIRT and JCMT telescopes.

  1. Stratigraphy and nahcolite resources of the saline facies of the Green River Formation, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    1974-01-01

    Based on a study of 10 drill cores, a sequence of oil shale and associated nahcolite, nearly 2,000 feet thick, in the lacustrine Green River Formation (Eocene) in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo., was divided in ascending order into zones 1 to 13, B-groove, Mahogany zone (with lower, middle, and upper parts), and A-groove at the top. The odd-numbered zones and the Mahogany zone are mappable subsurface units of relatively thick oil shale and are distinguished from the even-numbered zones and A- and B-grooves which are thinner units of oil shale of lower grade. Large amounts of nahcolite found in zones 5 to 12 occur in (1) coarse-grained crystalline aggregates scattered through oil shale, (2) laterally continuous units of fine-grained crystals disseminated in oil shale, (3) brown microcrystalline beds, and (4) white coarse-grained beds that grade laterally into halitic rocks toward basin center. The original .upper limit of the nahcolite and halitic rocks is not yet completely known, but the present top is marked by a dissolution surface. Above this surface the rocks, extending from zones 11 or 12 upward into the Mahogany zone, form a water-saturated 'leached zone,' a geohydrologic unit in which large amounts of water-soluble minerals probably mostly nahcolite, and halite, were removed by ground-water dissolution. Rocks in the leached zone, mostly oil shale, are commonly broken and fractured and contain crystal cavities and solution breccias. Several solution breccias can be traced laterally into unleached beds of nahcolite and halite. Although evidence of salines is found in rocks above A-groove, the original saline facies that includes most of the bedded deposits extends from zone 5 upward into A-groove. Potentially ruinable beds of white nahcolite as much as 12 feet thick are found at depths of 1,560 or more feet below the surface. Some thicker beds of high-grade nahcolite are believed to be too close to the dissolution surface for safe room

  2. Franklin-Adams, John (1843-1912)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English businessman and amateur astronomer; compiled the Franklin-Adams Photographic Atlas of Star Positions (1913). The Franklin-Adams camera was a 25 cm aperture, 10 degree field telescope, later re-erected in Johannesburg....

  3. ADAMS executive and operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The ADAMS Executive and Operating System, a multitasking environment under which a variety of data reduction, display and utility programs are executed, a system which provides a high level of isolation between programs allowing them to be developed and modified independently, is described. The Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS) was developed to provide a real time data monitoring and analysis capability onboard Boeing commercial airplanes during flight testing. It inputs sensor data from an airplane performance data by applying transforms to the collected sensor data, and presents this data to test personnel via various display media. Current utilization and future development are addressed.

  4. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  5. Water quality and trend analysis of Colorado--Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances, 1969 through 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in an ongoing cooperative monitoring program with the Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, Bureau of Reclamation, and City of Fort Collins, has collected water-quality data in north-central Colorado since 1969 in reservoirs and conveyances, such as canals and tunnels, related to the Colorado?Big Thompson Project, a water-storage, collection, and distribution system. Ongoing changes in water use among agricultural and municipal users on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, changing land use in reservoir watersheds, and other water-quality issues among Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District customers necessitated a reexamination of water-quality trends in the Colorado?Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances. The sampling sites are on reservoirs, canals, and tunnels in the headwaters of the Colorado River (on the western side of the transcontinental diversion operations) and the headwaters of the Big Thompson River (on the eastern side of the transcontinental diversion operations). Carter Lake Reservoir and Horsetooth Reservoir are off-channel water-storage facilities, located in the foothills of the northern Colorado Front Range, for water supplied from the Colorado?Big Thompson Project. The length of water-quality record ranges from approximately 3 to 30 years depending on the site and the type of measurement or constituent. Changes in sampling frequency, analytical methods, and minimum reporting limits have occurred repeatedly over the period of record. The objective of this report was to complete a retrospective water-quality and trend analysis of reservoir profiles, nutrients, major ions, selected trace elements, chlorophyll-a, and hypolimnetic oxygen data from 1969 through 2000 in Lake Granby, Shadow Mountain Lake, and the Granby Pump Canal in Grand County, Colorado, and Horsetooth Reservoir, Carter Lake, Lake Estes, Alva B. Adams Tunnel, and Olympus Tunnel in Larimer County, Colorado

  6. Description and User Manual for a Web-Based Interface to a Transit-Loss Accounting Program for Monument and Fountain Creeks, El Paso and Pueblo Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Krammes, Gary S.; Beal, Vivian J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 with the following objectives: (1) Apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise an existing accounting program for Fountain Creek to easily incorporate ongoing and future changes in management of return flows of reusable water, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program and develop a Web-based interface to the integrated program that incorporates simple and reliable data entry that is automated to the fullest extent possible. This report describes the results of completing objectives (2), (3), and (4) of that study. The accounting program for Monument Creek was developed first by (1) using the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek as a prototype, (2) incorporating the transit-loss results from a stream-aquifer modeling analysis of Monument Creek, and (3) developing new output reports. The capabilities of the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek then were incorporated into the program for Monument Creek and the output reports were expanded to include Fountain Creek. A Web-based interface to the new transit-loss accounting program then was developed that provided automated data entry. An integrated system of 34 nodes and 33 subreaches was integrated by combining the independent node and subreach systems used in the previously completed stream-aquifer modeling studies for the Monument and Fountain Creek reaches. Important operational criteria that were implemented in the new transit-loss accounting program for Monument and Fountain Creeks included the following: (1) Retain all the reusable water-management capabilities incorporated into the existing accounting program for Fountain Creek; (2) enable daily accounting and transit

  7. Use of diverse geochemical data sets to determine sources and sinks of nitrate and methane in groundwater, Garfield County, Colorado, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hunt, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous water-quality assessments reported elevated concentrations of nitrate and methane in water from domestic wells screened in shallow zones of the Wasatch Formation, Garfield County, Colorado. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, analyzed samples collected from 26 domestic wells for a diverse set of geochemical tracers for the purpose of determining sources and sinks of nitrate and methane in groundwater from the Wasatch Formation. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.04 to 6.74 milligrams per liter as nitrogen (mg/L as N) and were significantly lower in water samples with dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 0.5 mg/L than in samples with dissolved-oxygen concentrations greater than or equal to 0.5 mg/L. Chloride/bromide mass ratios and tracers of groundwater age (tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride) indicate that septic-system effluent or animal waste was a source of nitrate in some young groundwater (less than 50 years), although other sources such as fertilizer also may have contributed nitrate to the groundwater. Nitrate and nitrogen gas (N2) concentrations indicate that denitrification was the primary sink for nitrate in anoxic groundwater, removing 99 percent of the original nitrate content in some samples that had nitrate concentrations greater than 10 mg/L as N at the time of recharge. Methane concentrations ranged from less than 0.0005 to 32.5 mg/L and were significantly higher in water samples with dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 0.5 mg/L than in samples with dissolved-oxygen concentrations greater than or equal to 0.5 mg/L. High methane concentrations (greater than 1 mg/L) in some samples were biogenic in origin and appeared to be derived from a relatively deep source on the basis of helium concentrations and isotopic data. One such sample had water-isotopic and major-ion compositions similar to that of produced water from the

  8. Children's Literature. Adams State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Susan L.

    This is one of a series of eight Teacher Education Modules developed by Adams State College Teacher Corps Program. The dual purpose of these modules is stated as follows: trying to understand children and their needs and becoming familiar with and developing criteria for evaluating children's literature. The objectives of the modules, which are…

  9. John Couch Adams, the astronomer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, N.

    1989-03-01

    The planet Neptune was discovered more than 140 years ago. The circumstances of the discovery gave rise to great controversy, and very nearly led to an international incident between Britain and France, but this was only one of John Couch Adams' many contributions to astronomical science.

  10. Storm and flood of July 31-August 1, 1976, in the Big Thompson River and Cache la Poudre River basins, Larimer and Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCain, Jerald F.; Shroba, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    PART A: Devastating flash floods swept through the canyon section of Larimer County in north-central Colorado during the night of July 31-August I, 1976, causing 139 deaths, 5 missing persons, and more than $35 million in total damages. The brunt of the storms occurred over the Big Thompson River basin between Drake and Estes Park with rainfall amounts as much as 12 inches being reported during the storm period. In the Cache la Poudre River basin to the north, a rainfall amount of 10 inches was reported for one locality while 6 inches fell over a widespread area near the central part of the basin. The storms developed when strong low-level easterly winds to the rear of a polar front pushed a moist, conditionally unstable airmass upslope into the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Orographic uplift released the convective instability, and light south-southeasterly winds at middle and upper levels allowed the storm complex to remain nearly stationary over the foothills for several hours. Minimal entrainment of relatively moist air at middle and upper levels, very low cloud bases, and a slightly tilted updraft structure contributed to a high precipitation efficiency. Intense rainfall began soon after 1900 MDT (Mountain Daylight Time) in the Big Thompson River and the North Fork Cache la Poudre River basins. A cumulative rainfall curve developed for Glen Comfort from radar data indicates that 7.5 inches of rain fell during the period 1930-2040 MDT on July 31. In the central part of the storm area west of Fort Collins, the heaviest rainfall began about 2200 MDT on July 31 and continued until 0100 MDT on August 1. Peak discharges were extremely large on many streams in the storm area-exceeding previously recorded maximum discharges at several locations. The peak discharge of the Big Thompson River at the gaging station at the canyon mouth, near Drake was 31,200 cubic feet per second or more than four times the previous maximum discharge of 7,600 cubic feet per second at

  11. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.306 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Love) area where it is revoked effective November 20, 2008. Colorado—PM-10.../classification Date 1 Type Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Love., CO: Adams County (2) Nonattainment...

  12. Kids Count in Colorado! 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines state, county, and regional trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The first part of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 includes findings regarding the increasing diversity of the child population, linguistic isolation, the impact of parental unemployment, child poverty, and the affordable…

  13. ADAM 12: A Putative Marker of Oligodendrogliomas?

    PubMed Central

    Kanakis, Dimitrios; Lendeckel, Uwe; Theodosiou, Paraskevi; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Bukowska, Alicia; Dietzmann, Knut; Bogerts, Bernhard; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2013-01-01

    ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) belongs to a large family of molecules, consisting of members with both disintegrin and metalloproteinase properties. ADAMs have been implicated in several cell physiological processes including cell adhesion, cell fusion, proteolysis and signalling. ADAM 12 is widely expressed, including skeletal muscle, testis, bone, intestine, heart and kidney. In addition, a variety of tumours show elevated expression of ADAM12; among them being breast-, colon-, gastric- and lung-carcinoma. As to the brain, ADAM 12 has been shown previously to be expressed in rat and human oligodendrocytes. However, little is known about the expression of this protease in brain tumours. This study demonstrates the presence of ADAM 12 in non-neoplastic oligodendroglial cells of normal human brain as well as in neoplastic oligodendroglia and minigemistocytes arising from four pure oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligoastrocytomas. Double stainings revealed a notable preference of ADAM 12 for the oligodendroglial over astroglial components. The results of immunohistochemistry are in accordance with the results obtained from the RT-PCR, which further demonstrated a mild difference concerning the mRNA concentration of ADAM 12 between similar grades of eight astrocytomas and eight oligodendrogliomas (namely four astrocytomas grade II versus four oligodendrogliomas grade II and four astrocytomas grade III versus four oligodendrogliomas grade III). Both cellular immunostaining for ADAM 12 and ADAM 12 mRNA content decrease with higher histologic grade of the tumour. Surprisingly, the latter parameter (ADAM12 mRNA) showed a significant opposite correlation to the degree of histologic tumour malignancy. From our data showing that ADAM 12 is highly expressed in, but not restricted to, oligodendrogliomas, we conclude that ADAM 12 immunohistochemistry may be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of brain tumours. PMID:23324579

  14. ADAM 12: a putative marker of oligodendrogliomas?

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Dimitrios; Lendeckel, Uwe; Theodosiou, Paraskevi; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Bukowska, Alicia; Dietzmann, Knut; Bogerts, Bernhard; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2013-01-01

    ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) belongs to a large family of molecules, consisting of members with both disintegrin and metalloproteinase properties. ADAMs have been implicated in several cell physiological processes including cell adhesion, cell fusion, proteolysis and signalling. ADAM 12 is widely expressed, including skeletal muscle, testis, bone, intestine, heart and kidney. In addition, a variety of tumours show elevated expression of ADAM12; among them being breast-, colon-, gastric- and lung-carcinoma. As to the brain, ADAM 12 has been shown previously to be expressed in rat and human oligodendrocytes. However, little is known about the expression of this protease in brain tumours. This study demonstrates the presence of ADAM 12 in non-neoplastic oligodendroglial cells of normal human brain as well as in neoplastic oligodendroglia and minigemistocytes arising from four pure oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligoastrocytomas. Double stainings revealed a notable preference of ADAM 12 for the oligodendroglial over astroglial components. The results of immunohistochemistry are in accordance with the results obtained from the RT-PCR, which further demonstrated a mild difference concerning the mRNA concentration of ADAM 12 between similar grades of eight astrocytomas and eight oligodendrogliomas (namely four astrocytomas grade II versus four oligodendrogliomas grade II and four astrocytomas grade III versus four oligodendrogliomas grade III). Both cellular immunostaining for ADAM 12 and ADAM 12 mRNA content decrease with higher histologic grade of the tumour. Surprisingly, the latter parameter (ADAM12 mRNA) showed a significant opposite correlation to the degree of histologic tumour malignancy. From our data showing that ADAM 12 is highly expressed in, but not restricted to, oligodendrogliomas, we conclude that ADAM 12 immunohistochemistry may be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of brain tumours.

  15. Evaluation of Streamflow Gain-Loss Characteristics of Hubbard Creek, in the Vicinity of a Mine-Permit Area, Delta County, Colorado, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, Barbara C.; Williams, Cory A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bowie Mining Company, initiated a study to characterize the streamflow and streamflow gain-loss in a reach of Hubbard Creek in Delta County, Colorado, in the vicinity of a mine-permit area planned for future coal mining. Premining streamflow characteristics and streamflow gain-loss variation were determined so that pre- and postmining gain-loss characteristics could be compared. This report describes the methods used in this study and the results of two streamflow-measurement sets collected during low-flow conditions. Streamflow gain-loss measurements were collected using rhodamine WT and sodium bromide tracers at four sites spanning the mine-permit area on June 26-28, 2007. Streamflows were estimated and compared between four measurement sites within three stream subreaches of the study reach. Data from two streamflow-gaging stations on Hubbard Creek upstream and downstream from the mine-permit area were evaluated. Streamflows at the stations were continuous, and flow at the upstream station nearly always exceeded the streamflow at the downstream station. Furthermore, streamflow at both stations showed similar diurnal patterns with traveltime offsets. On June 26, streamflow from the gain-loss measurements was greater at site 1 (most upstream site) than at site 4 (most downstream site); on June 27, streamflow was greater at site 4 than at site 2; and on June 27, there was no difference in streamflow between sites 2 and 3. Data from streamflow-gaging stations 09132940 and 09132960 showed diurnal variations and overall decreasing streamflow over time. The data indicate a dynamic system, and streamflow can increase or decrease depending on hydrologic conditions. The streamflow within the study reach was greater than the streamflows at either the upstream or downstream stations. A second set of gain-loss measurements was collected at sites 2 and 4 on November 8-9, 2007. On November 8, streamflow was greater at

  16. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  17. 75 FR 18877 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Gunnison Gorge National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Management Uncompahgre Field Office, Montrose and Delta Counties, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Offices in Montrose and Delta Counties, Colorado. The rules implement RMP decisions that relate to the use... and 32,937 acres of non-NCA lands within Montrose and Delta Counties, Colorado, in the...

  18. ADAM17, shedding, TACE as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Rose-John, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    ADAM17 has been molecularly cloned as the enzyme responsible for cleavage of the transmembrane protein TNFα (TNFα converting enzyme, TACE). Later it was realized that ADAM17 was also responsible for the processing of cell adhesion proteins, cytokine and growth factor receptors and many ligands of the EGF receptor. Since TNFα is a target of anti-inflammatory therapies, it was speculated that inhibition of ADAM17 might be a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammation or inflammation associated cancer. Meanwhile it has been recognized that ADAM17 governs many vital functions in the body and loss of ADAM17 leads to severe defects in the skin and to high susceptibility of the intestine to inflammation. Here I summarize data on the physiologic role of ADAM17 and the feasibility of specific blockade of this enzyme.

  19. Estimated Probability of Post-Wildfire Debris-Flow Occurrence and Estimated Volume of Debris Flows from a Pre-Fire Analysis in the Three Lakes Watershed, Grand County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.; Bossong, Clifford R.; Litke, David W.; Viger, Roland J.; Rupert, Michael G.; Char, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows pose substantial threats to life, property, infrastructure, and water resources. Post-wildfire debris flows may be of catastrophic proportions compared to debris flows occurring in unburned areas. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, initiated a pre-wildfire study to determine the potential for post-wildfire debris flows in the Three Lakes watershed, Grand County, Colorado. The objective was to estimate the probability of post-wildfire debris flows and to estimate the approximate volumes of debris flows from 109 subbasins in the Three Lakes watershed in order to provide the Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District with a relative measure of which subbasins might constitute the most serious debris flow hazards. This report describes the results of the study and provides estimated probabilities of debris-flow occurrence and the estimated volumes of debris flow that could be produced in 109 subbasins of the watershed under an assumed moderate- to high-burn severity of all forested areas. The estimates are needed because the Three Lakes watershed includes communities and substantial water-resources and water-supply infrastructure that are important to residents both east and west of the Continental Divide. Using information provided in this report, land and water-supply managers can consider where to concentrate pre-wildfire planning, pre-wildfire preparedness, and pre-wildfire mitigation in advance of wildfires. Also, in the event of a large wildfire, this information will help managers identify the watersheds with the greatest post-wildfire debris-flow hazards.

  20. Proposal to amend existing operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, Routt, Jackson and Larimer Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, is proposing to amend an existing US Forest Service operating permit for the Ault-Craig 345-kV and Hayden-Archer 230-kV transmission lines, which are located in Routt, jackson, and Larimer counties, Colorado. These transmission lines cross portions of the Roosevelt and Routt National Forests. The long-term use authorization Western is requesting from the Forest Service would be for the life of the Ault-Craig and Hayden-Archer transmission lines. This environmental assessment addresses those access road and right-of-way maintenance activities identified by Western that would be performed on Forest Service managed lands during the next approximately five years.

  1. ADAMS: AIRLAB data management system user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, C. L.; Ingogly, W. F.; Lauterbach, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    The AIRLAB Data Management System (ADAMS) is an online environment that supports research at NASA's AIRLAB. ADAMS provides an easy to use interactive interface that eases the task of documenting and managing information about experiments and improves communication among project members. Data managed by ADAMS includes information about experiments, data sets produced, software and hardware available in AIRLAB as well as that used in a particular experiment, and an on-line engineer's notebook. The User's Guide provides an overview of the ADAMS system as well as details of the operations available within ADAMS. A tutorial section takes the user step-by-step through a typical ADAMS session. ADAMS runs under the VAX/VMS operating system and uses the ORACLE database management system and DEC/FMS (the Forms Management System). ADAMS can be run from any VAX connected via DECnet to the ORACLE host VAX. The ADAMS system is designed for simplicity, so interactions within the underlying data management system and communications network are hidden from the user.

  2. Adam receives Fred Whipple Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Adams, John B.

    John B. Adams was presented with the Fred Whipple Award at the AGU Fall Meeting in December in San Francisco, California. The award, established in 1989 by the Planetary Sciences Section, is presented to an individual who makes an outstanding contribution to the field of planetary science.In the beginning, scientists including Galileo studied the solar system by staring through a tube with glass elements called a telescope. This panchromatic instrument demonstrated existence and motion of objects and revealed features such as craters and clouds. However, it required approximately another 400 years to develop the physics and technology necessary to determine remotely the composition of these objects.

  3. A preliminary evaluation of vertical separation between production intervals of coalbed-methane wells and water-supply wells in the Raton basin, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    The Raton Basin in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico is undergoing increased development of its coalbed-methane resources. Annual production of methane from coalbeds in the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado, increased from about 28,000,000 thousand cubic feet from 478 wells to about 80,000,000 thousand cubic feet from 1,543 wells, during 1999-2004. Annual ground-water withdrawals for coalbed-methane production increased from about 1.45 billion gallons from 480 wells to about 3.64 billion gallons from 1,568 wells, during 1999-2004. Where the coalbeds are deeply buried near the center of the Raton Basin, water pressure may be reduced as much as 250 to 300 pounds per square inch to produce the methane from the coalbeds, which is equivalent to a 577- to 692-foot lowering of water level. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began an evaluation of the potential effects of coalbed- methane production on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2003, there were an estimated 1,370 water-supply wells in the Raton Basin in Colorado, and about 90 percent of these water-supply wells were less than 450 feet deep. The tops of the production (perforated) interval of 90 percent of the coalbed-methane wells in the Raton Basin (for which data were available) are deeper than about 675 feet. The potential for interference of coalbed-methane wells with nearby water-supply wells likely is limited because in most areas their respective production intervals are separated by more than a hundred to a few thousand feet of rock. The estimated vertical separation between production intervals of coalbed-methane and water-supply wells is less than 100 feet in an area about 1 to 6 miles west and southwest of Trinidad Lake and a few other isolated areas. It is assumed that in areas with less than 100 feet of vertical separation, production by coalbed-methane wells has a greater

  4. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gitchell, John M.; Palmer, Adam L.

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  5. ADAMs family and relatives in cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Shen, Mengcheng; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2016-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of membrane-bound proteases. ADAM-TSs (ADAMs with thrombospondin domains) are a close relative of ADAMs that are present in soluble form in the extracellular space. Dysregulated production or function of these enzymes has been associated with pathologies such as cancer, asthma, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. ADAMs contribute to angiogenesis, hypertrophy and apoptosis in a stimulus- and cell type-dependent manner. Among the ADAMs identified so far (34 in mouse, 21 in human), ADAMs 8, 9, 10, 12, 17 and 19 have been shown to be involved in cardiovascular development or cardiomyopathies; and among the 19 ADAM-TSs, ADAM-TS1, 5, 7 and 9 are important in development of the cardiovascular system, while ADAM-TS13 can contribute to vascular disorders. Meanwhile, there remain a number of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs whose function in the cardiovascular system has not been yet explored. The current knowledge about the role of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs in the cardiovascular pathologies is still quite limited. The most detailed studies have been performed in other cell types (e.g. cancer cells) and organs (nervous system) which can provide valuable insight into the potential functions of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs, their mechanism of action and therapeutic potentials in cardiomyopathies. Here, we review what is currently known about the structure and function of ADAMs and ADAM-TSs, and their roles in development, physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system.

  6. Asteroid shape modelling with ADAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, Matti; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2015-08-01

    Technological advancements have made it possible to obtain highly detailed images of asteroids, yet 3-D shape reconstruction remains a challenge. Shape inversion is an ill-posed inverse problem as systematic errors, shadowing effects due to non-convex features, and the limitations of the imaging systems render the direct inversion impossible. Moreover, the coverage of one observation session alone is seldom sufficient for 3-D reconstruction, necessitating a method for the integration of widely different, complementary data sources into a coherent shape solution.We present a new 3-D shape reconstruction method for asteroid models. ADAM, an acronym for all-data asteroid modelling, is a general procedure for combining disk-resolved observational data into a shape model. ADAM handles all disk-resolved data in a uniform manner via 2-D Fourier Transform. Almost all disk-resolved data sources are supported: adaptive optics and other images, range-Doppler radar data, and thermal infrared interferometry.As case studies, we examine the shape of (41) Daphne using the adaptive optics images and photometry, and create a model of the asteroid 2000 ET70 from the range-Doppler radar images. Finally, we combine ALMA science verification data, adaptive optics images, occultations, and lightcurve data to study the shape of the large main-belt asteroid (3) Juno.

  7. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  8. Differential regional expression of multiple ADAMs during feather bud formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juntang; Luo, Jiankai; Redies, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The expression of seven members of the ADAM family was investigated by in situ hybridization in the developing feather buds of chicken. The expression profiles of the ADAMs in the cells and tissues of the feather buds differ from each other. ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 are expressed in the epidermis of the feather bud, whereas ADAM23 expression is restricted to the bud crest, with a distribution similar to that of sonic hedgehog. ADAM13 is not only expressed in the epidermis, but also in restricted regions of the dermis. Both ADAM12 and ADAM22 are expressed in the dermis of the feather bud, with an opposite mediolateral and anteroposterior polarity. Furthermore, the mRNAs of all investigated ADAMs show regional differences in their expression, for example, in the neck and in the roots of the leg and wing. These results suggest that ADAMs play a variety of roles during avian feather bud formation.

  9. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  10. Isopach map of interval between top of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone and the Huerfanito Bentonite bed of the Lewis Shale, La Plata County, Colorado, and Rio Arriba and San Juan counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Data used for the isopach map are mostly from interpretation of geophysical logs of oil and gas wells, southeast of the outcrop in parts of the Cortez, Durango, Farmington, and Navajo Reservoir 1: 100,000-scale quadrangles, Colorado and New Mexico. Cross sections A-A’ and B-B' give examples of geophysical logs that show some of the variations in the isopach interval.

  11. 76 FR 9540 - Humboldt County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Rivers National Forest Office, 1330 Bayshore Way, Eureka, CA 95501. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Adam...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Humboldt County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in...

  12. 76 FR 14897 - Humboldt County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Rivers National Forest Office, 1330 Bayshore Way, Eureka, CA 95501. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Adam...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Humboldt County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in...

  13. Exposure of insects and insectivorous birds to metals and other elements from abandoned mine tailings in three Summit County drainages, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Yang, C.; Crock, J.G.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Smith, K.S.; Hageman, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 31 metals, metalloids, and other elements were measured in insects and insectivorous bird tissues from three drainages with different geochemistry and mining histories in Summit Co., Colorado, in 2003, 2004, and 2005. In insect samples, all 25 elements that were analyzed in all years increased in both Snake and Deer Creeks in the mining impacted areas compared to areas above and below the mining impacted areas. This distribution of elements was predicted from known or expected sediment contamination resulting from abandoned mine tailings in those drainages. Element concentrations in avian liver tissues were in concordance with levels in insects, that is with concentrations higher in mid-drainage areas where mine tailings were present compared to both upstream and downstream locations; these differences were not always statistically different, however. The lack of statistically significant differences in liver tissues, except for a few elements, was due to relatively small sample sizes and because many of these elements are essential and therefore well regulated by the bird's homeostatic processes. Most elements were at background concentrations in avian liver tissue except for Pb which was elevated at mid-drainage sites to levels where ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited at other mining sites in Colorado. Lead exposure, however, was not at toxic levels. Fecal samples were not a good indication of what elements birds ingested and were potentially exposed to. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  14. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed. Streamflow conditions observed and measured during the synoptic water-quality study represent summer base-flow conditions and rainfall conditions for July 2007. The lack of large tributary inflows and the spatial distribution of small tributary inflows, seeps, and springs indicate that diffuse and

  15. View along Colorado and southern railroad, showing warehouse building 253 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along Colorado and southern railroad, showing warehouse building 253 in left foreground and building 262 in background. View to east. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  16. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal reserves in the Wadge Seam described below in Routt County, Colorado, will be offered...

  17. 2010 Kids Count in Colorado! Far from Average: Growing Gaps in Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource…

  18. Cleavage Site Localization Differentially Controls Interleukin-6 Receptor Proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Riethmueller, Steffen; Ehlers, Johanna C.; Lokau, Juliane; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Knittler, Katharina; Dombrowsky, Gregor; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rabe, Björn; Rose-John, Stefan; Garbers, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of the Interleukin-6 Receptor (IL-6R) leads to the release of the IL-6R ectodomain. Binding of the cytokine IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) results in an agonistic IL-6/sIL-6R complex, which activates cells via gp130 irrespective of whether the cells express the IL-6R itself. This signaling pathway has been termed trans-signaling and is thought to mainly account for the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6. A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are the major proteases that cleave the IL-6R. We have previously shown that deletion of a ten amino acid long stretch within the stalk region including the cleavage site prevents ADAM17-mediated cleavage, whereas the receptor retained its full biological activity. In the present study, we show that deletion of a triple serine (3S) motif (Ser-359 to Ser-361) adjacent to the cleavage site is sufficient to prevent IL-6R cleavage by ADAM17, but not ADAM10. We find that the impaired shedding is caused by the reduced distance between the cleavage site and the plasma membrane. Positioning of the cleavage site in greater distance towards the plasma membrane abrogates ADAM17-mediated shedding and reveals a novel cleavage site of ADAM10. Our findings underline functional differences in IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:27151651

  19. John Quincy Adams's rhetorical crusade for astronomy.

    PubMed

    Portolano, M

    2000-09-01

    Astronomy thrived in Europe during the early nineteenth century, but in the United States a utilitarian mind-set opposed it. John Quincy Adams's oratory in support of American astronomical discovery reached its peak during congressional debate over the Smithsonian Institution (1838-1846). During this debate Adams countered proposals to found a university with plans for an observatory. His addresses to congressional and public audiences about observatories and astronomy were intended to foster interest in the science and encourage the growing astronomical community in America. Although the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., was established before the Smithsonian debate ended, many considered Adams its political father. Adams composed his speeches on astronomy in a systematic manner, following neoclassical principles of rhetoric that he had taught at Harvard University. His speeches both in and outside of Congress show evidence of the rhetorical principles he conscientiously used in the service of astronomy.

  20. John Quincy Adams's rhetorical crusade for astronomy.

    PubMed

    Portolano, M

    2000-09-01

    Astronomy thrived in Europe during the early nineteenth century, but in the United States a utilitarian mind-set opposed it. John Quincy Adams's oratory in support of American astronomical discovery reached its peak during congressional debate over the Smithsonian Institution (1838-1846). During this debate Adams countered proposals to found a university with plans for an observatory. His addresses to congressional and public audiences about observatories and astronomy were intended to foster interest in the science and encourage the growing astronomical community in America. Although the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., was established before the Smithsonian debate ended, many considered Adams its political father. Adams composed his speeches on astronomy in a systematic manner, following neoclassical principles of rhetoric that he had taught at Harvard University. His speeches both in and outside of Congress show evidence of the rhetorical principles he conscientiously used in the service of astronomy. PMID:11143785

  1. Characterization of selected radionuclides in sediment and surface water in Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Johncox, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lake sediment and surface water from Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir, near Denver, Colorado, were sampled and analyzed for selected radionuclides during August through October, 1992. Sample concentrations were summarized and compared to results from a study conducted in 1983-84. Median plutonium-239,240 (239,240Pu) concentrations in lake-sediment grab samples from Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir were 0.037, 0.105, and 0.351 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). The maximum concen- tration of 239,240Pu dissolved in lake water was 0.009 picocuries per liter, substantially below limits suggested by the Colorado Department of Health and the Environment. Dissolved concentrations of gross alpha and uranium isotopes were below National Drinking Water Standards in all water samples. There was no statistically significant difference between 239,240Pu concentration in lake-sediment grab samples collected from Standley Lake in 1983-84 and in 1992; however, there was a small, but statistically significant, difference at Great Western Reservoir (p<0.05). In 1992 at Great Western Reservoir, median 239,240Pu concentrations were 0.040 pCi/g lower than in 1983-84. There was a small, but statistically significant (p<0.05) difference in 239,240Pu concentrations in lake- bottom-sediment cores collected in 1983-84 and in 1992. Measured concentrations tended to be higher in 1983-84 than in 1992. The differences were greatest at concentrations above 1.5 pCi/g; in those samples concentrations were 10 to 30% higher in 1983-84 than in 1992.

  2. ADAM: All-Data Asteroid Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, Matti; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2015-02-01

    ADAM (All-Data Asteroid Modeling) models asteroid shape reconstruction from observations. Developed in MATLAB with core routines in C, its features include general nonconvex and non-starlike parametric 3D shape supports and reconstruction of asteroid shape from any combination of lightcurves, adaptive optics images, HST/FGS data, disk-resolved thermal images, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar images. ADAM does not require boundary contour extraction for reconstruction and can be run in parallel.

  3. Streamflow and water-quality conditions including geologic sources and processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2013-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek is a perennial stream draining a suburban area in Aurora, Colorado, where selenium concentrations have consistently exceeded the State of Colorado aquatic-life standard for selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter since the early 2000s. In cooperation with the City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department, a synoptic water-quality study was performed along an 18-kilometer reach of Toll Gate Creek extending from downstream from Quincy Reservoir to the confluence with Sand Creek to develop a detailed understanding of streamflow and concentrations and loads of selenium in Toll Gate Creek. Streamflow and surface-water quality were characterized for summer low-flow conditions (July–August 2007) using four spatially overlapping synoptic-sampling subreaches. Mass-balance methods were applied to the synoptic-sampling and tracer-injection results to estimate streamflow and develop spatial profiles of concentration and load for selenium and other chemical constituents in Toll Gate Creek surface water. Concurrent groundwater sampling determined concentrations of selenium and other chemical constituents in groundwater in areas surrounding the Toll Gate Creek study reaches. Multivariate principal-component analysis was used to group samples and to suggest common sources for dissolved selenium and major ions. Hydrogen and oxygen stable-isotope ratios, groundwater-age interpretations, and chemical analysis of water-soluble paste extractions from core samples are presented, and interpretation of the hydrologic and geochemical data support conclusions regarding geologic sources of selenium and the processes affecting selenium loading in the Toll Gate Creek watershed. Streamflow conditions observed and measured during the synoptic water-quality study represent summer base-flow conditions and rainfall conditions for July 2007. The lack of large tributary inflows and the spatial distribution of small tributary inflows, seeps, and springs indicate that diffuse and

  4. Review and interpretation of previous work and new data on the hydrogeology of the Schwartzwalder Uranium Mine and vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Johnson, Raymond H.; Wild, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder deposit is the largest known vein type uranium deposit in the United States. Located about eight miles northwest of Golden, Colorado it occurs in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow, mineralization, and deformation during the Laramide Orogeny. A complex brittle fault zone hosts the deposit comprising locally brecciated carbonate, oxide, and sulfide minerals. Mining of pitchblende, the primary ore mineral, began in 1953 and an extensive network of underground workings was developed. Mine dewatering, treatment of the effluent and its discharge into the adjacent Ralston Creek was done under State permit from about 1990 through about 2008. Mining and dewatering ceased in 2000 and natural groundwater rebound has filled the mine workings to a current elevation that is above Ralston Creek but that is still below the lowest ground level adit. Water in the 'mine pool' has concentrations of dissolved uranium in excess of 1,000 times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 30 milligrams per liter. Other dissolved constituents such as molybdenum, radium, and sulfate are also present in anomalously high concentrations. Ralston Creek flows in a narrow valley containing Quaternary alluvium predominantly derived from weathering of crystalline bedrock including local mineralized rock. Just upstream of the mine site, two capped and unsaturated waste rock piles with high radioactivity sit on an alluvial terrace. As Ralston Creek flows past the mine site, a host of dissolved metal concentrations increase. Ralston Creek eventually discharges into Ralston Reservoir about 2.5 miles downstream. Because of highly elevated uranium concentrations, the State of Colorado issued an enforcement action against the mine permit holder requiring renewed collection and treatment of alluvial groundwater. As part of planned mine reclamation, abundant data were collected and compiled into a report by Wyman and Effner

  5. Assessment of water quality, road runoff, and bulk atmospheric deposition, Guanella Pass area, Clear Creek and Park Counties, Colorado, water years 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    The Guanella Pass road, located about 40 miles west of Denver, Colorado, between the towns of Georgetown and Grant, has been designated a scenic byway and is being considered for reconstruction. The purpose of this report is to present an assessment of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Guanella Pass area and provide baseline data for evaluation of the effects of the proposed road reconstruction. The data were collected during water years 1995-97 (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1997).Based on Colorado water-quality standards, current surface-water quality near Guanella Pass road was generally acceptable for specified use classifications of recreation, water supply, agriculture, and aquatic life. Streams had small concentrations of dissolved solids, nutrients, trace elements, and suspended sediment. An exception was upper Geneva Creek, which was acidic and had relatively large concentrations of iron, zinc, and other trace elements related to acid-sulfate weathering. Concentrations of many water-quality constituents, especially particle-related phases and suspended sediment, increased during peak snowmelt and rainstorm events and decreased to prerunoff concentrations at the end of runoff periods. Some dissolved (filtered) trace-element loads in Geneva Creek decreased during rainstorms when total recoverable loads remained generally static or increased, indicating a phase change that might be explained by adsorption of trace elements to suspended sediment during storm runoff.Total recoverable iron and dissolved zinc exceeded Colorado stream-water-quality standards most frequently. Exceedances for iron generally occurred during periods of high suspended-sediment transport in several streams. Zinc standards were exceeded in about one-half the samples collected in Geneva Creek 1.5 miles upstream from Grant.Lake-water quality was generally similar to that of area streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus ratios calculated for Clear and Duck Lakes indicated that

  6. Characterization of water quality in Government Highline Canal at Camp 7 Diversion and Highline Lake, Mesa County, Colorado, July 2000 through September 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation, collected and analyzed water-quality data for the Government Highline Canal and Highline Lake from July 2000 through September 2003. Implementation of modernization strategies for the canal, which supplies most of the water to the lake, would decrease the amount of water spilled to Highline Lake from August through October. A reduction in spill water into Highline Lake could adversely affect the recreational uses of the lake. To address this concern and to characterize the water quality in the Government Highline Canal and Highline Lake, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to evaluate limnological conditions prior to implementation of the modernization strategies. This report characterizes the water quality of inflow from the Government Canal and in Highline Lake prior to implementation of modernization strategies in the Government Canal. Flow entering the lake from the Government Canal was characterized using field properties and available chemical, sediment, and bacteria concentrations. Data collected at Highline Lake were used to characterize the seasonal stratification patterns, water-quality chemistry, bacteria populations, and phytoplankton community structure in the lake. Data used for this report were collected at one inflow site to the lake and four sites in Highline Lake. Highline Lake is a mesotrophic/eutrophic lake that has dimictic thermal stratification patterns. Samples collected in the photic zone indicated that there was little physical, chemical, or biological variability at this depth at any of the sampled sites in Highline Lake. Strong thermal and dissolved-oxygen stratification patterns were observed during summer. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations of less than 1 milligram per liter were observed during the summer. Ammonia likely was released from the bottom sediments of Highline Lake. The limiting nutrient in Highline Lake could be nitrogen or

  7. Linear-traverse surveys of helium and radon in soil gas as a guide for uranium exploration, central Weld County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G. Michael; Rice, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Linear-traverse surveys of helium and radon in soil gas were performed and evaluated as a guide for uranium exploration in central Weld County, Colo. Repeated sampling over a 5-month period eventually delineated a helium anomaly along the main 11.2 km traverse, and that anomaly may be related to a uranium occurrence. A single traverse is difficult to interpret. A grid sampling pattern, no more time consuming than a repeated linear traverse, is preferred. Radon anomalies along the traverses are from radon-220, the thorium decay series member, and do not show a positive correlation with the helium analyses.

  8. PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF DELTA-LIKE 1 BY ADAM PROTEASES*

    PubMed Central

    Dyczynska, Emilia; Sun, Danqiong; Yi, Haiqing; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko; Blobel, Carl P.; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is a mammalian ligand for Notch receptors. Interactions between Dll1 and Notch in trans activate the Notch pathway, whereas Dll1 binding to Notch in cis inhibits Notch signaling. Dll1 undergoes proteolytic processing in its extracellular domain by ADAM10. In this work, we demonstrate that Dll1 represents a substrate for several other members of the ADAM family. In co-transfected cells, Dll1 is constitutively cleaved by ADAM12, and the N-terminal fragment of Dll1 is released to medium. ADAM12-mediated cleavage of Dll1 is cell density-dependent, takes place in cis orientation, and does not require the presence of the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM12. Full length Dll1, but not its N- or C-terminal proteolytic fragment, co-immunoprecipitates with ADAM12. By using a Notch reporter construct, we show that Dll1 processing by ADAM12 increases Notch signaling in a cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, ADAM9 and ADAM17 have the ability to process Dll1. In contrast, ADAM15 does not cleave Dll1, although the two proteins still co-immunoprecipitate with each other. Asn353 present in the catalytic motif of ADAM12 and other Dll1-processing ADAMs, but absent in ADAM15, is necessary for Dll1 cleavage. Dll1 cleavage is reduced in ADAM9/12/15−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), suggesting that the endogenous ADAM9 and/or ADAM12 present in wild type MEFs contribute to Dll1 processing. Finally, the endogenous Dll1 present in primary mouse myoblasts undergoes cleavage in confluent, differentiating myoblast cultures and this cleavage is decreased by ADAM12 siRNAs. Our findings expand the role of ADAM proteins in the regulation of Notch signaling. PMID:17107962

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Kaye

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. Indicators are presented in the general areas of demographics, abuse and neglect, child health, family issues, and teen issues. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) confirmed incidents of child abuse and neglect;…

  10. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  11. KidsCount in Colorado! 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jenifer

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators of well-being: (1) children receiving AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent children); (2) children receiving TANF; (3) children qualifying for free lunch; (4) children in out-of-home placements;…

  12. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  13. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.306 Colorado... Transportation Planing Study Area as defined in 1989. Beginning near the Town of Palmer Lake, at the Northwest...) Unclassifiable/Attainment El Paso County (part) Area other than Urban Transportation Planning Study Area...

  14. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.306 Colorado... Transportation Planing Study Area as defined in 1989. Beginning near the Town of Palmer Lake, at the Northwest...) Unclassifiable/Attainment El Paso County (part) Area other than Urban Transportation Planning Study Area...

  15. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.306 Colorado.... Beginning near the Town of Palmer Lake, at the Northwest corner of the Study Area at a point on the El Paso... County (part) Area other than Urban Transportation Planning Study Area as defined in 1989 Park...

  16. Characterization of anthropogenic and natural sources of acid rock drainage at the Cinnamon Gulch abandoned mine land inventory site, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colorado's Cinnamon Gulch releases acid rock drainage (ARD) from anthropogenic and natural sources. In 2001, the total discharge from Cinnamon Gulch was measured at 1.02 cfs (29 L/s) at base flow and 4.3 cfs (122 L/s) at high flow (spring runoff). At base flow, natural sources account for 98% of the discharge from the watershed, and about 96% of the chemical loading. At high flow, natural sources contribute 96% of discharge and 92 to 95% of chemical loading. The pH is acidic throughout the Cinnamon Gulch watershed, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4. At baseflow, nearly all of the trace metals analyzed in the 18 samples exceeded state hardness-dependent water quality standards for aquatic life. Maximum dissolved concentrations of selected constituents included 16 mg/ L aluminum, 15 mg/L manganese, 40 mg/L iron, 2 mg/L copper, 560 ??g/L lead, 8.4 mg/L zinc, and 300 mg/L sulfate. Average dissolved concentrations of selected metals at baseflow were 5.5 mg/L aluminum, 5.5 mg/L manganese, 14 ??g/L cadmium, 260 ??g/L copper, 82 ??g/L lead, and 2.8 mg/L zinc.

  17. Characterization of Geologic Structures and Host Rock Properties Relevant to the Hydrogeology of the Standard Mine in Elk Basin, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Manning, Andrew H.; Berger, Byron R.; Kremer, Yannick; Guzman, Mario A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Schuller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The Standard Mine Superfund Site is a source of mine drainage and associated heavy metal contamination of surface and groundwaters. The site contains Tertiary polymetallic quartz veins and fault zones that host precious and base metal sulfide mineralization common in Colorado. To assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its effort to remediate mine-related contamination, we characterized geologic structures, host rocks, and their potential hydraulic properties to better understand the sources of contaminants and the local hydrogeology. Real time kinematic and handheld global positioning systems were used to locate and map precisely the geometry of the surface traces of structures and mine-related features, such as portals. New reconnaissance geologic mapping, field and x-ray diffraction mineralogy, rock sample collection, thin-section analysis, and elemental geochemical analysis were completed to characterize hydrothermal alteration, mineralization, and subsequent leaching of metallic phases. Surface and subsurface observations, fault vein and fracture network characterization, borehole geophysical logging, and mercury injection capillary entry pressure data were used to document potential controls on the hydrologic system.

  18. Hydrology, geomorphology, and dam-break modeling of the July 15, 1982, Lawn Lake Dam and Cascade Lake Dam failures, Larimer County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R.D.; Costa, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    On July 15, 1982, Lawn Lake Dam, a 26-foot-high earthfill irrigation dam built in 1903 in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, failed, due to piping, releasing 674 acre-feet of water with a peak discharge of 18,000 cubic feet per second down the Roaring River. Three people were killed, and damages were estimated at $31 million. Cascade Lake Dam, downstream from Lawn Lake Dam, subsequently failed as a result of the flood, increasing the peak flow at this point from 7,210 cubic feet per second to 16,000 cubic feet per second. The flood wave took 3.28 hours to travel 12.5 miles to Lake Estes, where all the floodwater was stored. The channel of the Roaring River was scoured as much as 50 feet and widened 300 feet. An alluvial fan of 42.3 acres, containing 10 million cubic feet of material, was deposited at the mouth of the Roaring River, damming the Fall River and forming a 17-acre lake. Various methods were used to indirectly compute peak discharge, attenuation of flow, and flood traveltime. A version of the National Weather Service dam-break flood model was used to evaluate its performance on high-gradient streams, to provide supplemental hydrologic information, and to evaluate various scenarios of dam-break development. (USGS)

  19. Hydrologic analysis of the U.S. Bureau of Mines' underground oil-shale research-facility site, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, R.H.; Weeks, John B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines plans to develop an underground oil-shale research facility near the center of Piceance Creek basin in Colorado. The oil-shale zone, which is to be penetrated by a shaft, is overlain by 1,400 feet of sedimentary rocks, primarily sandstone and marlstone, consisting of two aquifers separated by a confining layer. Three test holes were drilled by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to obtain samples of the oil shale, and to test the hydraulic properties of the two aquifers. The data collected during construction of the test holes were used to update an existing ground-water-flow computer model. The model was used to estimate the maximum amount of water that would have to be pumped to dewater the shaft during its construction. It is estimated that it would be necessary to pump as much as 3,080 gallons per minute to keep the shaft dry. Disposal of waste water and rock are the principal hydrologic problems associated with constructing the shaft. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. The Geologic Story of Colorado National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1981-01-01

    From 1946 until about 1956 I carried out fieldwork intermittently on the geology and artesian water supply of the Grand Junction area, Colorado, the results of which have been published. The area mapped geologically contains about 332 square miles in the west-central part of Mesa County and includes all of Colorado National Monument. During the field work several successive custodians or superintendents and several park naturalists urged that upon completion of my professional paper I prepare a brief account of the geology of the Monument in terms understandable by laymen, and which could be sold at the Visitor Center. This I was happy to do and there resulted 'The geologic story of Colorado National Monument', published by the Colorado and Black Canyon Natural History Association in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report contained colored sketches by John R. Stacy and a colored cover, but the photographs and many of the drawings were reproduced in black and white.

  1. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  2. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering. PMID:26247288

  3. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  4. Community Analysis for the Pitkin County Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwin, Florence M.

    This document analyzes the social and demographic characteristics of Pitkin County, Colorado (population 12,000) and the Pitkin County Library located in Aspen (24,000 volumes). The report contains statistics gathered from the 1978 Mid-Term U.S. Bureau Census of Pitkin County, as well as other statistics from local, state, and federal sources; the…

  5. Genetic implications of minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of alkaline rock complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbrustmacher, T.J.; Hedge, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and REE (rare earth elements), and Sr-isotopic ratios in rocks of the Cambrian alkaline complexes in the Wet Mountains area, Colorado, show that rocks formed as end-products of a variety of magmas generated from different source materials. The complexes generally contain a bimodal suite of cumulus mafic-ultramafic rocks and younger leucocratic rocks that include nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite in the McClure Mountain Complex, nepheline syenite pegmatite in the Gem Park Complex, and quartz syenite in the complex at Democrat Creek. The nepheline syenite and hornblende-biotite syenite at McClure Mountain (535??5m.y.) are older than the syenitic rocks at Democrat Creek (511??8m.y.). REE concentrations indicate that the nepheline syenite at McClure Mountain cannot be derived from the hornblende-biotite syenite, which it intrudes, or from the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks. REE also indicate that mafic-ultramafic rocks at McClure Mountain have a source distinct from that of the mafic-ultramafic rocks at Democrat Creek. In the McClure Mountain Complex, initial87Sr/86Sr ratios for mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7046??0.0002) are similar to those of hornblende-biotite syenite (0.7045??0.0002), suggesting a similar magmatic source, whereas ratios for carbonatites (0.7038??0.0002) are similar to those of nepheline syenite (0.7038??0.0002). At Democrat Creek, initial ratios of syenitic rocks (0.7032??0.0002) and mafic-ultramafic rocks (0.7028??0.0002) are different from those of corresponding rocks at McClure Mountain. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  6. The Life and Times of John Couch Adams, from 1819 to 1847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    John Couch Adams was born in 1819 in the middle of Cornwall, the most remote and isolated county in England. How he progressed from there to Cambridge University to become one of the finest mathematicians of the nineteenth century fills everyone who studies him with awe. Tragically what should have been his greatest triumph - the discovery of a new planet - was marred by mishap, controversy and unanswered questions. This presentation examines one of the first of these questions and provides new answers based on recently revealed evidence. The Astronomer Royal of the day was attempting to support Adams and as part of that support asked if his analysis took into account changes in radius vector of Uranus. Adams did not reply and the rest as they say is history. However there is far more to the question than a non-existent letter - this in itself turns out to be not exactly true. Further analysis of the orbits and a letter in French - not been translated before reveals Adams had a more profound understanding of the situation than some later authors have given him credit.

  7. Waste-assimilation capacity of the Arkansas River in Pueblo County, Colorado, as it relates to water-quality guidelines and stream classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug; Baldridge, Duaina; Edelmann, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The waste-assimulation capacity of a 42-mile reach of the Arkansas River in Pueblo County, Colo., was evaluated using a one-dimensional steady-state water-quality model. The model is capable of accurately predicting concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total ammonia, total nitrate and dissolved oxygen; predicted concentrations of total organic nitrogen and total nitrite are less accurate. Simulation capability for nonionized ammonia was provided by defining its relationship to total ammonia. The model was used to simulate the water-quality effects of 63 combinations of wastewater treatment at the Pueblo Wastewater Treatment Plant and CF and I Steel Corporation. The mixing zone of the effluent from the Pueblo Wastewater Treatment Plant with the Arkansas River was determined to be 2.7 miles in length during the study. (USGS)

  8. Epithelial cell ADAM17 activation by Helicobacter pylori: role of ADAM17 C-terminus and Threonine-735 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    McClurg, Urszula L; Danjo, Kazuma; King, Harry O; Scott, Gina B; Robinson, Philip A; Crabtree, Jean E

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on gastric epithelial cells via a signalling cascade involving a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) cleavage of membrane bound heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF). The effects of H. pylori on ADAM17 C-terminus in epithelial cells have been examined. Total cellular ADAM17 and surface expression of ADAM17 were significantly increased by H. pylori in AGS gastric epithelial cells. These changes were associated with ADAM17 C-terminal phosphorylation at T375 and S791. AGS cells lacking the ADAM17 C-terminal domain induced significantly attenuated cleavage of HB-EGF and were also unable to upregulate HB-EGF and EGFR transcripts to the same extent as cells expressing full length ADAM17. In mitotic unstimulated AGS and ADAM17 over-expressing AGS cells, ADAM17 was highly T735 phosphorylated indicating ADAM17 T735 phosphorylation is modified during the cell cycle. In conclusion, H. pylori induced ADAM17 C-terminal T735 and/or S791 phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells are likely to be an important trigger inducing ADAM17 activation and shedding of HB-EGF leading to EGFR transactivation. ADAM17 over-expression in gastric cancer represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Hydrogeology and simulation of flow between the alluvial and bedrock aquifers in the upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Anticipated increases in pumping from the bedrock aquifers in El Paso County potentially could affect the direction and rate of flow between the alluvial and bedrock aquifers and lower water levels in the overlying alluvial aquifer. The alluvial aquifer underlies about 90 square miles in the upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin of eastern El Paso County. The alluvial aquifer consists of unconsolidated alluvial deposits that unconformably overlie siltstones, sandstones, and conglomerate (bedrock aquifers) and claystone, shale, and coal (bedrock confining units) of the Denver Basin. The bedrock aquifers (Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers) are separated by confining units (upper and lower Denver and the Laramie confining units) and overlie a relatively thick and impermeable Pierre confining unit. The Pierre confining unit is assumed to be a no-flow boundary at the base of the alluvial/ bedrock aquifer system. During 1949-90, substantial water-level declines, as large as 50 feet, in the alluvial aquifer resulted from withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation and municipal supplies. Average recharge to the alluvial aquifer from infiltration of precipitation and surface water was an estimated 11.97 cubic feet per second and from the underlying bedrock aquifers was an estimated 0.87 cubic foot per second. Water-level data from eight bedrock observation wells and eight nearby alluvial wells indicate that, locally, the alluvial and bedrock aquifers probably are hydraulically connected and that the alluvial aquifer in the upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin receives recharge from the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers but-locally recharges the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer. Subsurface-temperature profiles were evaluated as a means of estimating specific discharge across the bedrock surface (the base of the alluvial aquifer). However, assumptions of the analytical method were not met by field conditions and, thus, analyses of subsurface-temperature profiles

  10. Site evaluation for U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental oil-shale mine, Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, John R.; Leavesley, G.H.; Steele, G.S.; Weeks, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the selection of a site for a shaft and experimental mine to be constructed in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo. The Piceance Creek basin, an asymmetric, northwest-trending large structural downwarp, is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) west of the town of Meeker in Rio Blanco County, Colo. The oil-shale, dawsonite, nahcolite, and halite deposits of the Piceance Creek basin occur in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age. In the basin the Green River Formation comprises three members. In ascending order, they are the Douglas Creek, the Garden Gulch, and the Parachute Creek Members, Four sites are presented for consideration and evaluated on geology and hydrology with respect to shale-oil economics. Evaluated criteria include: (1) stratigraphy, (2) size of site, (3) oil-shale yield, (4) representative quantities of the saline minerals dawsonite and nahcolite, which must be present with a minimum amount of halite, (5) thickness of a 'leached' saline zone, (6) geologic structure, (7) engineering characteristics of rock, (8) representative surface and ground-water conditions, with emphasis on waste disposal and dewatering, and (9) environmental considerations. Serious construction and support problems are anticipated in sinking a deep shaft in the Piceance Creek basin. The two major concerns will be dealing with incompetent rock and large inflow of saline ground water, particularly in the leached zone. Engineering support problems will include stabilizing and hardening the rock from which a certain amount of ground water has been removed. The relative suitability of the four potential oil-shale experimental shaft sites in the Piceance Creek basin has been considered on the basis of all available geologic, hydrologic, and engineering data; site 2 is preferred to sites 1, 3, and 4, The units in this report are presented in the form: metric (English). Both units of

  11. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  12. Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

    1979-01-01

    In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

  13. Geochemistry of Surface and Ground Water in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch and in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Fey, David L.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    In San Juan County, Colo., the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water in the upper Animas River watershed from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In support of this ground-water research effort, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study and the geochemistry of surface and ground water in the area was analyzed as part of four sampling plans: (1) ten streamflow and geochemistry measurements at five stream locations (four locations along Cement Creek plus the mouth of Prospect Gulch from July 2004 through August 2005), (2) detailed stream tracer dilution studies in Prospect Gulch and in Cement Creek from Gladstone to Georgia Gulch in early October 2004, (3) geochemistry of ground water through sampling of monitoring wells, piezometers, mine shafts, and springs, and (4) samples for noble gases and tritium/helium for recharge temperatures (recharge elevation) and ground-water age dating. This report summarizes all of the surface and ground-water data that was collected and includes: (1) all sample collection locations, (2) streamflow and geochemistry, (3) ground-water geochemistry, and (4) noble gas and tritium/helium data.

  14. 2014 Kids Count in Colorado! The Big Picture: Taking the Whole Child Approach to Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as…

  15. Women in History--Abigail Adams: Life, Accomplishments, and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenan, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles the life, accomplishments, and ideas of Abigail Adams. Born in 1944, Adams lacked a formal education, but she more than made up for that shortcoming with her love of reading, especially literature, and her interests in politics and events surrounding the young colonies. Adams was supportive of the advancement of women. She…

  16. Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, J.R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling

  17. Geology and ground-water resources of the Big Sandy Creek Valley, Lincoln, Cheyenne, and Kiowa Counties, Colorado; with a section on Chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Donald L.; Horr, Clarence Albert

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the geology and ground-water resources of that part of the Big Sandy Creek valley from about 6 miles east of Limon, Colo., downstream to the Kiowa County and Prowers County line, an area of about 1,400 square miles. The valley is drained by Big Sandy Creek and its principal tributary, Rush Creek. The land surface ranges from flat to rolling; the most irregular topography is in the sandhills south and west of Big Sandy Creek. Farming and livestock raising are the principal occupations. Irrigated lands constitute only a sin311 part of the project area, but during the last 15 years irrigation has expanded. Exposed rocks range in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. They comprise the Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formations, Pierre Shale (all Late Cretaceous), upland deposits (Pleistocene), valley-fill deposits (Pleistocene and Recent), and dune sand (Pleistocene and Recent). Because the Upper Cretaceous formations are relatively impermeable and inhibit water movement, they allow ground water to accumul3te in the overlying unconsolidated Pleistocene and Recent deposits. The valley-fill deposits constitute the major aquifer and yield as much as 800 gpm (gallons per mixture) to wells along Big Sandy and Rush Creeks. Transmissibilities average about 45,000 gallons per day per foot. Maximum well yields in the tributary valleys are about 200 gpm and average 5 to 10 gpm. The dune sand and upland deposits generally are drained and yield water to wells in only a few places. The ground-water reservoir is recharged only from direct infiltration of precipitation, which annually averages about 12 inches for the entire basin, and from infiltration of floodwater. Floods in the ephemeral Big Sandy Creek are a major source of recharge to ground-water reservoirs. Observations of a flood near Kit Carson indicated that about 3 acre-feet of runoff percolated into the ground-water reservoir through each acre of the wetted stream channel The downstream decrease in channel and

  18. Paraprofessional of the Year 2009: Tina Adams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt among the staff and managers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries, Raleigh, that advanced library technician Tina Adams deserves to be the winner of the "Library Journal's "Paraprofessional of the Year Award for 2009." "Certainly this library has never seen anyone like her before, not in my nine years on staff,"…

  19. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  20. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  1. ADAM "sequence" part II: hypothesis and speculation.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Johnson, Dennis R; Gilbert-Barness, Enid F

    2015-03-01

    Noted for centuries in humans, a relatively hairless mammal [e.g., Hallero, 1766; Hohl, 1828 in Klunker, 2003], the so-called amniotic deformities, adhesions, mutilations (ADAM) sequence remains causally and pathogenetically incognito. In 1930 Streeter stated " apodictically" that no evidence has been found that intra-uterine amputation is due to amniotic bands or adhesions …" and that his 16 cases provided (histological) evidence for a "germinal origin." He concluded that an amniotic cord was "not an adhesion or inflammatory product but … an anomalous developmental structure and present from the outset." In survivors the "traces" of damaged limb-buds "reveal the scars of poor germ-plasm." In 1958, Willis, in dismissing the amniotic origin of the ADAM defects (or "Streeter" or "Simonart" bands) quoted Keith [1940] to the effect that "(a)mniotic adhesions … are always produced by … the fetus – as a result of dysplasia in foetal tissues. They are the result, not the cause, of foetal malformations." Streeter [1930] mentions a potential familial case (56-year-old man and his mother), not controlled by photographs or other records and concluded "that the (ADAM) deformity is not easily transmissible," but "due to the constitution of the germ-plasm." Torpin [1968] concluded, as apodictically as Streeter and Willis, that "… proof of amnion rupture without damage to the chorionic sac is no longer "in question." Considering Torpin's decades-long study of the ADAM phenomenon and review of 494 references (missing many) it is surprising that he does not discuss the relationship between the apparent ADAM defects and other, internal anomalies that maybe present in an affected fetus or infant not evidently caused by the amniotic disruptions, adhesions or mutilations, unless his mind was made up. Our review of these internal and other presumed primary malformations in ADAM is ongoing. However, on a preliminary basis, it seems likely to us that: (1) there is an increased

  2. ADAM "sequence" part II: hypothesis and speculation.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Johnson, Dennis R; Gilbert-Barness, Enid F

    2015-03-01

    Noted for centuries in humans, a relatively hairless mammal [e.g., Hallero, 1766; Hohl, 1828 in Klunker, 2003], the so-called amniotic deformities, adhesions, mutilations (ADAM) sequence remains causally and pathogenetically incognito. In 1930 Streeter stated " apodictically" that no evidence has been found that intra-uterine amputation is due to amniotic bands or adhesions …" and that his 16 cases provided (histological) evidence for a "germinal origin." He concluded that an amniotic cord was "not an adhesion or inflammatory product but … an anomalous developmental structure and present from the outset." In survivors the "traces" of damaged limb-buds "reveal the scars of poor germ-plasm." In 1958, Willis, in dismissing the amniotic origin of the ADAM defects (or "Streeter" or "Simonart" bands) quoted Keith [1940] to the effect that "(a)mniotic adhesions … are always produced by … the fetus – as a result of dysplasia in foetal tissues. They are the result, not the cause, of foetal malformations." Streeter [1930] mentions a potential familial case (56-year-old man and his mother), not controlled by photographs or other records and concluded "that the (ADAM) deformity is not easily transmissible," but "due to the constitution of the germ-plasm." Torpin [1968] concluded, as apodictically as Streeter and Willis, that "… proof of amnion rupture without damage to the chorionic sac is no longer "in question." Considering Torpin's decades-long study of the ADAM phenomenon and review of 494 references (missing many) it is surprising that he does not discuss the relationship between the apparent ADAM defects and other, internal anomalies that maybe present in an affected fetus or infant not evidently caused by the amniotic disruptions, adhesions or mutilations, unless his mind was made up. Our review of these internal and other presumed primary malformations in ADAM is ongoing. However, on a preliminary basis, it seems likely to us that: (1) there is an increased

  3. Illnesses of the brain in John Quincy Adams.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2004-12-01

    John Quincy Adams, the sixth and perhaps most scholarly American president, served courageously despite familial essential tremor, depression, and cerebrovascular disease. His cousin Samuel Adams and his father John Adams also had essential tremor, which the later called "quiveration". Alcoholism and depression affected several members of J.Q. Adams's family. Following his own time as president, J.Q. Adams returned to duty as the congressman who most assiduously fought slavery, a fight he continued even after he had suffered a major left hemispheric stroke. His fatal collapse in Congress, protesting the Mexican War, is legendary among the final illnesses of American statesmen. PMID:15545105

  4. Illnesses of the brain in John Quincy Adams.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2004-12-01

    John Quincy Adams, the sixth and perhaps most scholarly American president, served courageously despite familial essential tremor, depression, and cerebrovascular disease. His cousin Samuel Adams and his father John Adams also had essential tremor, which the later called "quiveration". Alcoholism and depression affected several members of J.Q. Adams's family. Following his own time as president, J.Q. Adams returned to duty as the congressman who most assiduously fought slavery, a fight he continued even after he had suffered a major left hemispheric stroke. His fatal collapse in Congress, protesting the Mexican War, is legendary among the final illnesses of American statesmen.

  5. Results of U.S. Geological Survey exploration for uranium-vanadium deposits in the Club Mesa area, Uravan district, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boardman, Robert L.; Litsey, Linus R.; Bowers, Howard E.

    1957-01-01

    Between 1948 and 1953, the U. S. Geological Survey conducted diamond-drill exploration in the Club Mesa. area in the western part of the Uravan district, Montrose County, Colo. This drilling, consisting of 662 holes totaling 170,095 feet, was done to find minable uranium-vanadium deposits and to appraise uranium-vanadium reserves of the Club Mesa area. Rocks exposed in the area are gently dipping sedimentary formations of Mesozoic age. Sandstone units in the upper part of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation of Jurassic age contain most of the known uranium-vanadium deposits in the area; all of the large deposits are in the uppermost sandstone unit of that member. Of the 195 holes that penetrated mineralized rock, 74 holes penetrated ore layers, and 37 penetrated mineralized layers of ore grade but less than 1 foot thick. All of the ore layers and ore-grade layers are in sandstone units in the upper part of the Salt Wash member. The ore layers are in the bottom half of the host sandstone unit in about 90 percent of the holes in ore and in the bottom quarter of the unit in over 60 percent of these holes. Indicated and inferred reserves of ore discovered by the drilling total about 200,000 short tons averaging about 0.35 percent U308 and 1.80 percent V205. About 80 percent of the estimated reserves were included in six mining leases granted by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission on deposits discovered by the drilling. Nearly all of the ore layers and most of the mineralized layers penetrated, are in sandstone units 30 feet or more thick that are in contact with at least 6 inches of green or gray mudstone. If these minimum thicknesses are used as cutoffs to determine ground favorable for ore, about 10 percent of the Club Mesa area explored by the U.S. Geological Survey can be classified as favorable and contains nearly all of the ore reserves discovered.

  6. Quantity and quality of drainage from the Argo Tunnel and other sources related to metal mining in Gilpin, Clear Creek and Park Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, Dennis A.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen metal-mine drainage sources have been located in that part of Gilpin, Clear Creek, and Park Counties, Colo., lying within the Missouri River basin. At least 13 of these sources are known to contain high acidity and (or) trace-element concentrations or to contribute water to adversely affected streams. From January 1976 to March 1977, drainage from the Argo Tunnel in Idaho Springs--one of the major metal-mine drainage sources in the study area--exhibited variations in discharge from 0.35 to 0.55 cubic feet per second (0.010 to 0.016 cubic meters per second), a relatively constant temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, and variations in specific conductance from 2,680 to 3,410 micromhos per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (though a value of about 3,100 micromhos persisted throughout most of the period of record). High, but relatively constant, total concentrations (in micrograms per liter) of arsenic (100 to 180), cadmium (140 to 170), copper (5,000 to 6,000), iron (160,000 to 200,000), lead (less than 100 to 200), manganese (80,000 to 110,000), and zinc (40,000 to 49,000) were measured in the Argo Tunnel drainage from March 1976 to March 1977. Except for lead, the trace elements were mostly dissolved (82 percent or greater) and appear to represent baseline concentrations. Long-term degradation of water flowing from the Argo Tunnel is shown by increases of at least 2.5 to 8.0 times for dissolved solids, dissolved iron, calcium, magnesium, and sulfate since 1906. The acidity has changed from neutral in 1906 to a median pH value of 2.9 in 1976-77. Comparison of current Argo Tunnel data with those collected previously by other investigators indicates that spring chemical flushes containing higher than baseline trace-element concentrations occurred in 1973 and 1974, but not in 1975 or 1976, and probably not in 1972. The spring chemical flushes appear to be associated with increased infiltration from snowmelt in the catchment of the Argo Tunnel. Because of the wide

  7. Using tracers to evaluate streamflow gain-loss characteristics of Terror Creek, in the vicinity of a mine-permit area, Delta County, Colorado, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Cory A.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, initiated a study to characterize streamflow gainloss in a reach of Terror Creek, in the vicinity of a mine-permit area planned for future coal mining. This report describes the methods of the study and includes results from a comparison of two sets of streamflow measurements using tracer techniques following the constant-rate injection method. Two measurement sets were used to characterize the streamflow gain-loss associated with reservoir-supplemented streamflow conditions and with natural base-flow conditions. A comparison of the measurement sets indicates that the streamflow gain-loss characteristics of the Terror Creek study reach are consistent between the two hydrologic conditions evaluated. A substantial streamflow gain occurs between measurement locations 4 and 5 in both measurement sets, and streamflow is lost between measurement locations 5 and 7 (measurement set 1, measurement location 6 not visited) and 5 and 6 (measurement set 2). A comparison of the measurement sets above and below the mine-permit area (measurement locations 3 and 7) shows a consistent loss of 0.37 and 0.31 cubic foot per second (representing 5- and 12-percent streamflow losses normalized to measurement location 3) for measurement sets 1 and 2, respectively. This indicates that similar streamflow losses occur both during reservoir-supplemented and natural base-flow conditions, with a mean streamflow loss of 0.34 cubic foot per second for measurement sets 1 and 2. Findings from a previous investigation support the observed streamflow loss between measurement locations 3 and 7 in this study. The findings from the previous investigation indicate a streamflow loss of 0.59 cubic foot per second occurs between these measurement locations. Statistical testing of the differences in streamflow between measurement locations 3 and 7 indicates that there is a discernible streamflow loss. The p-value of 0.0236 for the

  8. 76 FR 9694 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Colorado Appropriated Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... would redefine Dolores, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties, CO, and the Curecanti... would redefine Dolores, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties, CO, and the Curecanti... deciding factor. Dolores County is currently defined to the Southern Colorado area of application....

  9. Non-MacAdam color discrimination ellipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Peter

    2012-10-01

    MacAdam ellipses and the 1976 u'v' chromaticity space are commonly used in the illumination and LED industries. Delta E 2000 (ΔE) is the most up-to-date color difference metric endorsed by CIE and is more reliable than earlier metrics. This paper shows how the ΔE 2000 standard can be used to derive ellipses to be plotted in the well-known 1931 xy color space and examines the validity of MacAdam ellipses and the 1976 u'v' chromaticity space in terms of this metric. The 1976 u'v' chromaticity space is found, in quantitative terms, to be less uniform than the 1931 xy chromaticity space based on ΔE 2000. This paper recommends ΔE calculations as a quantitative tool, the proposed ellipses as a descriptive tool, and the total abandonment of the 1976 u'v' color space.

  10. Targeting autocrine HB-EGF signaling with specific ADAM12 inhibition using recombinant ADAM12 prodomain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Miles A.; Moss, Marcia L.; Powell, Gary; Petrovich, Robert; Edwards, Lori; Meyer, Aaron S.; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2015-10-01

    Dysregulation of ErbB-family signaling underlies numerous pathologies and has been therapeutically targeted through inhibiting ErbB-receptors themselves or their cognate ligands. For the latter, “decoy” antibodies have been developed to sequester ligands including heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF); however, demonstrating sufficient efficacy has been difficult. Here, we hypothesized that this strategy depends on properties such as ligand-receptor binding affinity, which varies widely across the known ErbB-family ligands. Guided by computational modeling, we found that high-affinity ligands such as HB-EGF are more difficult to target with decoy antibodies compared to low-affinity ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG). To address this issue, we developed an alternative method for inhibiting HB-EGF activity by targeting its cleavage from the cell surface. In a model of the invasive disease endometriosis, we identified A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) as a protease implicated in HB-EGF shedding. We designed a specific inhibitor of ADAM12 based on its recombinant prodomain (PA12), which selectively inhibits ADAM12 but not ADAM10 or ADAM17. In endometriotic cells, PA12 significantly reduced HB-EGF shedding and resultant cellular migration. Overall, specific inhibition of ligand shedding represents a possible alternative to decoy antibodies, especially for ligands such as HB-EGF that exhibit high binding affinity and localized signaling.

  11. The dental health of President John Adams.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2004-01-01

    The oral health of George Washington has been widely studied and written about. Not so, however, with our second president, John Adams, whose dental health was apparently poor throughout his life. His pernicious habit of inducing vomiting to treat various bodily ills, coupled with a great love of sweets, led to the loss of his teeth, which he stubbornly refused to replace with dentures. When he was older, this led to his speech being so badly affected, that he could barely be understood.

  12. Shedding of collagen XVII/BP180 in skin depends on both ADAM10 and ADAM9.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Claus-Werner; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Blobel, Carl P

    2009-08-28

    Collagen XVII is a transmembrane collagen and the major autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease bullous pemphigoid. Collagen XVII is proteolytically released from the membrane, and the pathogenic epitope harbors the cleavage site for its ectodomain shedding, suggesting that proteolysis has an important role in regulating the function of collagen XVII in skin homeostasis. Previous studies identified ADAMs 9, 10, and 17 as candidate collagen XVII sheddases and suggested that ADAM17 is a major sheddase. Here we show that ADAM17 only indirectly affects collagen XVII shedding and that ADAMs 9 and 10 are the most prominent collagen XVII sheddases in primary keratinocytes because (a) collagen XVII shedding was not stimulated by phorbol esters, known activators of ADAM17, (b) constitutive and calcium influx-stimulated shedding was sensitive to the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X and was strongly reduced in Adam10(-/-) cells, (c) there was a 55% decrease in constitutive collagen XVII ectodomain shedding from Adam9(-/-) keratinocytes, and (d) H(2)O(2) enhanced ADAM9 expression and stimulated collagen XVII shedding in skin and keratinocytes of wild type mice but not of Adam9(-/-) mice. We conclude that ADAM9 and ADAM10 can both contribute to collagen XVII shedding in skin with an enhanced relative contribution of ADAM9 in the presence of reactive oxygen species. These results provide critical new insights into the identity and regulation of the major sheddases for collagen XVII in keratinocytes and skin and have implications for the treatment of blistering diseases of the skin.

  13. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  14. The good, the bad and the ugly substrates for ADAM10 and ADAM17 in brain pathology, inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Ludwig, Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Various surface molecules undergo regulated cleavage by the disintegrin and metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17. The list of substrates includes molecules involved in brain pathology, inflammation and cancer. In the brain both proteases mediate neuroprotective cleavage events such as inactivation of amyloid precursor protein. In inflammatory settings signaling of cytokines including TNFalpha and IL-6 is triggered by proteolytic release of soluble agonists and leukocyte recruitment is controlled by the cleavage of adhesion molecules. Moreover, in tumors, ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated shedding events trigger proliferative signaling via activation of growth factors including ErbB family members. Concepts of either increasing ADAM10- or ADAM17-activity to limit neurodegeneration or suppressing their activity to block inflammation or tumor growth have to be carefully scrutinized for their potential side effects in various tissues and pathologies. PMID:18951988

  15. From Adam Swift to Adam Smith: How the "Invisible Hand" Overcomes Middle Class Hypocrisy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper challenges Richard Pring's suggestion that parents using private education may be undermining the desire for social justice and equality, using recent arguments of Adam Swift as a springboard. Swift's position on the banning of private schools, which uses a Rawlsian "veil of ignorance" argument, is explored, and it is suggested that, if…

  16. Connective tissue growth factor is a substrate of ADAM28

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Satsuki; Tanaka, Rena; Shimoda, Masayuki; Onuma, Junko; Fujii, Yutaka; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Okada, Yasunori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The hyper-variable region in the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM28 binds to C-terminal domain of CTGF. {yields} ADAM28 cleaves CTGF alone and CTGF in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. {yields} CTGF digestion by ADAM28 releases biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. {yields} ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF{sub 165} are commonly co-expressed by carcinoma cells in human breast carcinoma tissues. {yields} These suggest that ADAM28 promotes VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by selective CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. -- Abstract: ADAM28, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and the expression correlates with carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. However, information about substrates of ADAM28 is limited. We screened interacting molecules of ADAM28 in human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system and identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Binding of CTGF to proADAM28 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assay and protein binding assay. ADAM28 cleaved CTGF in dose- and time-dependent manners at the Ala{sup 181}-Tyr{sup 182} and Asp{sup 191}-Pro{sup 192} bonds in the hinge region of the molecule. ADAM28 selectively digested CTGF in the complex of CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor{sub 165} (VEGF{sub 165}), releasing biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF are commonly co-expressed in the breast carcinoma tissues. These data provide the first evidence that CTGF is a novel substrate of ADAM28 and suggest that ADAM28 may promote VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by the CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex.

  17. ADAM12 and ADAM17 gene expression in laser-capture microdissected and non-microdissected breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Narita, Diana; Seclaman, Edward; Ilina, Razvan; Cireap, Natalia; Ursoniu, Sorin; Anghel, Andrei

    2011-06-01

    ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease)12 and ADAM17 are multidomain transmembrane proteins involved in ectodomain shedding of cytokines, growth factors and adhesion molecules, with pivotal activities in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to confirm the up-regulation of ADAM17 and ADAM12 gene splicing variants in breast tumors and to delineate their expression between laser-capture microdissected (LCM) and non-microdissected breast tumors. The gene expression was analyzed by quantitative-reverse transcription-PCR in a total sample of 109 breast tumors paired with corresponding non-neoplastic breast tissues. ADAM12 and 17 proteins expression for corresponding tissue samples was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ADAM12S, 12L and 17 genes were significantly up-regulated in either malign or benign LCM samples when compared to non-tumor controls. For non-LCM samples, it was obtained also an increased expression for ADAM12 and 17 genes in cancers, while in benign tumors only ADAM12 variants were significantly up-regulated compared to controls. When benign versus malignant tumors were compared, in LCM samples all investigated genes displayed a higher expression in cancers, whereas in non-LCM, ADAM12 variants were overexpressed in benign samples. The increased expression of ADAM12 protein in the tumor cells and stroma of benign breast diseases was immunohistochemically confirmed. These differences between LCM and non-LCM samples were explained by the contribution of the stroma to the expression of this marker. This study underlines the accuracy conferred by homogenous LCM samples on gene expression profiles and confers further evidence regarding the role of ADAM12 and 17 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression.

  18. ADAM8 as a drug target in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlomann, Uwe; Koller, Garrit; Conrad, Catharina; Ferdous, Taheera; Golfi, Panagiota; Garcia, Adolfo Molejon; Höfling, Sabrina; Parsons, Maddy; Costa, Patricia; Soper, Robin; Bossard, Maud; Hagemann, Thorsten; Roshani, Rozita; Sewald, Norbert; Ketchem, Randal R.; Moss, Marcia L.; Rasmussen, Fred H.; Miller, Miles A.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Tuveson, David A.; Nimsky, Christopher; Bartsch, Jörg W.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a grim prognosis with less than 5% survivors after 5 years. High expression levels of ADAM8, a metalloprotease-disintegrin, are correlated with poor clinical outcome. We show that ADAM8 expression is associated with increased migration and invasiveness of PDAC cells caused by activation of ERK 1/2 and higher MMP activities. For biological function, ADAM8 requires multimerisation and associates with β1-integrin on the cell surface. A peptidomimetic ADAM8 inhibitor, BK-1361, designed by structural modelling of the disintegrin domain, prevents ADAM8 multimerisation. In PDAC cells, BK-1361 affects ADAM8 function leading to reduced invasiveness, and less ERK 1/2 and MMP activation. BK-1361 application in mice decreased tumour burden and metastasis of implanted pancreatic tumour cells and provides improved metrics of clinical symptoms and survival in a KrasG12D-driven mouse model of PDAC. Thus, our data integrate ADAM8 in pancreatic cancer signalling and validate ADAM8 as a target for PDAC therapy. PMID:25629724

  19. "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. Literature Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mari Lu

    Intended as an aid to classroom teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, and vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of "Adam of the…

  20. ADAM8 as a drug target in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlomann, Uwe; Koller, Garrit; Conrad, Catharina; Ferdous, Taheera; Golfi, Panagiota; Garcia, Adolfo Molejon; Höfling, Sabrina; Parsons, Maddy; Costa, Patricia; Soper, Robin; Bossard, Maud; Hagemann, Thorsten; Roshani, Rozita; Sewald, Norbert; Ketchem, Randal R; Moss, Marcia L; Rasmussen, Fred H; Miller, Miles A; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Tuveson, David A; Nimsky, Christopher; Bartsch, Jörg W

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a grim prognosis with <5% survivors after 5 years. High expression levels of ADAM8, a metalloprotease disintegrin, are correlated with poor clinical outcome. We show that ADAM8 expression is associated with increased migration and invasiveness of PDAC cells caused by activation of ERK1/2 and higher MMP activities. For biological function, ADAM8 requires multimerization and associates with β1 integrin on the cell surface. A peptidomimetic ADAM8 inhibitor, BK-1361, designed by structural modelling of the disintegrin domain, prevents ADAM8 multimerization. In PDAC cells, BK-1361 affects ADAM8 function leading to reduced invasiveness, and less ERK1/2 and MMP activation. BK-1361 application in mice decreased tumour burden and metastasis of implanted pancreatic tumour cells and provides improved metrics of clinical symptoms and survival in a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse model of PDAC. Thus, our data integrate ADAM8 in pancreatic cancer signalling and validate ADAM8 as a target for PDAC therapy.

  1. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  2. Helping Eve overcome ADAM: G-quadruplexes in the ADAM-15 promoter as new molecular targets for breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert V; Gaerig, Vanessa C; Simmons, Taesha; Brooks, Tracy A

    2013-12-05

    ADAM-15, with known zymogen, secretase, and disintegrin activities, is a catalytically active member of the ADAM family normally expressed in early embryonic development and aberrantly expressed in various cancers, including breast, prostate and lung. ADAM-15 promotes extracellular shedding of E-cadherin, a soluble ligand for the HER2/neu receptor, leading to activation, increased motility, and proliferation. Targeted downregulation of both ADAM-15 and HER2/neu function synergistically kills breast cancer cells, but to date there are no therapeutic options for decreasing ADAM-15 function or expression. In this vein, we have examined a unique string of guanine-rich DNA within the critical core promoter of ADAM-15. This region of DNA consists of seven contiguous runs of three or more consecutive guanines, which, under superhelical stress, can relax from duplex DNA to form an intrastrand secondary G-quadruplex (G4) structure. Using biophysical and biological techniques, we have examined the G4 formation within the entire and various truncated regions of the ADAM-15 promoter, and demonstrate strong intrastrand G4 formation serving to function as a biological silencer element. Characterization of the predominant G4 species formed within the ADAM-15 promoter will allow for specific drug targeting and stabilization, and the further development of novel, targeted therapeutics.

  3. The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

  4. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  5. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  6. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  7. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

  8. Colorado`s Pollution-Prevention Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, P.

    1994-12-31

    The Colorado Pollution Prevention Partnership is a nonprofit, voluntary alliance of government, business, and public interest groups organized in 1990 to develop and promote pollution prevention and waste minimization in Colorado industries. The partnership started with discussions between two individuals concerning a difficulty in a public-private working relationship. The discussions soon expanded to several individuals meeting on a regular basis, then to informal breakfast meetings with representatives from industry, EPA, and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Eventually, organizations representing the public interest joined the discussions. The goals of the partnership are clear: strengthen the working relationship between the private and public sectors; improve capabilities for anticipating and avoiding environmental problems; pool resources and focus attention on the mutual goal of pollution prevention; and exchange information and expertise, and help transfer these to medium and small companies and the general public.

  9. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase10 (ADAM10) Regulates NOTCH Signaling during Early Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Joseph A.; Ronchetti, Adam; Sidjanin, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 and ADAM17 are two closely related members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of membrane-bound sheddases, which proteolytically cleave surface membrane proteins. Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 have been implicated in the proteolytic cleavage of NOTCH receptors and as such regulators of NOTCH signaling. During retinal development, NOTCH signaling facilitates retinal neurogenesis by maintaining progenitor cells in a proliferative state and by mediating retinal cell fates. However, the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the retina are not well defined. In this study, we set out to clarify the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 during early retinal development. The retinal phenotype of conditionally abated Adam17 retinae (Adam17 CKO) did not differ from the controls whereas conditionally ablated Adam10 retinae (Adam10 CKO) exhibited abnormal morphogenesis characterized by the formation of rosettes and a loss of retinal laminae phenotypically similar to morphological abnormalities identified in mice with retinal NOTCH signaling deficiency. Additionally, Adam10 CKO retinae exhibited abnormal neurogenesis characterized by fewer proliferating progenitor cells and greater differentiation of early photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, constitutive activation of the NOTCH1-intracellular domain (N1-ICD) rescued Adam10 CKO abnormal neurogenesis, as well as abnormal retinal morphology by maintaining retinal cells in the progenitor state. Collectively these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence that ADAM10, and not ADAM17, is indispensable for proper retinal development as a regulator of NOTCH signaling. PMID:27224017

  10. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  11. Human and Murine Interleukin 23 Receptors Are Novel Substrates for A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Franke, Manuel; Schröder, Jutta; Monhasery, Niloufar; Ackfeld, Theresa; Hummel, Thorben M; Rabe, Björn; Garbers, Christoph; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Floss, Doreen M; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-05-13

    IL-23 (interleukin 23) regulates immune responses against pathogens and plays a major role in the differentiation and maintenance of TH17 cells and the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) complex consists of the unique IL-23R and the common IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Differential splicing generates antagonistic soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) variants, which might limit IL-23-mediated immune responses. Here, ectodomain shedding of human and murine IL-23R was identified as an alternative pathway for the generation of sIL-23R. Importantly, proteolytically released sIL-23R has IL-23 binding activity. Shedding of IL-23R was induced by stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not by ionomycin. PMA-induced shedding was abrogated by an ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10 and 17 selective inhibitor, but not by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. ADAM17-deficient but not ADAM10-deficient HEK293 cells failed to shed IL-23R after PMA stimulation, demonstrating that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 cleaves the IL-23R. Constitutive shedding was, however, inhibited by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. Using deletions and specific amino acid residue exchanges, we identified critical determinants of ectodomain shedding within the stalk region of the IL-23R. Finally, interaction studies identified domains 1 and 3 of the IL-23R as the main ADAM17 binding sites. In summary, we describe human and murine IL-23R as novel targets for protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 and ADAM17.

  12. Luhmann Receives 2007 John Adam Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2008-02-01

    This year's John Adam Fleming medalist quickly established a reputation as an innovative and productive scientist with a broad range of interests. She made early and seminal contributions to aeronomy, cosmic rays, and magnetospheric and planetary physics. She contributed importantly to the understanding of the interaction of the solar wind with the atmosphere and magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. She has examined the behavior of planetary rings, the interaction of interstellar neutrals with heliospheric plasmas, as well as the interaction of planetary neutrals with the heliosphere. She has led in the study of the interaction of the moon Titan with the Saturn magnetosphere, and most recently she developed a vigorous solar physics effort, leading the implementation of the IMPACT particle and field package on the twin STEREO mission, now entering its second year of successful operation.

  13. Adam Paulsen, a Pioneer in Auroral Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Torben S.; Rasmussen, Ole

    2006-02-01

    The 20 to 30 years following the first International Polar Year in 1882-1883 was a period of quickly advancing knowledge and understanding of auroral phenomena. This was the time when hypotheses of aurora being due to, for example, reflections of fires from the interior of the Earth or sunlight from ice particles were abandoned and replaced by the mechanism of precipitating electrons. One of the auroral researchers at that time was the Dane Adam Frederik Wivet Paulsen (1833-1907). However, when reading literature about auroral history, his ideas and work do not seem to have attracted much interest outside his own and neighboring countries. For example, in his sweeping historical account Majestic Lights: The Aurora in Science, History, and the Arts [1980], author Robert Eather only referred to Paulsen in a couple of lines.

  14. John Adams and CERN: Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brianti, G.; Plane, D. E.

    2014-02-01

    By any standards, John Adams had a most remarkable career. He was involved in three important, emerging technologies, radar, particle accelerators and controlled fusion, and had an outstanding impact on the last two. Without a university education, he attained hierarchical positions of the highest level in prestigious national and international organizations. This article covers the CERN part of his career, by offering some personal insights into the different facets of his contributions to major accelerator projects, from the first strong-focusing synchrotron, the PS, to the SPS and its conversion to a proton--antiproton collider. In particular, it outlines his abilities as a leader of an international collaboration, which has served as an example for international initiatives in other disciplines.

  15. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ..., 2004 (69 FR 16599). The completion of the San Luis Resource Area TMP Environmental Assessment (EA) led..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management...

  16. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai; Boehm, Beate; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Gutwein, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  17. Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) documented in colorado based on recordings of its distinctive echolocation call

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, M.A.; Navo, K.W.; Bonewell, L.; Mosch, C.J.; Adams, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) inhabits much of the southwestern USA, but has not been documented in Colorado. We recorded echolocation calls consistent with I. phyllotis near La Sal Creek, Montrose County, Colorado. Based on characteristics of echolocation calls and flight behavior, we conclude that the echolocation calls described here were emitted by I. phyllotis and that they represent the first documentation of this species in Colorado.

  18. TspanC8 tetraspanins differentially regulate the cleavage of ADAM10 substrates, Notch activation and ADAM10 membrane compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Stéphanie; Saint-Pol, Julien; Fernandez, Laurent; Nguyen, Viet; Charrin, Stéphanie; Boucheix, Claude; Brou, Christel; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The metalloprotease ADAM10 mediates the shedding of the ectodomain of various cell membrane proteins, including APP, the precursor of the amyloid peptide Aβ, and Notch receptors following ligand binding. ADAM10 associates with the members of an evolutionary conserved subgroup of tetraspanins, referred to as TspanC8, which regulate its exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that 4 of these TspanC8 (Tspan5, Tspan14, Tspan15 and Tspan33) which positively regulate ADAM10 surface expression levels differentially impact ADAM10-dependent Notch activation and the cleavage of several ADAM10 substrates, including APP, N-cadherin and CD44. Sucrose gradient fractionation, single molecule tracking and quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of the repertoire of molecules co-immunoprecipitated with Tspan5, Tspan15 and ADAM10 show that these two tetraspanins differentially regulate ADAM10 membrane compartmentalization. These data represent a unique example where several tetraspanins differentially regulate the function of a common partner protein through a distinct membrane compartmentalization. PMID:26686862

  19. Rural Poverty and the Law in Southern Colorado. American Bar Foundation Series on Legal Services for the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Legal problems of the rural poor in 2 counties of southern Colorado (Conejos and Costilla) are examined in this 1970 report. The empirical research for this project consisted of 3 phases: (1) determination (by questionnaire) of attitudes of rural Colorado attorneys toward the legal problems of the indigenous poor; (2) the use of unstructured…

  20. 75 FR 60441 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Spruce Hill Air Blending Project and Request for Comments on... Spruce Hill Air Blending Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Colorado... operate a new air blending station in Douglas County, Colorado. The Spruce Hill Air Blending Project...

  1. 75 FR 60097 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Spruce Hill Air Blending Project and Request for Comments on... Spruce Hill Air Blending Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Colorado... operate a new air blending station in Douglas County, Colorado. The Spruce Hill Air Blending Project...

  2. Adams v. Bennett and Women's Equity Action League v. Bennett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Responding to requests to appeal Adams v. Bennett and Women's Equity Action League v. Bennett, both dealing with alleged illegal granting of federal funds, Judge Pratt decided that the plaintiffs in both cases lacked standing to continue their litigation. (BJV)

  3. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  5. ADAM17 substrate release in proximal tubule drives kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Muthu, Muthu Lakshmi; Kaeppler, Jakob; Sun, Xiaoming; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Chalaris, Athena; Rose-John, Stefan; Wong, Eitan; Sagi, Irit; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Rennke, Helmut; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2016-01-01

    Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In a study into its molecular mechanism, we identified essential causative features. Acute or chronic kidney injury causes sustained elevation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17); of its cleavage-activated proligand substrates, in particular of pro-TNFα and the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (pro-AREG); and of the substrates’ receptors. As a consequence, EGFR is persistently activated and triggers the synthesis and release of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, resulting in macrophage/neutrophil ingress and fibrosis. ADAM17 hypomorphic mice, specific ADAM17 inhibitor–treated WT mice, or mice with inducible KO of ADAM17 in proximal tubule (Slc34a1-Cre) were significantly protected against these effects. In vitro, in proximal tubule cells, we show that AREG has unique profibrotic actions that are potentiated by TNFα-induced AREG cleavage. In vivo, in acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, fibrosis) patients, soluble AREG is indeed highly upregulated in human urine, and both ADAM17 and AREG expression show strong positive correlation with fibrosis markers in related kidney biopsies. Our results indicate that targeting of the ADAM17 pathway represents a therapeutic target for human kidney fibrosis. PMID:27642633

  6. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T.; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  7. ADAM17 substrate release in proximal tubule drives kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Muthu, Muthu Lakshmi; Kaeppler, Jakob; Sun, Xiaoming; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Chalaris, Athena; Rose-John, Stefan; Wong, Eitan; Sagi, Irit; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Rennke, Helmut; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Herrlich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In a study into its molecular mechanism, we identified essential causative features. Acute or chronic kidney injury causes sustained elevation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17); of its cleavage-activated proligand substrates, in particular of pro-TNFα and the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (pro-AREG); and of the substrates’ receptors. As a consequence, EGFR is persistently activated and triggers the synthesis and release of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, resulting in macrophage/neutrophil ingress and fibrosis. ADAM17 hypomorphic mice, specific ADAM17 inhibitor–treated WT mice, or mice with inducible KO of ADAM17 in proximal tubule (Slc34a1-Cre) were significantly protected against these effects. In vitro, in proximal tubule cells, we show that AREG has unique profibrotic actions that are potentiated by TNFα-induced AREG cleavage. In vivo, in acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, fibrosis) patients, soluble AREG is indeed highly upregulated in human urine, and both ADAM17 and AREG expression show strong positive correlation with fibrosis markers in related kidney biopsies. Our results indicate that targeting of the ADAM17 pathway represents a therapeutic target for human kidney fibrosis.

  8. ADAM10 as a target for anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marcia L; Stoeck, Alexander; Yan, Wenbo; Dempsey, Peter J

    2008-02-01

    There is a great unmet medical need in the area of cancer treatment. A potential therapeutic target for intervention in cancer is ADAM10. ADAM10 is a disintegrin-metalloproteinase that processes membrane bound proteins from the cell surface to yield soluble forms. Pharmaceutical companies are actively seeking out inhibitors of ADAM10 for treatments in cancer as the enzyme is known to release the ErbB receptor, HER2/ErbB2 from the cell membrane, an event that is necessary for HER2 positive tumor cells to proliferate. ADAM10 is also capable of processing betacellulin indicating that an inhibitor could be used against EGFR/ErbB1 and/or HER4/ErbB4 receptor positive tumor cells that are betacellulin-dependent. ADAM10 is the principle sheddase for several other molecules associated with cancer proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration such as Notch, E-cadherin, CD44 and L1 adhesion molecule indicating that targeting ADAM10 with specific inhibitors could be beneficial.

  9. Areal geology of the Little Cone quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner; Marsh, O.T.; Taylor, Richard Bartlett

    1958-01-01

    The Little Cone quadrangle includes an area of about 59 square miles in eastern San Miguel County in southwestern Colorado. It lies within and adjacent to the northeastern boundary of the Colorado Plateau physiographic province. The precipitous front of the San Juan Mountains lies a few miles to the east and northeast, and an outlier of the San Juans, the San Miguel Mountains, lies about a mile to the south. The quadrangle contains features characteristic of both the plateaus and the mountains, and has been affected by geologic events and processes of two different geologic environments.

  10. Adam Politzer-Father of Modern Otology.

    PubMed

    Dhungat, J V Pai; Gore, Geeta

    2015-09-01

    Adam Politzer (1835-1920) was born in Alberti near the city of Budapest in Hungary. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna and obtained his Doctorate degree in 1859. Some of his teachers belonged to the famous second "Vienna School" such as Joseph Skoda, Karl Rokitansky, Von Hebra, Josef Hyrtil, Johann Von Oppolzer and famous physiologist Carl Ludwig -who took special interest in him and was influential in his subsequent career. Politzer showed unusual interest in diseases of the ear and started to work in Carl Ludwig's laboratory. His interest at that time was mainly the physics of the auditory system. He studied the innervations of the intrinsic muscles of the ear There he was the first to demonstrate that the innervations of the tensor tympani muscle was by trigeminal nerve and that of the stapedial muscle was by facial nerve. He studied the air movement in the Eustachian tube and variation of air pressure in the tympanic cavity by connecting two manometers- one placed in the external auditory canal meatus, and another in the pharynx. He showed valve near the opening into the middle ear which controls the process. It is usually closed to keep the bacteria and other things away from the mouth and nose. PMID:27608882

  11. TACE (ADAM17) inhibits Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Rosa; Cerri, Federica; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Bachi, Angela; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Blobel, Carl P; Quattrini, Angelo; Salzer, James L; Taveggia, Carla

    2011-06-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE; also known as ADAM17) is a proteolytic sheddase that is responsible for the cleavage of several membrane-bound molecules. We report that TACE cleaves neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III in the epidermal growth factor domain, probably inactivating it (as assessed by deficient activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway), and thereby negatively regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of TACE in vitro in dorsal root ganglia neurons accelerates the onset of myelination and results in hypermyelination. In agreement, motor neurons of conditional knockout mice lacking TACE specifically in these cells are significantly hypermyelinated, and small-caliber fibers are aberrantly myelinated. Further, reduced TACE activity rescues hypomyelination in NRG1 type III haploinsufficient mice in vivo. We also show that the inhibitory effect of TACE is neuron-autonomous, as Schwann cells lacking TACE elaborate myelin of normal thickness. Thus, TACE is a modulator of NRG1 type III activity and is a negative regulator of myelination in the PNS.

  12. ADAM12 induces estrogen-independence in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Roopali; Moses, Marsha A

    2012-02-01

    Antiestrogen therapy has been used successfully to prolong disease-free and overall survival of ER positive breast cancer patients. However, 50% of patients with ER+ tumors fail to respond to such therapy or eventually acquire resistance to endocrine therapy, resulting in tumor progression and mortality. It is imperative, therefore, to understand the mechanisms that lead to hormone refractory breast cancer in order to develop therapeutics that can modulate the resistance to antiestrogen therapy. The protease, ADAM12, can be detected in the urine of breast cancer patients and its levels correlate with disease status, stage, and cancer risk. Within the context of this study, the authors have investigated the role of the two distinct isoforms of ADAM12 in breast tumor cell proliferation and as potential mediators of endocrine resistance. Using stable clones of ADAM12-overexpressing MCF-7 cells, the authors analyzed proliferation rates of these ER+ breast tumor cells both in estrogen-depleted medium and in the presence of the antiestrogens, tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780. Acquired estrogen resistance in these cells was analyzed using phospho-RTK analysis. Upregulation and phosphorylation of proteins were detected via immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. EGFR and MAPK inhibitors were used to explore the mechanism of acquired estrogen resistance in breast tumor cells. It was observed that overexpression of the two isoforms, transmembrane ADAM12-L, and secreted ADAM12-S, in breast tumor cells promoted estrogen-independent proliferation. In ADAM12-L-expressing cells, estrogen-independence was a direct result of increased EGFR expression and MAPK activation, whereas, the mechanism in ADAM12-S-expressing cells may be enhanced IGF-1R signaling. The importance of the EGFR signaling pathway in the estrogen-independent growth of ADAM12-L expressing cells was highlighted by the effect of EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and PD15035 or MAPK inhibitor U0126, each of which abolished the

  13. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  14. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  15. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  16. Characterization of Mammalian ADAM2 and Its Absence from Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; Jin, Sora; Kwon, Jun Tae; Kim, Jihye; Jeong, Juri; Kim, Jaehwan; Jeon, Suyeon; Park, Zee Yong; Jung, Kang-Jin; Park, Kwangsung; Cho, Chunghee

    2016-01-01

    The members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family are membrane-anchored multi-domain proteins that play prominent roles in male reproduction. ADAM2, which was one of the first identified ADAMs, is the best studied ADAM in reproduction. In the male germ cells of mice, ADAM2 and other ADAMs form complexes that contribute to sperm-sperm adhesion, sperm-egg interactions, and the migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract. Here, we generated specific antibodies against mouse and human ADAM2, and investigated various features of ADAM2 in mice, monkeys and humans. We found that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM2 might enable the differential association of this protein with other ADAMs in mice. Western blot analysis with the anti-human ADAM2 antibodies showed that ADAM2 is present in the testis and sperm of monkeys. Monkey ADAM2 was found to associate with chaperone proteins in testis. In humans, we identified ADAM2 as a 100-kDa protein in the testis, but failed to detect it in sperm. This is surprising given the results in mice and monkeys, but it is consistent with the failure of ADAM2 identification in the previous proteomic analyses of human sperm. These findings suggest that the reproductive functions of ADAM2 differ between humans and mice. Our protein analysis showed the presence of potential ADAM2 complexes involving yet-unknown proteins in human testis. Taken together, our results provide new information regarding the characteristics of ADAM2 in mammalian species, including humans. PMID:27341348

  17. FAST{_}AD Code Verification: A Comparison to ADAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.L.; Wright, A.D.; Pierce, K.G.

    2001-02-15

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has refocused its wind turbine design-code comparison effort to verify FAST{_}AD with ADAMS. FAST{_}AD is a wind turbine structural-response code developed by Oregon State University for the NWTC. ADAMS is a commercial, general-purpose, multibody-dynamics code developed by Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. ADAMS, which is used in many industries, has been rigorously tested. Both ADAMS and FAST{_}AD use the AeroDyn subroutine package for calculating aerodynamic forces. The University of Utah developed AeroDyn for the NWTC. To compare FAST{_}AD to ADAMS, we modeled a rough approximation of the AWT-27 P4 turbine, using the same properties for both simulators. The AWT-27 is a 275-kilowatt (kW), two-bladed wind turbine. We also created three-bladed versions of the turbine models to verify FAST{_}AD for three-bladed turbines. In this paper, we list the aerodynamic features used in the comparison. We also explain how the programs model the turbine structure, describe the degrees of freedom (DOFs) used for this study, and present simulation comparisons that show very good agreement.

  18. Phosphatidylserine exposure is required for ADAM17 sheddase function

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Anselm; Kordowski, Felix; Büch, Joscha; Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Andrä, Jörg; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Michalek, Matthias; Lorenzen, Inken; Somasundaram, Prasath; Tholey, Andreas; Sönnichsen, Frank D.; Kunzelmann, Karl; Heinbockel, Lena; Nehls, Christian; Gutsmann, Thomas; Grötzinger, Joachim; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Reiss, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17, a prominent member of the ‘Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase' (ADAM) family, controls vital cellular functions through cleavage of transmembrane substrates. Here we present evidence that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is pivotal for ADAM17 to exert sheddase activity. PS exposure is tightly coupled to substrate shedding provoked by diverse ADAM17 activators. PS dependency is demonstrated in the following: (a) in Raji cells undergoing apoptosis; (b) in mutant PSA-3 cells with manipulatable PS content; and (c) in Scott syndrome lymphocytes genetically defunct in their capacity to externalize PS in response to intracellular Ca2+ elevation. Soluble phosphorylserine but not phosphorylcholine inhibits substrate cleavage. The isolated membrane proximal domain (MPD) of ADAM17 binds to PS but not to phosphatidylcholine liposomes. A cationic PS-binding motif is identified in this domain, replacement of which abrogates liposome-binding and renders the protease incapable of cleaving its substrates in cells. We speculate that surface-exposed PS directs the protease to its targets where it then executes its shedding function. PMID:27161080

  19. Effect of crop rotation distance on populations of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): development of areawide Colorado potato beetle pest management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sexson, Deana L; Wyman, Jeffrey A

    2005-06-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), overwinters adjacent to field edges and infests nearby fields in the spring, primarily by walking. Crop rotation is known to be an effective cultural control against Colorado potato beetle populations limiting spring infestations. Spatial separation is an important consideration in optimizing the rotational effect because long-distance rotations have been shown to reduce Colorado potato beetle infestations. To determine the effect of long-distance rotations on Colorado potato beetle populations in commercial Wisconsin potato production, a geographic area of >18,200 ha (>45,000) acres in southern Portage County, Wisconsin, was selected as an experimental area for areawide pest management of the Colorado potato beetle. From 1997 to 1999, beetle populations at edges within each potato field in this region were determined by spring and fall field sampling. The rotational distance between current and previous potato fields was measured and analysis was run between the distance and Colorado potato beetle populations. Long-distance rotations of >400 m were an effective cultural control management strategy to limit adult beetle infestations in the spring. This strategy can be optimized when collaborating growers are able to maximize their rotational distances by coordinating their rotational schemes within large areawide, geographic locations. Deploying long-distance rotations within a geographic area over many years would limit Colorado potato beetle populations and could result in a significantly reduced Colorado potato beetle populations entering fields in the spring.

  20. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  1. Measurement of ridge-spreading movements (Sackungen) at Bald Eagle Mountain, Lake County, Colorado, II : continuation of the 1975-1989 measurements using a Global Positioning System in 1997 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Savage, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of ridge-spreading movements at Bald Eagle Mountain in north-central Colorado were reported in USGS Open-File Report 90-543 for the years 1975-1989. Measurements were renewed in 1997 and 1999 using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Movements are generally away from a ridge-top graben and appear to be concentrated along 3 or 4 trenches with uphill facing scarps that are parallel with slope contours. A point just below the lowest trench has moved the most? a total of 8.3 cm horizontally and slightly downward from 1977 to 1999 relative to an assumed stable point on the periphery of the graben. Movements from 1997 to 1999 are less than 1 cm or within the error of measurement.

  2. Structural Characterization of the Ectodomain of a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-22 (ADAM22), a Neural Adhesion Receptor Instead of Metalloproteinase INSIGHTS ON ADAM FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Shim, Ann H.R.; He, Xiaolin

    2009-12-01

    ADAMs (adisintegrin and metalloproteinases) are a family of multidomain transmembrane glycoproteins with diverse roles in physiology and diseases, with several members being drug targets for cancer and inflammation therapies. The spatial organization of the ADAM extracellular segment and its influence on the function of ADAMs have been unclear. Although most members of the ADAM family are active zinc metalloproteinases, 8 of 21 ADAMs lack functional metalloproteinase domains and are implicated in protein-protein interactions instead of membrane protein ectodomain shedding. One of such non-proteinase ADAMs, ADAM22, acts as a receptor on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron to regulate synaptic signal transmission. The crystal structure of the full ectodomain of mature human ADAM22 shows that it is a compact four-leaf clover with the metalloproteinase-like domain held in the concave face of a rigid module formed by the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and epidermal growth factor-like domains. The loss of metalloproteinase activity is ensured by the absence of critical catalytic residues, the filling of the substrate groove, and the steric hindrance by the cysteine-rich domain. The structure, combined with calorimetric experiments, suggests distinct roles of three putative calcium ions bound to ADAM22, with one in the metalloproteinase-like domain being regulatory and two in the disintegrin domain being structural. The metalloproteinase-like domain contacts the rest of ADAM22 with discontinuous, hydrophilic, and poorly complemented interactions, suggesting the possibility of modular movement of ADAM22 and other ADAMs. The ADAM22 structure provides a framework for understanding how different ADAMs exert their adhesive function and shedding activities.

  3. Disturbed follicular architecture in B cell ADAM10 knockouts is mediated by compensatory increases in ADAM17 and TNFα shedding1

    PubMed Central

    Folgosa, Lauren; Zellner, Hannah B.; Shikh, Mohey Eldin El; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    B cell ADAM10 is required for the development and maintenance of proper secondary lymphoid tissue architecture; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show disturbances in naïve lymph node architecture from B cell specific ADAM10 deficient mice (ADAM10B−/−) including loss of B/T compartmentalization, attenuation of FDC reticula, excessive collagen deposition, and increased HEV formation. Because TNFα signaling is critical for secondary lymphoid tissue architecture, we examined compensatory changes in ADAM17 and TNFα in ADAM10B−/− B cells. Surprisingly, defective follicular development in these mice was associated with increased rather than decreased TNFα expression. Here, we describe an increase in TNFα message, mRNA stability, soluble protein release, and membrane expression in ADAM10B−/− B cells compared to WT, which coincides with increased ADAM17 message and protein. To assess the mechanistic contribution of excessive TNFα to abnormal lymphoid architecture in ADAM10B−/− mice, we performed a bone marrow reconstitution study. Rectification of WT architecture was noted only in irradiated WT mice reconstituted with ADAM10B−/− + TNFKO bone marrow due to normalization of TNFα levels not seen in ADAM10B−/− alone. We conclude that ADAM17 overcompensation causes excessive TNFα shedding and further upregulation of TNFα expression, creating an aberrant signaling environment within B cell cortical regions of ADAM10B−/− lymph nodes, highlighting a key interplay between B cell ADAM10 and ADAM17 with respect to TNFα homeostasis. PMID:24227779

  4. The Adam language: Ada extended with support for multiway activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The Adam language is an extension of Ada that supports multiway activities, which are cooperative activities involving two or more processes. This support is provided by three new constructs: diva procedures, meet statements, and multiway accept statements. Diva procedures are recursive generic procedures having a particular restrictive syntax that facilitates translation for parallel computers. Meet statements and multiway accept statements provide two ways to express a multiway rendezvous, which is an n-way rendezvous generalizing Ada's 2-way rendezvous. While meet statements tend to have simpler rules than multiway accept statements, the latter approach is a more straightforward extension of Ada. The only nonnull statements permitted within meet statements and multiway accept statements are calls on instantiated diva procedures. A call on an instantiated diva procedure is also permitted outside a multiway rendezvous; thus sequential Adam programs using diva procedures can be written. Adam programs are translated into Ada programs appropriate for use on parallel computers.

  5. Aberrant ADAM10 expression correlates with osteosarcoma progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer and is notorious for its rapid progression. The Notch signaling pathway has recently been shown to be involved in osteosarcoma. As a major sheddase of Notch receptors, ADAM10 has been implicated in many types of cancers, but its role in osteosarcoma has not been investigated. Previous studies have shown that the expression of CD31 was significantly elevated in metastatic osteosarcoma; however, its expression in nonmetastatic groups is not known. In addition, the mysterious multinucleated giant cell in giant cell-rich osteosarcoma was previously regarded as an osteoclast-like cell, but its exact identity is unclear. Method Tissue chip samples from 40 cases of nonmetastatic osteosarcoma were stained for cytoplasmic ADAM10, activated Notch1 and CD31. Osteoclasts in tumor sections were also stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Results Immunofluorescence staining revealed that ADAM10 expression significantly increased with the progression of osteosarcoma as well as in osteoblastic osteosarcoma, whereas the expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and CD31 was not significantly altered between different pathological stages. In addition, multinucleated giant cells in giant cell-rich osteosarcoma were also found to coexpress CD31, ADAM10 and NICD, but were negative for TRAP staining. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of ADAM10 in the progression of osteosarcoma and suggest that the protein might be a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma treatment. This study also demonstrates that the multinucleated giant cell is an angiogenic tumor cell, rather than an osteoclast, and involves ADAM10/Notch1 signaling activation. PMID:24548763

  6. Three species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from a human stillborn infant in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Adair, T W

    1999-05-01

    In July of 1997, the remains of a human stillborn infant were found at an elevation of 2,835 m in Summit County, CO. Larvae recovered from the infant were reared to adulthood and identified as Calliphora terraenovae (Macquart), Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), and Phormia regina (Meigen). These represent new county records for high elevation species in Colorado. PMID:10337090

  7. ECOREGIONS OF COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Colorado have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecor...

  8. Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    An overview of the nature, benefits, and steps involved in Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Program, a process that assures that high school graduates have the knowledge and skills considered essential for entry into employment and postsecondary education, begins this document. A discussion of the portfolio process follows, along with descriptions…

  9. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…

  10. Colorado's Singular "No"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedeman, Reeves

    2008-01-01

    Supporters of affirmative action may have finally found a way to defeat state ballot measures that would ban such programs: Latch onto an inspirational presidential candidate with piles of cash and an unprecedented voter-turnout machine. Those activists won a narrow victory in Colorado this month, when 50.7 percent of voters made the state the…

  11. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  12. MIGRATORY LABOR IN COLORADO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS

    CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…

  13. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  14. 77 FR 60004 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wtewael's Adam and Eve”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wtewael's Adam and Eve'' SUMMARY... object to be included in the exhibition ``Wtewael's Adam and Eve,'' imported from abroad for...

  15. Jefferson and Adams on the mind-body problem.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Daniel N

    2003-08-01

    Amidst the voluminous correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams are several letters pertaining to the material basis of mental life. These reveal in a most suggestive way the substantial differences between them. Well informed on prevailing scientific and philosophical perspectives, Jefferson and Adams used the issue to express their positions on the nature and limits of knowledge, the relative authority of scientific methods and speculations, and the larger question of human perfectibility. At the same time, their exchanges illuminate the prevailing and divergent perspectives on human psychology adopted by major leaders of thought in the New World.

  16. John Adams High School First Year Report, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams High School, Portland, OR.

    This report is an assessment of the events of the first year of operation of John Adams High School, Portland, Oregon. The primary goal of the school was to provide an educational experience relevant to the needs and interests of all adolescents, regardless of their intentions about pursuing further formal education. The report is oriented toward…

  17. What Ever Happened to . . . John Adams High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doremus, Richard R.

    1981-01-01

    First in a series, this article describes the rise and fall of John Adams High School, an experimental school in Portland (Oregon) that was recently closed after 12 years of operation. The experiences of those who tried to make the experiment work may help others interested in educational innovation. (WD)

  18. Research and Evaluation at John Adams High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams High School, Portland, OR.

    We at Adams have committed ourselves (1) to search for new ways to make the inquiry into our own activities and the evaluation of our programs relevant and consistent with our notions of humanistic and personal education, and (2) to seek a mechanism for using research and evaluation to improve the operation of the school at every level and for…

  19. An Informal Report on Collegiate Successes with "The Adams Chronicles."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsberry, Gary G.

    In the spring of 1976, "The Adams Chronicles", a bicentennial television course developed by Coast Community College District and the University of California at San Diego, was distributed to colleges nationwide at no charge with the understanding that each college would return information regarding promotion, enrollment, and form of offering this…

  20. Adam Smith and the Teaching of English Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Franklin E.

    1985-01-01

    Adam Smith used selections from English literature in his classroom during the eighteenth century because he believed that vernacular literature could provide a ready context for the teaching of ideological, social, and moral lessons. He believed that higher education should prepare students for the real business of the real world. (RM)

  1. Adam Smith and the Moral Economy of the Classroom System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, D.

    1980-01-01

    Traces the development of mass schooling to its origins in 19th-century Glasgow. Its importance as an intellectual and economic center enabled Glasgow to invent a solution to the problem of urban schooling, while the association of scholars like Adam Smith with Glasgow University made Scottish educational theories acceptable around the world. (DB)

  2. ADAM: A Collaborative Effort To Prepare Future Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michael D.; And Others

    ADAM (Administrative Development and Management), an administrator preparation partnership between Greenwood (South Carolina) School District 50 and Clemson University, is described in this paper. The program uses practicing administrators in collaboration with college faculty to train prospective school administrators. The purpose is to provide…

  3. The ADaptation and Anticipation Model (ADAM) of sensorimotor synchronization

    PubMed Central

    van der Steen, M. C. (Marieke); Keller, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    A constantly changing environment requires precise yet flexible timing of movements. Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS)—the temporal coordination of an action with events in a predictable external rhythm—is a fundamental human skill that contributes to optimal sensory-motor control in daily life. A large body of research related to SMS has focused on adaptive error correction mechanisms that support the synchronization of periodic movements (e.g., finger taps) with events in regular pacing sequences. The results of recent studies additionally highlight the importance of anticipatory mechanisms that support temporal prediction in the context of SMS with sequences that contain tempo changes. To investigate the role of adaptation and anticipatory mechanisms in SMS we introduce ADAM: an ADaptation and Anticipation Model. ADAM combines reactive error correction processes (adaptation) with predictive temporal extrapolation processes (anticipation) inspired by the computational neuroscience concept of internal models. The combination of simulations and experimental manipulations based on ADAM creates a novel and promising approach for exploring adaptation and anticipation in SMS. The current paper describes the conceptual basis and architecture of ADAM. PMID:23772211

  4. Father Knows Best: Using Adam Smith to Teach Transactions Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Adam Smith's moral philosophy can be used to introduce economics students to the important idea of transactions costs. The author provides a brief background in this article to Smith's moral philosophy and connects it to the costs of transacting in a way that fits easily into the standard principles of microeconomics classroom. By doing…

  5. Conifer health classification for Colorado, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Curry, Stacy E.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Colorado has undergone substantial changes in forests due to urbanization, wildfires, insect-caused tree mortality, and other human and environmental factors. The U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center evaluated and developed a methodology for applying remotely-sensed imagery for assessing conifer health in Colorado. Two classes were identified for the purposes of this study: healthy and unhealthy (for example, an area the size of a 30- x 30-m pixel with 20 percent or greater visibly dead trees was defined as ?unhealthy?). Medium-resolution Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery were collected. The normalized, reflectance-converted, cloud-filled Landsat scenes were merged to form a statewide image mosaic, and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Renormalized Difference Infrared Index (RDII) were derived. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was done using the Landsat multispectral bands, the NDVI, the RDII, and 30-m U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED). The classification was constrained to pixels identified in the updated landcover dataset as coniferous or mixed coniferous/deciduous vegetation. The statewide results were merged with a separate health assessment of Grand County, Colo., produced in late 2008. Sampling and validation was done by collecting field data and high-resolution imagery. The 86 percent overall classification accuracy attained in this study suggests that the data and methods used successfully characterized conifer conditions within Colorado. Although forest conditions for Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) are easily characterized, classification uncertainty exists between healthy/unhealthy Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Pi?on (Pinus edulis), and Juniper (Juniperus sp.) vegetation. Some underestimation of conifer mortality in Summit County is likely, where recent (2008) cloud-free imagery was unavailable. These classification uncertainties are primarily due to the spatial and

  6. Silverton folio, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Whitman; Howe, Ernest; Ransome, F. L.

    1905-01-01

    The term San Juan region, or simply "the San Juan," used with variable meaning by early explorers, and naturally with indefinite limitation during the period of settlement, is now quite generally applied to a large tract of mountainous country in southwestern Colorado, together with an undefined zone of lower country bordering it on the north, west, and south.  The Continental Divide traverses this area in a great bow.  The principal part of the district is a deeply scored volcanic plateau, more than 3000 square miles in extent, drained on the north by the tributaties of the Gunnison River, on the west by those of the Dolores and San Miguel rivers, on the south by numerous branches of the San Juan, and on the east by the Rio Grande.  ALl but the latter drainage finds its way to the Gulf of California through the Colorado River.

  7. Cloning and expression of ADAM related metalloproteases in Equine Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Michael J.; Cousin, Hélène; Loftus, John P.; Johnson, Philip J.; Belknap, James K.; Gradil, Carlos M.; Black, Samuel J.; Alfandari, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Equine laminitis is a debilitating disease affecting the digital laminae that suspends the distal phalanx within the hoof. While the clinical progression of the disease has been well documented, the molecular events associated with its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. We have investigated the expression of genes coding for proteins containing a Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain (ADAM), as well as genes encoding the natural inhibitors of these enzymes (Tissue Inhibitor of MetalloProtease; TIMP) in horses with naturally acquired (acute, chronic and aggravated chronic cases collected in clinic) or experimentally-induced (black walnut extract and starch gruel models) laminitis using real time quantitative RT-PCR. Changes in expression of these enzymes and regulators may underlie the pathologic remodeling of lamellar tissue in laminitis. Genes encoding ADAMs involved in inflammation (ADAM-10 and ADAM-17), as well as those implicated in arthritis (ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5) were cloned, and the sequences used to generate specific oligonucleotide primers for the RT-qPCR experiments. Our results show that genes encoding ADAM-10 and 17 were not induced in most laminitic animals whereas ADAMTS-4 gene expression was strongly upregulated in practically all cases of experimentally induced and naturally acquired laminitis. The expression of MMP-9 and ADAMTS-5 was also increased in many of the laminitic horses. In addition, TIMP-2 gene expression was decreased in most laminitic horses, whereas expression of genes encoding other TIMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 was randomly increased or decreased in the various models. We conclude that elevated expression of lamellar ADAMTS-4 is a common feature of laminitis consistent with a central role of the gene product in the pathophysiology of laminitis. PMID:19131116

  8. Workforce Brief: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Colorado (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 23 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding some 551,630 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 2,355,290 to 2,906,920. The rate of growth is much higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole.…

  9. Increased B Cell ADAM10 in Allergic Patients and Th2 Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Lauren Folgosa; Martin, Rebecca K; Zellner, Hannah B; Irani, Anne-Marie; Uram-Tuculescu, Cora; El Shikh, Mohey Eldin; Conrad, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10, as the sheddase of the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23), promotes IgE production and thus is a unique target for attenuating allergic disease. Herein, we describe that B cell levels of ADAM10, specifically, are increased in allergic patients and Th2 prone WT mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J). While T cell help augments ADAM10 expression, Balb WT B cells exhibit increased ADAM10 in the naïve state and even more dramatically increased ADAM10 after anti-CD40/IL4 stimulation compared C57 (Th1 prone) WT B cells. Furthermore, ADAM17 and TNF are reduced in allergic patients and Th2 prone mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J) compared to Th1 prone controls. To further understand this regulation, ADAM17 and TNF were studied in C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice deficient in ADAM10. C57-ADAM10B-/- were more adept at increasing ADAM17 levels and thus TNF cleavage resulting in excess follicular TNF levels and abnormal secondary lymphoid tissue architecture not noted in Balb-ADAM10B-/-. Moreover, the level of B cell ADAM10 as well as Th context is critical for determining IgE production potential. Using a murine house dust mite airway hypersensitivity model, we describe that high B cell ADAM10 level in a Th2 context (Balb/c WT) is optimal for disease induction including bronchoconstriction, goblet cell metaplasia, mucus, inflammatory cellular infiltration, and IgE production. Balb/c mice deficient in B cell ADAM10 have attenuated lung and airway symptoms compared to Balb WT and are actually most similar to C57 WT (Th1 prone). C57-ADAM10B-/- have even further reduced symptomology. Taken together, it is critical to consider both innate B cell levels of ADAM10 and ADAM17 as well as Th context when determining host susceptibility to allergic disease. High B cell ADAM10 and low ADAM17 levels would help diagnostically in predicting Th2 disease susceptibility; and, we provide support for the use ADAM10 inhibitors in treating Th2 disease.

  10. Orally active achiral N-hydroxyformamide inhibitors of ADAM-TS4 (aggrecanase-1) and ADAM-TS5 (aggrecanase-2) for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    De Savi, Chris; Pape, Andrew; Sawyer, Yvonne; Milne, David; Davies, Chris; Cumming, John G; Ting, Attilla; Lamont, Scott; Smith, Peter D; Tart, Jonathon; Page, Ken; Moore, Peter

    2011-06-01

    A new achiral class of N-hydroxyformamide inhibitor of both ADAM-TS4 and ADAM-TS5, 2 has been discovered through modification of the complex P1 group present in historical inhibitors 1. This structural change improved the DMPK properties and greatly simplified the synthesis whilst maintaining excellent cross-MMP selectivity profiles. Investigation of structure-activity and structure-property relationships in the P1 group resulted in both ADAM-TS4 selective and mixed ADAM-TS4/5 inhibitors. This led to the identification of a pre-clinical candidate with excellent bioavailability across three species and predicting once daily dosing kinetics.

  11. Secretion-Positive LGI1 Mutations Linked to Lateral Temporal Epilepsy Impair Binding to ADAM22 and ADAM23 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dazzo, Emanuela; Belluzzi, Elisa; Malacrida, Sandro; Vitiello, Libero; Greggio, Elisa; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE) is a focal epilepsy syndrome caused by mutations in the LGI1 gene, which encodes a secreted protein. Most ADLTE-causing mutations inhibit LGI1 protein secretion, and only a few secretion-positive missense mutations have been reported. Here we describe the effects of four disease-causing nonsynonymous LGI1 mutations, T380A, R407C, S473L, and R474Q, on protein secretion and extracellular interactions. Expression of LGI1 mutant proteins in cultured cells shows that these mutations do not inhibit protein secretion. This finding likely results from the lack of effects of these mutations on LGI1 protein folding, as suggested by 3D protein modelling. In addition, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that all four mutations significantly impair interaction of LGI1 with the ADAM22 and ADAM23 receptors on the cell surface. These results support the existence of a second mechanism, alternative to inhibition of protein secretion, by which ADLTE-causing LGI1 mutations exert their loss-of-function effect extracellularly, and suggest that interactions of LGI1 with both ADAM22 and ADAM23 play an important role in the molecular mechanisms leading to ADLTE. PMID:27760137

  12. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a central regulator of murine liver tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Köhn-Gaone, Julia; Chalupsky, Karel; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Barikbin, Roja; Bergmann, Juri; Wöhner, Birte; Zbodakova, Olga; Leuschner, Ivo; Martin, Gregor; Tiegs, Gisa; Rose-John, Stefan; Sedlacek, Radislav; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E.E.; Saftig, Paul; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 exerts essential roles during organ development and tissue integrity in different organs, mainly through activation of the Notch pathway. However, only little is known about its implication in liver tissue physiology. Here we show that in contrast to its role in other tissues, ADAM10 is dispensable for the Notch2-dependent biliary tree formation. However, we demonstrate that expression of bile acid transporters is dependent on ADAM10. Consequently, mice deficient for Adam10 in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and liver progenitor cells develop spontaneous hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. We furthermore observed a strongly augmented ductular reaction in 15-week old ADAM10Δhep/Δch mice and demonstrate that c-Met dependent liver progenitor cell activation is enhanced. Additionally, liver progenitor cells are primed to hepatocyte differentiation in the absence of ADAM10. These findings show that ADAM10 is a novel central node controlling liver tissue homeostasis. Highlights: Loss of ADAM10 in murine liver results in hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. ADAM10 directly regulates expression of bile acid transporters but is dispensable for Notch2-dependent formation of the biliary system. Activation of liver progenitor cells is enhanced through increased c-Met signalling, in the absence of ADAM10. Differentiation of liver progenitor cells to hepatocytes is augmented in the absence of ADAM10. PMID:26942887

  13. Role of ADAM33 gene and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; Tripathi, Priya; Awasthi, Shally

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial disorder, primarily resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. ADAM33 gene (located on chromosome 20p13) has been reported to play an important role in asthma. This review article is intended to include all of the publications, to date, which have assessed the association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms as well as have shown the role of ADAM33 gene in airway remodeling and their expression with asthma. A PubMed search was performed for studies published between 1990 and 2010. The terms "ADAM33," "ADAM33 gene and asthma," and "ADAM33 gene polymorphisms" were used as search criteria. Based on available literature we can only speculate its role in the morphogenesis and functions of the lung. Fourteen studies conducted in different populations were found showing an association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with asthma. However, none of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADAM33 gene had found association with asthma across all ethnic groups. Because higher expression of ADAM33 is found in the fibroblast and smooth muscle cells of the lung, over- or underexpression of ADAM33 gene may result in alterations in airway remodeling and repair processes. However, no SNP of ADAM33 gene showed significant associations with asthma across all ethnic groups; the causative polymorphism, if any, still has to be identified.

  14. ADAM17 Silencing in Mouse Colon Carcinoma Cells: The Effect on Tumoricidal Cytokines and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Czarnek, Maria; Bzowska, Monika; Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Stalińska, Krystyna; Wyroba, Barbara; Sroka, Jolanta; Jucha, Jarosław; Deneka, Dawid; Stokłosa, Paulina; Ogonek, Justyna; Swartz, Melody A.; Madeja, Zbigniew; Bereta, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is a major sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules and is often overexpressed in malignant cells. It is generally accepted that ADAM17 promotes tumor development via activating growth factors from the EGF family, thus facilitating autocrine stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and migration. Here we show, using MC38CEA murine colon carcinoma model, that ADAM17 also regulates tumor angiogenesis and cytokine profile. When ADAM17 was silenced in MC38CEA cells, in vivo tumor growth and in vitro cell motility were significantly diminished, but no effect was seen on in vitro cell proliferation. ADAM17-silencing was accompanied by decreased in vitro expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and matrix metalloprotease-9, which was consistent with the limited angiogenesis and slower growth seen in ADAM17-silenced tumors. Among the growth factors susceptible to shedding by ADAM17, neuregulin-1 was the only candidate to mediate the effects of ADAM17 on MC38CEA motility and tumor angiogenesis. Concentrations of TNF and IFNγ, cytokines that synergistically induced proapoptotic effects on MC38CEA cells, were significantly elevated in the lysates of ADAM17-silenced tumors compared to mock transfected controls, suggesting a possible role for ADAM17 in host immune suppression. These results introduce new, complex roles of ADAM17 in tumor progression, including its impact on the anti-tumor immune response. PMID:23251384

  15. ADAM17 silencing in mouse colon carcinoma cells: the effect on tumoricidal cytokines and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta; Czarnek, Maria; Bzowska, Monika; Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Stalińska, Krystyna; Wyroba, Barbara; Sroka, Jolanta; Jucha, Jarosław; Deneka, Dawid; Stokłosa, Paulina; Ogonek, Justyna; Swartz, Melody A; Madeja, Zbigniew; Bereta, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is a major sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules and is often overexpressed in malignant cells. It is generally accepted that ADAM17 promotes tumor development via activating growth factors from the EGF family, thus facilitating autocrine stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and migration. Here we show, using MC38CEA murine colon carcinoma model, that ADAM17 also regulates tumor angiogenesis and cytokine profile. When ADAM17 was silenced in MC38CEA cells, in vivo tumor growth and in vitro cell motility were significantly diminished, but no effect was seen on in vitro cell proliferation. ADAM17-silencing was accompanied by decreased in vitro expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and matrix metalloprotease-9, which was consistent with the limited angiogenesis and slower growth seen in ADAM17-silenced tumors. Among the growth factors susceptible to shedding by ADAM17, neuregulin-1 was the only candidate to mediate the effects of ADAM17 on MC38CEA motility and tumor angiogenesis. Concentrations of TNF and IFNγ, cytokines that synergistically induced proapoptotic effects on MC38CEA cells, were significantly elevated in the lysates of ADAM17-silenced tumors compared to mock transfected controls, suggesting a possible role for ADAM17 in host immune suppression. These results introduce new, complex roles of ADAM17 in tumor progression, including its impact on the anti-tumor immune response.

  16. Colorado Better Buildings Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Strife, Susie; Yancey, Lea

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  17. High Glucose Up-regulates ADAM17 through HIF-1α in Mesangial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Renzhong; Uttarwar, Lalita; Gao, Bo; Charbonneau, Martine; Shi, Yixuan; Chan, John S D; Dubois, Claire M; Krepinsky, Joan C

    2015-08-28

    We previously showed that ADAM17 mediates high glucose-induced matrix production by kidney mesangial cells. ADAM17 expression is increased in diabetic kidneys, suggesting that its up-regulation may augment high glucose profibrotic responses. We thus studied the effects of high glucose on ADAM17 gene regulation. Primary rat mesangial cells were treated with high glucose (30 mm) or mannitol as osmotic control. High glucose dose-dependently increased ADAM17 promoter activity, transcript, and protein levels. This correlated with augmented ADAM17 activity after 24 h versus 1 h of high glucose. We tested involvement of transcription factors shown in other settings to regulate ADAM17 transcription. Promoter activation was not affected by NF-κB or Sp1 inhibitors, but was blocked by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) inhibition or down-regulation. This also prevented ADAM17 transcript and protein increases. HIF-1α activation by high glucose was shown by its increased nuclear translocation and activation of the HIF-responsive hypoxia-response element (HRE)-luciferase reporter construct. Assessment of ADAM17 promoter deletion constructs coupled with mutation analysis and ChIP studies identified HIF-1α binding to its consensus element at -607 as critical for the high glucose response. Finally, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream PI3K/Akt, or ADAM17 itself, prevented high glucose-induced HIF-1α activation and ADAM17 up-regulation. Thus, high glucose induces ADAM17 transcriptional up-regulation in mesangial cells, which is associated with augmentation of its activity. This is mediated by HIF-1α and requires EGFR/ADAM17 signaling, demonstrating the potentiation by ADAM17 of its own up-regulation. ADAM17 inhibition thus provides a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  18. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy. PMID:26176220

  19. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W.; Swartz, Melody A.; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy. PMID:26176220

  20. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

  1. Adam8 Limits the Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Knolle, Martin D.; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hergrueter, Anja; Gupta, Kushagra; Polverino, Francesca; Craig, Vanessa J.; Fyfe, Susanne E.; Zahid, Muhammad; Permaul, Perdita; Cernadas, Manuela; Montano, Gilbert; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Sholl, Lynette; Kobzik, Lester; Israel, Elliot; Owen, Caroline A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase-8 (Adam8) regulates allergic airway inflammation (AAI) and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), we compared AAI and AHR in wild type (WT) versus Adam8−/− mice in different genetic backgrounds sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite protein extract (HDM). OVA- and HDM-treated Adam8−/− mice had higher lung leukocyte counts, more airway mucus metaplasia, greater lung levels of some TH2 cytokines, and higher methacholine-induced increases in central airway resistance than allergen-treated WT mice. Studies of OVA-treated Adam8 bone marrow chimeric mice confirmed that leukocyte-derived Adam8 predominantly mediated Adam8’s anti-inflammatory activities in murine airways. Airway eosinophils and macrophages both expressed Adam8 in WT mice with AAI. Adam8 limited AAI and AHR in mice by reducing leukocyte survival because: 1) Adam8−/− mice with AAI had fewer apoptotic eosinophils and macrophages in their airways than WT mice with AAI; and 2) Adam8−/− macrophages and eosinophils had reduced rates of apoptosis compared with WT leukocytes when the intrinsic (but not the extrinsic) apoptosis pathway was triggered in the cells in vitro. ADAM8 was robustly expressed by airway granulocytes in lung sections from human asthma patients but, surprisingly, airway macrophages had less ADAM8 staining than airway eosinophils. Thus, ADAM8 has anti-inflammatory activities during AAI in mice by activating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in myeloid leukocytes. Strategies that increase ADAM8 levels in myeloid leukocytes may have therapeutic efficacy in asthma. PMID:23670189

  2. Colorado Preschool Program: 2003 Report to the Colorado Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) serves at-risk preschool children in community programs, including Head Start programs, private for-profit programs, non-profit programs, and programs within public schools. This report to the Colorado legislature provides information on participation in the program, collaborations of CPP with other early…

  3. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  4. Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Simulator - ARTEMIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trease, Brian P.; Lindeman, Randel A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bennett, Keith; VanDyke, Lauren P.; Zhou, Feng; Iagnemma, Karl; Senatore, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity, far exceeded their original drive distance expectations and have traveled, at the time of this reporting, a combined 29 kilometers across the surface of Mars. The Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP), the current program used to plan drives for MERs, is only a kinematic simulator of rover movement. Therefore, rover response to various terrains and soil types cannot be modeled. Although sandbox experiments attempt to model rover-terrain interaction, these experiments are time-intensive and costly, and they cannot be used within the tactical timeline of rover driving. Imaging techniques and hazard avoidance features on MER help to prevent the rover from traveling over dangerous terrains, but mobility issues have shown that these methods are not always sufficient. ARTEMIS, a dynamic modeling tool for MER, allows planned drives to be simulated before commands are sent to the rover. The deformable soils component of this model allows rover-terrain interactions to be simulated to determine if a particular drive path would take the rover over terrain that would induce hazardous levels of slip or sink. When used in the rover drive planning process, dynamic modeling reduces the likelihood of future mobility issues because high-risk areas could be identified before drive commands are sent to the rover, and drives planned over these areas could be rerouted. The ARTEMIS software consists of several components. These include a preprocessor, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), Adams rover model, wheel and soil parameter files, MSC Adams GUI (commercial), MSC Adams dynamics solver (commercial), terramechanics subroutines (FORTRAN), a contact detection engine, a soil modification engine, and output DEMs of deformed soil. The preprocessor is used to define the terrain (from a DEM) and define the soil parameters for the terrain file. The Adams rover model is placed in this terrain. Wheel and soil parameter files

  5. Detection and quantification of fugitive emissions from Colorado oil and gas production operations using remote monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western states contain vast amounts of oil and gas production. For example, Weld County Colorado contains approximately 25,000 active oil and gas well sites with associated production operations. There is little information on the air pollutant emission potential from this source...

  6. Country School Legacy Report for Southern Colorado. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Joanne L.; Dodds, Edwin

    In southern Colorado, the Country School Legacy Project, part of an eight-state research effort to locate and preserve information related to country schools, involved visiting and corresponding with 25 counties and conducting 58 oral history interviews. Materials, both factual and anecdotal, assembled into this report from school records,…

  7. Colorado Model Content Standards: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

  8. Adams-Oliver Syndrome: A Case with Full Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashtian, Amir; Dehdashtian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by the combination of congenital scalp defects (aplasia cutis congenita) and terminal transverse limb defects of variable severity. It is believed that Adams-Oliver syndrome without major organ abnormalities does not necessarily alter the normal lifespan. We present a case without detectable major organ abnormality contrary to life but with poor weight gain. A male infant with scalp and skin cutis aplasia, generalized cutis aplasia, dilated veins over scalp and trunk, hypoplastic toes and nails of feet, glaucoma, poor feeding and poor weight gain. This report shows a case of AOS without major multiple organ abnormalities but with poor feeding and abnormal weight gain that may be alter the normal lifespan. PMID:27433307

  9. Empathy's purity, sympathy's complexities; De Waal, Darwin and Adam Smith.

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor

    2011-07-01

    Frans de Waal's view that empathy is at the basis of morality directly seems to build on Darwin, who considered sympathy as the crucial instinct. Yet when we look closer, their understanding of the central social instinct differs considerably. De Waal sees our deeply ingrained tendency to sympathize (or rather: empathize) with others as the good side of our morally dualistic nature. For Darwin, sympathizing was not the whole story of the "workings of sympathy"; the (selfish) need to receive sympathy played just as central a role in the complex roads from sympathy to morality. Darwin's understanding of sympathy stems from Adam Smith, who argued that the presence of morally impure motives should not be a reason for cynicism about morality. I suggest that De Waal's approach could benefit from a more thorough alignment with the analysis of the workings of sympathy in the work of Darwin and Adam Smith.

  10. Automatic Dynamic Aircraft Modeler (ADAM) for the Computer Program NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffis, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large general purpose finite element programs require users to develop large quantities of input data. General purpose pre-processors are used to decrease the effort required to develop structural models. Further reduction of effort can be achieved by specific application pre-processors. Automatic Dynamic Aircraft Modeler (ADAM) is one such application specific pre-processor. General purpose pre-processors use points, lines and surfaces to describe geometric shapes. Specifying that ADAM is used only for aircraft structures allows generic structural sections, wing boxes and bodies, to be pre-defined. Hence with only gross dimensions, thicknesses, material properties and pre-defined boundary conditions a complete model of an aircraft can be created.

  11. Empathy's purity, sympathy's complexities; De Waal, Darwin and Adam Smith.

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor

    2011-07-01

    Frans de Waal's view that empathy is at the basis of morality directly seems to build on Darwin, who considered sympathy as the crucial instinct. Yet when we look closer, their understanding of the central social instinct differs considerably. De Waal sees our deeply ingrained tendency to sympathize (or rather: empathize) with others as the good side of our morally dualistic nature. For Darwin, sympathizing was not the whole story of the "workings of sympathy"; the (selfish) need to receive sympathy played just as central a role in the complex roads from sympathy to morality. Darwin's understanding of sympathy stems from Adam Smith, who argued that the presence of morally impure motives should not be a reason for cynicism about morality. I suggest that De Waal's approach could benefit from a more thorough alignment with the analysis of the workings of sympathy in the work of Darwin and Adam Smith. PMID:21765569

  12. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  13. Application of the ADAMS program to deployable space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calleson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The need for a computer program to perform kinematic and dynamic analyses of large truss structures while deploying from a packaged configuration in space led to the evaluation of several existing programs. ADAMS (automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems), a generalized program from performing the dynamic simulation of mechanical systems undergoing large displacements, is applied to two concepts of deployable space antenna units. One concept is a one cube folding unit of Martin Marietta's Box Truss Antenna and the other is a tetrahedral truss unit of a Tetrahedral Truss Antenna. Adequate evaluation of dynamic forces during member latch-up into the deployed configuration is not yet available from the present version of ADAMS since it is limited to the assembly of rigid bodies. Included is a method for estimating the maximum bending stress in a surface member at latch-up. Results include member displacement and velocity responses during extension and an example of member bending stresses at latch-up.

  14. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  15. EAGLES NEST WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tweto, Ogden; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geologic and mineral survey, a primitive area that constitutes the nucleus of the Eagles Nest Wilderness, Colorado was appraised to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Among the additional areas later incorporated in the wilderness, only a strip near a major fault west and northwest of Frisco and Dillon is classed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the silver-lead-zinc or fluorspar types.

  16. RAWAH WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Rawah Wilderness, Colorado and some adjacent lands were studied and their mineral-resource potential was assessed using geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data. Traces of copper, silver, uranium, tungsten, and molybdenum were found in geochemical samples, but there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in this relatively unmineralized area. If our interpretation is valid that the southern Medicine Bow Mountains moved eastward along a gently west dipping thrust fault, it suggests the possibility that potential petroleum reservoir rocks are beneath the granite in at least parts of the area. This possibility could be investigated by seismic surveys or drilling.

  17. Control of ADAM17 activity by regulation of its cellular localisation

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Inken; Lokau, Juliane; Korpys, Yvonne; Oldefest, Mirja; Flynn, Charlotte M.; Künzel, Ulrike; Garbers, Christoph; Freeman, Matthew; Grötzinger, Joachim; Düsterhöft, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An important, irreversible step in many signalling pathways is the shedding of membrane-anchored proteins. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17 is one of the major sheddases involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including regeneration, differentiation, and cancer progression. This central role in signalling implies that ADAM17 activity has to be tightly regulated, including at the level of localisation. Most mature ADAM17 is localised intracellularly, with only a small amount at the cell surface. We found that ADAM17 is constitutively internalised by clathrin-coated pits and that physiological stimulators such as GPCR ligands induce ADAM17-mediated shedding, but do not alter the cell-surface abundance of the protease. In contrast, the PKC-activating phorbol ester PMA, often used as a strong inducer of ADAM17, causes not only proteolysis by ADAM17 but also a rapid increase of the mature protease at the cell surface. This is followed by internalisation and subsequent degradation of the protease. Eventually, this leads to a substantial downregulation of mature ADAM17. Our results therefore imply that physiological activation of ADAM17 does not rely on its relocalisation, but that PMA-induced PKC activity drastically dysregulates the localisation of ADAM17. PMID:27731361

  18. ADAM9 is highly expressed in renal cell cancer and is associated with tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, Florian R; Wassermann, Kirsten; Jung, Monika; Tölle, Angelika; Kristiansen, Ilka; Lein, Michael; Johannsen, Manfred; Dietel, Manfred; Jung, Klaus; Kristiansen, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Background A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 9 has been implicated in tumour progression of various solid tumours, however, little is known about its role in renal cell carcinoma. We evaluated the expression of ADAM9 on protein and transcript level in a clinico-pathologically characterized renal cell cancer cohort. Methods 108 renal cancer cases were immunostained for ADAM9 on a tissue-micro-array. For 30 additional cases, ADAM9 mRNA of microdissected tumour and normal tissue was analyzed via quantitative RT-PCR. SPSS 14.0 was used to apply crosstables (Fisher's exact test and χ2-test), correlations and univariate as well as multivariate survival analyses. Results ADAM9 was significantly up-regulated in renal cancer in comparison to the adjacent normal tissue on mRNA level. On protein level, ADAM9 was significantly associated with higher tumour grade, positive nodal status and distant metastasis. Furthermore, ADAM9 protein expression was significantly associated with shortened patient survival in the univariate analysis. Conclusion ADAM9 is strongly expressed in a large proportion of renal cell cancers, concordant with findings in other tumour entities. Additionally, ADAM9 expression is significantly associated with markers of unfavourable prognosis. Whether the demonstrated prognostic value of ADAM9 is independent from other tumour parameters will have to be verified in larger study cohorts. PMID:18582378

  19. ADAM-mediated amphiregulin shedding and EGFR transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kasina, S.; Scherle, P. A.; Hall, C. L.; Macoska, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, such as amphiregulin (AREG), by ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteases) can be stimulated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Interactions between the CXCR4 GPCR and the CXCL12 chemokine have been shown to mediate gene transcription and cellular proliferation in non-transformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells, as well as motility/invasiveness in transformed cells. Objectives In this report, we investigated the ability of CXCL12 to stimulate amphiregulin ectodomain shedding in non-transformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells that respond proliferatively to sub-nanomolar levels of CXCL12 and amphiregulin. Materials and Methods Non-transformed N15C6 and transformed PC3 prostate epithelial cells were assessed for amphiregulin shedding, ADAM activation, Src phosphorylation and EGFR activation using ELISA, immunoblot, and immunoprecipitation techniques, and for proliferation using cell counting after stimulation with CXCL12 or vehicle. Results The results of these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel inducer of amphiregulin ectodomain shedding and show that both basal and CXCL12-mediated amphiregulin shedding are ADAM10- and Src kinase-dependent in non-transformed N15C6 cells. In contrast, amphiregulin shedding is not amplified subsequent to stimulation with exogenous CXCL12, and is not reduced subsequent to metalloprotease- or Src kinase-inhibition, in highly aggressive PC3 prostate cancer cells. These data also show that CXCL12-mediated cellular proliferation requires EGFR transactivation in a Src-and ADAM-dependent manner in non-transformed prostate epithelial cells. However, these same mechanisms are dysfunctional in highly transformed prostate cancer cells, which secrete amphiregulin in an autocrine manner that cannot be repressed through metalloprotease- or Src kinase inhibition. Conclusion These findings show that non-transformed and transformed

  20. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  1. ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Harrison, Donald K.

    1984-01-01

    The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.

  2. iRhoms 1 and 2 are essential upstream regulators of ADAM17-dependent EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Maretzky, Thorsten; Weskamp, Gisela; Monette, Sébastien; Qing, Xiaoping; Issuree, Priya Darshinee A.; Crawford, Howard C.; McIlwain, David R.; Mak, Tak W.; Salmon, Jane E.; Blobel, Carl P.

    2015-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) controls EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling by liberating EGFR ligands from their membrane anchor. Consequently, a patient lacking ADAM17 has skin and intestinal barrier defects that are likely caused by lack of EGFR signaling, and Adam17−/− mice die perinatally with open eyes, like Egfr−/− mice. A hallmark feature of ADAM17-dependent EGFR ligand shedding is that it can be rapidly and posttranslationally activated in a manner that requires its transmembrane domain but not its cytoplasmic domain. This suggests that ADAM17 is regulated by other integral membrane proteins, although much remains to be learned about the underlying mechanism. Recently, inactive Rhomboid 2 (iRhom2), which has seven transmembrane domains, emerged as a molecule that controls the maturation and function of ADAM17 in myeloid cells. However, iRhom2−/− mice appear normal, raising questions about how ADAM17 is regulated in other tissues. Here we report that iRhom1/2−/− double knockout mice resemble Adam17−/− and Egfr−/− mice in that they die perinatally with open eyes, misshapen heart valves, and growth plate defects. Mechanistically, we show lack of mature ADAM17 and strongly reduced EGFR phosphorylation in iRhom1/2−/− tissues. Finally, we demonstrate that iRhom1 is not essential for mouse development but regulates ADAM17 maturation in the brain, except in microglia, where ADAM17 is controlled by iRhom2. These results provide genetic, cell biological, and biochemical evidence that a principal function of iRhoms1/2 during mouse development is to regulate ADAM17-dependent EGFR signaling, suggesting that iRhoms1/2 could emerge as novel targets for treatment of ADAM17/EGFR-dependent pathologies. PMID:25918388

  3. The alpha secretase ADAM10: A metalloprotease with multiple functions in the brain.

    PubMed

    Saftig, Paul; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F

    2015-12-01

    Proteins belonging to the 'A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase' (ADAM) family are membrane-anchored proteases that are able to cleave the extracellular domains of several membrane-bound proteins in a process known as 'ectodomain shedding'. In the central nervous system, ADAM10 has attracted the most attention, since it was described as the amyloid precursor protein α-secretase over ten years ago. Despite the excitement over the potential of ADAM10 as a novel drug target in Alzheimer disease, the physiological functions of ADAM10 in the brain are not yet well understood. This is largely because of the embryonic lethality of ADAM10-deficient mice, which results from the loss of cleavage and signaling of the Notch receptor, another ADAM10 substrate. However, the recent generation of conditional ADAM10-deficient mice and the identification of further ADAM10 substrates in the brain has revealed surprisingly numerous and fundamental functions of ADAM10 in the development of the embryonic brain and also in the homeostasis of adult neuronal networks. Mechanistically, ADAM10 controls these functions by utilizing unique postsynaptic substrates in the central nervous system, in particular synaptic cell adhesion molecules, such as neuroligin-1, N-cadherin, NCAM, Ephrin A2 and A5. Consequently, a dysregulation of ADAM10 activity is linked to psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, fragile X syndrome and Huntington disease. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding the substrates and function as well as the regulation and cell biology of ADAM10 in the central nervous system and discusses the value of ADAM10 as a drug target in brain diseases.

  4. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-11-01

    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place. PMID:15666497

  5. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-11-01

    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place.

  6. 75 FR 53301 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Order on Consent for the Standard Mine Site, Gunnison County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... County, Colorado. The proposed AOC is for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning... to the AOC, if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the...

  7. Montroseite, a new vanadium oxide from the Colorado plateaus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, Alice D.; Cisney, Evelyn A.; Sherwood, Alexander M.

    1953-01-01

    Montroseite, a new vanadium mineral named from Montrose County, Colorado, has been found in four mines in western Colorado and in two mines in eastern Utah. It is black, opaque, submetallic, and occurs in microscopic bladed crystals of the orthorhombic dipyramidal class. The axial ratio is a:b:c = 0.509:1:0.310, the common forms are b {010}, m {110}, p {121}, and a large vicinal form is approximately {0, 10, 1}. The observed specific gravity is 4.0 and the calculated specific gravity is 4.15. The composition is essentially VO(OH), with some iron commonly substituted for vanadium. Partial oxidation to VO2 has taken place. Chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction data are given. Single crystal study indicated that the space group symmetry is Pbnm(D2h16).

  8. Dissecting the role of ADAM10 as a mediator of Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin action.

    PubMed

    von Hoven, Gisela; Rivas, Amable J; Neukirch, Claudia; Klein, Stefan; Hamm, Christian; Qin, Qianqian; Meyenburg, Martina; Füser, Sabine; Saftig, Paul; Hellmann, Nadja; Postina, Rolf; Husmann, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infections in humans, including life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. Its small membrane-pore-forming α-toxin is considered an important virulence factor. By destroying cell-cell contacts through cleavage of cadherins, the metalloproteinase ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) critically contributes to α-toxin-dependent pathology of experimental S. aureus infections in mice. Moreover, ADAM10 was proposed to be a receptor for α-toxin. However, it is unclear whether the catalytic activity or specific domains of ADAM10 are involved in mediating binding and/or subsequent cytotoxicity of α-toxin. Also, it is not known how α-toxin triggers ADAM10's enzymatic activity, and whether ADAM10 is invariably required for all α-toxin action on cells. In the present study, we show that efficient cleavage of the ADAM10 substrate epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) requires supra-cytotoxic concentrations of α-toxin, leading to significant increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)]; the fall in cellular ATP levels, typically following membrane perforation, became observable at far lower concentrations. Surprisingly, ADAM10 was dispensable for α-toxin-dependent xenophagic targeting of S. aureus, whereas a role for α-toxin attack on the plasma membrane was confirmed. The catalytic site of ADAM10, furin cleavage site, cysteine switch and intracellular domain of ADAM10 were not required for α-toxin binding and subsequent cytotoxicity. In contrast, an essential role for the disintegrin domain and the prodomain emerged. Thus, co-expression of the prodomain with prodomain-deficient ADAM10 reconstituted binding of α-toxin and susceptibility of ADAM10-deficient cells. The results of the present study may help to inform structural analyses of α-toxin-ADAM10 interactions and to design novel strategies to counteract S. aureus α-toxin action.

  9. ADAM22, A KV1 CHANNEL INTERACTING PROTEIN, RECRUITS MAGUKS TO JUXTAPARANODES OF MYELINATED AXONS

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Kim, Moon Young; Horresh, Ido; Peles, Elior; Burlingame, Alma L.; Trimmer, James S.; Meijer, Dies; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    Clustered Kv1 K+ channels regulate neuronal excitability at juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons, axon initial segments (AIS), and cerebellar basket cell terminals (BCTs). These channels are part of a larger protein complex that includes cell adhesion molecules and scaffolding proteins. To identify proteins that regulate assembly, clustering, and/or maintenance of axonal Kv1 channel protein complexes, we immunoprecipitated Kv1.2 α subunits, then used mass-spectrometry to identify interacting proteins. We found that ADAM22 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 22) is a component of the Kv1 channel complex, and that ADAM22 co-immunoprecipitates Kv1.2 and the MAGUKs PSD-93 and PSD-95. When co-expressed with MAGUKs in heterologous cells, ADAM22 and Kv1 channels are recruited into membrane surface clusters. However, co-expression of Kv1.2 with ADAM22 and MAGUKs does not alter channel properties. Among all the known Kv1 channel interacting proteins, only ADAM22 is found at every site where Kv1 channels are clustered. Analysis of Caspr-null mice showed that like other previously described juxtaparanodal proteins, disruption of the paranodal junction resulted in redistribution of ADAM22 into paranodal zones. Analysis of Caspr2-, PSD-93-, PSD-95-, and double PSD-93/PSD-95-null mice showed ADAM22 clustering at BCTs requires PSD-95, but ADAM22 clustering at juxtaparanodes requires neither PSD-93 nor PSD-95. In direct contrast, analysis of ADAM22-null mice demonstrated juxtaparanodal clustering of PSD-93 and PSD-95 requires ADAM22, whereas Kv1.2 and Caspr2 clustering is normal in ADAM22-null mice. Thus, ADAM22 is an axonal component of the Kv1 K+ channel complex that recruits MAGUKs to juxtaparanodes. PMID:20089912

  10. [Cloning of mouse adam10 gene promoter and construction and identification of dual luciferase reporter system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Huan-Xin; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Wu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Kai; Zang, Yu; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed to clone mouse adam10 gene promoter and construct its dual luciferase report vector, and to investigate its transcriptional activity. Total DNA was extracted from mouse brain and used for amplifying the fragment containing adam10 gene promoter by PCR. The amplified product was inserted into pGL-4.10 vector to construct pGL4.10-adam10. The pGL4.10-adam10 and control plasmid pGL4.74 were co-transfected into HEK293 FT cells by lipofectamine 2000. The activity of adam10 gene promoter was assayed by luciferase system. The results showed that the recombinant plasmid pGL4.10-adam10 containing promoter of mouse adam10 was correctly constructed. The method was optimized by changing ratio of two plasmids. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of pGL4.10-adam10 stimulated by ionomycin increased. It is concluded that the dual luciferase reporter system is successfully established, which is useful in bioluminescence imaging technology in vitro. The effect of ionomycin can enhance the transcriptional activity of adam10 gene promoter.

  11. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  12. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  13. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  14. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  15. The Fiscal Impact of Colorado Child Care Assistance Program Payments on the Child Care Industry: An Assessment of How the Child Care Provider Underwrites Publicly Purchased Child Care, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Office of Resource and Referral Agencies, Inc., Englewood.

    The Colorado Child Care Assistance Program (CCCAP) purchases child care for low-income families to enable their participation in the workforce. This report describes CCCAP and its effect on child care centers and family child care providers. The report notes that each county in Colorado sets the daily purchase price of child care, with most…

  16. In the Country of Anythink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Beyond the sprawling Denver International Airport, there's little to put Adams County, Colorado, on the map. The region's light rail only stretches south, so Adams County, a mostly working-class zone to the northeast, has come late to growth. There's no central city; the community is dominated by strip malls, big-box stores, and new developments.…

  17. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... transferred to History Colorado, where they are referred to as Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation... the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation). The remains described above...

  18. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera. PMID:22884605

  19. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera.

  20. Recent eruptions of Mount Adams, Washington Cascades, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    1997-01-01

    The postglacial eruption rate for the Mount Adams volcanic field is ∼0.1 km3/k.y., four to seven times smaller than the average rate for the past 520 k.y. Ten vents have been active since the last main deglaciation ∼15 ka. Seven high flank vents (at 2100-2600 m) and the central summit vent of the 3742-m stratocone produced varied andesites, and two peripheral vents (at 2100 and 1200 m) produced mildly alkalic basalt. Eruptive ages of most of these units are bracketed with respect to regional tephra layers from Mount Mazama and Mount St. Helens. The basaltic lavas and scoria cones north and south of Mount Adams and a 13-km-long andesitic lava flow on its east flank are of early postglacial age. The three most extensive andesitic lava-flow complexes were emplaced in the mid-Holocene (7-4 ka). Ages of three smaller Holocene andesite units are less well constrained. A phreatomagmatic ejecta cone and associated andesite lavas that together cap the summit may be of latest Pleistocene age. but a thin layer of mid-Holocene tephra appears to have erupted there as well. An alpine-meadow section on the southeast flank contains 24 locally derived Holocene andesitic ash layers intercalated with several silicic tephras from Mazama and St. Helens. Microprobe analyses of phenocrysts from the ash layers and postglacial lavas suggest a few correlations and refine some age constraints. Approximately 6 ka, a 0.07-km3 debris avalanche from the southwest face of Mount Adams gen-erated a clay-rich debris flow that devastated >30 km2 south of the volcano. A gravitationally metastable 2-to 3-km3 reservoir of hydrothermally altered fragmental andesite remains on the ice-capped summit and, towering 3 km above the surrounding lowlands, represents a greater hazard than an eruptive recurrence in the style of the last 15 k.y.