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Sample records for adams county pennsylvania

  1. The Feasibility of Consolidating the Schools of Mount Joy Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania. Bulletin, 1920, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katherine M.; Deffenbaugh, W. S.

    1920-01-01

    Mount Joy Township is located in southeastern Pennsylvania, in Adams County. It is immediately adjacent to the historic battlefield and town of Gettysburg. Though irregular in shape, it averages about 5 miles from north to south and 41 miles from east to west, and contains approximately 36 square miles. The population of the township in 1910 was…

  2. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Goode, Daniel J.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water in Triassic-age sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers in the area of Gettysburg, Pa., is used as drinking water and for industrial and commercial supply. In 1983, ground water at the Gettysburg Elevator Plant was found by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources to be contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and other synthetic organic compounds. As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980 process, a Remedial Investigation was completed in July 1991, a method of site remediation was issued in the Record of Decision dated June 1992, and a Final Design Report was completed in May 1997. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the hydrogeologic assessment of the site remediation, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1997 to determine the effects of the onsite and offsite extraction wells on ground-water flow and contaminant migration from the Gettysburg Elevator Plant. This determination is based on hydrologic and geophysical data collected from 1991 to 1998 and on results of numerical model simulations of the local ground-water flow-system. The Gettysburg Elevator Site is underlain by red, green, gray, and black shales of the Heidlersburg Member of the Gettysburg Formation. Correlation of natural-gamma logs indicates the sedimentary rock strike about N. 23 degrees E. and dip about 23 degrees NW. Depth to bedrock onsite commonly is about 6 feet but offsite may be as deep as 40 feet. The ground-water system consists of two zones?a thin, shallow zone composed of soil, clay, and highly weathered bedrock and a thicker, nonweathered or fractured bedrock zone. The shallow zone overlies the bedrock zone and truncates the dipping beds parallel to land surface. Diabase dikes are barriers to ground-water flow in the bedrock zone. The ground-water system is generally confined or semi-confined, even at shallow depths. Depth

  3. Effects of agricultural best-management practices on the Brush Run Creek headwaters, Adams County, Pennsylvania, prior to and during nutrient management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, M.J.; Fishel, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on surface-water quality as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program. This report characterizes a 0.63-square- mile agricultural watershed underlain by shale, mudstone, and red arkosic sandstone in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The water quality of the Brush Run Creek site was studied from October 1985 through September 1991, prior to and during the implementation of nutrient management designed to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges into Conewago Creek, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The original study area was 0.38 square mile and included an area immediately upstream from a manure lagoon. The study area was increased to 0.63 square mile in the fall of 1987 after an extensive tile-drain network was discovered upstream and downstream from the established streamflow gage, and the farm owner made plans to spray irrigate manure to the downstream fields. Land use for about 64 percent of the 0.63 square mile watershed is cropland, 14 percent is pasture, 7 percent is forest, and the remaining 15 percent is yards, buildings, water, or gardens. About 73 percent of the cropland was used to produce corn during the study. The average annual animal population consisted of 57,000 chickens, 1,530 hogs, and 15 sheep during the study. About 59,340 pounds of nitrogen and 13,710 pounds of phosphorus were applied as manure and commercial fertilizer to fields within the subbasin during the 3-year period prior to implementation of nutrient management. During nutrient management, about 14 percent less nitrogen and 57 percent less phosphorus were applied as commercial and manure fertilizer. Precipitation totaled 209 inches, or 13 percent less than the long-term normal, during the 6-year study. Concentrations of total ammonia in

  4. Water resources of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Flippo, Herbert N., Jr.; Lescinsky, Joseph B.; Barker, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Lehigh County occupies an area of 347 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. The northern part of Lehigh County is underlain by the Martinsburg Formation, which consists chiefly of shale and slate. The central part of the county, where most of the population centers are located and much of the urbanization is occurring, is underlain by alternating beds of limestone and dolomite. From oldest to youngest, these carbonate rocks are the Leithsville Formation, the Allentown Formation, the Beekmantown Group, and the Jacksonburg Formation. The southern part of the county is underlain chiefly by the shales, sandstones, and conglomerates of the Brunswick Formation and by metamorphic and igneous rocks.

  5. WEISER RIVER STUDY, ADAMS AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, IDAHO, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 1979 water year, a water quality study was conducted on the Weiser and Little Weiser Rivers (17050124) in Washington and Adams Counties, Idaho. The study was completed to obtain background information on effluent limitations for the cities of Cambridge and Council and...

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3), Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Operable Unit 2, Cumberland Township, Adams County, Gettysburg, PA, March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 (Soils) at the Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant Site in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The selected remedy for the soils at the Westinghouse Elevator Plant is No Additional Action for this Operable Unit. The other alternatives evaluated would produce little or no environmental benefit at substantial cost.

  7. PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: COUNTY PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library offers at a scale of 1:24,000 from USGS topographic maps complete digitized county park boundaries of the Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania. The data format is ARC/INFO Export. County park boundaries are displayed with a one-m...

  8. WATER QUALITY IN OPEN FINISHED WATER RESERVOIRS - ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this investigation was to study water quality changes occurring in open reservoirs in the distribution systems of five water supplies located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Results of chemical, bacteriological, and biological analyses showed deterioration of wa...

  9. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking at 75 FR 61377, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania...

  10. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 26978, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania...

  11. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 67304, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania...

  12. 78 FR 75542 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... rulemaking at 75 FR 61377, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania...

  13. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  14. Geology and groundwater resources of Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, Orville B., Jr.; Carswell, Louis D.

    1979-01-01

    Monroe County is on the eastern border of Pennsylvania and includes much of the area popularly called the Poconos. It is an area long used for outdoor recreation and includes a part of the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Water resources in the county are derived from precipitation. The Lehigh and Delaware Rivers, bordering the northwestern and southeastern parts, respectively, are the drains for surface-water and groundwater discharge and are essentially unused for water supply.

  15. Salmonella Serovars in the Herpetofauna of Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, David L.; Hulse, Arthur C.

    2006-01-01

    Herpetofaunal Salmonella enterica serovars have not been fully examined in any U.S. region. Thirty-three Salmonella serovars were isolated from 156 samples from 34 species, all within Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Results suggest that herpetofaunas could potentially pose a threat to humans. Further understanding of Salmonella in herpetofaunas may prevent future human cases. PMID:16672533

  16. 77 FR 71117 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...; Allegheny County Incorporation by Reference of Pennsylvania's Control of NO X Emissions From Glass Melting... regulation to control nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from glass melting furnaces to the Allegheny County... Pennsylvania regulations and related definitions for controlling NO X emissions from glass melting...

  17. Acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Brady, Keith; Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2005-01-01

    Recent construction for Interstate Highway 99 (I?99) exposed pyrite and associated Zn-Pb sulfide minerals beneath a >10-m thick gossan to oxidative weathering along a 40-60-m deep roadcut through a 270-m long section of the Ordovician Bald Eagle Formation at Skytop, near State College, Centre County, Pennsylvania. Nearby Zn-Pb deposits hosted in associated sandstone and limestone in Blair and Centre Counties were prospected in the past; however, these deposits generally were not viable as commercial mines. The pyritic sandstone from the roadcut was crushed and used locally as road base and fill for adjoining segments of I?99. Within months, acidic (pH1,000 mg/L), seep waters at the base of the cut contain >100 mg/L dissolved Zn and >1 mg/L As, Co, Cu, and Ni. Lead is relatively immobile (<10 ?g/L in seep waters). The salts sequester metals and acidity between rainfall events. Episodic salt dissolution then contributes pulses of contamination including acid to surface runoff and ground water. The Skytop experience highlights the need to understand dynamic interactions of mineralogy and hydrology in order to avoid potentially negative environmental impacts associated with excavation in sulfidic rocks.

  18. Nationwide forestry applications program: Ten-Ecosystem Study (TES) site 2, Warren County, Pennsylvania, site evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was determined that hardwood in Warren County, Pennsylvania could best be inventoried in May. The acreage estimate was less than 3% different from Forest Service estimates.

  19. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  20. The Imposition and Effects of Restitution in Four Pennsylvania Counties: Effects of Size of County and Specialized Collection Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruback, R. Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N.; Logue, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined court records, probation records, and collection office records in four counties in Pennsylvania, which were chosen because they varied along two dimensions: (a) population size and (b) the use of specialized units for the collection of monetary sanctions. From each county, restitution-eligible cases were sampled from both 1994…

  1. 77 FR 71140 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...; Allegheny County Incorporation by Reference of Pennsylvania's Consumer Products Regulations AGENCY... 2105.88--Consumer Products to Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) Rules and Regulations, Article... Products) of PADEP's Air Pollution Control Act to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC)....

  2. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  3. 40 CFR 52.2053 - The Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following revised 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997 PM2.5...: Applicable geographic area Year Tons peryear NOX Tons peryear PM2.5 Pennsylvania Counties in the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2053 - The Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following revised 2009 Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets (MVEBs) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997 PM2.5...: Applicable geographic area Year Tons peryear NOX Tons peryear PM2.5 Pennsylvania Counties in the...

  5. 78 FR 34584 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...; Allegheny County Reasonably Available Control Technology Under the 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality... Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality Control, P.O. Box 8468, 400 Market... this document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. On February 26, 2013 (78...

  6. 77 FR 71115 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...; Allegheny County Incorporation by Reference of Pennsylvania's Consumer Products Regulations AGENCY... Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). The SIP revision adds Section 2105.88--Consumer Products from... incorporate by reference 25 Pa. Code sections 130.201-130.471 (Consumer Products) of the PADEP Air...

  7. Developmental Research of Off-Farm Agricultural Businesses in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berks County Schools, Reading, PA.

    Student vocational interest and agricultural business surveys were conducted in Berks County, Pennsylvania to gauge career opportunities in off-farm agricultural occupations. The seven categories of businesses surveyed included agriculture supplies, agriculture mechanics, horticulture mechanics, floriculture, landscaping, turf, and garden center…

  8. A Feasibility Study for Consolidating and/or Coordinating Technical Procedures in Beaver County Pennsylvania Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, James W.

    In 1977 the Public Library Commission, in conjunction with the State Library of Pennsylvania, received a Library Services and Construction Act, Title III Grant to conduct a feasibility study of technical service operations in various types of libraries within Beaver County. Its objectives were to: (1) analyze existing library materials purchasing…

  9. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  10. A reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Clarion River Roadless Area, Allegheny National Forest, Elk County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickling, N.L.; Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Adrian, Betty M.

    1983-01-01

    Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analyses for 31 elements were determined on 9 stream-sediment samples and 18 bedrock samples from the Clarion River Roadless Area, Elk County, Pennsylvania. All sample localities are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Brief descriptions of bedrock samples are also included. Rocks analyzed are mostly sandstone, and siltstone. The analytical data do not indicate the presence of mineralized rock in the study area.

  11. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  12. An epidemiologic study of homicides in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Costantino, J P; Kuller, L H; Perper, J A; Cypess, R H

    1977-10-01

    Extensive demographic data concerning homicide victims and perpetrators in Allegheny County, 1966-1974, were obtained retrospectively from the records of the County Coroner's Office and Police Department. Analysis revealed that the demographic characteristics describing perpetrators and victims were essentially identical. Rates of homicide peaked in the young adult years of life. The race ratio (B/W) among victims was 18.7 for males and 6.7 for females, while sex ratio (M/F) was 5.4 for blacks and 1.9 for whites. An inverse relationship between the rate of homicide and socioeconomic status was present among both black and white races. The majority of victims were killed by a spouse, relative, or friend (66%), usually in familiar locations, i.e., residence or place of work (60%), and usually during an alteration (68%). Shooting was the method used to perpetrate 61% of the killings, most of which were by means of a handgun. An increasing trend of homicide was noted, particularly for the type perpetrated by shooting. PMID:910799

  13. Water-level records for Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1973-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Thomas J.; Vaught, Kenneth D.

    1977-01-01

    Water levels measured during March 1977 in 350 wells tapping alluvial aquifers in Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colo., are presented. Water-level records for the 4 preceding years are included to serve as references illustrating declining or rising water levels. These data can be used by well owners for planning their irrigation schedules for the next irrigation season and can be used by water managers for developing plans to manage the ground-water resources. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Analyses of geochemical samples and descriptions of rock samples, Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas, Clay County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, M.S.; Hanley, J.T.; Kelley, D.L.; Sherlock, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Semiquantitative spectrographic analyses for 31 elements on 105 rocks, 47 stream-sediment, and 70 soil samples from the Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas and vicinity, Talladega National Forest, Clay County, Alabama are reported here in detail. Atomic-absorption analyses for zinc in all samples and for gold in 5 selected rock samples are also reported. Localities for all sables are given in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. A brief description of each rock sample is included. Rocks analyzed include quartzite, phyllite, vein quartz, and schist.

  15. The "Health Belief Model" Applied to Two Preventive Health Behaviors Among Women from a Rural Pennsylvania County. AE & RS 115.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Mary E.

    In order to test the usefulnes of the Health Belief Model (a model designed to measure health practices, attitudes, and knowledge), a survey of Potter County, Pennsylvania was conducted, and 283 responses from adult females without chronic illnesses were analyzed. The dependent variables employed were regulating diet and getting regular exercise.…

  16. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior window detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  17. Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. Adam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marguerite Arnet Residence, exterior door detail, looking north. - Adam & Bessie Arnet Homestead, Marguerite Arnet Residence, 560 feet northeast of Adam & Bessie Arnet Residence, Model, Las Animas County, CO

  18. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 91-0366-2453, Delaware County Resource Recovery Facility, Chester, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Esswein, E.J.; Tepper, A.

    1994-09-01

    In response to a confidential request, an investigation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Delaware County Resource Recovery Facility (SIC-4053), Chester, Pennsylvania. The facility was a waste to energy incinerator employing 91 persons. The facility incinerated municipal solid waste and refuse derived fuel to produce electrical power. The request was made in response to concern regarding exposure to lead (7439921), incinerator ash dust, and heat stress. Health concerns included ear, nose and throat problems, eye irritation, and skin rash. The authors conclude that a possible occupational health hazard existed due to heat exposure in some areas of the facility. The presence of metal in dust on workers' hands and surfaces presented a risk of ingestion.

  19. MICROCHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC- AND SELENIUM-BEARING PYRITE IN UPPER FREEPORT COAL, INDIANA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Chao, E.C.T.; Ruppert, L.F.; Blank, H.; Cecil, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscope as well as electron and proton microprobe techniques have been used in a detailed investigation of the modes of occurrence of arsenic and selenium in pyrite in Upper Freeport coal from the Homer City area, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Polished blocks were prepared from columnar samples of the coal bed to represent particular zones continuously from top to bottom. Initial selection of zones to be studied was based on chemical analysis of bench-channel samples. Microprobe data indicate that the highest concentrations of arsenic (as great as 1. 5 wt. %) are apparently in solid solution in pyrite within a limited stratigraphic interval of the coal bed. Smaller amounts of arsenic and selenium (concentrations up to approximately 0. 1 and 0. 2 wt. % respectively) were detected at isolated points within pyrite grains in various strata of the coal bed.

  20. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Greene and Tioga Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Greene County and Tioga County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics are also used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  1. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Fayette and Lycoming Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.; Gillenwater, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Fayette County and Lycoming County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  2. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open file report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended-sediment concentrations.

  3. Watershed restoration through remining in the Tangascootack Creek Watershed, Clinton County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Skema, V.W.; Smith, M.W.; Bisko, D.C.; Dimatteo, M.

    1998-12-31

    The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Pennsylvania Geologic Survey are working together to remediate the effects of acid mine drainage. Remining of previously mined areas is a key component of a comprehensive strategy of improving water quality in polluted watersheds. In this new approach sites will be carefully selected on the basis of remaining coal reserves and overburden characteristics. One of the first watersheds targeted was the Tangascootack Creek watershed located in Clinton County near Lock Haven. The Geologic Survey agreed to provide geologic and coal resource maps for this previously unmapped area. This involved conducting field work examining rock exposures. Five cored holes were drilled, and core was examined to develop a geologic framework. Coals from these holes and from highwalls were chemically tested. Strata overlying the coal seams were analyzed using acid base accounting to determine their potential for generating acidity as well as alkalinity. Additional drill hole data and chemical analyses were collected from cooperating mining companies. This information was used to produce a geologic map showing coal crop lines and structure, coal thickness maps, mined-out area maps, overburden thickness maps, overburden geochemistry maps, strip ratio maps, and to estimate the extent of remaining coal reserves. Several significant geologic features were found in the course of mapping the watershed. One is the extreme variability in coal thickness and character of overburden rock. Another is the degree of relief found to be present on the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. It is believed that this feature plays an important role in coal and high aluminum flint clay distribution regionally. And finally is the thick occurrence of Loyalhanna Formation calcareous sandstone which is providing a natural source of carbonate for the neutralization of acid mine drainage.

  4. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Buckingham and Wrightstown townships, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, June 1992 through January 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, B.C.; Schreffler, C.L.; Rowland, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in Buckingham and Wrightstown Townships, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in 251 wells and from 3 reported elevations of quarry sumps from June 1992 through January 1993. Observed water-level altitudes range from 459 feet above sea level along Burnt House Hill Road, south- west of Mechanicsville, to 10 feet above sea level along Swamp Road and Route 232, near Neshaminy Creek in Wrightstown Township.

  5. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in part of lower Providence Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, May and June 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in part of Lower Providence Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in 62 wells from May and June 1994. Observed water-level altitudes range from 60 feet above sea level near the Betzwood Picnic Area to 187 feet above sea level near the intersection of Egypt Road and Rittenhouse Road in Lower Providence Township.

  6. Baseline groundwater quality from 34 wells in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Wayne County, Pennsylvania, is underlain by the Marcellus Shale, which currently (2014) is being developed elsewhere in Pennsylvania for natural gas. All residents of largely rural Wayne County rely on groundwater for water supply, primarily from bedrock aquifers (shales and sandstones). This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for Wayne County prior to development of the natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale. Selected wells completed in the Devonian-age Catskill Formation, undifferentiated; the Poplar Gap and Packerton Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided; and the Long Run and Walcksville Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided, were sampled. Water samples were collected once from 34 domestic wells during August 2011 and August and September 2013 and analyzed to characterize their physical and chemical quality. Samples were analyzed for 45 constituents and properties, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. The quality of the sampled groundwater was generally within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standards, although in some samples, the concentrations of a few constituents exceeded USEPA drinking-water standards and health advisories. The pH of water samples ranged from 5.5 to 9.3 with a median of 7.0. The pH was outside the USEPA secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) range of 6.5 to 8.5 in water samples from 14 of the 34 wells (41 percent). Eleven samples had a pH less than 6.5, and three samples had a pH greater than 8.5. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 11.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a median of 4.7 mg/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 1 mg/L in water samples from 6

  7. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.

    In June 1975, 53 men and 56 women living on commercial farms in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania were interviewed regarding their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 23% of all adults living on commercial farms in the county. A commercial farm was defined as…

  8. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Fulton County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.

    In June 1975, 47 men and 43 women living on commercial farms in Fulton County, Pennsylvania were interviewed regarding their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 39% of all adults living on commercial farms in the county. A commercial farm was defined as one that…

  9. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Juniata County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.

    In June 1975, 62 men and 64 women living on commercial farms in Juniata County, Pennsylvania were interviewed regarding their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 22% of all adults living on commercial farms in the county. A commercial farm was defined as one that…

  10. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Butler County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; Taranto, Angelo A.

    In July and August 1975, 17 men and 63 women living in rural areas in Butler County, Pennsylvania were interviewed as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents represented about 12% of all adults living on commercial farms and 5% of all rural nonfarm adults in the county. A…

  11. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. This data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water quality samples collected at this station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions and suspended-sediment concentrations. Fourteen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring rainfall event, a summer rainfall event, and a low summer base flow also are presented. 16 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Public health assessment for Malvern Tce Site, Malvern, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD014353445. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Chemclene (Malvern TCE) site is a National Priorities List (NPL) site in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 5.5 miles south of Phoenixville. Over the years, careless waste handling and waste burial have contaminated soil and groundwater with trichloroethene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Based upon the information reviewed, the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry have concluded that this site is a public health hazard because past exposures through the use of contaminated well water were at levels of public health concern. Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may still be occurring through the use of private well water, and the potential for exposure from the nearby public well exists should the contaminant plume reach that well.

  13. Effects of agricultural nutrient management on nitrogen fate and transport in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen inputs to, and outputs from, a 55-acre site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, were estimated to determine the pathways and relative magnitude of loads of nitrogen entering and leaving the site, and to compare the loads of nitrogen before and after the implementation of nutrient management. Inputs of nitrogen to the site were manure fertilizer, commercial fertilizer, nitrogen in precipitation, and nitrogen in ground-water inflow; and these sources averaged 93, 4, 2, and 1 percent of average annual nitrogen additions, respectively. Outputs of nitrogen from the site were nitrogen in harvested crops, loads of nitrogen in surface runoff, volatilization of nitrogen, and loads of nitrogen in ground-water discharge, which averaged 37, less than 1,25, and 38 percent of average annual nitrogen removals from the site, respectively. Virtually all of the nitrogen leaving the site that was not removed in harvested crops or by volatilization was discharged in the ground water. Applications of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to 47.5 acres of cropped fields decreased about 33 percent, from an average of 22,700 pounds per year (480 pounds per acre per year) before nutrient management to 15,175 pounds of nitrogen per year (320 pounds per acre per year) after the implementation of nutrient management practices. Nitrogen loads in ground-water discharged from the site decreased about 30 percent, from an average of 292 pounds of nitrogen per million gallons of ground water before nutrient management to an average of 203 pounds of nitrogen per million gallons as a result of the decreased manure and commercial fertilizer applications. Reductions in manure and commercial fertilizer applications caused a reduction of approximately 11,000 pounds (3,760 pounds per year, 70 pounds per acre per year) in the load of nitrogen discharged in ground water from the 55-acre site during the three-year period 1987-1990.

  14. Estimation of methane concentrations and loads in groundwater discharge to Sugar Run, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Risser, Dennis W.; Conger, Randall W.; Grieve, Paul L.; Hynek, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    A stream-sampling study was conducted to estimate methane concentrations and loads in groundwater discharge to a small stream in an active shale-gas development area of northeastern Pennsylvania. Grab samples collected from 15 streams in Bradford, Lycoming, Susquehanna, and Tioga Counties, Pa., during a reconnaissance survey in May and June 2013 contained dissolved methane concentrations ranging from less than the minimum reporting limit (1.0) to 68.5 micrograms per liter (µg/L). The stream-reach mass-balance method of estimating concentrations and loads of methane in groundwater discharge was applied to a 4-kilometer (km) reach of Sugar Run in Lycoming County, one of the four streams with methane concentrations greater than or equal to 5 µg/L. Three synoptic surveys of stream discharge and methane concentrations were conducted during base-flow periods in May, June, and November 2013. Stream discharge at the lower end of the reach was about 0.10, 0.04, and 0.02 cubic meters per second, respectively, and peak stream methane concentrations were about 20, 67, and 29 µg/L. In order to refine estimated amounts of groundwater discharge and locations where groundwater with methane discharges to the stream, the lower part of the study reach was targeted more precisely during the successive studies, with approximate spacing between stream sampling sites of 800 meters (m), 400 m, and 200 m, in May, June, and November, respectively. Samples collected from shallow piezometers and a seep near the location of the peak methane concentration measured in streamwater had groundwater methane concentrations of 2,300 to 4,600 µg/L. These field data, combined with one-dimensional stream-methane transport modeling, indicate groundwater methane loads of 1.8 ±0.8, 0.7 ±0.3, and 0.7 ±0.2 kilograms per day, respectively, discharging to Sugar Run. Estimated groundwater methane concentrations, based on the transport modeling, ranged from 100 to 3,200 µg/L. Although total methane load

  15. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Voortman Farm Site, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania (first remedial action) June 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-30

    The 43-acre Voortman Farm site is located in Upper Salucon Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. The site consists of a sinkhole that contained empty battery casings disposed of in late 1979 and early 1980. Citizen complaints in 1980 prompted the prohibition of dumping and subsequent site investigation. In September 1986, the battery casings in the sinkhole caught on fire. Since the battery casings were burning underground, attempts to extinguish the fire remained unsuccessful. There does not appear to be any leaching from any residual metals, contaminated soils or battery casings present. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  17. Public health assessment for Butz Landfill, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD981034705. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-29

    The Butz Landfill in Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania, was added to the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) in March 1989. Groundwater contamination downgradient of the site, with subsequent contamination of private residential wells by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), eventually led EPA to construct a potable public water supply. The major contaminants found in the private wells are 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE), 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The site posed a past public health hazard because people were exposed to contaminated groundwater.

  18. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  19. Historical trends and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Town, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Brandywine Creek in Chester County is used for recreation and as an important source of drinking water. For this study, 40 sites were established for collection of water samples for analysis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in 1998-99. Samples were collected during base-flow conditions and during five storms in which rainfall exceeded 0.5 inch. During base- flow conditions, the median concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 col/100 mL at 26 of the 40 sites (65 percent). During stormflow conditions, the median concentration of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) criterion of 200 col/100 mL at 30 of 33 sites sampled (91 percent). Trends in fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were downward for the period 1973-99 at three long-term water-quality monitor stations, the result of upgrades in wastewater treatment plants, decreases in point-source discharges, and a decrease in agricultural land. A positive relation exists between streamflow and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria at two of the long-term stations, but concentrations are elevated in base flow and stormflow at all three stations. Factors affecting bacteria concentrations in the Brandywine Creek Basin include nonpoint-source contaminants, reservoirs, seasonality, and stormflow. Nonpoint sources of bacterial contamination in the basin include, but are not limited to, land-surface runoff, urbanization, agricultural processes, groundwater contamination, and wildlife. Bacteria concentrations in streams that flow directly from the reservoirs are much lower than the concentrations in the streams flowing into the reservoirs. During March, April, May, October, and November, the Brandywine Creek tends to have lower water temperatures and bacteria concentrations than during June, July, August, and September. The 10-year median concentrations of bacteria at West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena and East Branch

  20. Modeling to Predict Escherichia coli at Presque Isle Beach 2, City of Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Lake Erie beaches in Pennsylvania are a valuable recreational resource for Erie County. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at monitored beaches in Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pa., occasionally exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters resulting in potentially unsafe swimming conditions and prompting beach managers to post public advisories or to close beaches to recreation. To supplement the current method for assessing recreational water quality (E. coli concentrations from the previous day), a predictive regression model for E. coli concentrations at Presque Isle Beach 2 was developed from data collected during the 2004 and 2005 recreational seasons. Model output included predicted E. coli concentrations and exceedance probabilities--the probability that E. coli concentrations would exceed the standard. For this study, E. coli concentrations and other water-quality and environmental data were collected during the 2006 recreational season at Presque Isle Beach 2. The data from 2006, an independent year, were used to test (validate) the 2004-2005 predictive regression model and compare the model performance to the current method. Using 2006 data, the 2004-2005 model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedances of the standard than the use of E. coli concentrations from the previous day. The differences were not pronounced, however, and more data are needed. For example, the model correctly predicted exceedances of the standard 11 percent of the time (1 out of 9 exceedances that occurred in 2006) whereas using the E. coli concentrations from the previous day did not result in any correctly predicted exceedances. After validation, new models were developed by adding the 2006 data to the 2004-2005 dataset and by analyzing the data in 2- and 3-year combinations. Results showed that excluding the 2004 data (using 2005 and 2006 data only) yielded the best model. Explanatory variables in the

  1. 78 FR 36716 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Philadelphia County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...: The proposed rule published on August 26, 2008 (73 FR 50270) is withdrawn as of July 19, 2013. Written... and economic feasibility (See 72 FR 20586 at 20610, April 25, 2007). Section 172(c)(1) of the CAA... area. See 56 FR 56694, at 56822 (November 6, 1991). The entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is...

  2. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface, December 6, 1994, in the carbonate rocks in part of East Whiteland and Charlestown townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, B.C.; Sloto, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in the carbonate rocks in part of East Whiteland and Charlestown Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in 64 wells on December 6, 1994. Observed water-level altitudes range from 226 feet above sea level near Morehall Road to 400 feet above sea level near State Route 401 in East Whiteland Township.

  3. Health Education Needs: A Survey of Rural Adults in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, 1975. An Interim Report. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadley, Samuel M.; Taranto, Angelo A.

    In July and August 1975, 138 rural residents of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania were interviewed as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the prevention of cancer and coronary heart disease. Respondents were selected by interviewing an adult living on a commercial farm (a farm that either sold $10,000 or more produce per year or the…

  4. Relationship between Prevailing Redox Conditions, Water Type, Topographic Location and Methane Concentrations in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molofsky, L. J.; McHugh, T. E.; Connor, J. A.; Richardson, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Historical occurrence of methane in residential water wells in parts of the Appalachian basin (Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia) has long been recognized as a natural phenomenon. The recent increase in shale gas extraction activities in these areas has highlighted the need to distinguish between baseline methane concentrations and those that may results from gas extraction activities. For the first time, this study shows that natural dissolved methane in Northeastern Pennsylvania exhibits a relationship with prevailing redox conditions of groundwater, though this relationship is not entirely as predicted. Specifically, methane concentrations in 806 pre-drill samples from residential water wells in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania, were found to be highest in samples with low SO4 concentrations but low Fe(II) concentrations. This is opposite from what would be expected if high methane concentrations were associated with a reduction of insoluble Fe(III)-minerals resulting in the release of soluble Fe(II) (and therefore, an increase in measurable dissolved iron). The water type (i.e., Na-rich vs. Ca-rich), and topographic location (i.e., valley vs. upland) was also evaluated for each of the prevailing redox states to identify associations and potential driving factors. Based on this information, this talk identifies a combination of easily identifiable natural environmental "risk" factors (i.e., advanced redox state, Na-rich water type, and valley setting) that are highly predictive of naturally elevated methane concentrations in water wells. These findings highlight simple and meaningful relationships that may be used to infer whether methane in residential water sources is natural or associated with stray gas migration.

  5. Drought-Trigger Ground-Water Levels in Chester County, Pennsylvania, for the Period of Record Ending May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), to update the drought-trigger water levels for the Chester County observation-well network. The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the CCWRA and the USGS to monitor local ground-water levels and trends and to determine drought conditions. In 1990 and again in 1997, drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for the majority of wells in the existing Chester County observation-well network of 23 wells. Since 1997, the Chester County observation-well network expanded to 29 wells, some of the original wells were destroyed, and additional monthly water-level observations were made to allow for better statistical relations. Because of these changes, new statistics for water-level triggers were required. For this study, 19 of the 29 wells in the observation-well network were used to compute drought-trigger water levels. An additional 'drought-watch water-level trigger' category was developed to make the Chester County drought-trigger water-level categories consistent with those implemented by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP). The three drought-trigger water-level categories, as defined by PaDEP are 1) 'drought watch' when at the 75th-percentile level; 2) 'drought warning' when at the 90th-percentile level; and 3) 'drought emergency' when at the 95th-percentile level. A revised methodology, resulting from longer periods of record representing ground-water and climatic conditions and changes in local water use, has resulted in some observed differences in drought-trigger water levels. A comparison of current drought-trigger water levels to those calculated in 1997 shows the largest mean annual change in percentile values was in northeastern Chester County. In this northeastern region, the

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania (second remedial action), June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    The Douglassville Disposal site occupies approximately 50 acres of land in Union Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. It is almost entirely within the 100-year floodplain of the Schuylkill River. In 1941, Berks Associates began recycling lubrication oil at the site; waste solvents were recycled in the 1950s and 1960s. Wastes generated from those recycling processes were stored in onsite lagoons from 1941 until 1972. In November 1970, heavy rains caused the lagoons to overflow and release 1,000,000 - 3,000,000 gallons of wastes down the Schuylkill River. Operations then turned to the practice of refining waste oils for use as fuel in industrial boilers. Beginning in 1979, oily waste sludge from the new recycling process was landfarmed onsite.

  7. Impact of flood control reservoirs and pollution influx on the Sandy Creek Watershed, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Fred J.; Kanour, William; Weston, Bruce; Valerio, Gerald; Grayburn, Kenneth R.

    1986-03-01

    A study of the impact of two flood control reservoirs and pollution influx was conducted on two streams within the Sandy Creek Watershed, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, USA. Fecal coliforms were significantly reduced in the outflows without affecting water chemistry, thereby improving the overall water quality. The size and composition of the aquatic communities as well as stream metabolism varied seasonably among the different sampling stations. Pollution influx primarily from communities and agricultural drainage had a greater impact on the stream ecosystem than did impounding of the streams. Natural wetlands and riparian vegetation were important factors in reducing the pollution load in these streams. The reestablishment and maintenance of riparian vegetation should therefore be an integral part of the land-use plan for watersheds in order to improve water quality and wildlife habitats. In the future, the maintenance of riparian vegetation should be given prime consideration in the development of watershed projects.

  8. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data were collected throughout the Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 through November 1988, to determine the existing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. This data will assist the Pennsylvanian Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal mine permit applications. A water quality station near the mouth of Little Clearfield Creek provided continuous record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water quality samples collected at this station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations, and suspended sediment concentrations. Seventeen partial record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring storm event, a low summer base flow, and a more moderate summer base flow also are presented. 16 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Health assessment for Welsh Landfill, Honeybrook, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980829527. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-24

    The Welsh Landfill site (AKA Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill) National Priorities List site is located near the top of Welsh Mountain, Honey Brook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. The landfill was operated as an unpermitted solid waste disposal facility from 1963-1977 and is currently operated as a waste transfer station. Environmental pathways for the migration of site-contaminants to off-site areas include those associated with groundwater and surface and subsurface soil. Human exposure to site contaminants may occur through ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, dusts or volatilized contaminants. The proposed remediation of the site by EPA should eliminate or significantly reduce the potential for the completion of human exposure pathways to site contaminants by capping the site and supplying public water to affected residences. This site is considered a public health hazard because of past exposure to site contaminants by individuals.

  10. Ground-water levels in the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks, southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania, July and August 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garges, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A water table contour map of the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks of southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania was constructed on the basis of water levels measured in 261 wells in July and August 1986, elevations of 11 springs that were flowing in July and August 1986, and water levels measured in 15 wells. Pre-1986 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more-recent data were not available. The area of crystalline rocks underlies Thornbury, Westtown, East Goshen, and West Goshen Townships, parts of East Whiteland and West Whiteland Townships; and West Chester Borough. Water table altitudes under natural conditions range from 544 ft. above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of 1929) near Immaculata College to 234 ft. above NGVD of 1929 near Cheyney College. (USGS)

  11. Availability of coal in the Hackett 7.5-minute quadrangle, Washington County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, L.J.; Neubaum, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    Coal has been extensively mined in Pennsylvania and elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin over the last 100 years. In an attempt to better define what coal is left, a new approach to quantifying resources, rooted in modern environmental and technological constraints, was needed. The Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, embarked in 1993 upon a series of six quadrangle studies for Pennsylvania to provide information about coal resources still accessible to mining. Using our data residing on the United States Geological Survey`s National Coal Resources Data System computer to compute resources for the Hackett 7.5-minute quadrangle, the available coal for the four principally mined seams in the area (the Pittsburgh, Redstone, Waynesburg, and Waynesburg A coals) could be determined by subtracting out mined-out areas from in-place coal to give remaining coal, and then subtracting land-use and technological restrictions to mining, such as wetlands, and subsidence waivers, respectively, from the remaining coal. Results of the study found that the amount of coal available for mining varied from 26 to 70 percent. it is felt by the authors that this quadrangle is typical of the mature nature of this mining region for this part of the geologic section, and that similar results might be expected for the other quadrangles to be studied in southwestern Pennsylvania.

  12. Eastern Gas Shales Project: Pennsylvania No. 4 well, Indiana County. Phase III report, summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    This summary presents a detailed characterization of the Devonian Shale occurrence in the EGSP-Pennsylvania No. 4 well. Information provided includes a stratigraphic summary and lithology and fracture analyses resulting from detailed core examinations and geophysical log interpretations at the EGSP Core Laboratory. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing at Michigan Technological University are also summarized; the results of physical properties testing are dealt with in detail in the accompanying report. The data presented was obtained from the study of approximately 891 feet of core retrieved from a well drilled in Indiana County of west-central Pennsylvania.

  13. Eastern Gas Shales Project: Pennsylvania No. 5 well, Lawrence County. Phase III report, summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    This summary presents a detailed characterization of the Devonian Shale occurrence in the EGSP-Pennsylvania No. 5 well. Information provided includes a stratigraphic summary and lithology and fracture analyses resulting from detailed core examinations and geophysical log interpretations at the EGSP Core Laboratory. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing at Michigan Technology University are also summarized; the results of physical properties testing are dealt with in detail in the accompanying report. The data presented was obtained from the study of approximately 604 feet of core retrieved from a well drilled in Lawrence County of west-central Pennsylvania.

  14. Eastern Gas Shales Project: Pennsylvania No. 1 well, McKean County. Phase III report, summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    This summary presents a detailed characterization of the Devonian Shale occurrence in the EGSP-Pennsylvania No. 1 well. Information provided includes a stratigraphic summary and lithology and fracture analyses resulting from detailed core examinations and geophysical log interpretations at the EGSP Core Laboratory. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing at Michigan Technological University are also summarized; the results of physical properties testing are dealt with in detail in the accompanying report. The data presented was obtained from the study of approximately 741 feet of core retrieved from a well drilled in MeKean County of north-central Pennsylvania.

  15. Eastern Gas Shales Project: Pennsylvania No. 3 well, Erie County. Phase III report, summary of laboratory analyses and mechanical characterization results

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    This summary presents a detailed characterization of the Devonian Shale occurrence in the EGSP-Pennsylvania No. 3 well. Information provided includes a stratigraphic summary and lithology and fracture analyses resulting from detailed core examinations and geophysical log interpretations at the EGSP Core Laboratory. Plane of weakness orientations stemming from a program of physical properties testing at Michigan Technological University are also summarized; the results of physical properties testing are dealt with in detail in the accompanying report. This data presented was obtained from the study of approximately 422 feet of core retrieved from a well drilled in Erie County of north-western Pennsylvania.

  16. Effect of urbanization on the water resources of eastern Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of human activity on the water resources of a 207-square-mile area of eastern Chester County was evaluated. The most serious consequence of urbanization is the contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds, which were detected in 39 percent of the 70 wells sampled. As many as nine compounds were found in one water sample, and the concentration of total volatile organic compounds was as high as 17,400 ug/L (micrograms per liter). In the Chester Valley, volatile organic compounds are moving down the hydraulic gradient caused by quarry dewatering. Movement through the quarries reduces concentrations of these compounds and removes most of them. Phenol was detected in 28 percent of 54 wells sampled, with concentrations up to 7 ug/L. Metals, except for iron and manganese, and other trace constituents generally are not a water-quality problem. However, ground water in an area in Chester Valley has been contaminated by concentrations of boron as high as 20,000 ug/L and lithium as high as 13,000 ug/L. The ground water discharges to Valley Creek, where concentrations of boron are as high as 130 ug/L and lithium as high as 800 ug/L. Concentrations of chloride as high as 2,100 mg/L (milligrams per liter) were found in a well at a former highway salt storage site. Wells completed in carbonate rock downgradient from the Pennsylvania Turnpike had chloride concentrations as high as 350 mg/L. The base-neutral organic compounds bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and the pesticides alachlor, aldrian, diazanon, DDD, DDT, dieldrin, methyl parathion, picloram, and 2,4-D were detected in a few water samples in low concentrations, However, these organic compounds do not present a widespread water-quality problem. Neither acid organic compounds nor polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN) were detected in ground water. The growth of public water and sewer systems has resulted in a significant interbasin transfer of water

  17. Ground-water resources of the South Platte River Basin in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Rex O.; Schneider, P.A.; Petri, Lester R.

    1964-01-01

    The area described in this report consists of about 970 square miles in western Adams and southwestern Weld Counties in northeastern Colorado. It includes that part of the South Platte River valley between Denver and Kuner, Colo., all of Beebe Draw, and the lower part of the valley of Box Elder Creek. The stream-valley lowlands are separated by rolling uplands. The climate is semiarid, the normal annual precipitation being about 13 inches; thus, irrigation is essential for stable agricultural development. The area contains about 220,000 acres of irrigated land in the stream valleys. Most of the remaining 400,000 acres of land is used for dry farming or grazing because it lacks irrigation water. Most of the lowlands were brought under irrigation with surface water during the early 1900's, and now nearly all the surface water in the area is appropriated for irrigation within and downstream from the area. Because the natural flow of the streams is sometimes less than the demand for water, ground water is used to supplement the surface-water supply. Wells, drilled chiefly since 1930, supply the supplemental water and in some places are the sole supply for irrigation use. Rocks exposed in the area are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Lato Cretaceous to Recent. Those that are consolidated, called 'bedrock' in this report, consist of the Fox Hills sandstone and the Laramie and Arapahoe formations, all of Late Cretaceous age, and the Denver formation and Dawson arkose of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The surface of the bedrock was shaped by ancestral streams, the valleys of which are reflected by the present surface topography. Dune sand, slope wash, and thin upland deposits of Quaternary age mantle the bedrock in the divide areas, and stream deposits ranging in thickness from 0 to about 125 feet partly fill the ancestral valleys. The valley-fill deposits consist of beds and lenses of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Abundant supplies of

  18. Air monitoring of volatile organic compounds at relevant receptors during hydraulic fracturing operations in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Hynds, Erin S; Panko, Julie M

    2016-07-01

    A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected. The ambient air at both sites was monitored during four distinct periods of unconventional natural gas extraction activity: an inactive period prior to fracturing operations, during fracturing operations, during flaring operations, and during another inactive period after operations. The results of the continuous monitoring during fracturing and flaring sampling periods for total volatile organic compounds were similar to the results obtained during inactive periods. Total volatile organic compound 24-hour average concentrations ranged between 0.16 and 80 ppb during all sampling periods. Several individual volatile compounds were detected in the 24-hour samples, but they were consistent with background atmospheric levels measured previously at nearby sampling sites and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation demonstrated that the detected volatile organic compounds were well below health-protective levels. The primary finding of this study was that the operation of a hydraulic fracturing well pad in Washington County did not substantially affect local air concentrations of total and individual volatile organic compounds. PMID:27312253

  19. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  20. Identification of potential water-bearing zones by the use of borehole geophysics in the vicinity of Keystone Sanitation Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania and Carroll County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April 23, 1996, and June 21, 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contracted Haliburton-NUS, Inc., to drill four clusters of three monitoring wells near the Keystone Sanitation Superfund Site. The purpose of the wells is to allow monitoring and sampling of shallow, intermediate, and deep waterbearing zones for the purpose of determining the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from the Keystone Site. Twelve monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 50 to 397.9 feet below land surface, were drilled in the vicinity of the Keystone Site. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical logging and determined, with geophysical logs and other available data, the ideal intervals to be screened in each well. Geophysical logs were run on four intermediate and four deep wells, and a caliper log only was run on shallow well CL-AD-173 (HN-1S). Interpretation of geophysical logs and existing data determined the placement of screens within each borehole.

  1. 77 FR 71139 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Glass Melting Furnaces AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... oxides (NO X ) emissions from glass melting furnaces to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD... related definitions for controlling NO X emissions from glass melting furnaces. The SIP revision is...

  2. Health status indicators for the year 2000: projections for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, C A; Zucconi, S L

    1993-01-01

    A consensus set of health status indicators was released in July 1991 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for use by public health officials at the Federal, State, and local levels in identifying and monitoring issues of public health importance. These health status indicators have been projected for the Year 2000 in Allegheny County, PA, with linear regression analyses of historical data. Indications are that mortality rates for black infants, breast cancer mortality, suicide, lung cancer mortality, incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and the number of measles cases likely will not meet the year 2000 targets in Allegheny County. These data will prove useful in monitoring progress towards the year 2000 objectives and provide comparative data for other geographic areas of the United States with similar demographic characteristics. PMID:8265755

  3. Investigation of Japanese fleeceflower (Polygonum cuspidatum) planted on strip mines in Clarion and Venango Counties, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.G.; Sitler, T.R.; Balogh, R.A.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    Japanese fleeceflower (Polygonum cuspidatum), because of its rapid growth, extensive fibrous root system, and spreading deciduous branches, coupled with its ability to grow vigorously in rocky soils of low pH, is well suited for pioneer revegetation of strip-mine spoil. It has, however, been classified as an undesirable species by the USDA Soil Conservation Service because of its rapidly-spreading nature. During the last decade at Clarion State College, Clarion, Pennsylvania, several areas of study concerning Polygonum cuspidatum have been conducted. The remainder of this paper will elaborate on the following observations: 1) herbaceous grass cover of 5%, and greater, completely-prevented fleeceflower invasion, 2) fleeceflower was successfully underplanted with seedlings of sugar maple, white and gray birch, and 3) fleeceflower cover is shown to provide the best microhabitat for its own seedlings. The fleeceflower in these studies has been overtopped by birch and aspen. Preliminary observations indicate that there is a definite response, possibly adverse, in the growth habits of fleeceflower, due to the increasing shade. It may be possible to demonstrate that fleeceflower can be crowded out, or at least stultified, by overtopping. If this is true, then fleeceflower may be useful as a seral stage, leading to the reforestation of unreproductive, abandoned strip-mine lands.

  4. Geochemistry of metastable carbonate minerals from the Brush Creek marine interval (Missourian), Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.; Kime, A.; Mutchler, S.; Rittle, K. )

    1991-08-01

    Many marine fossils from the Missourian Brush Creek interval of western Pennsylvania display partial preservation of metastable aragonite and high-magnesium calcite shell material. Bivalve mollusks have been shown by x-ray diffraction to contain as much as 96% aragonite, with lesser amounts of both high-magnesium and low-magnesium calcite. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios from these bivalves suggest they precipitated in equilibrium with Pennsylvanian ocean water. The bellerophontid Pharkidonotus, which exhibits partial recrystallization textures under scanning electron microscopy, consists of 45% aragonite and 55% low-magnesium calcite, and has slightly more depleted isotopic values than bivalves. Crinoids also appear to have been partially recrystallized, resulting in a mixture of primary high-magnesium calcite and secondary low-magnesium calcite and microdolomite, with much of the original shell structure still preserved. The degree of preservation of metastable carbonate minerals varies both stratigraphically and spatially within the Brush Creek interval. Maximum preservation occurs in organic-rich shales deposited in low-lying areas of the Brush Creek sea floor. The preservation of aragonite and high-magnesium calcite in such units may have resulted from a lack of circulating porewater during early diagenesis.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Douglassville Disposal Site occupies approximately 50 acres of land along the southern bank of the Schuylkill River in southeastern Berks County, Union Township, Pennsylvania. Site operations included lubricating-oil recycling in 1941 and waste solvents recycling in the 1950's and 1960's. Wastes generated from these operations were stored in several lagoons located in the northern half of the site until 1972. In November 1970, ten days of heavy rain caused the lagoons to overflow and breach safety dikes releasing 2-3 million gallons of wastes. The dikes were repaired and a Federal decree was issued stating that no more waste material was to be stored in the lagoons. Actions were also initiated to dispose of remaining waste materials. Before the action could be carried out, tropical storm Agnes caused the Schuylkill River to overflow its banks and inundate the entire site. An estimated 6 to 8 million gallons of wastes were released and carried downstream by floodwaters for about 15 miles.

  6. A reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Allegheny Front and Hickory Creek Roadless Areas, Allegheny National Forest, Warren County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickling, N.L.; Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Adrian, Betty M.

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Allegheny Front and Hickory Creek Roadless Areas, Warren County, Pennsylvania, was made by members of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to test for indistinct or unexposed mineral deposits that might be recognized by geochemical halos. Analyses using semiquantitative emission spectrography and atomic absorption for 32 elements were performed on 21 stream-sediment samples and 31 bedrock samples from the Allegheny Front tract, and on 23 stream-sediment samples and 6 bedrock samples from the Hickory Creek tract. Bedrock samples analyzed are primarily sandstone, siltstone and shale. Neither major chemical anomalies nor obviously anomalous chemical-element concentrations related to mineralized bedrock were indicated in the geochemical survey. Metallic mineral deposits were not identified in the study area during the survey, which is consistent with other studies reported in the literature for the surrounding region. The lithologic units exposed in the roadless areas do not commonly host metallic deposits in the surrounding region, and the probability is low that such deposits occur in the roadless areas.

  7. Groundwater-quality monitoring program in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1980-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department began a groundwater-quality monitoring program in 1980 in Chester County, Pa., where a large percentage of the population relies on wells for drinking-water supply. This report documents the program and serves as a reference for data collected through the program from 1980 through 2008. The initial focus of the program was to collect data on groundwater quality near suspected localized sources of contamination, such as uncontrolled landfills and suspected industrial wastes, to determine if contaminants were present that might pose a health risk to those using the groundwater. Subsequently, the program was expanded to address the effects of widely distributed contaminant sources associated with agricultural and residential land uses on groundwater quality and to document naturally occurring constituents, such as radium, radon, and arsenic, that are potential hazards in drinking water. Since 2000, base-flow stream samples have been collected in addition to well-water and spring samples in a few small drainage areas to investigate the relation between groundwater quality measured in well samples and streams. The program has primarily consisted of spatial assessment with limited temporal data collected on groundwater quality. Most data were collected through the monitoring program for reconnaissance purposes to identify and locate groundwater-quality problems and generally were not intended for rigorous statistical analyses that might determine land-use or geochemical factors affecting groundwater quality in space or through time. Results of the program found several contaminants associated with various land uses and human activities in groundwater in Chester County. Volatile organic compounds (such as trichloroethylene) were measured in groundwater near suspected localized contaminant sources in concentrations that exceeded drinking

  8. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lauren A; Maloney, Kelly O

    2016-10-01

    Pennsylvania's rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development-from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013-has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county's road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m(3) and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1-6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3-1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development's spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste. PMID:27393942

  9. Public health assessment for crossley farm/Hereford groundwater, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981740061. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The report describes an illegal waste disposal site in east central Pennsylvania and its effect on groundwater in the area surrounding the site. The Crossley Farm (Hereford Groundwater) site is in the Huffs Church community of Hereford Township, Berks County. Illegal waste disposal activities reportedly occurred at the site from the mid-1960's to mid-1970's. About 250 residents live hydrogeological downgradient of the site (within two miles) and another 200 live within one-half mile upgradient of the site. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources has collected groundwater samples in 1983 and the EPA has collected samples in 1986. The estimated exposures are to substances (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in particular) in groundwater at concentrations that with long-term exposure can cause adverse health effects to the population.

  10. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open File Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 through November 1988, to determine the existing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Little Clearfield Creek provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Seventeen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water-quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring storm event, a low summer base flow, and a more moderate summer base flow also are presented.

  11. Environmental setting, water budget, and stream assessment for the Broad Run watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.

    2005-01-01

    The Broad Run watershed lies almost entirely in West Bradford Township, Chester County, Pa., and drains 7.08 square miles to the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Because of the potential effect of encroaching development and other stresses on the Broad Run watershed, West Bradford Township, the Chester County Water Resources Authority, and the Chester County Health Department entered into a cooperative study with the U.S. Geological Survey to complete an annual water budget and stream assessment of overall conditions. The annual water budget quantified the basic parameters of the hydrologic cycle for the climatic conditions present from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2004. These water-budget data identified immediate needs and (or) deficits that were present within the hydrologic cycle during that period, if present; however, an annual water budget encompassing a single year does not identify long-term trends. The stream assessment was conducted in two parts and assessed the overall condition of the watershed, an overall assessment of the fluvial-geomorphic conditions within the watershed and an overall assessment of the stream-quality conditions. The data collected will document present (2004) conditions and identify potential vulnerabilities to future disturbances. For the annual period from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2004, determination of an annual water budget indicated that of the 67.8 inches of precipitation that fell on the Broad Run watershed, 38.8 inches drained by way of streamflow to the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Of this 38.8 inches of streamflow, local-minimum hydrograph separation techniques determined that 7.30 inches originated from direct runoff and 31.5 inches originated from base flow. The remaining precipitation went into ground-water storage (1.71 inches) and was lost to evapotranspiration (27.3 inches). Ground-water recharge for this period-35.2 inches-was based on these values and an estimated ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2 inches

  12. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  13. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs at the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund site, Mercer County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    On April 14?15, 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in five open-borehole wells in and adjacent to the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund Site, Mercer County, Pa. Geophysical-logging tools used included caliper, natural gamma, single-point resistance, fluid temperature, and heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to determine casing depth, locate subsurface fractures, identify water-bearing fractures, and identify and measure direction and rate of vertical flow within the borehole. The results of the geophysical logging were used to determine the placement of borehole screens, which allows monitoring of water levels and sampling of water-bearing zones so that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can conduct an investigation of contaminant movement in the fractured bedrock. Water-bearing zones were identified in three of five boreholes at depths ranging from 46 to 119 feet below land surface. Borehole MR-3310 (MW03D) showed upward vertical flow from 71 to 74 feet below land surface to a receiving zone at 63-68 feet below land surface, permitting potential movement of ground water, and possibly contaminants, from deep to shallow zones. No vertical flow was measured in the other four boreholes.

  14. A Habitat Suitability Model for Selected Crayfish Species in Lancaster County,Pennsylvania, Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverty, S.; Buchanan, R.; Wagner, J.; Wallace, J.; Perry, B.

    2005-05-01

    The introduction of invasive exotic species to previously inaccessible areas provides the opportunity to study the impacts of invasive species on closely related native species. Habitat suitability index [HSI] models offer a coarse estimate of the habitat quality relative to hypothesized physiological tolerances of a species. The distribution and abundance of two native [Orconectes obscurus and Cambarus bartonii] and one invasive [Orconectes rusticus] crayfish along a twenty-three mile length of a Lancaster County, PA, stream and various physical factors at the sample sites were provided by a recent survey (Wagner et.al. unpublished). Of the factors provided, stream width, velocity, pH, and temperature were considered as the factors defining the geographic range of each species. An HSI model was constructed based on these factors to identify regions offering suitable habitat for a species and areas of a stream which are at risk for invasion of O. rusticus. Current work involves the development of subindices describing the availability of food and shelter within the stream, using stream order, link magnitude, and substrate measurements. The HSI model will be coupled to a model describing the interactions between size-structured populations of native and invasive species under the influence of a predator.

  15. Sediment discharge from an area of highway construction, Applemans Run basin, Columbia County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of highway construction on stream sediment loads were studied in Applemans Run basin, Columbia County, Pa., from October 1971 to May 1974. During the investigations, about 5,200 tons of suspended-sediment were discharged from the basin. Of this amount, about 2,700 tons, or about half the total sediment discharge, as derived from the highway construction area. Annual suspended-sediment yields from 17.5 acres under construction ranged from 40,000 to 66,000 tons/sq mi in the 1972 and 1973 water years, respectively. In the 1972 and 1973 er years of active construction, 83 percent of the sediment transported from the construction site was eroded each year in storms from January to June. Seasonal trends in sediment discharge for 1972 show that 69 percent of that year 's suspended-load was transported in April, May, and June, whereas less than 1 percent was transported in July, August, and September. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin. West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  18. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; McManus, B. Craig

    1996-01-01

    Valley Forge National Historical Park is just southwest of the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) National Priorities List (Superfund) Site, a source of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water. The 7.5-square-mile study area includes the part of the park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa., and surrounding vicinity. The park is underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Upper Triassic age stockton Formation. A potentiometric-surface map constructed from water levels measured in 59 wells shows a cone of depression, approximately 0.5 mile in diameter, centered near the CSG Site. The cone of depression is caused by the pumping of six public supply wells. A ground-water divide between the cone of depression and Valley Forge National Historical Park provides a hydraulic barrier to the flow of ground water and contaminants from the CSG Site to the park. If pumping in the cone of depression was to cease, water levels would recover, and the ground-water divide would shift to the north. A hydraulic gradient between the CSG Site and the Schuylkill River would be established, causing contaminated ground water to flow to the park. Water samples were collected from 12 wells within the park boundary and 9 wells between the park boundary and the ground-water divide to the north of the park. All water samples were analyzed for physical properties (field determinations), nutrients, common ions, metals and other trace constituents, and VOC's. Water samples from the 12 wells inside the park boundary also were analyzed for pesticides. Concentrations of inorganic constituents in the water samples did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. Very low concentrations of organic compounds were detected in some of the water samples. VOC's were detected in water from 76 percent of the wells sampled; the maximum concentration detected was 5.8 micrograms per liter of chloroform. The most commonly detected VOC was

  19. Effect of urbanization on the water resources of Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Davis, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    median and the median in nearby Chester County. High concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids in ground water are probably caused by restricted gournd-water circulation and may be reduced by long-term pumping, which flushes the aquifer. Effluent from sewage treatment plants has degraded the quality of low streamflow.

  20. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Valley and West Brandywine townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May 1992 through August 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGovern, J.E.; Bossert, April; Wettstein, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Valley and West Brandywine Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in wells from May 1992 through August 1993. Pre-1992 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more recent data were not available. Because little ground-water development has occurred in the areas where pre-1992 water levels were used, levels are assumed to be the same in 1992 and 1993 as they were when the measurement was made.

  1. Proximity to Natural Gas Wells and Reported Health Status: Results of a Household Survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Lamers, Vanessa; Trufan, Sally J.; Holford, Theodore R.; Dziura, James D.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Kane, Michael J.; Reif, John S.; Weiss, Theresa R.; Stowe, Meredith H.

    2014-01-01

    of specific air and water exposures, is warranted. Citation: Rabinowitz PM, Slizovskiy IB, Lamers V, Trufan SJ, Holford TR, Dziura JD, Peduzzi PN, Kane MJ, Reif JS, Weiss TR, Stowe MH. 2015. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 123:21–26; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307732 PMID:25204871

  2. Monitoring and modeling to predict Escherichia coli at Presque Isle Beach 2, City of Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lake Erie shoreline in Pennsylvania spans nearly 40 miles and is a valuable recreational resource for Erie County. Nearly 7 miles of the Lake Erie shoreline lies within Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pa. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria at permitted Presque Isle beaches occasionally exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard, resulting in unsafe swimming conditions and closure of the beaches. E. coli concentrations and other water-quality and environmental data collected at Presque Isle Beach 2 during the 2004 and 2005 recreational seasons were used to develop models using tobit regression analyses to predict E. coli concentrations. All variables statistically related to E. coli concentrations were included in the initial regression analyses, and after several iterations, only those explanatory variables that made the models significantly better at predicting E. coli concentrations were included in the final models. Regression models were developed using data from 2004, 2005, and the combined 2-year dataset. Variables in the 2004 model and the combined 2004-2005 model were log10 turbidity, rain weight, wave height (calculated), and wind direction. Variables in the 2005 model were log10 turbidity and wind direction. Explanatory variables not included in the final models were water temperature, streamflow, wind speed, and current speed; model results indicated these variables did not meet significance criteria at the 95-percent confidence level (probabilities were greater than 0.05). The predicted E. coli concentrations produced by the models were used to develop probabilities that concentrations would exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard for E. coli of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters. Analysis of the exceedence probabilities helped determine a threshold probability for each model, chosen such that the correct number of exceedences and nonexceedences was maximized and the number of false positives and false negatives was

  3. Photograph of photogrammetric plate LCHABSGS11IL1124S06R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS11-IL-1124-S06R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, UPPER LEVEL, INCLINED 30; Upper right section of elevation - Phelps-Dodge-Palmer Building, 200 West Adams Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Photograph of photogrammetric plate LCHABSGS11IL1124S02R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS11-IL-1124-S02R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, GROUND LEVEL Lower right section of elevation - Phelps-Dodge-Palmer Building, 200 West Adams Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Photograph of photogrammetric plate LCHABSGS11IL1124S04R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS11-IL-1124-S04R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, UPPER LEVEL Middle right section of elevation - Phelps-Dodge-Palmer Building, 200 West Adams Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Photograph of photogrammetric plate LCHABSGS11IL1124S05R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS11-IL-1124-S05R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, UPPER LEVEL, INCLINED 30; Upper left section of elevation - Phelps-Dodge-Palmer Building, 200 West Adams Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. Photograph of photogrammetric plate LCHABSGS11IL1124S01R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS11-IL-1124-S01R. SOUTH (ADAMS STREET) ELEVATION, GROUND LEVEL Lower left section of elevation - Phelps-Dodge-Palmer Building, 200 West Adams Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. Factors affecting phosphorus transport at a conventionally-farmed site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land and Water Conservation of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a cooperative study to determine the effects of manure application and antecedent soil-phosphorus concentrations on the transport of phosphorus from the soil of a typical farm site in Lancaster County, Pa., from September 1992 to March 1995. The relation between concentrations of soil phosphorus and phosphorus transport needs to be identified because excessive phosphorus concentrations in surface-water bodies promote eutrophication. The objective of the study was to quantify and determine the significance of chemical, physical, and hydrologic factors that affected phosphorus transport. Three study plots less than 1 acre in size were tilled and planted in silage corn. Phosphorus in the form of liquid swine and dairy manure was injected to a depth of 6-8 inches on two of the three study plots in May 1993 and May 1994. Plot 1 received no inputs of phosphorus from manure while plots 2 and 3 received an average of 56 and 126 kilograms of phosphorus per acre, respectively, from the two manure applications. No other fertilizer was applied to any of the study plots. From March 30, 1993, through December 31, 1993, and March 10, 1994, through August 31, 1994 (the study period), phosphorus and selected cations were measured in precipitation, manure, soil, surface runoff, subsurface flow (at 18 inches below land surface), and corn plants before harvest. All storm events that yielded surface runoff and subsurface flow were sampled. Surface runoff was analyzed for dissolved (filtered through a 0.45-micron filter) and total concentrations. Subsurface flow was only analyzed for dissolved constituents. Laboratory soil-flask experiments and geochemical modeling were conducted to determine the maximum phosphate retention capacity of sampled soils after manure applications and primary mineralogic controls in the soils that affect phosphate

  9. Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and Selected Tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  10. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  11. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to weathering, resulting in topographic highs coupled with steep, narrow valleys. This rugged topography results in extensive surface runoff, which limits infiltration and hence recharge to the shallow and deep ground-water systems. Streams that flow through the study area generally are small and ephemeral. Where perennial, the streams represent areas of ground-water discharge. Thickness of the overlying mantle (regolith or depth to bedrock) varies from 0 to more than 65 feet over short distances. In general, a thick regolith will store and transmit large quantities of water to the underlying bedrock aquifers. In the study area, however, there is no correlation between thick regolith and greater reported yields. Thus, it appears that the hydraulic connection between water-bearing fractures at depth and ground water stored in the regolith is poor, which further limits ground-water availability. Recharge to the bedrock aquifers from the approximately 46 inches of annual precipitation aver-ages about 13 inches per year, or 975 gallons per day per acre. During drought years, however, this recharge rate may average only 9 inches per year [675 gallons per day per acre]. Decreased recharge to the bedrock aquifers results in declining water levels and possibly dry wells, as well as reduced flows to streams and other surface-water bodies. Although the consumptive use of ground water by homeowners is minor (about 14 percent), the pumping of a well will change the natural flow paths of ground water and reduce the amount of water stored (at least temporarily) in the bedrock aquifers.

  12. What's an Adam's Apple?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  13. 8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Geohydrologic and water-quality characterization of a fractured-bedrock test hole in an area of Marcellus shale gas development, Bradford County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Williams, John H.; Hand, Kristen L.; Behr, Rose-Anna; Markowski, Antonette K.

    2013-01-01

    Open-File Miscellaneous Investigation 13–01.1 presents the results of geohydrologic investigations on a 1,664-foot-deep core hole drilled in the Bradford County part of the Gleason 7.5-minute quadrangle in north-central Pennsylvania. In the text, the authors discuss their methods of investigation, summarize physical and analytical results, and place those results in context. Four appendices include (1) a full description of the core in an Excel worksheet; (2) water-quality and core-isotope analytical results in Excel workbooks; (3) geophysical logs in LAS and PDF files, and an Excel workbook containing attitudes of bedding and fractures calculated from televiewer logs; and (4) MP4 clips from the downhole video at selected horizons.

  18. Public health assessment for north Penn-area 1, Souderton, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD096834494. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-12

    The North Penn Area 1 site, a National Priorities List (NPL) site, is located in the Borough of Souderton, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Gentle, Cleaners, Inc., one of the parties potentially responsible for the site contamination, has been in business since 1953 and used tetrachloroethene (PCE) from 1953 to 1983 in dry cleaning operations. At present, groundwater is the only medium that is known to be contaminated. Enviromental data for surface soil, surface water, sediment, and air do not exist. Past, present, and future completed exposure pathways for volatile organic compounds such as PCE and TCE in groundwater exist for nearby residents. The site is considered an indeterminate public health hazard because limited data are available; however, data that are available do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contaminants that would be expected to cause any adverse health effects.

  19. PennsylvaniaNew Jersey Interconnection Bushkill to Roseland Transmission Line, From Roseland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania-New Jersey Interconnection Bushkill to Roseland Transmission Line, From Roseland Borough, Essex County, through Morris County and Sussex County to Hardwick Township, Warren County, Roseland, Essex County, NJ

  20. A benthic-macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity and assessment of conditions in selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    The Stream Conditions of Chester County Biological Monitoring Network (Network) was established by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Chester County Water Resources Authority in 1969. Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania and has a rapidly expanding population. Land-use change has occurred in response to this continual growth, as open space, agricultural lands, and wooded lands have been converted to residential and commercial lands. In 1998, the Network was modified to include 18 fixed-location sites and 9 flexible-location sites. Sites were sampled annually in the fall (October-November) during base-flow conditions for water chemistry, instream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates. A new set of 9 flexible-location sites was selected each year. From 1998 to 2009, 213 samples were collected from the 18 fixed-location sites and 107 samples were collected from the 84 flexible-location sites. Eighteen flexible-location sites were sampled more than once over the 12-year period; 66 sites were sampled only once. Benthic-macroinvertebrate data from samples collected during 1998-2009 were used to establish the Chester County Index of Biotic Integrity (CC-IBI). The CC-IBI was based on the methods and metrics outlined in the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's "A Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity for Wadeable Freestone Streams in Pennsylvania." The resulting CC-IBI consists of scores for benthic-macroinvertebrate samples collected from sites in the Network that related to reference conditions in Chester County. Mean CC-IBI scores for 18 fixed-location sites ranged from 37.21 to 88.92. Thirty-nine percent of the 213 samples collected at the 18 fixed-location sites had a CC-IBI score less than 50; 33 percent, 50 to 70; 28 percent, greater than 70. CC-IBI scores from the 107 flexible-location samples ranged from 23.48 to 99.96. Twenty-five percent of the 107 samples collected at the flexible-location sites had a CC

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, C. C. Adams, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, C. C. Adams, Photographer August 1931, SEED PACKING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker North Family Washhouse (first), Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  2. 30. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 8.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  3. 31. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 8.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  4. 13. Photocopy of Historic Photograph, Original Photograph in Pennsylvania Game ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of Historic Photograph, Original Photograph in Pennsylvania Game Commission Files, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Date and Photographer Unknown. SOUTH SIDE OF MAIN BUILDING - Ross Leffler Training School Complex, Main Building, (Synder Township), Brockway, Jefferson County, PA

  5. Geothermal investigations in Ohio and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, Y.; Heimlich, R.A.; Palmer, D.F.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    New values of heat flow were determined for the Appalachian Plateau in eastern Ohio and northwestern Pennsylvania. Corrected values for wells in Washington and Summit Counties, Ohio, are 1.36 and 1.37 heat-flow units (HFU), respectively. Those of 1.84 and 2.00 HFU define a previously unknown heat-flow high in Venango and Clarion counties, Pennsylvania. Thermal conductivity was measured for core samples from 12 wells in Ohio and 6 wells in Pennsylvania. Heat production was determined for 34 core and outcrop samples from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.

  6. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Bedford, Blair, Cambria, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Columbia, Huntingdon, and Luzerne counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Winters, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Bedford, Blair, Cambria, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Columbia, Huntingdon, and Luzerne Counties in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication. In this region, natural gas development disturbed

  7. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  8. Drought-trigger ground-water levels and analysis of historical water-level trends in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and the U.S. Geological Survey. The network was established to monitor local ground-water levels, to determine drought conditions, and to monitor ground-water-level trends. Drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for 20 of the 23 wells in the Chester County observation-well network. A statistical test to determine either rising or declining water-level trends was performed on data for all wells in the network. Water-level data from both of these wells showed a rising trend. A decrease in ground-water pumping in the area near these wells was probably the reason for the rise in water levels.

  9. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  10. Effects of urbanization on storm-runoff volume and peak discharge of Valley Creek, eastern Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Peak discharge and runoff volume were simulated for 21 storms in the Valley Creek basin using the U.S. Geological Survey Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M). Storm peak discharges ranged from 301 to 900 cubic feet per second. Rainfall was measured at three recording rain gages in the basin. Observed and simulated runoff volumes and peak discharges were compared for the upper 20.8 square miles of the basin. The average error for runoff volume was 29 percent. The average error for peak discharge was 19 percent for the 11 calibration storms and 32 percent for the 10 verification storms. Streamflow was routed to the Schuylkill River for the lower 2.6 square miles of the basin. Simulations were made to determine the effect on runoff volume and peak discharge of increasing impervious are from 9 percent to 15, 20, and 25 percent in the part of the basin most likely to be developed. For 25 percent impervious area, runoff volume would increase an average of 52 percent and peak discharge would increase an average of 55 percent for Valley Creek at the Pennsylvania Turnpike bridge. At the confluence of Valley Creek with the Schuylkill River, runoff volume would increase an average of 46 percent and peak discharge would increase an average of 50 percent.

  11. Isotopic evidence of enhanced carbonate dissolution at a coal mine drainage site in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Shikha; Sack, Andrea; Adams, James P.; Vesper, Dorothy; J Capo, Rosemary C.; Hartsock, Angela; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes were used to determine the sources and fate of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) in the circumneutral pH drainage from an abandoned bituminous coal mine in western Pennsylvania. The C isotope signatures of DIC (δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were intermediate between local carbonate and organic C sources, but were higher than those of contemporaneous Pennsylvanian age groundwaters in the region. This suggests a significant contribution of C enriched in {sup 13}C due to enhanced carbonate dissolution associated with the release of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from pyrite oxidation. The Sr isotopic signature of the drainage was similar to other regional mine waters associated with the same coal seam and reflected contributions from limestone dissolution and cation exchange with clay minerals. The relatively high δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4} isotopic signatures of the mine drainage and the presence of presumptive SO{sub 4}-reducing bacteria suggest that SO{sub 4} reduction activity also contributes C depleted in {sup 13}C isotope to the total DIC pool. With distance downstream from the mine portal, C isotope signatures in the drainage increased, accompanied by decreased total DIC concentrations and increased pH. These data are consistent with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} dissolution of carbonate rocks, enhanced by cation exchange, and C release to the atmosphere via CO{sub 2} outgassing.

  12. Health assessment for Fischer and Porter National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD002345817. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-18

    The Fischer and Porter (F P) National Priorities List Site is located in Warminster, Buck County, Pennsylvania. The F P facility has been operating on the Warminster property since 1947. Flow meters are manufactured at the facility. No soil, air, or surface water monitoring has been conducted at the site or off-site even though spills and dumping are suspected as possible causes for the groundwater contamination. In 1979 and 1980, levels as high as 87,000 ppb trichloroethylene (TCE) and 26,000 ppb tetrachloroethylene (TCE) were detected in on-site groundwater. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by human exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to TCE and PCE may be currently occurring and may have occurred in the past via ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. Exposure to TCE and PCE may be occurring through ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with contaminated surface water and soils; inhalation of contaminated air; and ingestion of contaminated biota. The lack of monitoring data for these media does not allow for a complete public health implication evaluation at this time.

  13. Effects of surface mining on the hydrology and biology in the Stony Fork basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 1978-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.R.; Ritter, J.R.; Mastrilli, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of surface coal mining on the water quality, sediment discharge, and aquatic biology of streams in the Stony Fork Basin in southwestern Pennsylvania were studied from 1978 through 1985. Data were collected at five stream sites and one mine discharge site. Field data included streamflow, temperature, specific conductance, pH, acidity, and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses included sulfate, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, and selected trace elements. Annual streamflow at gaged sites was not substantially different, suggesting that mining did not affect the total volume of streamflow significantly. Comparisons of sediment yields of the upstream control site (site 5) to the downstream site (site 1) indicated that the sediment yield at site 5 was greatest in 1978, 1981-83, and 1985. The sediment yields at both sites in 1979-80 were about the same. Differences in the drainage area sizes and effective control of sediment in the mined areas may explain the lack of increased sediment yield at the downstream site. As mining became more extensive throughout the basin in 1979-80 and later, several water-quality effects were observed downstream. Generally, specific conductance, sulfate, manganese, aluminum, and zinc increased; pH and alkalinity decreased. Acidity and iron typically increased immediately downstream of mined areas. No trace-element concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Surface mining in the Stony Fork Basin severely affected the stream invertebrate and fish populations. During 1977-84, the number of taxonomic groups of invertebrates at sites affected by mine drainage decreased by 45 to 71 percent; the number of fish species decreased by 81 to 88 percent.

  14. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sara J; Wilf, Peter; Walter, Robert C; Merritts, Dorothy J

    2013-01-01

    Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached) milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study underscores that

  15. Subfossil Leaves Reveal a New Upland Hardwood Component of the Pre-European Piedmont Landscape, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sara J.; Wilf, Peter; Walter, Robert C.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today’s incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained “legacy” sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached) milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study underscores that

  16. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface, Casey Village, Warminster and Upper Southampton townships, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, August 3, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1995-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface in Casey Village, Warminster and Upper Southampton Townships, Bucks County, was constructed from water levels measured on August 3, 1995. The potentiometric surface, measured in 17 wells screened between 18 and 64 feet below land surface, ranged from 321.99 to 344.80 feet above sea level. The potentiometric surface, measured in 12 wells screened between 48 and 108 feet below land surface, ranged from 321.95 to 337.50 feet above sea level.

  17. Structure Segmentation and Transfer Faults in the Marcellus Shale, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania: Implications for Gas Recovery Efficiency and Risk Assessment Using 3D Seismic Attribute Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Emily D.

    The Marcellus Shale has become an important unconventional gas reservoir in the oil and gas industry. Fractures within this organic-rich black shale serve as an important component of porosity and permeability useful in enhancing production. Horizontal drilling is the primary approach for extracting hydrocarbons in the Marcellus Shale. Typically, wells are drilled perpendicular to natural fractures in an attempt to intersect fractures for effective hydraulic stimulation. If the fractures are contained within the shale, then hydraulic fracturing can enhance permeability by further breaking the already weakened rock. However, natural fractures can affect hydraulic stimulations by absorbing and/or redirecting the energy away from the wellbore, causing a decreased efficiency in gas recovery, as has been the case for the Clearfield County, Pennsylvania study area. Estimating appropriate distances away from faults and fractures, which may limit hydrocarbon recovery, is essential to reducing the risk of injection fluid migration along these faults. In an attempt to mitigate the negative influences of natural fractures on hydrocarbon extraction within the Marcellus Shale, fractures were analyzed through the aid of both traditional and advanced seismic attributes including variance, curvature, ant tracking, and waveform model regression. Through the integration of well log interpretations and seismic data, a detailed assessment of structural discontinuities that may decrease the recovery efficiency of hydrocarbons was conducted. High-quality 3D seismic data in Central Pennsylvania show regional folds and thrusts above the major detachment interval of the Salina Salt. In addition to the regional detachment folds and thrusts, cross-regional, northwest-trending lineaments were mapped. These lineaments may pose a threat to hydrocarbon productivity and recovery efficiency due to faults and fractures acting as paths of least resistance for induced hydraulic stimulation fluids

  18. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Cameron, Clarion, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milheim, L. E.; Slonecker, E. T.; Roig-Silva, C. M.; Winters, S. G.; Ballew, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract unconventional natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique for extraction, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Cameron, Clarion, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication. In this region, natural gas and oil development disturbed

  19. Calibration of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for parts of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, developed a validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates2 (RMA2) hydrodynamic model of parts of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) to help assess the effects of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) on the rivers. The hydrodynamic model was used to drive a water-quality model of the study area that was capable of simulating the transport and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria and chemical constituents under open-water conditions. The study area includes 14 tributary streams and parts of the Three Rivers where they enter and exit Allegheny County, an area of approximately 730 square miles (mi2). The city of Pittsburgh is near the center of the county, where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers join to form the headwaters of the Ohio River. The Three Rivers are regulated by a series of fixed-crest dams, gated dams, and radial (tainter) gates and serve as the receiving waters for tributary streams, CSOs, and SSOs. The RMA2 model was separated into four individual segments on the basis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigational pools in the study area (Dashields; Emsworth; Allegheny River, Pool 2; and Braddock), which were calibrated individually using measured water-surface slope, velocity, and discharge during high- and low-flow conditions. The model calibration process included the comparison of water-surface elevations at five locations and velocity profiles at more than 80 cross sections in the study area. On the basis of the calibration and validation results that included water-surface elevations and velocities, the model is a representative simulation of the Three Rivers flow patterns for discharges ranging from 4,050 to 47,400 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on the Allegheny River, 2,550 to 40,000 ft3/s on the Monongahela River, and 10,900 to 99,000 ft3/s on the Ohio River. The Monongahela River was

  20. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Lancaster County Career and Technology Center Green Home 3 - Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    This case study describes a unique vocational program at Lancaster County Career Technology Center in Mount Joy, PA, where high school students are gaining hands-on construction experience in building high performance homes with help from Building America team, Home Innovation Research Labs. This collaboration resulted in the Green Home 3, the third in a series of high performance homes for Apprentice Green. As one of LCCTC’s key educational strategies for gaining practical experience, students are involved in building real houses that incorporate state-of-the-art energy efficiency and green technologies. With two homes already completed, the Green Home 3 achieved a 44% whole-house energy savings over the Building America New Construction B10 Benchmark, DOE Zero Energy Ready Home (formerly Challenge Home) certification, and National Green Building Standard Gold-level certification.

  1. Land use, organochlorine compound concentrations, and trends in benthic-invertebrate communities in selected stream basins in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, Mark A.; Wetzel, Kim L.; Moore, Craig R.

    1995-01-01

    Land use was analyzed for the drainage areas of 26 stream sites in Chester County, Pa., that cover a total area of 227 square miles or about 30 percent of the country. The most significant land-use changes during 1967-87 were decreased agricultural land use, increased residential land use, and increased commercial and industrial land use. Bulk samples of stream-bottom materials were collected at 42 sites in the study area from October 1985 through November 1987 and analyzed for content of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). Organochlorine compounds and (or) PCB's were detected in streambed materials collected at 40 of the 42 sites sampled. The most enriched compounds (greater than 15 micrograms per kilogram) were PCB's, chlordane, and DDT plus its breakdown products. Data suggest that chlordane residues are closely associated with residential land use. PCB residues are closely associated with industrial and commercial land use. Cores of labeled sediments from the site of Icedale Lake, a drained reservoir on the West Branch Brandywine Creek, indicate that DDT was the first organochlorine pesticide to enter the Brandywine Creek; concentrations peaked in the late 1940's and early 1950's. As DDT influx subsequently decreased, influxes of chlordane and dieldrin increased and peaked in the mind-1960's, before the Chester County biological monitoring program. Influx of all pesticides appears to have decreased significantly since the 1960's. Contingency analyses showed that the relation between the Kendall slope estimator for trend and the increases in residential land use of 12 percent or greater were significant at the 95-percent confidence level. The contingency tables also showed that the relation between diversity indices of less than 2.25 and organochlorine-compound concentrations greater than 45 micrograms per kilogram was significant at the 95-percent confidence level.

  2. Evaluation of geophysical logs and slug tests, phase II, at AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.; Goode, D.J.; Sloto, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Between September 1997 and October 1998, nine monitor wells were drilled at the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site in Chester County, Pa., to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and borehole television surveys in these boreholes to identify water-producing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each borehole. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulseflowmeter measurements verified these locations. The borehole television surveys indicated that locally, the rocks of the Conestoga Limestone and Ledger Dolomite that underlie the site strike generally from northeast-southwest to east-west and dip steeply to the southeast and south approximately 63? to 76?. Slug tests were conducted at six boreholes to estimate transmissivity. Transmissivity from slug tests ranged from 21 feet squared per day in borehole CH-5669 to greater than 12,000 feet squared per day in boreholes CH-5665 and CH-5667. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller's logs, all boreholes were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  3. Application of satellite photographic and MSS data to selected geologic and natural resource problems in Pennsylvania. 1: Lineaments and mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania. 2: Relation of lineaments to sulfide deposits: Bald Eagle Mountain, Centre County, Pennsylvania. 3: Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT lineaments with joint orientations in north central Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.; Krohn, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Those metallic mineral occurrences in Pennsylvania are reported which lie near lineaments mapped from LANDSAT-1 satellite imagery and verified from Skylab photography where available. The lineaments were categorized by degree of expression and type of expression; the mineral occurrences were classified by host rock age, mineralization type, and value. The accompanying tables and figure document the mineral occurrences geographically associated with lineaments and serve as a base for a mineral exploration model.

  4. Ansel Adams: early works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, Jodi

    2010-02-01

    Ansel Adams (1902-1984), photographer, musician, naturalist, explorer, critic, and teacher, was a giant in the field of landscape photography. In his images of the unspoiled Western landscape, he strove to capture the sublime: the transcendentalist concept that nature can generate the experience of awe for the viewer. Many viewers are familiar with the heroic, high-contrast prints on high-gloss paper that Adams made to order beginning in the 1970s; much less well known are the intimate prints that the artist crafted earlier in his career. This exhibition focuses on these masterful small prints from the 1920s into the 1950s. During this time period, Adams's printing style changed dramatically. The painterly, soft-focus, warm-toned style of the Parmelian Prints of the High Sierras from the 1920s evolved into the sharp-focus style of the f/64 school of photography that Adams co-founded in the 1930s with Edward Weston and Imogen Cunningham. After World War II, Adams opted for a cooler, higher-contrast look for his prints. Throughout the various styles in which he chose to work, Adams explored the power of nature and succeeded in establishing landscape photography as a legitimate form of modern art.

  5. In-Situ Radiological Surveys to Address Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements During Remediation Activities at the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania - 12268

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Phillip; Mihalo, Mark; Eberlin, John; Lambert, Mike; Matthews, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Cabrera Services Inc. (CABRERA) is the remedial contractor for the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site in Armstrong County Pennsylvania, a United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) contract. The remediation is being completed under the USACE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) which was established to identify, investigate, and clean up or control sites previously used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). As part of the management of the FUSRAP, the USACE is overseeing investigation and remediation of radiological contamination at the SLDA Site in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 US Code (USC), Section 9601 et. seq, as amended and, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.430(f) (2). The objective of this project is to clean up radioactive waste at SLDA. The radioactive waste contains special nuclear material (SNM), primarily U-235, in 10 burial trenches, Cabrera duties include processing, packaging and transporting the waste to an offsite disposal facility in accordance with the selected remedial alternative as defined in the Final Record of Decision (USACE, 2007). Of particular importance during the remediation is the need to address nuclear criticality safety (NCS) controls for the safe exhumation and management of waste containing fissile materials. The partnership between Cabrera Services, Inc. and Measutronics Corporation led to the development of a valuable survey tool and operating procedure that are essential components of the SLDA Criticality Safety and Material Control and Accountability programs. Using proven existing technologies in the design and manufacture of the Mobile Survey Cart, the continued deployment of the Cart will allow for an efficient and reliable methodology to

  6. Fish-community composition in Cowanesque River upstream and downstream of the Cowanesque Dam, Tioga County, Pennsylvania, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    Between February 1997 and September 1997, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground-water contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected contaminant sources. Four wells were drilled north of the property adjacent to Area A, three wells along strike located on Lewis Drive, and three wells directly down dip on Ivyland Road. Well depths range from 69 feet to 300 feet below land surface. Borehole-geophysical logging and television surveys were used to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Borehole television surveys were obtained at the four monitor wells adjacent to Area A. Caliper and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse- flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  7. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs at Area C, Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at Area C of the former Naval Air Warfare Center in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa., in support of hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Navy to address ground-water contamination in the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were collected, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were made, and borehole television surveys were run in seven boreholes ranging from 31 to 75 feet deep. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to identify fractures and the location of possible water-bearing zones. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to identify fractures that were water-bearing zones. Natural-gamma and single-point-resistance logs were used to correlate lithology across the area. Elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were measured in water samples from wells with water-bearing zones in the interval of the aquifer where monitor well HN-23A is screened. Water samples from wells with water-bearing zones above or below this interval had substantially lower concentrations of PCE. Wells screened in this interval yielded less than 0.5 gallon per minute, indicating that the interval has low permeability; this may account for the small areal extent and slow migration of PCE.

  8. Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, D.J.; Conger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

  9. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase II, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    Between March and April 1998, the U.S. Navy contracted Tetra Tech NUS Inc., to drill two monitor wells in the Stockton Formation at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were installed to monitor water levels and sample contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock. Chemical analyses of the samples will help determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5). Depths of all boreholes range from 69 to 149 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and video surveys to identify water-producing zones in newly drilled monitor wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 and in wells MG-1675 and MG-1676. The logging was conducted from March 5, 1998, to April 16, 1998. This work is a continuation of the Phase I work. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-producing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's notes, wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were screened such that water-levels fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  10. Metals, pesticides, and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment in Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Schuylkill River flows through Valley Forge National Historical Park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa. The concentration of selected metals, pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, and total carbon in stream-bottom sediments from Valley Forge National Historical Park were determined for samples collected once at 12 sites in and around the Schuylkill River. Relatively low concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead were detected in all samples. The concentrations of these metals are similar to concentrations in other stream-bottom sediment samples collected in the region. The concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were elevated in samples from four sites in the Schuylkill River, and the concentration of mercury was elevated in a sample from an impoundment along the river. The organophosphorus insecticide diazinon was detected in relatively low concentrations in half of the 12 samples analyzed. The organo-chlorine insecticide DDE was detected in all 12 samples analyzed; dieldrin was detected in 10 samples, chlordane, DDD, and DDT were detected in 9 samples, and heptachlor epoxide was detected in one sample. The concentrations of organo-chlorine and organophosphorus insecticides were relatively low and similar to concentrations in samples collected in the region. Detectable concentrations of 17 semivolatile organic compounds were measured in the 12 samples analyzed. The most commonly detected compounds were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. The maximum concentration detected was 4,800 micrograms per kilogram of phenanthrene. The highest concentrations of compounds were detected in Lamb Run, a small tributary to the Schuylkill River with headwaters in an industrial corporate center. The concentration of compounds in the Schuylkill River below Lamb Run is higher than the Schuylkill River above Lamb Run, indicating that sediment from Lamb Run is increasing the concentration of semivolatile organic

  11. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  12. Herbicide concentrations in and loads transported by the Conestoga River and Pequea Creek, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Lloyd A.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Takita, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    Water samples were collected from four streams in Lancaster County from 1992 through 1995 and analyzed for selected herbicides. Samples were collected from the Little Conestoga Creek near Churchtown, Mill Creek (a tributary to the Conestoga River) at Elshelman Mill Road near Lyndon, the Conestoga River at Conestoga, and Pequea Creek at Martic Forge. Most samples were collected from stormflow that occurred during the growing season. Samples were analyzed for alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlordane, cyanazine, dieldrin, malathion, metolachlor, propazine, simazine, and toxaphene. Most samples had detectable concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine, and the loads of these constituents that were transported during each of the 4 years were computed. Of the samples collected from each of the streams?Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek?10, 12, 15, and 18 percent, respectively, had atrazine concentrations greater than 3.0 micrograms per liter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. Loads of atrazine, metolochlor, and simazine were greater than loads of any other herbicides. The largest loads were transported during 1994. Loads of atrazine transported by the four streams during periods of storm- flow from May to September 1994 totaled 3.46, 28.3, 263, and 46.8 pounds, respectively. The total loads of atrazine transported by the four streams?Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek?during calendar year 1994 were 6.48, 54.1, 498, and 102 pounds, respectively. A little less than half the atrazine load transported by each stream?45, 39, 42, and 42 percent, respectively?was transported during storms that occurred from May through September. Average annual yields of atrazine for the period 1992-95 were 0.59, 0.64, 0.68, and 0.51 pounds per square mile from the Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek, respectively. Average annual yields of

  13. Health assessment for Shriver's Corner, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980830889. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-12

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has been requested by the Environmental Protection Agency to address the necessity for an immediate removal action of soil containing contaminants at the Shriver's Corner Site, Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania. Thallium soil concentrations exceed the level that may be of public health significance. The soil sample from station 04 demonstrated a lead concentration of 1540 mg/kg. Elevated blood lead concentrations in children have been demonstrated by the Centers for Disease Control to increase when soil concentrations are greater than 500-1000 parts per million (ppm or mg/kg). The Shriver's Corner Site is of public health concern due to the potential for direct contact with contaminated soil. However, if access to the site is restricted exposure to the contaminants of concern would be eliminated and an immediate removal action would not be necessary to mitigate exposure.

  14. Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Crystalline and Metasedimentary Rocks in Birmingham, Newlin, Pennsbury, and Pocopson Townships and parts of East Marlborough and Kennett Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, June 1994 through November 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Wettstein, William C.; Aichele, Steven S.; Joyce, James; Schneider, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Birmingham, Newlin, Pennsbury, and Pocopson Townships and parts of East Marlborough and Kennett Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in wells from June 1994 through November 1995. Pre-1994 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more recent data were not available. Because little ground-water development has occurred in the areas where pre-1994 water levels were used, levels are assumed to be the same in 1994 and 1995 as they were when the measurement was made.

  15. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Sadsbury, West Caln, and West Sadsbury townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, April 1993 through August 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wettstein, William C.; Wood, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Sadsbury, West Caln, and West Sadsbury Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in wells from April 1993 through August 1994. Pre-1993 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more recent data were not available. Because little ground-water development has occurred in the areas where pre-1993 water levels were used, levels are assumed to be the same in 1993 and 1994 as they were when the measurement was made.

  16. Geographic information system datasets of regolith-thickness data, regolith-thickness contours, raster-based regolith thickness, and aquifer-test and specific-capacity data for the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L. Rick

    2010-01-01

    These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082-Hydrogeology and Steady-State Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. The datasets were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Geological Survey. The four datasets are described as follows and methods used to develop the datasets are further described in Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082: (1) ds507_regolith_data: This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith (unconsolidated sediment) thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Data were compiled from published reports, consultant reports, and from lithologic logs of wells and test holes on file with the U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center and the Colorado Division of Water Resources. (2) ds507_regthick_contours: This dataset consists of contours showing generalized lines of equal regolith thickness overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness was contoured manually on the basis of information provided in the dataset ds507_regolith_data. (3) ds507_regthick_grid: This dataset consists of raster-based generalized thickness of regolith overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness in this dataset was derived from contours presented in the dataset ds507_regthick_contours. (4) ds507_welltest_data: This point dataset contains estimates of aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity at selected well locations in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and

  17. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs and hydraulic tests, phase III, at AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and aquifer-isolation tests were used to characterize the ground-water-flow system at the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site. The site is underlain by fractured carbonate rocks. Caliper, natural- gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature logs were run in six wells, and an acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation log was run in one well. The direction and rate of borehole- fluid movement was measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter for both nonpumping and pumping conditions in four wells. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed flow within the borehole during nonpumping conditions in three of the four wells tested. Flow rates up to 1.4 gallons per minute were measured. Flow was upward in one well and both upward and downward in two wells. Aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four wells to determine depth-discrete specific capacity values, to obtain depth-discrete water samples, and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone in one well on water levels in nearby wells. Water-level data collected during aquifer-isolation tests were consistent with and confirmed interpretations of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. Seven of the 13 fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water at a rate equal to or greater than 7.5 gallons per minute when isolated and pumped. The specific capacities of isolated fractures range over three orders of magnitude, from 0.005 to 7.1 gallons per minute per foot. Vertical distribution of specific capacity between land surface and 298 feet below land surface is not related to depth. The four highest specific capacities, in descending order, are at depths of 174-198, 90-92, 118-119, and 34-37 feet below land surface.

  18. Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff

  19. Aquifer tests and simulation of ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks near Colmar, Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate ground-water flow in Triassic sedimentary rocks near Colmar, in Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pa. The study was conducted to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluate remediation alternatives at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, where ground water has been contaminated by volatile organic solvents (primarily trichloroethene). The investigation focused on determining the (1) drawdown caused by separately pumping North PennWater Authority wells NP?21 and NP?87, (2) probable paths of groundwater movement under present-day (2000) conditions (with NP?21 discontinued), and (3) areas contributing recharge to wells if pumping from wells NP-21 or NP?87 were restarted and new recovery wells were installed. Drawdown was calculated from water levels measured in observation wells during aquifer tests of NP?21 and NP?87. The direction of ground-water flow was estimated by use of a three-dimensional ground-water-flow model. Aquifer tests were conducted by pumping NP?21 for about 7 days at 257 gallons per minute in June 2000 and NP?87 for 3 days at 402 gallons per minute in May 2002. Drawdown was measured in 45 observation wells during the NP?21 test and 35 observation wells during the NP?87 test. Drawdown in observation wells ranged from 0 to 6.8 feet at the end of the NP?21 test and 0.5 to 12 feet at the end of the NP?87 test. The aquifer tests showed that ground-water levels declined mostly in observation wells that were completed in the geologic units penetrated by the pumped wells. Because the geologic units dip about 27 degrees to the northwest, shallow wells up dip to the southeast of the pumped well showed a good hydraulic connection to the geologic units stressed by pumping. Most observation wells down dip from the pumping well penetrated units higher in the stratigraphic section that were not well

  20. Effects of removing Good Hope Mill Dam on selected physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Conodoguinet Creek, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    The implications of dam removal on channel characteris-tics, water quality, benthic invertebrates, and fish are not well understood because of the small number of removals that have been studied. Comprehensive studies that document the effects of dam removal are just beginning to be published, but most research has focused on larger dams or on the response of a sin-gle variable (such as benthic invertebrates). This report, pre-pared in cooperation with the Conodoguinet Creek Watershed Association, provides an evaluation of how channel morphol-ogy, bed-particle-size distribution, water quality, benthic inver-tebrates, fish, and aquatic habitat responded after removal of Good Hope Mill Dam (a small 'run of the river' dam) from Conodoguinet Creek in Cumberland County, Pa. Good Hope Mill Dam was a 6-foot high, 220-foot wide concrete structure demolished and removed over a 3-day period beginning with the initial breach on November 2, 2001, at 10:00 a.m. eastern standard time. To isolate the effects of dam removal, data were collected before and after dam removal at five monitoring stations and over selected reaches upstream, within, and downstream of the impoundment. Stations 1, 2, and 5 were at free-flowing control locations 4.9 miles upstream, 2.5 miles upstream, and 5 miles downstream of the dam, respec-tively. Stations 3 and 4 were located where the largest responses were anticipated, 115 feet upstream and 126 feet downstream of the dam, respectively Good Hope Mill Dam was not an effective barrier to sedi-ment transport. Less than 3 inches of sediment in the silt/clay-size range (less than 0.062 millimeters) coated bedrock within the 7,160-foot (1.4-mile) impoundment. The bedrock within the impoundment was not incised during or after dam removal, and the limited sediment supply resulted in no measurable change in the thalweg elevation downstream of the dam. The cross-sec-tional areas at stations 3 and 4, measured 17 days and 23 months after dam removal, were within

  1. Geohydrology of the French Creek basin and simulated effects of droughtand ground-water withdrawals, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission, to develop a regional ground-water-flow model of the French Creek Basin in Chester County, Pa. The model was used to assist water-resource managers by illustrating the interconnection between ground-water and surface-water systems. The 70.7-mi2 (square mile) French Creek Basin is in the Piedmont Physiographic Province and is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary fractured-rock aquifers. Annual water budgets were calculated for 1969-2001 for the French Creek Basin upstream of streamflow measurement station French Creek near Phoenixville (01472157). Average annual precipitation was 46.28 in. (inches), average annual streamflow was 20.29 in., average annual base flow determined by hydrograph separation was 12.42 in., and estimated average annual ET (evapotranspiration) was 26.10 in. Estimated average annual recharge was 14.32 in. and is equal to 31 percent of the average annual precipitation. Base flow made up an average of 61 percent of streamflow. Ground-water flow in the French Creek Basin was simulated using the finite-difference MODFLOW-96 computer program. The model structure is based on a simplified two-dimensional conceptualization of the ground-water-flow system. The modeled area was extended outside the French Creek Basin to natural hydrologic boundaries; the modeled area includes 40 mi2 of adjacent areas outside the basin. The hydraulic conductivity for each geologic unit was calculated from reported specific-capacity data determined from aquifer tests and was adjusted during model calibration. The model was calibrated for aboveaverage conditions by simulating base-flow and water-level measurements made on May 1, 2001, using a recharge rate of 20 in/yr (inches per year). The model was calibrated for below-average conditions by simulating base-flow and water-level measurements made on September 11 and 17, 2001, using a

  2. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Pike County in northeastern Pennsylvania is underlain by the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and other shales, formations that have potential for natural gas development. During 2012–13, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District conducted a reconnaissance study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers prior to possible shale-gas development in the county. For the spatial component of the assessment, 20 wells were sampled in summer 2012 to provide data on the occurrence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines. For the temporal component of the assessment, 4 of the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 were sampled monthly from July 2012 through June 2013 to provide data on seasonal variability in groundwater quality. All water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), stable isotopes of water, radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and ethene), and, if possible, isotopic composition of methane. Additional analyses for boron and strontium isotopes, age-dating of water, and radium-226 were done on water samples collected from six wells in June 2013. Results of the summer 2012 sampling show that water from 16 (80 percent) of 20 wells had detectable concentrations of methane, but concentrations were less than 0.1 milligram per liter (mg/L) in most well-water samples; only two well-water samples had concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The groundwater with elevated methane also had a chemical composition that differed in some respects (pH, selected major ions, and inorganic trace constituents) from groundwater with low methane concentrations. The two well-water samples with the highest methane

  3. Was Adam a Real Person?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Denis O.

    2011-01-01

    Belief in the historicity of Adam has been held firmly throughout the history of the church. In the light of modern biblical criticism and the evolutionary sciences, some conservative Christians are now questioning whether or not Adam was a real person. This paper argues that the existence of Adam in the opening chapters of scripture reflects an…

  4. All about Adam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Rochester Teachers Association President Adam Urbanski is kingpin of a new breed of union leaders who want to be partners, not adversaries, in the school improvement crusade. Despite his good intentions, many people in his hometown are disgruntled with him. The article describes his work over the past five years. (SM)

  5. The Adams Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2010-01-01

    According to Adams's Thesis, the acceptability of an indicative conditional sentence goes by the conditional probability of its consequent given its antecedent. We test, for the first time, whether this thesis is descriptively correct and show that it is not; in particular, we show that it yields the wrong predictions for people's judgments of the…

  6. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  7. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  8. 5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State Route 100 center, duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 100 center right, State Route 92 below center right, Brandywine Creek State Park center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  9. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  10. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  11. Rural County Report. County Level Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, J. Dennis

    This report represents a county-level Pennsylvania data base focused on variables of significance to rural communities. The data includes computations of per capita rates for counties in rural, urban influence, and urban clusters. This report is intended for comparing rural counties to other areas of the state. Three categories are used to present…

  12. Molecular, ultrastructural and biological characterization of Pennsylvania isolates of plum pox potyvirus (PPV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV, as do all the other PPV isolates ...

  13. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, See Catalog of Graphic Material #8, MAP OF FORT MIFFLIN, c.1778. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission; Overlay, See Catalog of Graphic Material #8, MAP OF FORT MIFFLIN, c.1778. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 4. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2991: REAR ELEVATION OF NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS (1889 ADDITION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2990: GENERAL ELEVATION OF NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS (1889 ADDITION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 6. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2993: NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS GENERAL DETAILS (1889 ADDITION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 2. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING ENTIRE STRUCTURE: PENNSYLVANIA TRUSS MAIN SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING ENTIRE STRUCTURE: PENNSYLVANIA TRUSS MAIN SPANS AND PONY TRUSS APPROACH SPANS - Coraopolis Bridge, Spanning Ohio River back channel at Ferree Street & Grand Avenue, Coraopolis, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 16. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF CONCRETE PIER SUPPORTING CAMELBACK AND PENNSYLVANIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF CONCRETE PIER SUPPORTING CAMELBACK AND PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSSES. ORIGINAL PIER LYING IN FOREGROUND DESTROYED BY 1915 FLOOD DURING CONSTRUCTION - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  20. 15. VIEW SOUTH OF CONCRETE PIER SUPPORTING CAMELBACK AND PENNSYLVANIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW SOUTH OF CONCRETE PIER SUPPORTING CAMELBACK AND PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSSES. ORIGINAL PIER LYING IN FOREGROUND DESTROYED BY 1915 FLOOD DURING ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  1. Leaders' Perspectives on Rural Tourism: Case Studies in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Lisa; Luloff, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Data from nearly 50 community leaders in 4 nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania counties show that both positive and negative impacts from tourism development were expected; local support was essential. Some feared that tourism was a threat to the rural atmosphere. (SK)

  2. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  3. New Mathematical Dimensions: Adam's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manizade, Agida

    2009-01-01

    Adam, an 11th grader, was identified as gifted and accepted into a two week summer enrichment program. He signed up for "Geometry with Flash Programming." He had no prior programming experience but had a strong and healthy self-image as mathematics student. Although Adam had a positive attitude toward mathematics and saw himself as a successful…

  4. Physical and Vegetative Characteristics of a Newly Constructed Wetland and Modified Stream Reach, Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; White, Kirk E.; Olson, Leif E.

    2009-01-01

    To compensate for authorized disturbance of naturally occurring wetlands and streams during roadway improvements to U.S. Highway 202 in Chester and Montgomery Counties, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) constructed 0.42 acre of emergent wetland and 0.94 acre of scrub-shrub/forested wetland and modified sections of a 1,600-foot reach of Valley Creek with woody riparian plantings and streambank-stabilization structures (including rock deflectors). In accordance with project permits and additional guidance issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PennDOT, collected data from 2000 through 2006 to quantify changes in 1) the vegetation, soils, and extent of emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland, 2) the profile, dimension, and substrate in the vicinity of rock deflectors placed at two locations within the modified stream reach, and 3) the woody vegetation within the planted riparian buffer. The data for this investigation were collected using an approach adapted from previous investigations so that technology and findings may be more easily transferred among projects with similar objectives. Areal cover by planted and non-planted vegetation growing within the emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 85 percent at the end of each growing season, a criterion in special condition 25c in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project permit. Areal cover of vegetation in emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 100 percent in all but one growing season. Frequent and long-lasting soil saturation favored obligate-wetland species like Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) and Scirpus validus (great bulrush), both of which maintained dominance in the emergent wetland throughout the study (percent cover was 20 and 78 percent, respectively, in 2006). Echinocloa crusgalli (barnyard grass), an annual invasive

  5. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  6. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report provides a summary of the conceptual design and other information necessary to understand the proposed remedial action at the expanded Canonsburg, Pennsylvania site. This design constitutes the current approach to stabilizing the radioactively contaminated materials in place in a manner that would fully protect the public health and environment. This summary is intended to provide sufficient detail for the reader to understand the proposed remedial action and the anticipated environmental impacts. The site conceptual design has been developed using available data. In some cases, elements of the design have not been developed fully and will be made final during the detailed design process.

  7. An Attitudinal Survey of Pennsylvania's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Telephone surveys of 844 residents in 42 rural Pennsylvania counties established baseline data on rural opinions about 14 public policy issues. Concerning government spending, respondents felt that too little was spent on job creation, aging issues, child care, education, health services, and farming and agriculture; funding was about right for…

  8. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  9. Evolution of Vertebrate Adam Genes; Duplication of Testicular Adams from Ancient Adam9/9-like Loci

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Members of the disintegrin metalloproteinase (ADAM) family have important functions in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as cell signaling. There are two major types of ADAMs: the somatic ADAMs (sADAMs) that have a significant presence in somatic tissues, and the testicular ADAMs (tADAMs) that are expressed predominantly in the testis. Genes encoding tADAMs can be further divided into two groups: group I (intronless) and group II (intron-containing). To date, tAdams have only been reported in placental mammals, and their evolutionary origin and relationship to sAdams remain largely unknown. Using phylogenetic and syntenic tools, we analyzed the Adam genes in various vertebrates ranging from fishes to placental mammals. Our analyses reveal duplication and loss of some sAdams in certain vertebrate species. In particular, there exists an Adam9-like gene in non-mammalian vertebrates but not mammals. We also identified putative group I and group II tAdams in all amniote species that have been examined. These tAdam homologues are more closely related to Adams 9 and 9-like than to other sAdams. In all amniote species examined, group II tAdams lie in close vicinity to Adam9 and hence likely arose from tandem duplication, whereas group I tAdams likely originated through retroposition because of their lack of introns. Clusters of multiple group I tAdams are also common, suggesting tandem duplication after retroposition. Therefore, Adam9/9-like and some of the derived tAdam loci are likely preferred targets for tandem duplication and/or retroposition. Consistent with this hypothesis, we identified a young retroposed gene that duplicated recently from Adam9 in the opossum. As a result of gene duplication, some tAdams were pseudogenized in certain species, whereas others acquired new expression patterns and functions. The rapid duplication of Adam genes has a major contribution to the diversity of ADAMs in various vertebrate species. PMID:26308360

  10. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in East Nottingham and West Nottingham Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, April through June 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Lindsay B.

    2006-01-01

    The maps shows the potentiometric surface for an area along the western boundary of Chester County that includes parts of East Nottingham and West Nottingham Townships.  The study area is mostly uderlain by metamorphic rocks of the Peters Creek Schist and Wissahickon Formation(Sloto, 1994).  Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures.

  11. Adam Smith and dependency.

    PubMed

    Ozler, Sule

    2012-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing. PMID:22712591

  12. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-11-01

    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place. PMID:15666497

  13. Health assessment for Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill, Honey Brook, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980829527. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-02

    The Welsh Road/Barkman Landfill site in Honey Brook, Pennsylvania was an unpermitted residential and commercial refuse disposal facility that operated from 1963 to sometime in the 1980s. After 1977, the landfill continued to operate in defiance of legal action to support a closure plan. Various investigations conducted in the 1980s revealed that industrial and hazardous waste had been accepted by the site. The environmental contamination on-site consists of copper, lead, 1,2-dichloropropane, toluene, chloroform and methylene chloride in drummed wastes; and mercury, toluene, dichlorofluoromethane, methylene chloride, trichlorofluoromethane, 5-methyl-2-hexanone, trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene in groundwater. One time sampling indicated the presence of volatile compounds in air (hydrogen chloride and chloroform). The environmental contamination off-site consists of cadmium in sediment; and chloromethane, chloroform, xylenes, dichlorofluoromethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, p-cresol, toluene, methyl isobutyl ketone, di-n-butyl phthalate, lead, mercury, and zinc in residential well water. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, and airborne gases, vapors, and particulate.

  14. Effects of acidic precipitation on the water quality of streams in the Laurel Hill area, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 1983-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.; Witt, E. C., III

    1990-01-01

    Five headwater streams in the Laurel Hill area in southwestern Pennsylvania were investigated from September 1983 through February 1986 to determine possible effects of acidic precipitation on water quality. Precipitation in the Laurel Hill area is among the most acidic in the Nation, with a mean volume-weighted pH of 4.06. Sulfate is the dominant acid-forming anion, averaging 3.6 milligrams per liter or about 50 kilograms per hectare in wet deposition alone. Nitrate averages about 2 milligrams per liter or 7 kilograms per hectare in the study area. Stream chemistry in the five streams is quite variable and apparently is influenced to a large degree by the bedrock geology and by small amounts of alkaline material in watershed soils. Three of the five streams with no or little acid-neutralizing capacity presently are devoid of fish because of low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. Aluminum concentrations increase in the other two streams during rainfall and snowmelt despite comparatively higher base flow and acid-neutralizing capacities. Comparison of the chemistry of streamflow during 14 storm events at South Fork Bens Creek and North Fork Bens Creek reveals similar chemical responses when discharge suddenly increases. Concentrations of dissolved metals and sulfate increased during stormflow and snowmelt runoff, whereas concentrations of base cations, silica, and chloride decreased. Nitrate concentrations were not affected by rainfall runoff by tended to increase with snowmelt runoff.

  15. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  16. The ADAM environment and transputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, B. D.; Stewart, J. M.; Mcnally, B. V.

    1992-01-01

    The ADAM environment is both used for data analysis by Starlink and for data acquisition by the UK-involved observatories in Australia, Hawaii, and the Canary Islands. ADAM was originally hosted under VAX/VMS but is now at an advanced stage of a Unix port. ADAM comprises a parameter system, hierarchical data system, noticeboard system, error handling system, and other components. Originally a multi-tasking single processor environment, it has been enhanced to a multiprocessor environment using local or wide area networking. The Royal Observatory Edinburgh is producing a transputer version of the ADAM kernel to allow instruments which make use of transputers for data acquisition/control to integrate more closely with the ADAM software running at the telescopes. Communication into the transputer system is based on Ethernet carrying TCP/IP, which eases development toward a network of mixed VMS/Unix/transputer Telescope systems. The transputer system is being applied to instruments under development for the UKIRT and JCMT telescopes.

  17. Water quality of the West Branch Lackawaxen River and limnology of Prompton Lake, Wayne County, Pennsylvania, October 1986 through September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Past and present water quality of the West Branch Lackawaxen River and Prompton Lake generally meet the State of Pennsylvania standards for high quality waters that support the maintenance and propagation of cold water fishes. However, suggested criteria by the US EPA intended to control excessive algal growth in the lake are exceeded most, if not all, of the time for nitrogen and most of the time for phosphorus. The average annual nitrogen load entering the lake is 114 tons. Of this total, 41 tons is inorganic nitrite plus nitrate, 48 tons organic nitrogen, and 25 tons ammonia nitrogen. Estimated annual yields of total nitrogen, inorganic nitrite plus nitrate, organic nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen are 1.9, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.4 tons/sq mi, respectively. The average annual phosphorus load is estimated to be 4.7 tons, which is equivalent to a yield of 0.08 tons/sq mi. About 62%, or 2.9 tons, is dissolved phosphorus that is readily available for plant assimilation. The waters of the West Branch Lackawaxen River and Prompton Lake are decidedly phosphorus limited. The long-term average annual suspended-sediment yield to the lake is about 70 tons/sq mi. Life expectancy of the 774 acre-ft of space allocated for sediment loads in the raised pool is estimated to be about 287 years. Lake profile studies show that thermal and chemical stratification develops in early June and persists through September. Water below a depth of about 20 feet becomes anoxic, or nearly so, by mid-July.

  18. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the Triassic sandstones and shales, northeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania, September 1987 through January 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Garges, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The altitude of the water levels in the Triassic sandstones and shales in northeastern Chester County is shown on a map at a scale of 1:24,000. The map is based on water levels in 173 non-pumping drilled and dug wells measured in 1956 and 1965, and on the altitude of two springs that were flowing in November and December 1987. Water level altitudes are contoured at an interval of 20 ft. The surface defined by the contoured water levels may approximately represent the water table. Water table altitudes range from 379 ft to less than 80 ft above sea level. (USGS)

  19. Relation of the Wissahickon mica gneiss to the Shenandoah limestone and Octoraro schist of the Doe Run and Avondale region, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, Eleanora F.; Jonas, Anna I.

    1917-01-01

    The region discussed in this paper lies in Chester County, Pa., and is included in the eastern half of the Coatesville quadrangle. (See fig. 3.) It is within the belt of crystal-line schists and gneisses of the Piedmont Plateau. The northern half of the area, which will be called the Doe Run region, from the village of that name (see Fig. 4, p. 15), has been surveyed by Eleanora F. Bliss in connection with the problem of the relation of the Wissahickon mica gneiss to the Octoraro schist.

  20. Public health assessment for east tenth street (FMC Corporation-Marcus Hook Plant), Marcus Hook, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD987323458. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-29

    The Earth 10th Street Site, a former rayon/cellophane manufacturing facility, lies about 1/3 mile northwest of the Delaware River in Marcus Hook, Delaware County, Pennyslvania. As a result of past industrial activities at the site, on-site groundwater and soils are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals. On-site soils are also contaminated with asbestos and several on-site buildings contain asbestos which can become friable and airborne. Overall, the site is identified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

  1. Franklin-Adams, John (1843-1912)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    English businessman and amateur astronomer; compiled the Franklin-Adams Photographic Atlas of Star Positions (1913). The Franklin-Adams camera was a 25 cm aperture, 10 degree field telescope, later re-erected in Johannesburg....

  2. Effect of On-Site Wastewater Disposal on Quality of Ground Water and Base Flow - A Pilot Study in Chester County, Southeastern Pennsylvania, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    On-site wastewater disposal has the potential to introduce contaminants into ground water and subsequently, by ground-water discharge, to streams. A pilot study was conducted during 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department and the Chester County Water Resources Authority to determine if wastewater components, including inorganic constituents and selected organic wastewater compounds, such as detergents, considered to be emerging contaminants, were present in ground water and stream base flow in areas with on-site wastewater disposal. The study area was a small watershed (about 7.1 square miles) of mixed land use drained by Broad Run in central Chester County, Pa. The area is underlain by fractured metamorphic rocks that form aquifers recharged by precipitation. Surface- and ground-water sampling was done in areas with and without on-site wastewater disposal for comparison, including a relatively densely populated village with cesspools and septic systems, a residential area with septic systems, a residential area served by sewers, and agricultural land. Samples were collected in May-June and September 2005 from eight headwater stream sites under base-flow conditions and in June 2005 from eight wells and two springs. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, boron, bacteria, and a suite of organic wastewater compounds. Several emerging contaminant wastewater compounds, including detergent components, insect repellents, and flame retardants, were detected in base-flow and ground-water samples. Stream base-flow samples generally contained more compounds and higher concentrations of those compounds than did ground-water samples, and of the ground-water samples, samples from springs contained more compounds and higher concentrations than samples from wells. Concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and boron (inorganic constituents associated with wastewater) generally were all elevated in base-flow and ground

  3. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Drake Chemical Site (Phase 2), Lock Haven, Clinton County, Pennsylvania (second remedial action), May 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-13

    The Drake Chemical site is located in Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA. Between 1962 and 1982 Drake Chemical, Inc. (DCI) manufactured batches of specialty, intermediate chemicals for producers of dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, herbicides, and pesticides. The herbicide Fenac, is a major site contaminant. The eight-acre inactive site contains six major buildings. There are about sixty process tanks used for acids, bases, and fuel oils. Also there are fire wastewater treatment lagoons. Chemical sludge and contaminated soil cover much of the open area while construction debris is about. The primary contaminants are inorganics and organics including toluene, benzene, TCE, and xylene. The cleanup action includes drainage and removal of the lagoons and treatment of drained liquid and sludge, removal of all tanks, buildings, and debris; decontamination of all metal structures salvagable as scrap; incineration of chemicals and analysis and disposal (if needed) of decontamination fluids. The estimated baseline capital cost for this remedy is $3,143,000.

  5. Estimated suspended-sediment loads and yields in the French and Brandywine Creek Basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, water years 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Olson, Leif E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at four stream stations--French Creek near Phoenixville, West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, and East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown--in Chester County, Pa. Sedimentation and siltation is the leading cause of stream impairment in Chester County, and these data are critical for quantifying sediment transport. This study was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department. Data from optical turbidity sensors deployed at the four stations were recorded at 15- or 30-minute intervals by a data logger and uploaded every 1 to 4 hours to the USGS database. Most of the suspended-sediment samples were collected using automated samplers. The use of optical sensors to continuously monitor turbidity provided an accurate estimate of sediment fluctuations without the collection and analysis costs associated with intensive sampling during storms. Turbidity was used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is a measure of sedimentation and siltation. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity for each of the monitoring stations using SSC data collected from the automated samplers and turbidity data collected at each station. Instantaneous suspended-sediment loads (SSL) were computed from time-series turbidity and discharge data for the 2008 and 2009 water years using the regression equations. The instantaneous computations of SSL were summed to provide daily, storm, and water year annual loads. The annual SSL contributed from each basin was divided by the upstream drainage area to estimate the annual sediment yield. For all four basins, storms provided more than 96 percent of the annual SSL. In each basin, four storms generally provided over half the annual SSL each water year. Stormflows with the

  6. perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. This switching hall, built in 1890, was designed by Frederick j. osterling. Other Bell Telephone buildings on the block include the twenty-story headquarters building (1923, james t. windrim) on the left, and an eleven-story building (1905, alden & Harlow) on the right. - Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania Building, 416-420 Seventh Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Children's Literature. Adams State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Susan L.

    This is one of a series of eight Teacher Education Modules developed by Adams State College Teacher Corps Program. The dual purpose of these modules is stated as follows: trying to understand children and their needs and becoming familiar with and developing criteria for evaluating children's literature. The objectives of the modules, which are…

  8. John Couch Adams, the astronomer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, N.

    1989-03-01

    The planet Neptune was discovered more than 140 years ago. The circumstances of the discovery gave rise to great controversy, and very nearly led to an international incident between Britain and France, but this was only one of John Couch Adams' many contributions to astronomical science.

  9. Physical and vegetative characteristics of a relocated stream reach, constructed wetland, and riparian buffer, Upper Saucon Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, 2000-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; White, Kirk E.; Loper, Connie A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Engineering District 5-0, investigated physical and vegetative changes within a relocated stream reach, constructed wetland, and riparian buffer from September 2000 to October 2004. This report presents an evaluation of data collected using methods from multiple sources that have been adapted into a consistent approach. This approach is intended to satisfy a need for consistent collection of different types of data with the goal of transferring technology and findings to similar projects. Survey data indicate that adjustment of the upstream part of the relocated stream reach slowed over the monitoring period, but the downstream channel remains unstable as evidenced by excessive deposition. Upstream migration of a nick point has slowed or stopped altogether as of the 2003 assessment when this feature came in contact with the upstream-most part of the channel that is lined with riprap. Documented streambed erosion in the upstream cross sections, along with deposition downstream, has resulted in an overall decrease in slope of the stream channel over the monitoring period. Most streambed erosion took place prior to the 2002 assessment when annual mean streamflows were less than those in the final 2 years of monitoring. An abundance of fine sediment dominates the substrate of the relocated channel. Annual fluctuations of large particles within each cross section demonstrates the capacity of the relocated channel to transport the entire range of sediment. The substrate within the 0.28-acre constructed wetland (a mixture of soil from an off-site naturally occurring wetland and woodchips) supported a hydrophytic-vegetation community throughout the investigation. Eleocharis obtusa (spike rush), an obligate-wetland herb, was the most prevalent species, having a maximum areal cover of 90 percent in fall 2001 and a minimum of 23 percent in fall 2004. Drought-like conditions in water

  10. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  11. Have a Pennsylvania Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Describes a social studies unit on Pennsylvania for third graders. As a final activity, students hold a Pennsylvania party at which they use pictures of famous people from the state with other state symbols as decorations, and serve foods grown in the state for refreshments. (AM)

  12. Determination of benthic-invertebrate indices and water-quality trends of selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1969-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The trends of biological and chemical data collected for 12 years (1969-80) from 46 sites in Chester County were evaluated by using the sea- sonal Kendall test. Brillouin's diversity index was calculated and plotted against time for each site. The diversity index at 7 sites had upward trends significant at the 99-percent confidence level, the index at 9 sites had upward trends significant at the 95 to 98 percent confidence level, and the index at 11 sites had upward trends significant at the 90 to 94 percent con- fidence level. Although the trends were not statistically significant, 17 of the remaining sites had upward trends and 2 had downward trends. The seasonal Kendall test was used to test the chemical data for temporal trends at eight sites having stream discharge data. Significant trends were found at one or more sites for flow-adjusted values of specific conductance, pH, total nitrate, total phosphorus, dissolved chloride, and dissolved sulfate. The chemical data for 11 sites, which were not flow adjusted, were tested for trends by plotting against time and determining a correlation coefficient. Significant trends were found at one or more sites in nitrate and chloride. Selected chemical constituents were tested by regression analysis for correlation with the diversity index. Only total dissolved solids correlated significantly with diversity index. Several suggestions are made to improve the monitoring program.

  13. Identification of water-bearing fractures by the use of geophysical logs, May to July 1998, former Naval Air Warfare Center, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    1999-01-01

    Between May and July 1998, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground water in shallow and intermediate water-bearing fractures. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources. Three boreholes were drilled on the property at 960 Jacksonville Road, at the northwestern side of NAWC, along strike from Area A; seven boreholes were drilled in Area B in the southeastern corner of NAWC. Depths range from 40.5 to 150 feet below land surface. Borehole geophysical logging and video surveys were used to identify water-bearing fractures so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Video surveys were obtained at three monitor wells in the southeastern corner of the NAWC property. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures. Inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each monitor well.

  14. Evaluation of geophysical logs and video surveys in boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1998 and April 1998, geophysical logs were collected in nine boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pa. Video surveys were conducted on four of the nine boreholes. The boreholes range in depth from 320 to 508 feet below land surface, are completed open holes, have ambient vertical flow of water, and penetrate a series of interbedded siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate units. The purpose of collecting geophysical-log data was to help determine horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources and to aid in the placement of permanent borehole packers. The primary contaminants were derived from paint waste that included pigment sludges and wash solvents. The chlorinated volatile organic compounds probably originated from the wash solvents. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-resistivity and fluid-temperature logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's logs, permanent multiple-packer systems were installed in each borehole to obtain depth specific water samples from one or more water-bearing fractures in each borehole.

  15. Development of flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Borough of Jersey Shore, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow data, water-surface-elevation profiles derived from a Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System hydraulic model, and geographical information system digital elevation models were used to develop a set of 18 flood-inundation maps for an approximately 5-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Borough of Jersey Shore, Pa. The inundation maps were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and Lycoming County as part of an ongoing effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service to focus on continued improvements to the flood forecasting and warning abilities in the Susquehanna River Basin and to modernize flood-forecasting methodologies. The maps, ranging from 23.0 to 40.0 feet in 1-foot increments, correspond to river stage at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 01549760 at Jersey Shore. The electronic files used to develop the maps were provided to the National Weather Service for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service website. The maps are displayed on this website, which serves as a web-based floodwarning system, and can be used to identify areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. During times of flooding or predicted flooding, these maps can be used by emergency managers and the public to take proactive steps to protect life and reduce property damage caused by floods.

  16. Evaluation of Water-Chemistry and Water-Level Data at the Henderson Road Superfund Site, Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1991-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Several shutdown-rebound tests have been conducted at the Henderson Road Superfund Site, which has been on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List since 1984. For a given test, the extraction wells are turned off, and water samples are collected from selected monitor wells at regular intervals before and during cessation of pumping to monitor for changes in chemical concentrations. A long-term shutdown-rebound test began on July 17, 2006. In support of this test, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to determine the effects of shutting down on-site extraction wells on concentrations of selected contaminants and water levels. Concentrations were compared to ARARs (applicable relevant and appropriate requirements), which were set as remediation goals in the Henderson Road Site Record of Decision. Water from 10 wells in and near the source area and to the north, northeast, and northwest of the source area sampled in 2008 exceeded the 5.52 ug/L (micrograms per liter) ARAR for benzene. The greatest changes in benzene concentration between pre-shutdown samples collected in July 2006 and samples collected in February and March 2008 (19 months after the shutdown) were for wells in and north of the source area; increases in benzene concentration ranged from 1.5 to 164 ug/L. Water from five wells in the source area and to the north and northwest of the source area sampled in 2008 exceeded the 60 ug/L ARAR for chlorobenzene. The greatest changes in chlorobenzene concentration between pre-shutdown samples collected in July 2006 and samples collected in February and March 2008 were for wells north of the source area; increases in chlorobenzene concentration ranged from 6.9 to 99 ug/L. The highest concentrations of chlorobenzene were near or outside the northern site boundary, indicating chlorobenzene may have moved north away from the source area; however, no monitor well clusters are on the northern side of the Pennsylvania Turnpike

  17. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  18. Changes in Groundwater Flow and Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations at the Fischer and Porter Superfund Site, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The 38-acre Fischer and Porter Company Superfund Site is in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa. Historically, as part of the manufacturing process, trichloroethylene (TCE) degreasers were used for parts cleaning. In 1979, the Bucks County Health Department detected TCE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water from the Fischer and Porter on-site supply wells and nearby public-supply wells. The Fischer and Porter Site was designated as a Superfund Site and placed on the National Priorities List in September 1983. A 1984 Record of Decision for the site required the Fischer and Porter Company to pump and treat groundwater contaminated by VOCs from three on-site wells at a combined rate of 75 gallons per minute to contain groundwater contamination on the property. Additionally, the Record of Decision recognized the need for treatment of the water from two nearby privately owned supply wells operated by the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association. In 2004, the Warminster Heights Home Ownership Association sold its water distribution system, and both wells were taken out of service. The report describes changes in groundwater levels and contaminant concentrations and migration caused by the shutdown of the Warminster Heights supply wells and presents a delineation of the off-site groundwater-contamination plume. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted this study (2006-09) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The Fischer and Porter Site and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Stockton Formation of Late Triassic age. The rocks are chiefly interbedded arkosic sandstone and siltstone. The Stockton aquifer system is comprised of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. A three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model was developed for the site on the basis of rock cores and borehole geophysical logs. The model was simplified by combining individual lithologic

  19. Geologic cross section C-C' through the Appalachian basin from Erie County, north-central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge province, Bedford County, south-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.; Hope, Rebecca S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lentz, Erika E.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic cross section C-C' is the third in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section C-C' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from north-central Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in south-central Pennsylvania, a distance of approximately 260 miles (mi). This cross section is a companion to cross sections E-E' and D-D' that are located about 50 to 125 mi and 25 to 50 mi, respectively, to the southwest. Cross section C-C' contains much information that is useful for evaluating energy resources in the Appalachian basin. Although specific petroleum systems are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on what is shown on the cross section. Cross section C-C' also provides a general framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section, although the cross section lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank). In addition, cross section C-C' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  20. 6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE IN MIDDLE, CHICAGO TRANSIT AUTHORITY ORANGE LINE AT LEFT. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. REACHING FOR TOMORROW--PENNSYLVANIA MIGRANT CHILD CARE CENTERS AND SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HORTING, RUTH G.; AND OTHERS

    DEVELOPMENTS BETWEEN 1954 AND 1961 IN MIGRANT CHILD CARE CENTERS AND SERVICES IN PENNSYLVANIA WERE GIVEN. BEFORE 1954 THE PENNSYLVANIA CITIZENS COMMITTEE FOR MIGRATORY LABOR URGED THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRY AND THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE TO ESTABLISH CHILD CARE CENTERS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN POTTER COUNTY, THE TWO…

  2. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  3. Preliminary effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on the quality of surface water in a small watershed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2000-01-01

    The use of fencing to exclude pastured animals from streams has been recognized as an agricultural best-management practice. Streambank fencing was installed in a small basin within the Mill Creek Watershed of Lancaster County, Pa., during summer 1997 to evaluate the effectiveness of fencing on surface-water quality. A preliminary review of data collected during a pre-treatment, or calibration period (October 1993 through June 1997), and part of the post-treatment period (July 1997 through November 1998) has identified a varied instream nutrient response to streambank fencing. Concentrations of total nitrogen (N) during low-flow periods were significantly reduced by 20 to 31 percent at treated relative to untreated sites, but the yield of total N during low-flow conditions did not change significantly. Low-flow concentrations and yields of total phosphorus (P) did not change significantly at the outlet of the treatment basin, but data from a tributary site (T-2) in the treatment basin showed a 19- to 79-percent increase in the concentration and yield of total P relative to those at untreated sites. The total-P increase was due to increased concentrations of dissolved P. The processes causing the decrease in the concentration of total N and an increase in the concentration of total P were related to stream discharge, which declined after fencing to about one-third lower than the period-of-record mean. Declines in stream discharge after fence installation were caused by lower than normal precipitation. As concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased in the stream channel as flows decreased, there was increased potential for instream denitrification and solubilization of P from sediments in the stream channel. Vegetative uptake of nitrate could also have contributed to decreased N concentrations. There were few significant changes in concentrations and yields of nutrients during stormflow except for significant reductions of 16 percent for total-N concentrations and

  4. Analyzing Performance by Pennsylvania Grade 8 Hispanic Students on the 2007/08 State Assessment. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling; Strickland, Martha; Wise, John

    2012-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2009, the Hispanic population more than doubled in 25 of 67 Pennsylvania counties. Over the same period, the Hispanic student population in Pennsylvania schools also rose, from 4 percent to 8 percent (Pennsylvania State Data Center 2011). The focus on Hispanic students' level of academic achievement rose along with this rapid…

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of source areas of water to production wells in a colluvium-mantled carbonate-bedrock aquifer near Shippensburg, Cumberland and Franklin Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Shippensburg Borough Authority to evaluate the source areas of water to production wells in a colluvium-mantled carbonate-bedrock aquifer in Cumberland and Franklin Counties, Pa. The areal extent of the zone of contribution was simulated for three production wells near Shippensburg, Pa. by use of a ground-water-flow model. A 111-square-mile area was selected as the model area and includes areas of the South Mountain Section and the Great Valley Section of the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. Within the model area, the geologic units in the South Mountain area are predominantly metamorphic rocks and the geologic units in the Great Valley are predominantly carbonate rocks. Hydrologic and geologic information were compiled to establish a conceptual model of ground-water flow. Characteristics of aquifer materials were determined, and streamflow and water levels were measured. Streamflow measurements in November 2003 showed all streams lost water as they flowed from South Mountain over the colluvium-mantled carbonate aquifer into the Great Valley. Some streams lost more than 1 cubic foot per second to the aquifer in this area. The Shippensburg Borough Authority owns three production wells in the model area. Two wells, Cu 969 and Fr 823, are currently (2004) used as production wells and produce 500,000 and 800,000 gallons per day, respectively. Well Cu 970 is intended to be brought on line as a production well in the future. Water levels were measured in 43 wells to use for model calibration. Water-level fluctuations and geophysical logs indicated confined conditions in well Cu 970. Ground-water flow was simulated with a model that consisted of two vertical layers, with five zones in each layer. The units were hydrostratigraphic units that initially were based on geologic formations, but boundaries were adjusted during model calibration. Model calibration resulted in

  6. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong

  7. Training in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo R.

    1983-01-01

    A train trip through Pennsylvania is an education in the history and current activities and industries of the state. One can observe the old railroad depots, landscapes, railroad work crews, strip mines, and Amish communities. (KC)

  8. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  9. ADAMS: AIRLAB data management system user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, C. L.; Ingogly, W. F.; Lauterbach, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    The AIRLAB Data Management System (ADAMS) is an online environment that supports research at NASA's AIRLAB. ADAMS provides an easy to use interactive interface that eases the task of documenting and managing information about experiments and improves communication among project members. Data managed by ADAMS includes information about experiments, data sets produced, software and hardware available in AIRLAB as well as that used in a particular experiment, and an on-line engineer's notebook. The User's Guide provides an overview of the ADAMS system as well as details of the operations available within ADAMS. A tutorial section takes the user step-by-step through a typical ADAMS session. ADAMS runs under the VAX/VMS operating system and uses the ORACLE database management system and DEC/FMS (the Forms Management System). ADAMS can be run from any VAX connected via DECnet to the ORACLE host VAX. The ADAMS system is designed for simplicity, so interactions within the underlying data management system and communications network are hidden from the user.

  10. Adam receives Fred Whipple Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Adams, John B.

    John B. Adams was presented with the Fred Whipple Award at the AGU Fall Meeting in December in San Francisco, California. The award, established in 1989 by the Planetary Sciences Section, is presented to an individual who makes an outstanding contribution to the field of planetary science.In the beginning, scientists including Galileo studied the solar system by staring through a tube with glass elements called a telescope. This panchromatic instrument demonstrated existence and motion of objects and revealed features such as craters and clouds. However, it required approximately another 400 years to develop the physics and technology necessary to determine remotely the composition of these objects.

  11. 19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH CASTLE ROCK IN BACKGROUND. JUNCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL AND TOP CHORD WITH STABILIZING LATERAL STRUT ABOVE AND SWAY STRUT BELOW. ORIGINAL PAIRED DIAGONAL EYE BARS LATER REINFORCED WITH TIE ROD - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  12. 5. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2992: NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS: SCALE DETAILS LOWER PART OF POSTS (1889 ADDTION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. A Study of School Lunch Programs in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Dolores K.; Baker, Michael E.

    Major areas of concern of Pennsylvania school food service management--student participation, labor cost, food cost, and uses of management information--are analyzed and recommendations are made. The management information study is an analysis of the findings from a six-county sample survey of record keeping practices and personal perceptions of…

  14. The 1978 Pennsylvania Orchard and Vineyard Inventory Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Significant developments in the fruit industry in Pennsylvania are reported to provide basic information as a guide in the production and marketing of apples, pears, cherries, peaches, grapes, plums, prunes and nectarines. Tables show the number of growers, trees and acres by kind of fruit as well as the age of the trees, the number of barrels produced, and production by county and region.

  15. Asteroid shape modelling with ADAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, Matti; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2015-08-01

    Technological advancements have made it possible to obtain highly detailed images of asteroids, yet 3-D shape reconstruction remains a challenge. Shape inversion is an ill-posed inverse problem as systematic errors, shadowing effects due to non-convex features, and the limitations of the imaging systems render the direct inversion impossible. Moreover, the coverage of one observation session alone is seldom sufficient for 3-D reconstruction, necessitating a method for the integration of widely different, complementary data sources into a coherent shape solution.We present a new 3-D shape reconstruction method for asteroid models. ADAM, an acronym for all-data asteroid modelling, is a general procedure for combining disk-resolved observational data into a shape model. ADAM handles all disk-resolved data in a uniform manner via 2-D Fourier Transform. Almost all disk-resolved data sources are supported: adaptive optics and other images, range-Doppler radar data, and thermal infrared interferometry.As case studies, we examine the shape of (41) Daphne using the adaptive optics images and photometry, and create a model of the asteroid 2000 ET70 from the range-Doppler radar images. Finally, we combine ALMA science verification data, adaptive optics images, occultations, and lightcurve data to study the shape of the large main-belt asteroid (3) Juno.

  16. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  17. A Seniors' Program for Beaver County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald F.

    1973-01-01

    Programs for seniors are needed, according to the assistant director of continuing education at the Community College of Beaver County (Pennsylvania); the question revolves around who will pay. (Editor)

  18. ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

    This curriculum guide was prepared as a tool for teaching students the purpose and function of the ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA database in the total concept of information literacy. The database on compact laser disc contains information about the holdings of hundreds of school, public, academic, and special use libraries. The database can be searched at…

  19. Partners in Arts: Matching Money with Artists and Schools in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Denice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a fund raising project, the "palette of prizes," to raise money for theatre for children in Blair County, Pennsylvania. Discusses creation of theater presentations involving nearly the entire student body. Suggests 11 lessons for other communities interested in using Blair County's arts education programming as a model. Discusses…

  20. Cleavage Site Localization Differentially Controls Interleukin-6 Receptor Proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Riethmueller, Steffen; Ehlers, Johanna C.; Lokau, Juliane; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Knittler, Katharina; Dombrowsky, Gregor; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rabe, Björn; Rose-John, Stefan; Garbers, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of the Interleukin-6 Receptor (IL-6R) leads to the release of the IL-6R ectodomain. Binding of the cytokine IL-6 to the soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) results in an agonistic IL-6/sIL-6R complex, which activates cells via gp130 irrespective of whether the cells express the IL-6R itself. This signaling pathway has been termed trans-signaling and is thought to mainly account for the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6. A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 are the major proteases that cleave the IL-6R. We have previously shown that deletion of a ten amino acid long stretch within the stalk region including the cleavage site prevents ADAM17-mediated cleavage, whereas the receptor retained its full biological activity. In the present study, we show that deletion of a triple serine (3S) motif (Ser-359 to Ser-361) adjacent to the cleavage site is sufficient to prevent IL-6R cleavage by ADAM17, but not ADAM10. We find that the impaired shedding is caused by the reduced distance between the cleavage site and the plasma membrane. Positioning of the cleavage site in greater distance towards the plasma membrane abrogates ADAM17-mediated shedding and reveals a novel cleavage site of ADAM10. Our findings underline functional differences in IL-6R proteolysis by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:27151651

  1. John Quincy Adams's rhetorical crusade for astronomy.

    PubMed

    Portolano, M

    2000-09-01

    Astronomy thrived in Europe during the early nineteenth century, but in the United States a utilitarian mind-set opposed it. John Quincy Adams's oratory in support of American astronomical discovery reached its peak during congressional debate over the Smithsonian Institution (1838-1846). During this debate Adams countered proposals to found a university with plans for an observatory. His addresses to congressional and public audiences about observatories and astronomy were intended to foster interest in the science and encourage the growing astronomical community in America. Although the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., was established before the Smithsonian debate ended, many considered Adams its political father. Adams composed his speeches on astronomy in a systematic manner, following neoclassical principles of rhetoric that he had taught at Harvard University. His speeches both in and outside of Congress show evidence of the rhetorical principles he conscientiously used in the service of astronomy. PMID:11143785

  2. CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Welsh, Robert A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

  3. Hydrology and the effects of selected agricultural best-management practices in the Bald Eagle Creek Watershed, York County, Pennsylvania, prior to and during nutrient management : Water-Quality Study for the Chesapeake Bay Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Fishel, David K.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, conducted a study as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program to determine the effects of nutrient management of surface-water quality by reducing animal units in a 0.43-square-mile agricultural watershed in York County. The study was conducted primarily from October 1985 through September 1990 prior to and during the implementation of nutrient-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and sediment discharges. Intermittent sampling continued until August 1991. The Bald Eagle Creek Basin is underlain by schist and quartzite. About 87 percent of the watershed is cropland and pasture. Nearly 33 percent of the cropland was planted in corn prior to nutrient management, whereas 22 percent of the cropland was planted in corn during the nutrient-management phase. The animal population was reduced by 49 percent during nutrient management. Average annual applications of nitrogen and phosphorus from manure to cropland were reduced by 3,940 pounds (39 percent) and 910 pounds (46 percent), respectively, during nutrient management. A total of 94,560 pounds of nitrogen (538 pounds per acre) and 26,400 pounds of phosphorus (150 pounds per acre) were applied to the cropland as commercial fertilizer and manure during the 5-year study. Core samples from the top 4 feet of soil were collected prior to and during nutrient management and analyzed from concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The average amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 36 to 135 pounds per acre, and soluble phosphorus ranged from 0.39 to 2.5 pounds per acre, prior to nutrient management. During nutrient management, nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 21 to 291 pounds per acre and soluble phosphorus ranged from 0.73 to 1.7 pounds per acre. Precipitation was about 18 percent below normal and streamflow was about 35

  4. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering. PMID:26247288

  5. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 72661, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed... rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania...

  6. Public health assessment for petitioned Cabot-Wrought Products, Division of Cabot Corporation (A/K/A NGK Metals/Cabot Berylco, Incorporated), Muhlenberg, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD044540136. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-27

    The NGK Metals Corporation is a beryllium processing plant located approximately four miles north of Reading, Pennsylvania. The beryllium processing plant has released hazardous substances into the environment through on-site disposal of process wastes, wastewater discharge, and air emissions. Based upon environmental and exposure data evaluated by ATSDR, concentrations of contaminants detected in air, water, soil, and sediment are not believed to represent any public health hazard. However, ATSDR has classified the NGK site as an Indeterminate Public Health Hazard. The classification is primarily due to the fact that no data exist for air (prior to 1979) and groundwater (prior to 1990).

  7. Pennsylvania Public Employe Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, John D.

    This volume is intended to help public administrators and attorneys deal with the legal problems in Pennsylvania public sector labor relations. In it, the Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board is discussed and public sector labor relations court decisions are cited. The volume is intended to be a reference book and to reveal inconsistencies in…

  8. Pennsylvania Migratory Labor Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, Harrisburg, PA.

    Operating for the 18th year, the Pennsylvania Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, which is charged with coordinating and bringing into focus the activities of various governmental and nongovernmental agencies relating to Pennsylvania's migrant workers, submits the present document as an annual report. Some specific areas reported on by…

  9. The Life and Times of John Couch Adams, from 1819 to 1847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    John Couch Adams was born in 1819 in the middle of Cornwall, the most remote and isolated county in England. How he progressed from there to Cambridge University to become one of the finest mathematicians of the nineteenth century fills everyone who studies him with awe. Tragically what should have been his greatest triumph - the discovery of a new planet - was marred by mishap, controversy and unanswered questions. This presentation examines one of the first of these questions and provides new answers based on recently revealed evidence. The Astronomer Royal of the day was attempting to support Adams and as part of that support asked if his analysis took into account changes in radius vector of Uranus. Adams did not reply and the rest as they say is history. However there is far more to the question than a non-existent letter - this in itself turns out to be not exactly true. Further analysis of the orbits and a letter in French - not been translated before reveals Adams had a more profound understanding of the situation than some later authors have given him credit.

  10. ADAM: automated data management for research datasets

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Mark; Tomlinson, Christopher D.; Butcher, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing repositories for experimental datasets typically capture snapshots of data acquired using a single experimental technique and often require manual population and continual curation. We present a storage system for heterogeneous research data that performs dynamic automated indexing to provide powerful search, discovery and collaboration features without the restrictions of a structured repository. ADAM is able to index many commonly used file formats generated by laboratory assays and therefore offers specific advantages to the experimental biology community. However, it is not domain specific and can promote sharing and re-use of working data across scientific disciplines. Availability and implementation: ADAM is implemented using Java and supported on Linux. It is open source under the GNU General Public License v3.0. Installation instructions, binary code, a demo system and virtual machine image and are available at http://www.imperial.ac.uk/bioinfsupport/resources/software/adam. Contact: m.woodbridge@imperial.ac.uk PMID:23109181

  11. Women in History--Abigail Adams: Life, Accomplishments, and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenan, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles the life, accomplishments, and ideas of Abigail Adams. Born in 1944, Adams lacked a formal education, but she more than made up for that shortcoming with her love of reading, especially literature, and her interests in politics and events surrounding the young colonies. Adams was supportive of the advancement of women. She…

  12. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the Lower White Clay Creek and Upper Christina River Basins including portions of Franklin, London Britain, New Garden, and New London Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, June through September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Lindsay B.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county.  Areas where the potentiometric surface has been mapped are shown on figure 1.  These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements (Wood, 1998).

  13. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  14. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  15. Paraprofessional of the Year 2009: Tina Adams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt among the staff and managers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries, Raleigh, that advanced library technician Tina Adams deserves to be the winner of the "Library Journal's "Paraprofessional of the Year Award for 2009." "Certainly this library has never seen anyone like her before, not in my nine years on staff,"…

  16. ADAM "sequence" part II: hypothesis and speculation.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Johnson, Dennis R; Gilbert-Barness, Enid F

    2015-03-01

    Noted for centuries in humans, a relatively hairless mammal [e.g., Hallero, 1766; Hohl, 1828 in Klunker, 2003], the so-called amniotic deformities, adhesions, mutilations (ADAM) sequence remains causally and pathogenetically incognito. In 1930 Streeter stated " apodictically" that no evidence has been found that intra-uterine amputation is due to amniotic bands or adhesions …" and that his 16 cases provided (histological) evidence for a "germinal origin." He concluded that an amniotic cord was "not an adhesion or inflammatory product but … an anomalous developmental structure and present from the outset." In survivors the "traces" of damaged limb-buds "reveal the scars of poor germ-plasm." In 1958, Willis, in dismissing the amniotic origin of the ADAM defects (or "Streeter" or "Simonart" bands) quoted Keith [1940] to the effect that "(a)mniotic adhesions … are always produced by … the fetus – as a result of dysplasia in foetal tissues. They are the result, not the cause, of foetal malformations." Streeter [1930] mentions a potential familial case (56-year-old man and his mother), not controlled by photographs or other records and concluded "that the (ADAM) deformity is not easily transmissible," but "due to the constitution of the germ-plasm." Torpin [1968] concluded, as apodictically as Streeter and Willis, that "… proof of amnion rupture without damage to the chorionic sac is no longer "in question." Considering Torpin's decades-long study of the ADAM phenomenon and review of 494 references (missing many) it is surprising that he does not discuss the relationship between the apparent ADAM defects and other, internal anomalies that maybe present in an affected fetus or infant not evidently caused by the amniotic disruptions, adhesions or mutilations, unless his mind was made up. Our review of these internal and other presumed primary malformations in ADAM is ongoing. However, on a preliminary basis, it seems likely to us that: (1) there is an increased

  17. Illnesses of the brain in John Quincy Adams.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2004-12-01

    John Quincy Adams, the sixth and perhaps most scholarly American president, served courageously despite familial essential tremor, depression, and cerebrovascular disease. His cousin Samuel Adams and his father John Adams also had essential tremor, which the later called "quiveration". Alcoholism and depression affected several members of J.Q. Adams's family. Following his own time as president, J.Q. Adams returned to duty as the congressman who most assiduously fought slavery, a fight he continued even after he had suffered a major left hemispheric stroke. His fatal collapse in Congress, protesting the Mexican War, is legendary among the final illnesses of American statesmen. PMID:15545105

  18. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface, May and June 1993, and change in water level 1983-93, in the carbonate rocks of East Whiteland and Charlestown townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, B.C.; Sloto, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in the carbonate rocks of northern Chester County, Pa., was constructed on the basis of water levels in 51 wells measured in May and June 1993. The area studied underlies parts of East Whiteland and Charlestown Townships. Water-level altitudes range from about 413 feet above sea level on Phoenixville Pike to 130 feet above sea level along Route 29.

  19. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Triassic sedimentary rocks at and near the North Penn Area 12 Superfund site, Worcester Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, July 20-27, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grazul, Kevin E.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing the altitude of the potentiometric surface defined by measured water levels near the North Penn Area 12 Superfund Site in Worcester Township, Montgomery County, Pa., was constructed from water levels measured in 35 wells from July 20-27, 1995. Observed water-level altitudes range from 435 feet above sea level in a well near Church Road to 261 feet above sea level in a well near Land Road in Worcester Township.

  20. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  1. Targeting autocrine HB-EGF signaling with specific ADAM12 inhibition using recombinant ADAM12 prodomain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Miles A.; Moss, Marcia L.; Powell, Gary; Petrovich, Robert; Edwards, Lori; Meyer, Aaron S.; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2015-10-01

    Dysregulation of ErbB-family signaling underlies numerous pathologies and has been therapeutically targeted through inhibiting ErbB-receptors themselves or their cognate ligands. For the latter, “decoy” antibodies have been developed to sequester ligands including heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF); however, demonstrating sufficient efficacy has been difficult. Here, we hypothesized that this strategy depends on properties such as ligand-receptor binding affinity, which varies widely across the known ErbB-family ligands. Guided by computational modeling, we found that high-affinity ligands such as HB-EGF are more difficult to target with decoy antibodies compared to low-affinity ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG). To address this issue, we developed an alternative method for inhibiting HB-EGF activity by targeting its cleavage from the cell surface. In a model of the invasive disease endometriosis, we identified A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) as a protease implicated in HB-EGF shedding. We designed a specific inhibitor of ADAM12 based on its recombinant prodomain (PA12), which selectively inhibits ADAM12 but not ADAM10 or ADAM17. In endometriotic cells, PA12 significantly reduced HB-EGF shedding and resultant cellular migration. Overall, specific inhibition of ligand shedding represents a possible alternative to decoy antibodies, especially for ligands such as HB-EGF that exhibit high binding affinity and localized signaling.

  2. Iterative Mechanism Solutions with Scenario and ADAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Daren

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of iterative solutions using Scenario for Motion (UG NX 2 Motion) to assist in designing the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL will have very unique design requirements, and in order to meet these requirements the system must have the ability to design for static stability, simulate mechanism kinematics, simulate dynamic behaviour and be capable of reconfiguration, and iterations as designed. The legacy process used on the Mars Exploration rovers worked, but it was cumbersome using multiple tools, limited configuration control, with manual process and communication, and multiple steps. The aim is to develop a mechanism that would reduce turn around time, and make more reiterations possible, to improve the quality and quantity of data, and to enhance configuration control. Currently for NX Scenario for Motion uses are in the articulation studies, the simulations of traverse motions,and subsystem simulations. The design of the Rover landing model requires accurate results, flexible elements, such as beams, and the use of the full ADAMS solver has been used. In order to achieve this, when required, there has been a direct translation from Scenario to ADAMS, with additional data in ascii format. The process that has been designed to move from Scenario to ADAMS is reviewed.

  3. Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Risser, Dennis W.; Regan, Robert S.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Markstrom, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with ClearWater Conservancy and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to develop a hydrologic model to simulate a water budget and identify areas of greater than average recharge for the Spring Creek Basin in central Pennsylvania. The model was developed to help policy makers, natural resource managers, and the public better understand and manage the water resources in the region. The Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model (GSFLOW), which is an integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-NWT), was used to simulate surface water and groundwater in the Spring Creek Basin for water years 2000–06. Because the groundwater and surface-water divides for the Spring Creek Basin do not coincide, the study area includes the Nittany Creek Basin and headwaters of the Spruce Creek Basin. The hydrologic model was developed by the use of a stepwise process: (1) develop and calibrate a PRMS model and steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model; (2) re-calibrate the steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model using potential recharge estimates simulated from the PRMS model, and (3) integrate the PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models into GSFLOW. The individually calibrated PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models were used as a starting point for the calibration of the fully coupled GSFLOW model. The GSFLOW model calibration was done by comparing observations and corresponding simulated values of streamflow from 11 streamgages and groundwater levels from 16 wells. The cumulative water budget and individual water budgets for water years 2000–06 were simulated by using GSFLOW. The largest source and sink terms are represented by precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. For the period simulated, a net surplus in the water budget was computed where inflows exceeded outflows by about 1.7 billion cubic feet (0.47 inches per year over the basin area

  4. Test and Evaluation of Public Service Uses of Cable Television: Reading, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Reading Consortium.

    The New York University-Reading Consortium proposed to evaluate the use of interactive cable television for the delivery of public services to the the elderly residents of Reading, Pennsylvania. The project represented the collaborative efforts of New York University, the City of reading, the Berks TV Cable Company, the Berks County Senior…

  5. A Community Organizes for Action: A Case Study of the Mon-Yough Region in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert W.; Chesler, Herbert A.

    This case study examines the development and problems of the Mon-Yough Community Action Committee, Inc. (MYCAC), one of the local anti-poverty agencies in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The agency's major effort is to overcome problems created by the decline of the local steel industry by supporting existing welfare agencies, and through such…

  6. A Case Study on Collaboration: Sharing the Responsibility of Economic Development in Juniata Valley, Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Shakoor A.; Clark, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the need and importance of the community college's role in economic development, this article takes a closer look at how collaboration in the Juniata Valley of Pennsylvania between Industrial Development Corporations (IDCs) of Mifflin and Juniata counties, career and technical centers, and other agencies is…

  7. A Bridge to the Future: A Pennsylvania District's "Lifelong" Community Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaul, Samuel A.; Ganster, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Influencing and mentoring underachieving students is one mission of the Ambridge Area Community Learning Center in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Operating with a 3-year, $90,000 grant from Pittsburgh's Grable Foundation, the "lifelong" learning center offers classes, workshops, and services to all ages. (MLH)

  8. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker; Greg McCarty; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  9. The Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College

    SciTech Connect

    Meville, Jeff; Wilson, Jack; Manz, John; Gannett, Kirk; Smith, Franzennia

    2010-01-01

    A look into some of the remarkable work being done in the Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College. Penn College's program has served as the model for six other training centers in Pennsylvania alone.

  10. The Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College

    ScienceCinema

    Meville, Jeff; Wilson, Jack; Manz, John; Gannett, Kirk; Smith, Franzennia;

    2013-05-29

    A look into some of the remarkable work being done in the Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College. Penn College's program has served as the model for six other training centers in Pennsylvania alone.

  11. Regional expression of ADAM19 during chicken embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Lin, Juntang; Markus, Annett; Rolfs, Arndt; Luo, Jiankai

    2011-04-01

    ADAM19 (also named meltrin β) is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloproteases and is involved in morphogenesis and tissue formation during embryonic development. In the present study, chicken ADAM19 is cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequencing. Its expression patterns in different parts of the developing chicken embryo are investigated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results show that ADAM19 protein is widely expressed in chicken embryos. It is detectable in the central nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, cochlea, and retina. Furthermore, ADAM19 protein is also found in other tissues and organs such as digestive organs, the thymus, the lung bud, the dorsal aorta, the kidney, the gonad, muscles, and in the feather buds. All these data suggest that ADAM19 plays an important role in the embryonic development of chicken. PMID:21492148

  12. Occurrence and trends in the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation to field water-quality parameters in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001–09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McCoy, Jamie L.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,742 water samples were collected at 52 main-stem and tributary sites. Quantifiable concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were reported in 1,667 samples, or 97.0 percent of 1,719 samples; concentrations in 853 samples (49.6 percent) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recreational water-quality criterion of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters (col/100 mL). Quantifiable concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria were reported in 1,693 samples, or 98.8 percent of 1,713 samples; concentrations in 780 samples (45.5 percent) exceeded the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania water contact criterion of 400 col/100 mL. Quantifiable concentrations of enterococci bacteria were reported in 912 samples, or 87.5 percent of 1,042 samples; concentrations in 483 samples (46.4 percent) exceeded the EPA recreational water-quality criterion of 61 col/100 mL. The median percentage of samples in which bacteria concentrations exceeded recreational water-quality standards across all sites with five or more samples was 48 for E. coli, 43 for FC, and 75 for enterococci. E. coli, FC, and enterococci concentrations at main-stem sites had significant positive correlations with streamflow under all weather conditions, with rho values ranging from 0.203 to 0.598. Seasonal Kendall and logistic regression were evaluated to determine whether statistically significant trends were present during the period 2001–09. In general, Seasonal Kendall tests for trends in E. coli and FC bacteria were inconclusive. Results of logistic regression showed no significant trends in dry-weather exceedance of the standards; however, significant decreases in the likelihood that wet-weather E. coli and FC bacteria concentrations will exceed EPA recreational standards were found at the USGS streamgaging station Allegheny River at 9th Street Bridge. Nonparametric correlation analysis, including Spearman’s rho and the paired Prentice-Wilcoxon test, was used to screen for associations

  13. 77 FR 25874 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... (47 FR 33050). You can also find later actions concerning Pennsylvania's program and program... required amendment was imposed on the Pennsylvania program on December 30, 1992, Federal Register (57 FR... Register (65 FR 79582). Nevertheless, Pennsylvania has demonstrated that it interprets the term...

  14. Pennsylvania Farm Labor Service Annual Report, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg.

    A delineation of the results of an effort to satisfy the needs of the Pennsylvania farmer and to procure gainful employment for migrant workers is the stated purpose of this 1970 annual report by the Rural Services Section of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Employment Security. The report divides Pennsylvania into 7 crop-reporting areas, in which…

  15. Drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    from Chester and Montgomery Counties because those counties have well-construction regulations that identify wells that failed during drought. The locations of drought-affected wells in Chester and Montgomery Counties indicated the most highly sensitive settings are uplands and slopes in aquifers with high WTD index and uplands in aquifers with moderate WTD index. The least sensitive settings are in aquifers with low WTD index, in valleys, or on slopes. A map was developed showing the relative drought sensitivity (low, moderate, and high) of aquifers in southeastern Pennsylvania. Study results were limited by the inability to obtain much information about the location of drought-affected wells, with the exception of Montgomery and Chester Counties. Also, the construction characteristics (particularly depth) of drought-affected wells generally were not available. Well depth could be used to distinguish between problems caused by shallow well depth (generally less than 100 ft) and those caused by deficiency of the aquifer to supply water. With the exception of owner-derived information from a public survey on drought-affected wells (35 wells), depth data were not obtained. Data from the 35 drought-affected wells indicated most were drilled (not dug) and were completed to depths greater than 100 feet. This finding indicates that the affects of recent droughts in southeastern Pennsylvania were not restricted to shallow dug wells, but also affected deeper drilled wells.

  16. From Adam Swift to Adam Smith: How the "Invisible Hand" Overcomes Middle Class Hypocrisy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper challenges Richard Pring's suggestion that parents using private education may be undermining the desire for social justice and equality, using recent arguments of Adam Swift as a springboard. Swift's position on the banning of private schools, which uses a Rawlsian "veil of ignorance" argument, is explored, and it is suggested that, if…

  17. Preimpoundment hydrologic conditions in the Swatara Creek (1981- 84) and estimated postimpoundment water quality in and downstream from the planned Swatara State Park Reservoir, Lebanon and Schuylkill counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishel, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of Swatara Creek were studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, Bureau of State Parks, from July 1981 through September 1984. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of anthracite-coal mining and other point and nonpoint sources on the water quality of a planned 10,500 acre-foot reservoir. The Swatara State Park Reservoir is planned to be used for recreation and drinking-water supply for the city of Lebanon and surrounding communities. Annual precipitation during 1982, 1983, and 1984 was about 8 percent below, near normal, and 29 percent above the long-term average, respectively. The average annual precipitation during a year with near-normal precipitation, the 1983 water year, was 47 inches at Pine Grove. Mean streamflows during 1982, 1983, and 1984 were about 15 percent below, 4 percent above, and 50 percent above the long-term average, respectively. The average streamflow to the planned reservoir area during the 1983 water year was about 220 cubic feet per second. Inflows to, and downstream discharge from, the planned reservoir wer poorly buffered. Median alkalinity ranged from 4 to 7 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and median acidity ranged from 2 to 5 mg/L at the three sampling locations. Maximum total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese concentrations were 100,000, 66,000, and 2,300 micrograms per liter, respectively. During 1983 the annual discharges of total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese to the planned reservoir area were estimated to be 692, 300, and 95 tons, respectively. About 87 percent of the total-recoverable iron and 91 percent of total-recoverable sluminum measured was in the suspended phase. The data indicated that mine drainage affects the quality of Swatara Creek and will affect the quality of the planned reservoir. In addition to mine drainage, point-source nutrient and metal discharges will probably affect the

  18. Connective tissue growth factor is a substrate of ADAM28

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Satsuki; Tanaka, Rena; Shimoda, Masayuki; Onuma, Junko; Fujii, Yutaka; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Okada, Yasunori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The hyper-variable region in the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM28 binds to C-terminal domain of CTGF. {yields} ADAM28 cleaves CTGF alone and CTGF in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. {yields} CTGF digestion by ADAM28 releases biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. {yields} ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF{sub 165} are commonly co-expressed by carcinoma cells in human breast carcinoma tissues. {yields} These suggest that ADAM28 promotes VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by selective CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex. -- Abstract: ADAM28, a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and the expression correlates with carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. However, information about substrates of ADAM28 is limited. We screened interacting molecules of ADAM28 in human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system and identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Binding of CTGF to proADAM28 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid assay and protein binding assay. ADAM28 cleaved CTGF in dose- and time-dependent manners at the Ala{sup 181}-Tyr{sup 182} and Asp{sup 191}-Pro{sup 192} bonds in the hinge region of the molecule. ADAM28 selectively digested CTGF in the complex of CTGF and vascular endothelial growth factor{sub 165} (VEGF{sub 165}), releasing biologically active VEGF{sub 165} from the complex. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that ADAM28, CTGF and VEGF are commonly co-expressed in the breast carcinoma tissues. These data provide the first evidence that CTGF is a novel substrate of ADAM28 and suggest that ADAM28 may promote VEGF{sub 165}-induced angiogenesis in the breast carcinomas by the CTGF digestion in the CTGF/VEGF{sub 165} complex.

  19. Switchgrass for biomass in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicium virgatum L.) is a perennial, long lived (greater than 20 years) grass that grows primarily during the warm part of the summer and is native to Pennsylvania. It produces well compared to cool-season grasses during the hot and dry weather of July and August, and on soils with lo...

  20. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, John Y., Ed.; And Others

    Safety education information is provided in this guide designed for Pennsylvania industrial arts teachers. Twelve sections and section topics include the following: introduction (policy statement on safety); responsibility (school board and superintendent, principal and/or department head, the teacher); emergency action (primary concerns,…

  1. Industrial Arts in Pennsylvania: Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    Intended to facilitate the improvement of industrial arts education in Pennsylvania, the guidelines for planning and development emphasize an interdisciplinary approach. They are aimed at professional personnel and are divided into general provisions which are applied (with changes in specific content where appropriate) to elementary, middle…

  2. Adult Literacy in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    The rural work force has lower basic skills to supply labor for new jobs with higher literacy demands. At all levels of education the rural population is at a disadvantage compared with the urban population. One out of five rural adults in Pennsylvania has not continued education past the eighth grade. Among the costs to businesses from employee…

  3. Identification of water-bearing zones by the use of geophysical logs and borehole television surveys, collected February to September 1997, at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1997 and September 1997, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground-water contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected contaminant sources. Four wells were drilled north of the property adjacent to Area A, three wells along strike located on Lewis Drive, and three wells directly down dip on Ivyland Road. Well depths range from 69 feet to 300 feet below land surface. Borehole-geophysical logging and television surveys were used to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Borehole television surveys were obtained at the four monitor wells adjacent to Area A. Caliper and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse- flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  4. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  5. Firearm ownership and storage practices in Pennsylvania homes.

    PubMed Central

    Forjuoh, S. N.; Coben, J. H.; Dearwater, S. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the household prevalence of firearms in Pennsylvania, and describe the storage practices for these weapons. DESIGN: A statewide telephone survey of 3,620 Pennsylvania adults selected from households by random digit dialing in 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Firearm ownership and storage practices were computed by household characteristics using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of firearm ownership was 37% (95% confidence interval = 35.4 to 38.6). Ownership of firearms was significantly higher for white residents, households with annual income of $20,000 or more, those in rural counties, and those with children and adolescents. Of the households with firearms, 23% contained a single firearm, the majority of which were handguns (40%) or rifles (40%); 76% had two or more firearms, with 57% reporting one handgun or more and 83% reporting one rifle or more. Storage of firearms in 72% of households involved two or more of these barriers: (1) taken apart; (2) trigger lock applied; (3) kept in a locked place; (4) unloaded; (5) no other ammunition; (6) locked ammunition; 6% stored at least one of their firearms with none of these barriers. The strongest predictor of storing a firearm with fewer than two protective barriers was households with no children or adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Firearms are present in a large number of Pennsylvania homes. Many of these homes also contain children. To reduce the potential risks of firearms, optimal methods of storage of firearms in the home need to be determined. PMID:9346108

  6. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  7. ADAM8 as a drug target in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlomann, Uwe; Koller, Garrit; Conrad, Catharina; Ferdous, Taheera; Golfi, Panagiota; Garcia, Adolfo Molejon; Höfling, Sabrina; Parsons, Maddy; Costa, Patricia; Soper, Robin; Bossard, Maud; Hagemann, Thorsten; Roshani, Rozita; Sewald, Norbert; Ketchem, Randal R.; Moss, Marcia L.; Rasmussen, Fred H.; Miller, Miles A.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Tuveson, David A.; Nimsky, Christopher; Bartsch, Jörg W.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a grim prognosis with less than 5% survivors after 5 years. High expression levels of ADAM8, a metalloprotease-disintegrin, are correlated with poor clinical outcome. We show that ADAM8 expression is associated with increased migration and invasiveness of PDAC cells caused by activation of ERK 1/2 and higher MMP activities. For biological function, ADAM8 requires multimerisation and associates with β1-integrin on the cell surface. A peptidomimetic ADAM8 inhibitor, BK-1361, designed by structural modelling of the disintegrin domain, prevents ADAM8 multimerisation. In PDAC cells, BK-1361 affects ADAM8 function leading to reduced invasiveness, and less ERK 1/2 and MMP activation. BK-1361 application in mice decreased tumour burden and metastasis of implanted pancreatic tumour cells and provides improved metrics of clinical symptoms and survival in a KrasG12D-driven mouse model of PDAC. Thus, our data integrate ADAM8 in pancreatic cancer signalling and validate ADAM8 as a target for PDAC therapy. PMID:25629724

  8. "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. Literature Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mari Lu

    Intended as an aid to classroom teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, and vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of "Adam of the…

  9. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logging, aquifer-isolation tests, distribution of contaminants, and water-level measurements at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site, Bucks and Montgomery counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquiferisolation (packer) tests were conducted at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund site in Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pa. Caliper, naturalgamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and digital acoustic-televiewer logs and borehole television surveys were collected in 32 new and previously drilled wells that ranged in depth from 68 to 302 feet. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole- fluid movement, select depths to set packers, and locate appropriate screen intervals for reconstructing new wells as monitoring wells. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in four wells to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of discrete water-bearing zones. Specific capacities of isolated zones during packer testing ranged from 0.12 to 15.30 gallons per minute per foot. Most fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. The acoustic-televiewer logs define two basic fracture sets, bedding-plane partings with a mean strike of N. 62? E. and a mean dip of 27? NW., and high-angle fractures with a mean strike of N. 58? E. and a mean dip of 72? SE. Correlation of heatpulse-flowmeter data and acoustic-televiewer logs showed 83 percent of identified water-bearing fractures were high-angle fractures.

  10. ADAM8 in asthma. Friend or foe to airway inflammation?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Xuemei; Duan, Yiyuan; Long, Jiaoyue; Bartsch, Jörg W; Deng, Linhong

    2013-12-01

    Airway inflammation has been suggested as the pathological basis in asthma pathogenesis. Recruitment of leukocytes from the vasculature into airway sites is essential for induction of airway inflammation, a process thought to be mediated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8 (ADAM8). However, there is an apparent controversy about whether ADAM8 helps or hampers transmigration of leukocytes through endothelium in airway inflammation of asthma. This review outlines the current contradictory concepts concerning the role of ADAM8 in airway inflammation, particularly focusing on the recruitment of leukocytes during asthma, and attempts to bridge the existing experimental data on the basis of the functional analysis of different domains of ADAM8 and their endogenous processing in vivo. We suggest a possible hypothesis for the specific mechanism by which ADAM8 regulates the transmigration of leukocytes to explain the disparity existing in current studies, and we also raise some questions that require future investigations. PMID:23837412

  11. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs, Aquifer-Isolation Tests, and Water-Quality Data for Sites 1, 3, and 5 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, borehole television surveys, and aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in 2005 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in support of hydrogeological investigations to address ground-water contamination. Data collected for this study are valuable for understanding ground-water flow in the Stockton Formation at the local and regional scale. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB is underlain by the Stockton Formation, which consists of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The rocks of the Stockton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer with partially connected zones of high permeability. Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and borehole television surveys made in seven boreholes ranging from 70 to 350 ft deep were used to identify potential water-producing fractures and fracture zones and to select intervals for aquifer-isolation tests. An upward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in one borehole, a downward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in four boreholes, both an upward and a downward vertical hydraulic gradient were measured in one borehole, and no flow was measurable in one borehole. The aquifer-isolation tests isolated 30 discrete fractures in the seven boreholes for collection of depth-discrete hydraulic and water-quality data. Of the 30 fractures identified as potentially water producing, 26 fractures (87 percent) produced more than 1 gallon per minute of water. The specific capacity of the isolated intervals producing more than 1 gallon per minute ranged from 0.02 to 5.2 gallons per minute per foot. There was no relation between specific capacity and depth of the fracture. Samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds were collected from each isolated zone. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the most

  12. An overview of Pennsylvania`s experience with NORM

    SciTech Connect

    Yusko, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    Although Pennsylvania may be thought of as the state who brought you indoor radon, courtesy of a discovery of a residence with radon concentrations in excess of a few thousand picocuries per liter, this is not the states only claim to NORM fame. In the early years of the twentieth century, Pennsylvania was the largest producer of radium, utilizing its industrial base to produce large quantities of this {open_quotes}miracle cure{close_quotes} from ores mined in the West, and transported to a separation and purification facility in Western Pennsylvania. The company successfully held off foreign and political pressure, and generated large quantities of uranium tailings as well, until a fire one New Year`s Eve destroyed the separation plant, and the company faded from view. The tailings were remediated as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings, Remedial Action Project, on the only site east of the Mississippi River. This article goes on to discuss the states experiences with NORM in various projects, coming in contact with human populations from different sources.

  13. Interlibrary Cooperation: A County-Wide Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Susan S.; Hanf, Betty

    The lack of proximity to large information centers combined with limited budgets, resources, and expertise prompted the special libraries of Berks County, Pennsylvania, to attempt a network for interlibrary sharing. Information specialists from large an small industrial, medical, and public resource centers organized and operated a network of…

  14. TV and Extension in Carbon County, Pa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Ray W.

    To help improve televised extension education, a study was made of the interests and characteristics of the potential audience (9,300) of PTVC, a community antenna television system in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. A checklist questionnaire survey drew 160 usable responses from the communities of Jim Thorpe, Lehighton, and Palmerton. Data on…

  15. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase10 (ADAM10) Regulates NOTCH Signaling during Early Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Joseph A.; Ronchetti, Adam; Sidjanin, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 and ADAM17 are two closely related members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of membrane-bound sheddases, which proteolytically cleave surface membrane proteins. Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 have been implicated in the proteolytic cleavage of NOTCH receptors and as such regulators of NOTCH signaling. During retinal development, NOTCH signaling facilitates retinal neurogenesis by maintaining progenitor cells in a proliferative state and by mediating retinal cell fates. However, the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the retina are not well defined. In this study, we set out to clarify the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 during early retinal development. The retinal phenotype of conditionally abated Adam17 retinae (Adam17 CKO) did not differ from the controls whereas conditionally ablated Adam10 retinae (Adam10 CKO) exhibited abnormal morphogenesis characterized by the formation of rosettes and a loss of retinal laminae phenotypically similar to morphological abnormalities identified in mice with retinal NOTCH signaling deficiency. Additionally, Adam10 CKO retinae exhibited abnormal neurogenesis characterized by fewer proliferating progenitor cells and greater differentiation of early photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, constitutive activation of the NOTCH1-intracellular domain (N1-ICD) rescued Adam10 CKO abnormal neurogenesis, as well as abnormal retinal morphology by maintaining retinal cells in the progenitor state. Collectively these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence that ADAM10, and not ADAM17, is indispensable for proper retinal development as a regulator of NOTCH signaling. PMID:27224017

  16. Human and Murine Interleukin 23 Receptors Are Novel Substrates for A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Franke, Manuel; Schröder, Jutta; Monhasery, Niloufar; Ackfeld, Theresa; Hummel, Thorben M; Rabe, Björn; Garbers, Christoph; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Floss, Doreen M; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-05-13

    IL-23 (interleukin 23) regulates immune responses against pathogens and plays a major role in the differentiation and maintenance of TH17 cells and the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) complex consists of the unique IL-23R and the common IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Differential splicing generates antagonistic soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) variants, which might limit IL-23-mediated immune responses. Here, ectodomain shedding of human and murine IL-23R was identified as an alternative pathway for the generation of sIL-23R. Importantly, proteolytically released sIL-23R has IL-23 binding activity. Shedding of IL-23R was induced by stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not by ionomycin. PMA-induced shedding was abrogated by an ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10 and 17 selective inhibitor, but not by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. ADAM17-deficient but not ADAM10-deficient HEK293 cells failed to shed IL-23R after PMA stimulation, demonstrating that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 cleaves the IL-23R. Constitutive shedding was, however, inhibited by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. Using deletions and specific amino acid residue exchanges, we identified critical determinants of ectodomain shedding within the stalk region of the IL-23R. Finally, interaction studies identified domains 1 and 3 of the IL-23R as the main ADAM17 binding sites. In summary, we describe human and murine IL-23R as novel targets for protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:26961870

  17. Interpretation of geophysical logs, aquifer tests, and water levels in wells in and near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.; Pracht, Karl A.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of various industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 beginning autumn 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area, and this stream flows southwest to bisect North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 16 wells that ranged in depth from 50 to 623 feet. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 9 of the 16 wells, for a total of 30 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping a 600-ft deep production well in February and March 2002. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in three wells in the area and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2000 through September 2002. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with

  18. Luhmann Receives 2007 John Adam Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2008-02-01

    This year's John Adam Fleming medalist quickly established a reputation as an innovative and productive scientist with a broad range of interests. She made early and seminal contributions to aeronomy, cosmic rays, and magnetospheric and planetary physics. She contributed importantly to the understanding of the interaction of the solar wind with the atmosphere and magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. She has examined the behavior of planetary rings, the interaction of interstellar neutrals with heliospheric plasmas, as well as the interaction of planetary neutrals with the heliosphere. She has led in the study of the interaction of the moon Titan with the Saturn magnetosphere, and most recently she developed a vigorous solar physics effort, leading the implementation of the IMPACT particle and field package on the twin STEREO mission, now entering its second year of successful operation.

  19. John Adams and CERN: Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brianti, G.; Plane, D. E.

    2014-02-01

    By any standards, John Adams had a most remarkable career. He was involved in three important, emerging technologies, radar, particle accelerators and controlled fusion, and had an outstanding impact on the last two. Without a university education, he attained hierarchical positions of the highest level in prestigious national and international organizations. This article covers the CERN part of his career, by offering some personal insights into the different facets of his contributions to major accelerator projects, from the first strong-focusing synchrotron, the PS, to the SPS and its conversion to a proton--antiproton collider. In particular, it outlines his abilities as a leader of an international collaboration, which has served as an example for international initiatives in other disciplines.

  20. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  1. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  2. ADAM17 mediates OSCC development in an orthotopic murine model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ADAM17 is one of the main sheddases of the cells and it is responsible for the cleavage and the release of ectodomains of important signaling molecules, such as EGFR ligands. Despite the known crosstalk between ADAM17 and EGFR, which has been considered a promising targeted therapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the role of ADAM17 in OSCC development is not clear. Method In this study the effect of overexpressing ADAM17 in cell migration, viability, adhesion and proliferation was comprehensively appraised in vitro. In addition, the tumor size, tumor proliferative activity, tumor collagenase activity and MS-based proteomics of tumor tissues have been evaluated by injecting tumorigenic squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-9) overexpressing ADAM17 in immunodeficient mice. Results The proteomic analysis has effectively identified a total of 2,194 proteins in control and tumor tissues. Among these, 110 proteins have been down-regulated and 90 have been up-regulated in tumor tissues. Biological network analysis has uncovered that overexpression of ADAM17 regulates Erk pathway in OSCC and further indicates proteins regulated by the overexpression of ADAM17 in the respective pathway. These results are also supported by the evidences of higher viability, migration, adhesion and proliferation in SCC-9 or A431 cells in vitro along with the increase of tumor size and proliferative activity and higher tissue collagenase activity as an outcome of ADAM17 overexpression. Conclusion These findings contribute to understand the role of ADAM17 in oral cancer development and as a potential therapeutic target in oral cancer. In addition, our study also provides the basis for the development of novel and refined OSCC-targeting approaches. PMID:24495306

  3. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai; Boehm, Beate; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Gutwein, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  4. TspanC8 tetraspanins differentially regulate the cleavage of ADAM10 substrates, Notch activation and ADAM10 membrane compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Stéphanie; Saint-Pol, Julien; Fernandez, Laurent; Nguyen, Viet; Charrin, Stéphanie; Boucheix, Claude; Brou, Christel; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The metalloprotease ADAM10 mediates the shedding of the ectodomain of various cell membrane proteins, including APP, the precursor of the amyloid peptide Aβ, and Notch receptors following ligand binding. ADAM10 associates with the members of an evolutionary conserved subgroup of tetraspanins, referred to as TspanC8, which regulate its exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that 4 of these TspanC8 (Tspan5, Tspan14, Tspan15 and Tspan33) which positively regulate ADAM10 surface expression levels differentially impact ADAM10-dependent Notch activation and the cleavage of several ADAM10 substrates, including APP, N-cadherin and CD44. Sucrose gradient fractionation, single molecule tracking and quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of the repertoire of molecules co-immunoprecipitated with Tspan5, Tspan15 and ADAM10 show that these two tetraspanins differentially regulate ADAM10 membrane compartmentalization. These data represent a unique example where several tetraspanins differentially regulate the function of a common partner protein through a distinct membrane compartmentalization. PMID:26686862

  5. 78 FR 45911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 247-Erie, Pennsylvania, Application for Subzone, Hardinger Transfer Co., Erie...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Transfer Co., Erie and Grove City, Pennsylvania An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade... subzone status for the facilities of Hardinger Transfer Co., dba Team Hardinger Transportation and... Boulevard, Grove City, Venango County. No authorization for production activity has been requested at...

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF JOB TITLES AND OF COMPETENCIES NEEDED IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVE, EDWIN LAMAR

    A RANDOM SAMPLE OF EMPLOYERS IN 17 PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES WAS INTERVIEWED TO IDENTIFY THE CLUSTERS OF COMPETENCIES AND JOB TITLES ASSOCIATED WITH ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO DETERMINE THE DIFFERENCES IN THE LEVELS OF SELECTED VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED. A SAMPLE OF 105 JOB INTERVIEWS WAS DRAWN FROM EACH OF…

  7. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Salmonella Infections in the Pennsylvania Raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Very, K J; Kirchner, M K; Shariat, N; Cottrell, W; Sandt, C H; Dudley, E G; Kariyawasam, S; Jayarao, B M

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of Salmonella infection in Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor), common wildlife mammals known to occupy overlapping habitats with humans and domestic food animals. The Pennsylvania Game Commission provided a total of 371 raccoon intestinal samples from trapped and road-killed raccoons collected between May and November 2011. Salmonella was isolated from the faeces of 56 (15.1%) of 371 raccoons in 35 (54%) of 65 counties across Pennsylvania. The five most frequently isolated serotypes were Newport (28.6%), Enteritidis (19.6%), Typhimurium (10.7%), Braenderup (8.9%) and Bareilly (7.1%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the Salmonella isolates and subsequent comparison to the Pennsylvania Department of Health human Salmonella PFGE database revealed 16 different pulsetypes in Salmonella isolates recovered from raccoons that were indistinguishable from pulsetypes of Salmonella collected from clinically ill humans during the study period. The pulsetypes of seven raccoon Salmonella isolates matched those of 56 human Salmonella isolates by month and geographical region of sample collection. Results from Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Multi-Virulence Locus Sequence Typing (CRISPR-MVLST) analysis corroborated the PFGE and serotyping data. The findings of this study show that several PFGE pulsetypes of Salmonella were shared between humans and raccoons in Pennsylvania, indicating that raccoons and humans might share the same source of Salmonella. PMID:26272724

  8. Atmospheric Impacts of Marcellus Shale Gas Activities in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, A. A.; Lipsky, E. M.; Saleh, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pittsburgh and the surrounding regions of southwestern Pennsylvania are subject to intensive natural gas exploration, drilling, and extraction associated with the Marcellus Shale formation. Gas extraction from the shale formation uses techniques of horizontal drilling followed by hydraulic fracturing. There are significant concerns about air pollutant emissions from the development and production of shale gas, especially methane emissions. We have deployed a mobile monitoring unit to investigate the atmospheric impacts of Marcellus Shale gas activities. The mobile sampling platform is a van with an on-board generator, a high-resolution GPS unit, cameras, and instrumentation for measuring methane, criteria gases (SO2, NOx, CO, O3), PM size distributions (scanning mobility particle sizer), black carbon mass (multi-angle absorption photometer), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection), and meteorological data. A major advantage of the mobile sampling unit over traditional, stationary monitors is that it allows us to rapidly visit a variety of sites. Sampling at multiple sites allows us to characterize the spatial variability of pollutant concentrations related to Marcellus activity, particularly methane. Data collected from the mobile sampling unit are combined with GIS techniques and dispersion models to map pollutants related to Marcellus Shale operations. The Marcellus Shale gas activities are a major and variable source of methane. The background methane concentration in Pittsburgh is 2.1 +/- 0.2 ppm. However, two southwestern Pennsylvania counties with the highest density of Marcellus Shale wells, Washington and Greene Counties, have many areas of elevated methane concentration. Approximately 11% of the sampled sites in Washington County and nearly 50% of the sampled sites in Greene County have elevated (>2.3 ppm) methane concentrations, compared to 1.5% of sites with elevated

  9. Rural County Report, 1993. Data Report from County Level Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents numerical data for 1990-92 on demographic, social, and educational variables, comparing rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. Two types of comparisons are provided: (1) rural, urban influence, and urban groupings, based on population density typology (people per square mile and size of the largest community in the county);…

  10. Alternative mRNA Splicing Generates Two Distinct ADAM12 Prodomain Variants

    PubMed Central

    Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Li, Hui; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Human ADAM12, transcript variant 1 (later on referred to as Var-1b), present in publicly available databases contains the sequence 5′-GTAATTCTG-3′ at the nucleotide positions 340–348 of the coding region, at the 3′ end of exon 4. The translation product of this variant, ADAM12-Lb, includes the three amino acid motif 114VIL116 in the prodomain. This motif is not conserved in ADAM12 from different species and is not present in other human ADAMs. Currently, it is not clear whether a shorter variant, Var-1a, encoding the protein version without the 114VIL116 motif, ADAM12-La, is expressed in human. In this work, we have established that human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells express both Var-1a and Var-1b transcripts. Importantly, the proteolytic processing and intracellular trafficking of the corresponding ADAM12-La and ADAM12-Lb proteins are different. While ADAM12-La is cleaved and trafficked to the cell surface in a manner similar to ADAM12 in other species, ADAM12-Lb is retained in the ER and is not proteolytically processed. Furthermore, the relative abundance of ADAM12-La and ADAM12-Lb proteins detected in several breast cancer cell lines varies significantly. We conclude that the canonical form of transmembrane ADAM12 is represented by Var-1a/ADAM12-La, rather than Var-1b/ADAM12-Lb currently featured in major sequence databases. PMID:24116070

  11. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T.; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  12. ADAM10 as a target for anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marcia L; Stoeck, Alexander; Yan, Wenbo; Dempsey, Peter J

    2008-02-01

    There is a great unmet medical need in the area of cancer treatment. A potential therapeutic target for intervention in cancer is ADAM10. ADAM10 is a disintegrin-metalloproteinase that processes membrane bound proteins from the cell surface to yield soluble forms. Pharmaceutical companies are actively seeking out inhibitors of ADAM10 for treatments in cancer as the enzyme is known to release the ErbB receptor, HER2/ErbB2 from the cell membrane, an event that is necessary for HER2 positive tumor cells to proliferate. ADAM10 is also capable of processing betacellulin indicating that an inhibitor could be used against EGFR/ErbB1 and/or HER4/ErbB4 receptor positive tumor cells that are betacellulin-dependent. ADAM10 is the principle sheddase for several other molecules associated with cancer proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration such as Notch, E-cadherin, CD44 and L1 adhesion molecule indicating that targeting ADAM10 with specific inhibitors could be beneficial. PMID:18289051

  13. Pennsylvania Library Association, Membership Survey, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, Dave

    This report contains the results of a survey sent to 2,883 librarians throughout Pennsylvania, both members and nonmembers of the Pennsylvania Library Association (PLA). The nonmembers of PLA were members of the American Library Association (ALA), however. The total response rate was 21% (n=620). There were recurring themes in the responses from…

  14. 77 FR 40836 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (``OSM''), Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  15. 75 FR 34960 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  16. 75 FR 34962 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining operations.'' Section 503(a)(1) of SMCRA requires... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory...

  17. Inside Rural Pennsylvania: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Graphs, data tables, maps, and written descriptions give a statistical overview of rural Pennsylvania. A section on rural demographics covers population changes, racial and ethnic makeup, age cohorts, and families and income. Pennsylvania's rural population, the nation's largest, has increased more than its urban population since 1950, with the…

  18. 50 CFR 32.57 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pennsylvania. 32.57 Section 32.57 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.57 Pennsylvania. The following...

  19. 76 FR 6587 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You..., (75 FR 48526) and codified in the Federal Regulations at 30 CFR 938.16(h). The revised required... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory...

  20. 76 FR 16714 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  1. PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE GAMELAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of state gameland boundaries digitized from 1:24,000 USGS topographic maps and verified from Pennsylvania Fish and Game Department information. Coverage is incomplete, certain areas are not mapped when ...

  2. Rural Women of Pennsylvania: A Demographic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gretchen T.; Thorsen, Jenny S.

    Data from the 1980, 1970, and 1960 censuses were used to describe Pennsylvania's rural women and to compare them with urban women and, in some instances, men. In Pennsylvania in 1980, just 1 rural woman in 25 lived on a farm. These women were more educated, more active in the labor force, and somewhat better paid than their counterparts in 1960…

  3. 78 FR 13002 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... definitions and revisions to Pennsylvania's regulations on the use of the Coal Refuse Disposal Control Fund... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also... approved, require permit application fees submitted under the Coal Refuse and Disposal Act to be used...

  4. Adam Politzer-Father of Modern Otology.

    PubMed

    Dhungat, J V Pai; Gore, Geeta

    2015-09-01

    Adam Politzer (1835-1920) was born in Alberti near the city of Budapest in Hungary. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna and obtained his Doctorate degree in 1859. Some of his teachers belonged to the famous second "Vienna School" such as Joseph Skoda, Karl Rokitansky, Von Hebra, Josef Hyrtil, Johann Von Oppolzer and famous physiologist Carl Ludwig -who took special interest in him and was influential in his subsequent career. Politzer showed unusual interest in diseases of the ear and started to work in Carl Ludwig's laboratory. His interest at that time was mainly the physics of the auditory system. He studied the innervations of the intrinsic muscles of the ear There he was the first to demonstrate that the innervations of the tensor tympani muscle was by trigeminal nerve and that of the stapedial muscle was by facial nerve. He studied the air movement in the Eustachian tube and variation of air pressure in the tympanic cavity by connecting two manometers- one placed in the external auditory canal meatus, and another in the pharynx. He showed valve near the opening into the middle ear which controls the process. It is usually closed to keep the bacteria and other things away from the mouth and nose. PMID:27608882

  5. The Cytoplasmic Domain of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) Regulates Its Constitutive Activity but Is Dispensable for Stimulated ADAM10-dependent Shedding*

    PubMed Central

    Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Le Gall, Sylvain; Alabi, Rolake O.; Speck, Nancy; Reiss, Karina; Blobel, Carl P.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-anchored metalloproteinase a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is required for shedding of membrane proteins such as EGF, betacellulin, the amyloid precursor protein, and CD23 from cells. ADAM10 is constitutively active and can be rapidly and post-translationally enhanced by several stimuli, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we use ADAM10-deficient cells transfected with wild type or mutant ADAM10 to address the role of its cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain in regulating ADAM10-dependent protein ectodomain shedding. We report that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM10 negatively regulates its constitutive activity through an ER retention motif but is dispensable for its stimulated activity. However, chimeras with the extracellular domain of ADAM10 and the transmembrane domain of ADAM17 with or without the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17 show reduced stimulated shedding of the ADAM10 substrate betacellulin, whereas the ionomycin-stimulated shedding of the ADAM17 substrates CD62-L and TGFα is not affected. Moreover, we show that influx of extracellular calcium activates ADAM10 but is not essential for its activation by APMA and BzATP. Finally, the rapid stimulation of ADAM10 is not significantly affected by incubation with proprotein convertase inhibitors for up to 8 h, arguing against a major role of increased prodomain removal in the rapid stimulation of ADAM10. Thus, the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM10 negatively influences constitutive shedding through an ER retention motif, whereas the cytoplasmic domain and prodomain processing are not required for the rapid activation of ADAM10-dependent shedding events. PMID:25605720

  6. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Joan A.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Rasmussen, Sara G.; Irving, Jennifer K.; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Objectives We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Methods Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Results Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167–679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52–178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = –0.323, 95% CI: –0.333, –0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p < 0.001), with higher levels in counties having ≥ 100 drilled wells versus counties with none, and with highest levels in the Reading Prong. Conclusions Geologic unit, well water, community, weather, and unconventional natural gas development were associated with indoor radon

  7. Land use mapping in Erie County, Pennsylvania: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); May, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of mapping land use in the Great Lakes Basin area utilizing ERTS-1 data. Small streams were clearly defined by the presence of trees along their length in predominantly agricultural country. Field patterns were easily differentiated from forested areas; dairy and beef farms were differentiated from other farmlands, but no attempt was made to identify crops. Large railroad lines and major highway systems were identified. The city of Erie and several smaller towns were identified, as well as residential areas between these towns, and docks along the shoreline in Erie. Marshes, forests, and beaches within Presque Isle State Park were correctly identified, using the DCLUS program. Bay water was differentiated from lake water, with a small amount of misclassification.

  8. Montgomery County Emergency Service, Norristown, Pennsylvania. An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol H.; Cirel, Paul

    Police are on duty around the clock. As the only available service agency during many hours of the day, they must cope with a variety of social problems, among them psychiatric and drug and alcohol emergencies that may not be criminal offenses but nevertheless pose a threat to the individual and the community. Few jurisdictions have developed a…

  9. Bathymetry and capacity of Chambers Lake, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyves, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to create a bathymetric map of Chambers Lake for the computation of reservoir storage capacity as of September 2014. The product is a bathymetric map and a table showing the storage capacity of the reservoir at 2-foot increments from minimum usable elevation up to full capacity at the crest of the auxiliary spillway.

  10. Tetraspanin12 regulates ADAM10-dependent cleavage of amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daosong; Sharma, Chandan; Hemler, Martin E.

    2009-01-01

    Using mass spectrometry, we identified ADAM10 (a membrane-associated metalloproteinase) as a partner for TSPAN12, a tetraspanin protein. TSPAN12-ADAM10 interaction was confirmed by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation in multiple tumor cell lines. TSPAN12, to a greater extent than other tetraspanins (CD81, CD151, CD9, and CD82), associated with ADAM10 but not with ADAM17. Overexpression of TSPAN12 enhanced ADAM10-dependent shedding of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in MCF7 (breast cancer) and SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) cell lines. Conversely, siRNA ablation of endogenous TSPAN12 markedly diminished APP proteolysis in both cell lines. Furthermore, TSPAN12 overexpression enhanced ADAM10 prodomain maturation, whereas TSPAN12 ablation diminished ADAM10 maturation. A palmitoylation-deficient TSPAN12 mutant failed to associate with ADAM10, inhibited ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of APP, and inhibited ADAM10 maturation, most likely by interfering with endogenous wild-type TSPAN12. In conclusion, TSPAN12 serves as a novel and robust partner for ADAM10 and promotes ADAM10 maturation, thereby facilitating ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of APP. This novel mode of regulating APP cleavage is of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease therapy.—Xu, D., Sharma, C., Hemler, M. E. Tetraspanin12 regulates ADAM10-dependent cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. PMID:19587294

  11. LGI1-associated epilepsy through altered ADAM23-dependent neuronal morphology

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Katherine; Harel, Noam Y.; Englot, Dario C.; Hisama, Fuki; Blumenfeld, Hal; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Most epilepsy genes encode ion channels, but the LGI1 gene responsible for Autosomal Dominant Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features produces a secreted protein. LGI1 is suggested to regulate PSD-95 via ADAM22. However, no unbiased screen of LGI1 action has been conducted. Here, we searched for brain genes supporting high affinity LGI-1 binding. ADAM23 was the only LGI1 interactor identified. The related proteins, ADAM22 and ADAM11, but not ADAM12, bind LGI1. Neither ADAM23 nor ADAM11, nor some forms of ADAM22, contain PDZ-interacting sequences, suggesting PSD-95-independent mechanisms in ADPEAF. Because ADAMs modulate integrins, we examined LGI1 effect on neurite outgrowth. LGI1 increases outgrowth from wild type but not ADAM23-/- neurons. Furthermore, CA1 pyramidal neurons of ADAM23-/- hippocampi have reduced dendritic arborization. ADAM23-/- mice exhibit spontaneous seizures, while ADAM23+/- mice have decreased seizure thresholds. Thus, LGI1 binding to ADAM23 is necessary to correctly pattern neuronal morphology and altered anatomical patterning contributes to ADPEAF. PMID:19796686

  12. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  13. Historic Pennsylvania Leaflets No. 1-41. 1960-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg.

    This series of 41 pamphlets on selected Pennsylvania history topics includes: (1) "The Pennsylvania Canals"; (2) "Anthony Wayne: Man of Action"; (3) "Stephen Foster: Maker of American Songs"; (4) "The Pennsylvania Rifle"; (5) "The Conestoga Wagon"; (6) "The Fight for Free Schools in Pennsylvania"; (7) "Thaddeus Stevens: Champion of Freedom"; (8)…

  14. Characterization of Mammalian ADAM2 and Its Absence from Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejin; Jin, Sora; Kwon, Jun Tae; Kim, Jihye; Jeong, Juri; Kim, Jaehwan; Jeon, Suyeon; Park, Zee Yong; Jung, Kang-Jin; Park, Kwangsung; Cho, Chunghee

    2016-01-01

    The members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family are membrane-anchored multi-domain proteins that play prominent roles in male reproduction. ADAM2, which was one of the first identified ADAMs, is the best studied ADAM in reproduction. In the male germ cells of mice, ADAM2 and other ADAMs form complexes that contribute to sperm-sperm adhesion, sperm-egg interactions, and the migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract. Here, we generated specific antibodies against mouse and human ADAM2, and investigated various features of ADAM2 in mice, monkeys and humans. We found that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM2 might enable the differential association of this protein with other ADAMs in mice. Western blot analysis with the anti-human ADAM2 antibodies showed that ADAM2 is present in the testis and sperm of monkeys. Monkey ADAM2 was found to associate with chaperone proteins in testis. In humans, we identified ADAM2 as a 100-kDa protein in the testis, but failed to detect it in sperm. This is surprising given the results in mice and monkeys, but it is consistent with the failure of ADAM2 identification in the previous proteomic analyses of human sperm. These findings suggest that the reproductive functions of ADAM2 differ between humans and mice. Our protein analysis showed the presence of potential ADAM2 complexes involving yet-unknown proteins in human testis. Taken together, our results provide new information regarding the characteristics of ADAM2 in mammalian species, including humans. PMID:27341348

  15. Agricultural land use mapping. [Pennsylvania, Montana, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Agricultural areas were selected or analysis in southeastern Pennsylvania, north central Montana, and southern Texas. These three sites represent a broad range of soils, soil parent materials, climate, modes of agricultural operation, crops, and field sizes. In each of these three sites, ERTS-1 digital data were processed to determine the feasibility of automatically mapping agricultural land use. In Pennsylvania, forest land, cultivated land, and water were separable within a 25,000 acre area. Four classes of water were also classified and identified, using ground truth. A less complex land use pattern was analyzed in Hill County, Montana. A land use map was prepared shown alternating patterns of summer fallow and stubble fields. The location of farmsteads could be inferred, along with that of a railroad line. A river and a creek flowing into the river were discernible. Six categories of water, related to sediment content and depth, were defined in the reservoir held by the Fresno dam. These classifications were completed on a 150 square mile area. Analysis of the data from Texas is in its formative stages. A test site has been selected and a brightness map has been produced.

  16. The Pennsylvania defoliation application pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite imagery for the State of Pennsylvania was digitally mosaicked to provide the seed data base for monitoring defoliation of hardwood trees by the gypsy moth. Two separate mosaics for the state were prepared, one before defoliation and one after defoliation, to determine the extent, direction, and impact of gypsy moth activity in the state. The digital mosaic technology used to construct the data base was transferred to Pennsylvania State University to permit periodic updates to the data base and to assist in planning and abatement activities. Participating agencies or institutions included Goddard Space Flight Center and the Pennsylvania State University Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources.

  17. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction. PMID:23560830

  18. Phosphatidylserine exposure is required for ADAM17 sheddase function

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Anselm; Kordowski, Felix; Büch, Joscha; Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Andrä, Jörg; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Michalek, Matthias; Lorenzen, Inken; Somasundaram, Prasath; Tholey, Andreas; Sönnichsen, Frank D.; Kunzelmann, Karl; Heinbockel, Lena; Nehls, Christian; Gutsmann, Thomas; Grötzinger, Joachim; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Reiss, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17, a prominent member of the ‘Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase' (ADAM) family, controls vital cellular functions through cleavage of transmembrane substrates. Here we present evidence that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is pivotal for ADAM17 to exert sheddase activity. PS exposure is tightly coupled to substrate shedding provoked by diverse ADAM17 activators. PS dependency is demonstrated in the following: (a) in Raji cells undergoing apoptosis; (b) in mutant PSA-3 cells with manipulatable PS content; and (c) in Scott syndrome lymphocytes genetically defunct in their capacity to externalize PS in response to intracellular Ca2+ elevation. Soluble phosphorylserine but not phosphorylcholine inhibits substrate cleavage. The isolated membrane proximal domain (MPD) of ADAM17 binds to PS but not to phosphatidylcholine liposomes. A cationic PS-binding motif is identified in this domain, replacement of which abrogates liposome-binding and renders the protease incapable of cleaving its substrates in cells. We speculate that surface-exposed PS directs the protease to its targets where it then executes its shedding function. PMID:27161080

  19. Phosphatidylserine exposure is required for ADAM17 sheddase function.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Anselm; Kordowski, Felix; Büch, Joscha; Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Andrä, Jörg; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Michalek, Matthias; Lorenzen, Inken; Somasundaram, Prasath; Tholey, Andreas; Sönnichsen, Frank D; Kunzelmann, Karl; Heinbockel, Lena; Nehls, Christian; Gutsmann, Thomas; Grötzinger, Joachim; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Reiss, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17, a prominent member of the 'Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase' (ADAM) family, controls vital cellular functions through cleavage of transmembrane substrates. Here we present evidence that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is pivotal for ADAM17 to exert sheddase activity. PS exposure is tightly coupled to substrate shedding provoked by diverse ADAM17 activators. PS dependency is demonstrated in the following: (a) in Raji cells undergoing apoptosis; (b) in mutant PSA-3 cells with manipulatable PS content; and (c) in Scott syndrome lymphocytes genetically defunct in their capacity to externalize PS in response to intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. Soluble phosphorylserine but not phosphorylcholine inhibits substrate cleavage. The isolated membrane proximal domain (MPD) of ADAM17 binds to PS but not to phosphatidylcholine liposomes. A cationic PS-binding motif is identified in this domain, replacement of which abrogates liposome-binding and renders the protease incapable of cleaving its substrates in cells. We speculate that surface-exposed PS directs the protease to its targets where it then executes its shedding function. PMID:27161080

  20. Structural Characterization of the Ectodomain of a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-22 (ADAM22), a Neural Adhesion Receptor Instead of Metalloproteinase INSIGHTS ON ADAM FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Shim, Ann H.R.; He, Xiaolin

    2009-12-01

    ADAMs (adisintegrin and metalloproteinases) are a family of multidomain transmembrane glycoproteins with diverse roles in physiology and diseases, with several members being drug targets for cancer and inflammation therapies. The spatial organization of the ADAM extracellular segment and its influence on the function of ADAMs have been unclear. Although most members of the ADAM family are active zinc metalloproteinases, 8 of 21 ADAMs lack functional metalloproteinase domains and are implicated in protein-protein interactions instead of membrane protein ectodomain shedding. One of such non-proteinase ADAMs, ADAM22, acts as a receptor on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron to regulate synaptic signal transmission. The crystal structure of the full ectodomain of mature human ADAM22 shows that it is a compact four-leaf clover with the metalloproteinase-like domain held in the concave face of a rigid module formed by the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and epidermal growth factor-like domains. The loss of metalloproteinase activity is ensured by the absence of critical catalytic residues, the filling of the substrate groove, and the steric hindrance by the cysteine-rich domain. The structure, combined with calorimetric experiments, suggests distinct roles of three putative calcium ions bound to ADAM22, with one in the metalloproteinase-like domain being regulatory and two in the disintegrin domain being structural. The metalloproteinase-like domain contacts the rest of ADAM22 with discontinuous, hydrophilic, and poorly complemented interactions, suggesting the possibility of modular movement of ADAM22 and other ADAMs. The ADAM22 structure provides a framework for understanding how different ADAMs exert their adhesive function and shedding activities.

  1. The Adam language: Ada extended with support for multiway activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The Adam language is an extension of Ada that supports multiway activities, which are cooperative activities involving two or more processes. This support is provided by three new constructs: diva procedures, meet statements, and multiway accept statements. Diva procedures are recursive generic procedures having a particular restrictive syntax that facilitates translation for parallel computers. Meet statements and multiway accept statements provide two ways to express a multiway rendezvous, which is an n-way rendezvous generalizing Ada's 2-way rendezvous. While meet statements tend to have simpler rules than multiway accept statements, the latter approach is a more straightforward extension of Ada. The only nonnull statements permitted within meet statements and multiway accept statements are calls on instantiated diva procedures. A call on an instantiated diva procedure is also permitted outside a multiway rendezvous; thus sequential Adam programs using diva procedures can be written. Adam programs are translated into Ada programs appropriate for use on parallel computers.

  2. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.... Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  3. Aberrant ADAM10 expression correlates with osteosarcoma progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer and is notorious for its rapid progression. The Notch signaling pathway has recently been shown to be involved in osteosarcoma. As a major sheddase of Notch receptors, ADAM10 has been implicated in many types of cancers, but its role in osteosarcoma has not been investigated. Previous studies have shown that the expression of CD31 was significantly elevated in metastatic osteosarcoma; however, its expression in nonmetastatic groups is not known. In addition, the mysterious multinucleated giant cell in giant cell-rich osteosarcoma was previously regarded as an osteoclast-like cell, but its exact identity is unclear. Method Tissue chip samples from 40 cases of nonmetastatic osteosarcoma were stained for cytoplasmic ADAM10, activated Notch1 and CD31. Osteoclasts in tumor sections were also stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Results Immunofluorescence staining revealed that ADAM10 expression significantly increased with the progression of osteosarcoma as well as in osteoblastic osteosarcoma, whereas the expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and CD31 was not significantly altered between different pathological stages. In addition, multinucleated giant cells in giant cell-rich osteosarcoma were also found to coexpress CD31, ADAM10 and NICD, but were negative for TRAP staining. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of ADAM10 in the progression of osteosarcoma and suggest that the protein might be a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma treatment. This study also demonstrates that the multinucleated giant cell is an angiogenic tumor cell, rather than an osteoclast, and involves ADAM10/Notch1 signaling activation. PMID:24548763

  4. Shedding of klotho by ADAMs in the kidney.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Ellen P M; Pulskens, Wilco P; van der Hagen, Eline A E; Lavrijsen, Marla; Vervloet, Marc G; van Goor, Harry; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2015-08-15

    The anti-aging gene klotho plays an important role in Ca(2+) and phosphate homeostasis. Membrane-bound klotho is an essential coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 and can be cleaved by proteases, including a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and ADAM17. Cleavage of klotho occurs at a site directly above the plasma membrane (α-cut) or between the KL1 and KL2 domain (β-cut), resulting in soluble full-length klotho or KL1 and KL2 fragments, respectively. The aim of the present study was to gain insights into the mechanisms behind klotho cleavage processes in the kidney. Klotho shedding was demonstrated using a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line stably expressing klotho and human embryonic kidney-293 cells transiently transfected with klotho. Here, we report klotho expression on both the basolateral and apical membrane, with a higher abundance of klotho at the apical membrane and in the apical media. mRNA expression of ADAM17 and klotho were enriched in mouse distal convoluted and connecting tubules. In vitro ADAM/matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by TNF484 resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the α-cut, with a less specific effect on β-cut shedding. In vivo TNF484 treatment in wild-type mice did not change urinary klotho levels. However, ADAM/matrix metalloproteinase inhibition did increase renal and duodenal mRNA expression of phosphate transporters, whereas serum phosphate levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, our data show that renal cells preferentially secrete klotho to the apical side and suggest that ADAMs are responsible for α-cut cleavage. PMID:26155844

  5. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002-03 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,415. The total was comprised of 12,377 males and 12,038 females. This was an increase of 512 students from the 2001-02 total of 23,903. Except for 2001-02, the total for Pennsylvania home education students has increased every year since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  6. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  7. Projected Climate Change Impacts on Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Shortle, J.; Abler, D.; Blumsack, S.; Crane, R.; Kaufman, Z.; McDill, M.; Ready, R.; Rydzik, M.; Wagener, T.; Wardrop, D.; Wilson, T.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of the potential impacts of human-induced climate change on the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. We first assess a suite of 21 global climate models for the state, rating them based on their ability to simulate the climate of Pennsylvania on time scales ranging from submonthly to interannual. The multi-model mean is superior to any individual model. Median projections by late century are 2-4 degrees C warming and 5-10 percent precipitation increases (B1 and A2 scenarios), with larger precipitation increases in winter and spring. Impacts on the commonwealth's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, agriculture, forests, energy, outdoor recreation, tourism, and human health, are evaluated. We also examine barriers and opportunities for Pennsylvania created by climate change mitigation. This assessment was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection which, pursuant to the Pennsylvania Climate Change Act, Act 70 of 2008, is required to develop a report on the potential scientific and economic impacts of climate change to Pennsylvania.

  8. Do Moral Communities Play a Role in Criminal Sentencing? Evidence From Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Bader, Christopher; Gault, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Religion and social control have been a sociological concern since Durkheim and Weber, and the relationship between religion and punishment has long been the subject of speculation. However, surprisingly little empirical research exists on the role of religion or religious context in criminal justice, and almost no research on the role of religious context on actual sentencing practices. We conceptualize the potential relationships between religious context and sentencing severity by drawing from the focal concerns and court community perspectives in the sentencing literature and moral communities theory developed by Rodney Stark. We suspect that Christian moral communities might shape notions of perceived blameworthiness for court community actors. Such moral communities might also affect notions of community protection – affecting perceptions of dangerousness, or perhaps rehabilitation, and might influence practical constraints/consequences (e.g., local political ramifications of harsh or lenient sentences). We examine these questions using a set of hierarchical models using sentencing data from Pennsylvania county courts and data on the religious composition of Pennsylvania counties from the Associated Religion Data Archives. We find that county Christian religious homogeneity increases the likelihood of incarceration. In addition, Christian homogeneity as well as the prevalence of civically engaged denominations in a county condition the effects of important legally relevant determinants of incarceration. Furthermore, we find evidence that Christian homogeneity activates the effect of local Republican electoral dominance on incarceration. We argue that Christian homogeneity effects sentencing practices primarily through local political processes that shape the election of judges and prosecutors PMID:25035522

  9. Do Moral Communities Play a Role in Criminal Sentencing? Evidence From Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Jeffery T; Bader, Christopher; Gault, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Religion and social control have been a sociological concern since Durkheim and Weber, and the relationship between religion and punishment has long been the subject of speculation. However, surprisingly little empirical research exists on the role of religion or religious context in criminal justice, and almost no research on the role of religious context on actual sentencing practices. We conceptualize the potential relationships between religious context and sentencing severity by drawing from the focal concerns and court community perspectives in the sentencing literature and moral communities theory developed by Rodney Stark. We suspect that Christian moral communities might shape notions of perceived blameworthiness for court community actors. Such moral communities might also affect notions of community protection - affecting perceptions of dangerousness, or perhaps rehabilitation, and might influence practical constraints/consequences (e.g., local political ramifications of harsh or lenient sentences). We examine these questions using a set of hierarchical models using sentencing data from Pennsylvania county courts and data on the religious composition of Pennsylvania counties from the Associated Religion Data Archives. We find that county Christian religious homogeneity increases the likelihood of incarceration. In addition, Christian homogeneity as well as the prevalence of civically engaged denominations in a county condition the effects of important legally relevant determinants of incarceration. Furthermore, we find evidence that Christian homogeneity activates the effect of local Republican electoral dominance on incarceration. We argue that Christian homogeneity effects sentencing practices primarily through local political processes that shape the election of judges and prosecutors. PMID:25035522

  10. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  11. New Energy Landscapes of Pennsylvania: Forests to Farms to Fracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Deborah A.

    This dissertation adds to the literature on energy needed by industry, government, and citizens for decision-making. The pursuit to access or create new energy resources spawns new landscapes of energy in the early 21st century. The combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies---popularly called "fracking"---enables entry into previously inaccessible natural gas reserves such as the Marcellus shale much of which lies beneath Pennsylvania. Although this unconventional method offers a promising source of domestic energy and job growth, the potential for negative impacts raises concerns and questions. The questions include: What is the controversy about fracking in Pennsylvania? What are the impacts of fracking? What costs is Pennsylvania paying as it shifts to shale gas extraction? Are there activities taking place or material signs that point to the emerging new landscapes? Are the individuals and organizations that resist shale gas extraction---the so-called "Green Forces"---and others who live within the region of development more or less attuned to these costs? A mixed methods approach consists of landscape and stakeholder analyses including visual examination of GIS-generated maps, satellite images, and photos taken in the field specifically from four counties: Washington, Warren, McKean, and Bradford. Research captures stakeholders' voices across the public, government, and private sectors at different scales. A stakeholder matrix facilitates data organization and analysis. Data include 114 individual statements from an EPA Public Meeting, texts from 40 online-newspaper articles or blogs, and face-to-face interviews or focus group participation of 36 individuals. Further data come from a public health conference, industry convention, and public protest. The new energy landscape covers spaces in Pennsylvania where oil and gas development previously had not been present. It obscures as well as exposes the legacy of past energy

  12. 76 FR 68381 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... systems statement provisions. Pennsylvania submitted its Clean Vehicle Program (adopted in 1998) as an... approve that Pennsylvania Clean Vehicle Program SIP revision on December 28, 1999 (64 FR 72564). The...

  13. Critical role of the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 for intestinal inflammation and regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chalaris, Athena; Adam, Nina; Sina, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lehmann-Koch, Judith; Schirmacher, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Cichy, Joanna; Gavrilova, Olga; Schreiber, Stefan; Jostock, Thomas; Matthews, Vance; Häsler, Robert; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F.; Reiß, Karina; Saftig, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The protease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaves tumor necrosis factor (TNF), L-selectin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) ligands from the plasma membrane. ADAM17 is expressed in most tissues and is up-regulated during inflammation and cancer. ADAM17-deficient mice are not viable. Conditional ADAM17 knockout models demonstrated proinflammatory activities of ADAM17 in septic shock via shedding of TNF. We used a novel gene targeting strategy to generate mice with dramatically reduced ADAM17 levels in all tissues. The resulting mice called ADAM17ex/ex were viable, showed compromised shedding of ADAM17 substrates from the cell surface, and developed eye, heart, and skin defects as a consequence of impaired EGF-R signaling caused by failure of shedding of EGF-R ligands. Unexpectedly, although the intestine of unchallenged homozygous ADAM17ex/ex mice was normal, ADAM17ex/ex mice showed substantially increased susceptibility to inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. This was a result of impaired shedding of EGF-R ligands resulting in failure to phosphorylate STAT3 via the EGF-R and, consequently, in defective regeneration of epithelial cells and breakdown of the intestinal barrier. Besides regulating the systemic availability of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF, our results demonstrate that ADAM17 is needed for vital regenerative activities during the immune response. Thus, our mouse model will help investigate ADAM17 as a potential drug target. PMID:20603312

  14. Allegheny County, PA: Mobilizing To Reduce Juvenile Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsia, Heidi M.

    Juvenile crime and its immediate and long-term economic and human costs have become a national concern. Programs to prevent and reduce delinquency have developed across the country and one such program in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (which includes Pittsburgh) is described in this bulletin. The Allegheny program exemplifies a large-scale,…

  15. LCCC 2000: A Strategic Vision for Lehigh County Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boos, Roger T.; And Others

    Designed for use by trustees, faculty, and staff at Lehigh County Community College (LCCC) in Schnecksville, Pennsylvania, as the college prepares for the 21st century, this report presents a vision for addressing the critical trends and issues affecting LCCC. Drawing from trustee interviews with community leaders in business and industry, the…

  16. The ADaptation and Anticipation Model (ADAM) of sensorimotor synchronization

    PubMed Central

    van der Steen, M. C. (Marieke); Keller, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    A constantly changing environment requires precise yet flexible timing of movements. Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS)—the temporal coordination of an action with events in a predictable external rhythm—is a fundamental human skill that contributes to optimal sensory-motor control in daily life. A large body of research related to SMS has focused on adaptive error correction mechanisms that support the synchronization of periodic movements (e.g., finger taps) with events in regular pacing sequences. The results of recent studies additionally highlight the importance of anticipatory mechanisms that support temporal prediction in the context of SMS with sequences that contain tempo changes. To investigate the role of adaptation and anticipatory mechanisms in SMS we introduce ADAM: an ADaptation and Anticipation Model. ADAM combines reactive error correction processes (adaptation) with predictive temporal extrapolation processes (anticipation) inspired by the computational neuroscience concept of internal models. The combination of simulations and experimental manipulations based on ADAM creates a novel and promising approach for exploring adaptation and anticipation in SMS. The current paper describes the conceptual basis and architecture of ADAM. PMID:23772211

  17. Adam Smith and the Teaching of English Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Franklin E.

    1985-01-01

    Adam Smith used selections from English literature in his classroom during the eighteenth century because he believed that vernacular literature could provide a ready context for the teaching of ideological, social, and moral lessons. He believed that higher education should prepare students for the real business of the real world. (RM)

  18. Adam Smith and the Moral Economy of the Classroom System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, D.

    1980-01-01

    Traces the development of mass schooling to its origins in 19th-century Glasgow. Its importance as an intellectual and economic center enabled Glasgow to invent a solution to the problem of urban schooling, while the association of scholars like Adam Smith with Glasgow University made Scottish educational theories acceptable around the world. (DB)

  19. Father Knows Best: Using Adam Smith to Teach Transactions Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Adam Smith's moral philosophy can be used to introduce economics students to the important idea of transactions costs. The author provides a brief background in this article to Smith's moral philosophy and connects it to the costs of transacting in a way that fits easily into the standard principles of microeconomics classroom. By doing…

  20. An Informal Report on Collegiate Successes with "The Adams Chronicles."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsberry, Gary G.

    In the spring of 1976, "The Adams Chronicles", a bicentennial television course developed by Coast Community College District and the University of California at San Diego, was distributed to colleges nationwide at no charge with the understanding that each college would return information regarding promotion, enrollment, and form of offering this…

  1. John Adams High School First Year Report, 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams High School, Portland, OR.

    This report is an assessment of the events of the first year of operation of John Adams High School, Portland, Oregon. The primary goal of the school was to provide an educational experience relevant to the needs and interests of all adolescents, regardless of their intentions about pursuing further formal education. The report is oriented toward…

  2. Research and Evaluation at John Adams High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams High School, Portland, OR.

    We at Adams have committed ourselves (1) to search for new ways to make the inquiry into our own activities and the evaluation of our programs relevant and consistent with our notions of humanistic and personal education, and (2) to seek a mechanism for using research and evaluation to improve the operation of the school at every level and for…

  3. What Ever Happened to . . . John Adams High School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doremus, Richard R.

    1981-01-01

    First in a series, this article describes the rise and fall of John Adams High School, an experimental school in Portland (Oregon) that was recently closed after 12 years of operation. The experiences of those who tried to make the experiment work may help others interested in educational innovation. (WD)

  4. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi in host mice in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, R D; Lord, V R; Humphreys, J G; McLean, R G

    1994-01-01

    Host mice (Peromyscus leucopus and Peromyscus maniculatus) were sampled throughout the state of Pennsylvania to determine the geographical and ecological distribution of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. All 67 counties of the state were sampled. A total of 1,619 mice were captured from a total of 157 sites during the period 1990 to 1993 for an overall capture rate of 29.69%. A total of 112 (6.92%) isolations of B. burgdorferi were made. The distribution of isolations revealed the reason for the correlated distribution of human cases of Lyme disease in the state. Significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations were made from hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest. Nevertheless, high isolation rates from counties of the southeastern corner of the state illustrate well that hemlock habitat is not essential. Evidence suggests that in some areas, transmission between mice is occurring in some way other than through ticks as vectors. Host mice proved useful for determining the geographical and ecological distribution of B. burgdorferi. PMID:7814489

  5. Spatial diffusion of raccoon rabies in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A

    1999-05-14

    Identification of the geographic pattern of diffusion of a wildlife disease could lead to information regarding its control. The objective of this study was to model raccoon-rabies diffusion in Pennsylvania to identify geographic constraints on the diffusion pattern for potential use in bait-vaccination strategies. A trend-surface analysis (TSA) was used as a spatial filter for month to first report by county location. A cubic polynomial model was fitted (R2 = 0.80). Velocity vectors were calculated from the partial derivatives of the model and mapped to demonstrate the instantaneous speed of diffusion at each location. A main corridor of diffusion through the ridge and valley section of the state was evident early in the outbreak. Once the disease reached the northern counties, the disease moved west toward Ohio. I believe that TSA was useful in identifying the pattern of raccoon-rabies diffusion across the stage from the inherent noise of disease-reporting data. PMID:10343331

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Moyer Landfill Site, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Moyer Landfill is an inactive privately owned landfill located in Lower Providence Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The site was operated as a municipal landfill from the 1940's until April 1981, during which time it received municipal refuse and sewage sludges. According to local Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) officials, the landfill accepted a variety of solid and liquid hazardous wastes, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, paints, low-level radioactive wastes, and incinerated materials in bulk form and/or containerized in drums. In 1972, when the Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Resources (PADER) rules and regulations became more restrictive, this landfill was cited, and finally in 1981, it was closed and brought into receivership of the U.S. District Court.

  7. An Assessment of the Support Service Needs of Career and Technical Education Teachers and Their Students with Limited English Proficiency in Selected Pennsylvania AVTS's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester P.; Nunez, Frances

    2005-01-01

    A survey was conducted among a population of 350 Career and Technical Education, CTE, teachers from 12 Career Technical Education Centers, CTC, sites in seven counties throughout Pennsylvania (return rate = 64%). The participating schools demographic settings, which were selected by the respondents, were closely divided between rural (37.9%) and…

  8. The Pennsylvania Academy for the Profession of Teaching; Rural Fellowship Program: A Science Curriculum Development Partnership. Project "Prepare Them for the Future."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisel, Raymond W.

    This report describes development of the "Prepare Them for the Future" project, a K-3 activity-oriented science curriculum. The program, funded through two grants, was driven by the need to boost the distressed labor-based economy in rural western Pennsylvania. Data showed a drop of 1,100 coal-mining jobs between 1980 and 1986 in Indiana County,…

  9. Cloning and characterization of ADAM28: evidence for autocatalytic pro-domain removal and for cell surface localization of mature ADAM28.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, L; Maciewicz, R A; Blobel, C P

    2000-01-01

    The metalloprotease disintegrins are a family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins with diverse functions in fertilization, myoblast fusion, neurogenesis and protein ectodomain shedding. Here we report a cDNA sequence, encoding a metalloprotease disintegrin, termed ADAM28 ('a disintegrin and metalloprotease 28'), which was cloned from mouse lung. From protein sequence comparisons, ADAM28 is more closely related to snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) than to other ADAMs, and hence may cleave similar substrates to SVMPs, perhaps including components of the extracellular matrix. Northern blot analysis of selected mouse tissues revealed that ADAM28 is expressed highly and in alternatively spliced forms in the epididymis, suggesting a possible role in sperm maturation, and at lower levels in lung. The intracellular maturation of ADAM28 expressed in COS-7 cells resembles that of other ADAMs, in that ADAM28 is made as a precursor and processed to a mature form in a late Golgi compartment of the secretory pathway. Most or all of the mature, and thus presumably catalytically active, form of ADAM28 in COS-7 cells is accessible to cell surface trypsinization, suggesting that ADAM28 functions mainly on the cell surface. A mutation converting the catalytic-site glutamate residue into alanine abolishes pro-domain removal, even though this mutant form of ADAM28 can be transported to the cell surface in a manner similar to the wild-type protein. This suggests that pro-domain removal and maturation of ADAM28 may be, at least in part, autocatalytic. This is in contrast with several other ADAMs, for which furin-like proprotein convertases are involved in pro-domain removal, and in which a glutamate-to-alanine mutation in the catalytic site does not alter pro-domain removal. PMID:10794709

  10. A Descriptive Study of the Semantic Connotations Toward the Institutional Governance System at Delaware County Community College of the Several Constituent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Bruce T.

    This study was conducted to determine whether the attitudes of the various constituent representatives (administration, faculty, students, and noncontract personnel) differed significantly toward the Institutional Governance system as operative at Delaware County Community College (Pennsylvania). Following Osgood's Semantic Differential technique…

  11. ADAM8 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAMs) have been associated with multiple malignancies. ADAMs are involved in cell fusion, cell migration, membrane protein shedding and proteolysis. ADAM8 has been found to be overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. A new study showed that ADAM8 is significantly overexpressed in metastasis of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Methods We determined ADAM8 levels in the serum of 79 HNSCC patients at the time of diagnosis, in 35 patients 3 months after treatment and in 10 patients 1 year after therapy and compared the results to the sera of 31 healthy volunteers. We also constructed tissue microarrays to detect ADAM8 immunohistochemically in 100 patients. The results were correlated with the survival data of the patients to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value. Results The data demonstrated that patients with high ADAM8 expression in the tumor have worse survival rates. We found that high ADAM8 serum levels correlated with high ADAM8 expression in tumor samples. Soluble ADAM8 levels did not show any prognostic or diagnostic properties. Conclusion In summary ADAM8 expression is a prognostic factor for survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22369429

  12. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a central regulator of murine liver tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Köhn-Gaone, Julia; Chalupsky, Karel; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Barikbin, Roja; Bergmann, Juri; Wöhner, Birte; Zbodakova, Olga; Leuschner, Ivo; Martin, Gregor; Tiegs, Gisa; Rose-John, Stefan; Sedlacek, Radislav; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E.E.; Saftig, Paul; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 exerts essential roles during organ development and tissue integrity in different organs, mainly through activation of the Notch pathway. However, only little is known about its implication in liver tissue physiology. Here we show that in contrast to its role in other tissues, ADAM10 is dispensable for the Notch2-dependent biliary tree formation. However, we demonstrate that expression of bile acid transporters is dependent on ADAM10. Consequently, mice deficient for Adam10 in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and liver progenitor cells develop spontaneous hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. We furthermore observed a strongly augmented ductular reaction in 15-week old ADAM10Δhep/Δch mice and demonstrate that c-Met dependent liver progenitor cell activation is enhanced. Additionally, liver progenitor cells are primed to hepatocyte differentiation in the absence of ADAM10. These findings show that ADAM10 is a novel central node controlling liver tissue homeostasis. Highlights: Loss of ADAM10 in murine liver results in hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. ADAM10 directly regulates expression of bile acid transporters but is dispensable for Notch2-dependent formation of the biliary system. Activation of liver progenitor cells is enhanced through increased c-Met signalling, in the absence of ADAM10. Differentiation of liver progenitor cells to hepatocytes is augmented in the absence of ADAM10. PMID:26942887

  13. ADAM17 Promotes Motility, Invasion, and Sprouting of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Wyroba, Barbara; Stalińska, Krystyna; Próchnicki, Tomasz; Wiatrowska, Karolina; Kilarski, Witold W; Swartz, Melody A; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels actively participate in tumor progression and dissemination. ADAM17, a sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules, is believed to promote tumor development, facilitating both tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor angiogenesis. In this work we addressed the issue of whether ADAM17 may also promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. First, we found that ADAM17 is important for the migratory potential of immortalized human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). When ADAM17 was stably silenced in LEC, their proliferation was not affected, but: (i) single-cell motility, (ii) cell migration through a 3D Matrigel/collagen type I matrix, and (iii) their ability to form sprouts in a 3D matrix were significantly diminished. The differences in the cell motility between ADAM17-proficient and ADAM17-silenced cells were eliminated by inhibitors of EGFR and HER2, indicating that ADAM17-mediated shedding of growth factors accounts for LEC migratory potential. Interestingly, ADAM17 depletion affected the integrin surface expression/functionality in LEC. ADAM17-silenced cells adhered to plastic, type I collagen, and fibronectin faster than their ADAM17-proficient counterparts. The difference in adhesion to fibronectin was abolished by a cyclic RGD peptide, emphasizing the involvement of integrins in the process. Using a soluble receptor array, we identified BIG-H3 among several candidate proteins involved in the phenotypic and behavioral changes of LEC upon ADAM17 silencing. In additional assays, we confirmed the increased expression of BIG-H3, as well as TGFβ2 in ADAM17-silenced LEC. The antilymphangiogenic effects of ADAM17 silencing in lymphatic endothelial cells suggest further relevance of ADAM17 as a potential target in cancer therapy. PMID:26176220

  14. Adam8 Limits the Development of Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Knolle, Martin D.; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hergrueter, Anja; Gupta, Kushagra; Polverino, Francesca; Craig, Vanessa J.; Fyfe, Susanne E.; Zahid, Muhammad; Permaul, Perdita; Cernadas, Manuela; Montano, Gilbert; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Sholl, Lynette; Kobzik, Lester; Israel, Elliot; Owen, Caroline A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase-8 (Adam8) regulates allergic airway inflammation (AAI) and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), we compared AAI and AHR in wild type (WT) versus Adam8−/− mice in different genetic backgrounds sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite protein extract (HDM). OVA- and HDM-treated Adam8−/− mice had higher lung leukocyte counts, more airway mucus metaplasia, greater lung levels of some TH2 cytokines, and higher methacholine-induced increases in central airway resistance than allergen-treated WT mice. Studies of OVA-treated Adam8 bone marrow chimeric mice confirmed that leukocyte-derived Adam8 predominantly mediated Adam8’s anti-inflammatory activities in murine airways. Airway eosinophils and macrophages both expressed Adam8 in WT mice with AAI. Adam8 limited AAI and AHR in mice by reducing leukocyte survival because: 1) Adam8−/− mice with AAI had fewer apoptotic eosinophils and macrophages in their airways than WT mice with AAI; and 2) Adam8−/− macrophages and eosinophils had reduced rates of apoptosis compared with WT leukocytes when the intrinsic (but not the extrinsic) apoptosis pathway was triggered in the cells in vitro. ADAM8 was robustly expressed by airway granulocytes in lung sections from human asthma patients but, surprisingly, airway macrophages had less ADAM8 staining than airway eosinophils. Thus, ADAM8 has anti-inflammatory activities during AAI in mice by activating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in myeloid leukocytes. Strategies that increase ADAM8 levels in myeloid leukocytes may have therapeutic efficacy in asthma. PMID:23670189

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Regional Crop Production in Eastern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S. T.; Mangan, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Regional climate changes can significantly alter crop yields for agriculturally important areas. Berks County, PA, is an agrarian community whose crop production is typical of southeastern Pennsylvania, with corn as a major crop. Mean annual temperatures in Pennsylvania are predicted to increase by 4 degrees C and precipitation is expected to increase 5% by 2100. We examined changes in 20th Century Berks County crop yields, particularly corn, in response to yearly variations in temperature and precipitation. Crop yields for corn are predicted by models to increase up to a 29 degrees C threshold, beyond which yields will significantly decrease. This study quantifies the effects of recent climate change on Berks County crop production and predicts potential changes for the future. It is important to consider regional climate change effects if we are to fully understand the impacts of global change on food crop production. This study also incorporates anecdotal data from farmers to note their perceptions of crop productivity as related to environmental changes and to determine other factors that may affect farming practices and crop yields.

  16. Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Simulator - ARTEMIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trease, Brian P.; Lindeman, Randel A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bennett, Keith; VanDyke, Lauren P.; Zhou, Feng; Iagnemma, Karl; Senatore, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity, far exceeded their original drive distance expectations and have traveled, at the time of this reporting, a combined 29 kilometers across the surface of Mars. The Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP), the current program used to plan drives for MERs, is only a kinematic simulator of rover movement. Therefore, rover response to various terrains and soil types cannot be modeled. Although sandbox experiments attempt to model rover-terrain interaction, these experiments are time-intensive and costly, and they cannot be used within the tactical timeline of rover driving. Imaging techniques and hazard avoidance features on MER help to prevent the rover from traveling over dangerous terrains, but mobility issues have shown that these methods are not always sufficient. ARTEMIS, a dynamic modeling tool for MER, allows planned drives to be simulated before commands are sent to the rover. The deformable soils component of this model allows rover-terrain interactions to be simulated to determine if a particular drive path would take the rover over terrain that would induce hazardous levels of slip or sink. When used in the rover drive planning process, dynamic modeling reduces the likelihood of future mobility issues because high-risk areas could be identified before drive commands are sent to the rover, and drives planned over these areas could be rerouted. The ARTEMIS software consists of several components. These include a preprocessor, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), Adams rover model, wheel and soil parameter files, MSC Adams GUI (commercial), MSC Adams dynamics solver (commercial), terramechanics subroutines (FORTRAN), a contact detection engine, a soil modification engine, and output DEMs of deformed soil. The preprocessor is used to define the terrain (from a DEM) and define the soil parameters for the terrain file. The Adams rover model is placed in this terrain. Wheel and soil parameter files

  17. Progress and Problems of Pennsylvania Libraries; a Re-Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lowell A.

    Following an earlier study of public libraries in Pennsylvania, issued in 1958, this "re-survey" has two purposes: (1) to determine the extent to which the 1958 Pennsylvania library program has been achieved and (2) to propose a revised or new Pennsylvania library program. The basis for the study is 1965-66 data which was obtained from annual…

  18. An Analysis of Pennsylvania's Cyber Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John; Schott, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania's first cyber charter school opened in 1998, enrolling 44 full-time students. From this modest beginning, Pennsylvania's cyber charter sector has grown to 16 schools enrolling 35,000 students from all but one school district in the Commonwealth. Pennsylvania has one of the nation's most extensive cyber charter sectors, and six…

  19. Natural Gas Occurrence in Groundwater near Oil and Gas Drilling Sites Environmental Concerns in Northeast Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Liang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract unconventional natural gas in the northeast of the United States. Over the past few years, the presence of contaminants in shallow groundwater near drilling sites has created higher awareness of drinking water quality. One key question has been recently raised about the origin and pathways of the contaminants, especially natural gas found in groundwater in neighboring areas of gas drilling sites in northeast Pennsylvania. Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, is not currently classified as a health hazard when dissolved in drinking water. Yet, it is a threat for explosion and fire hazards. In the Bradford, Susquehanna, Tioga, and Wyoming counties located in northeast Pennsylvania, dissolved methane concentration was measured to be 19.2 mg/l. Maximum concentration was recorded up to 64 mg/l when a warning level of concentration of natural gas in groundwater is only 10 mg/l. Recent studies have been investigating the origin of natural gas found in water wells in these counties based on the isotopic composition of methane, ethane and dissolved inorganic carbon. While Breen et al. (2007) and Osborn et al. (2010 and 2011) claim that the isotopic analysis of methane confirms the thermogenic origin of methane in groundwater in Susquehanna and Wyoming counties, Molofsky et al. (2011) claim that the natural gas origin in the groundwater is not related to fracking activities in the Marcellus Shale but to a geologic origin instead. To better understand the origin of dissolved methane, an integral computer model will be implemented. The model will analyze the potential migration of natural gas to shallow groundwater by using available data. Potential scenarios will include outgassing from wells casing and preferential flow through deep fractures. Currently, the lack of a proper model prevents the prediction and explanation of several of the existing questions

  20. Serum antibody prevalence for Herpesvirus sylvilagus, Bacillus piliformis and California serogroup arboviruses in cottontail rabbits from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Dressler, R L; Ganaway, J R; Storm, G L; Tzilkowski, W M

    1988-04-01

    A serologic survey of 60 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from three counties in Pennsylvania was conducted in March 1983. Serum antibody prevalences for Herpesvirus sylvilagus and La Crosse virus (California serogroup) were less than 4%. There was no evidence of previous exposure to either Jamestown Canyon or snowshoe hare viruses (California serogroup). Antibody to trivittatus virus (California serogroup) was found in 60% of the 20 cottontails from York County. No cottontails had antibodies to Bacillus piliformis, the etiologic agent of Tyzzer's disease. PMID:3373643

  1. Adams-Oliver Syndrome: A Case with Full Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashtian, Amir; Dehdashtian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by the combination of congenital scalp defects (aplasia cutis congenita) and terminal transverse limb defects of variable severity. It is believed that Adams-Oliver syndrome without major organ abnormalities does not necessarily alter the normal lifespan. We present a case without detectable major organ abnormality contrary to life but with poor weight gain. A male infant with scalp and skin cutis aplasia, generalized cutis aplasia, dilated veins over scalp and trunk, hypoplastic toes and nails of feet, glaucoma, poor feeding and poor weight gain. This report shows a case of AOS without major multiple organ abnormalities but with poor feeding and abnormal weight gain that may be alter the normal lifespan. PMID:27433307

  2. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  3. Application of the ADAMS program to deployable space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calleson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The need for a computer program to perform kinematic and dynamic analyses of large truss structures while deploying from a packaged configuration in space led to the evaluation of several existing programs. ADAMS (automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems), a generalized program from performing the dynamic simulation of mechanical systems undergoing large displacements, is applied to two concepts of deployable space antenna units. One concept is a one cube folding unit of Martin Marietta's Box Truss Antenna and the other is a tetrahedral truss unit of a Tetrahedral Truss Antenna. Adequate evaluation of dynamic forces during member latch-up into the deployed configuration is not yet available from the present version of ADAMS since it is limited to the assembly of rigid bodies. Included is a method for estimating the maximum bending stress in a surface member at latch-up. Results include member displacement and velocity responses during extension and an example of member bending stresses at latch-up.

  4. Automatic Dynamic Aircraft Modeler (ADAM) for the Computer Program NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffis, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large general purpose finite element programs require users to develop large quantities of input data. General purpose pre-processors are used to decrease the effort required to develop structural models. Further reduction of effort can be achieved by specific application pre-processors. Automatic Dynamic Aircraft Modeler (ADAM) is one such application specific pre-processor. General purpose pre-processors use points, lines and surfaces to describe geometric shapes. Specifying that ADAM is used only for aircraft structures allows generic structural sections, wing boxes and bodies, to be pre-defined. Hence with only gross dimensions, thicknesses, material properties and pre-defined boundary conditions a complete model of an aircraft can be created.

  5. User's manual for ADAM (Advanced Dynamic Airfoil Model)

    SciTech Connect

    Oler, J.W.; Strickland, J.H.; Im, B.J.

    1987-06-01

    The computer code for an advanced dynamic airfoil model (ADAM) is described. The code is capable of calculating steady or unsteady flow over two-dimensional airfoils with allowances for boundary layer separation. Specific types of airfoil motions currently installed are steady rectilinear motion, impulsively started rectilinear motion, constant rate pitching, sinusoidal pitch oscillations, sinusoidal lateral plunging, and simulated Darrieus turbine motion. Other types of airfoil motion may be analyzed through simple modifications of a single subroutine. The code has a built-in capability to generate the geometric parameters for a cylinder, the NACA four-digit series of airfoils, and a NASA NLF-0416 laminar airfoil. Other types of airfoils are easily incorporated. The code ADAM is currently in a state of development. It is theoretically consistent and complete. However, further work is needed on the numerical implementation of the method.

  6. Distal Limb Defects and Aplasia Cutis: Adams-Oliver Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Kevin J; Dell, Paul C

    2016-07-01

    Adams-Oliver syndrome is a rare congenital condition that should be considered in persons with terminal transverse limb deficiencies and scalp defects (aplasia cutis congenita). Broad phenotypic variability exists in this condition. In its more severe forms, Adams-Oliver syndrome can involve the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system and should require prompt evaluation by appropriate subspecialists. Extremity involvement is typically bilateral and asymmetrical, with lower extremities involved more than upper extremities. Brachydactyly is the most common limb defect, and severity ranges from hypoplastic nails to complete absence of the distal limb. The syndrome has been described as resulting from autosomal dominant and recessive modes of inheritance, but most cases are sporadic. No gene has been identified. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism is unknown, a common hypothesis is that a vascular disturbance occurs in watershed areas, such as cranial vertex and limbs, during fetal development. PMID:27178874

  7. System Verification of MSL Skycrane Using an Integrated ADAMS Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Christopher; Antoun, George; Brugarolas, Paul; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Peng, Chia-Yen; Phan, Linh; San Martin, Alejandro; Sell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will use the Skycrane architecture to execute final descent and landing maneuvers. The Skycrane phase uses closed-loop feedback control throughout the entire phase, starting with rover separation, through mobility deploy, and through touchdown, ending only when the bridles have completely slacked. The integrated ADAMS simulation described in this paper couples complex dynamical models created by the mechanical subsystem with actual GNC flight software algorithms that have been compiled and linked into ADAMS. These integrated simulations provide the project with the best means to verify key Skycrane requirements which have a tightly coupled GNC-Mechanical aspect to them. It also provides the best opportunity to validate the design of the algorithm that determines when to cut the bridles. The results of the simulations show the excellent performance of the Skycrane system.

  8. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs' function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  9. Evaluation of selected wells in Pennsylvania's observation-well program as of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey operated 62 observation wells in 60 of Pennsylvania's 67 counties in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. These wells attempt to monitor an aerial extent of 45,000 square miles and penetrate 39 geologic formations or water-bearing units of 14 physiographic provinces. Some wells were drilled specifically for the observation-well program, some were drilled for other U.S. Geological Survey projects, and some were drilled for other purposes and were no longer used. Approximately 3 percent of the network wells have less than 5 years of record, 5 percent have 5 to 15 years of record, and 92 percent have greater than 15 years of record. The older the observation well, the greater the possibility of water levels being affected by physical deterioration of the borehole. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically conduct a series of physical, chemical, and hydraulic tests to determine changes in the physical condition of the well and local land-use practices that may affect water-level response. Nineteen wells were selected for evaluation on the basis of past questionable water-level responses. These wells were evaluated for functionality by analyzing historical water-level fluctuations, geophysical logs, single-well aquifer tests, and water-quality analyses. These parameters indicated that well Je-23 (Jefferson County) is affected by coal-mine pumpage, well Bt-311 (Butler County) is periodically affected by strip mine activities, well Gr-118 (Greene County) and Mc-110 (McKean County exhibit unexplained fluctuations not desirable for an observation well, and 15 wells show no obvious problems or degradation that would affect their functionality to monitor natural water-level fluctuations.

  10. ADAMS GAP AND SHINBONE CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Harrison, Donald K.

    1984-01-01

    The Adams Gap and Shinbone Creek Roadless Areas in Alabama were evaluated for their mineral potential. The only resource within the established boundary of the roadless area is quartzite suitable for crushed rock or refractory-grade aggregate. The quartzite contains deleterious impurities and is found in abundance outside the areas. Natural gas or petroleum may exist at depth. Detailed seismic studies and deep drilling tests are needed before a reasonable estimate of hydrocarbon potential can be made.

  11. ADAM-mediated amphiregulin shedding and EGFR transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kasina, S.; Scherle, P. A.; Hall, C. L.; Macoska, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, such as amphiregulin (AREG), by ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteases) can be stimulated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. Interactions between the CXCR4 GPCR and the CXCL12 chemokine have been shown to mediate gene transcription and cellular proliferation in non-transformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells, as well as motility/invasiveness in transformed cells. Objectives In this report, we investigated the ability of CXCL12 to stimulate amphiregulin ectodomain shedding in non-transformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells that respond proliferatively to sub-nanomolar levels of CXCL12 and amphiregulin. Materials and Methods Non-transformed N15C6 and transformed PC3 prostate epithelial cells were assessed for amphiregulin shedding, ADAM activation, Src phosphorylation and EGFR activation using ELISA, immunoblot, and immunoprecipitation techniques, and for proliferation using cell counting after stimulation with CXCL12 or vehicle. Results The results of these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel inducer of amphiregulin ectodomain shedding and show that both basal and CXCL12-mediated amphiregulin shedding are ADAM10- and Src kinase-dependent in non-transformed N15C6 cells. In contrast, amphiregulin shedding is not amplified subsequent to stimulation with exogenous CXCL12, and is not reduced subsequent to metalloprotease- or Src kinase-inhibition, in highly aggressive PC3 prostate cancer cells. These data also show that CXCL12-mediated cellular proliferation requires EGFR transactivation in a Src-and ADAM-dependent manner in non-transformed prostate epithelial cells. However, these same mechanisms are dysfunctional in highly transformed prostate cancer cells, which secrete amphiregulin in an autocrine manner that cannot be repressed through metalloprotease- or Src kinase inhibition. Conclusion These findings show that non-transformed and transformed

  12. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  13. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  14. ADAM23 is downregulated in side population and suppresses lung metastasis of lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ota, Masahide; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Abe, Hitoshi; Miyamae, Yuka; Ishii, Ken; Kimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-04-01

    Cancer cells contain a small population of cancer stem cells or cancer initiating cells, which can be enriched in the side population (SP) after fluorescence activated cell sorting. To examine the members of the ADAM, ADAMTS and MMP gene families related to phenotypes of the SP and the main population (MP), we screened the expression of all the members in the propagated SP and MP of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, and found that the relative expression ratio of ADAM23 in the MP to the SP is most highly increased, but none of them are increased in the SP. A similar result on the ADAM23 expression was obtained with another cell line, Calu-3 cells. Overexpression of ADAM23 inhibited colony formation, cell adhesion and migration, and knockdown of ADAM23 by shRNA showed the reverse effects. ADAM23-mediated suppression of colony formation, cell adhesion and migration was greatly reduced by treatment with neutralizing anti-ADAM23 antibody, anti-αvβ3 integrin antibody and/or ADAM23 disintegrin peptide. Expression of cancer stem cell-related genes, including AKRC1/2, TM4SF1 and NR0B1, was increased by knockdown of ADAM23. In addition, lung metastasis of A549 transfectants with different levels of ADAM23 expression was negatively regulated by the ADAM23 expression levels. Our data provide evidence that ADAM23 plays a role in suppression of cancer cell progression through interaction with αvβ3 integrin, and suggest that downregulation of ADAM23 in SP cells may contribute toward providing a cancer stem cell phenotype by facilitating the activity of integrin αvβ3. PMID:26800504

  15. iRhoms 1 and 2 are essential upstream regulators of ADAM17-dependent EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Maretzky, Thorsten; Weskamp, Gisela; Monette, Sébastien; Qing, Xiaoping; Issuree, Priya Darshinee A.; Crawford, Howard C.; McIlwain, David R.; Mak, Tak W.; Salmon, Jane E.; Blobel, Carl P.

    2015-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) controls EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling by liberating EGFR ligands from their membrane anchor. Consequently, a patient lacking ADAM17 has skin and intestinal barrier defects that are likely caused by lack of EGFR signaling, and Adam17−/− mice die perinatally with open eyes, like Egfr−/− mice. A hallmark feature of ADAM17-dependent EGFR ligand shedding is that it can be rapidly and posttranslationally activated in a manner that requires its transmembrane domain but not its cytoplasmic domain. This suggests that ADAM17 is regulated by other integral membrane proteins, although much remains to be learned about the underlying mechanism. Recently, inactive Rhomboid 2 (iRhom2), which has seven transmembrane domains, emerged as a molecule that controls the maturation and function of ADAM17 in myeloid cells. However, iRhom2−/− mice appear normal, raising questions about how ADAM17 is regulated in other tissues. Here we report that iRhom1/2−/− double knockout mice resemble Adam17−/− and Egfr−/− mice in that they die perinatally with open eyes, misshapen heart valves, and growth plate defects. Mechanistically, we show lack of mature ADAM17 and strongly reduced EGFR phosphorylation in iRhom1/2−/− tissues. Finally, we demonstrate that iRhom1 is not essential for mouse development but regulates ADAM17 maturation in the brain, except in microglia, where ADAM17 is controlled by iRhom2. These results provide genetic, cell biological, and biochemical evidence that a principal function of iRhoms1/2 during mouse development is to regulate ADAM17-dependent EGFR signaling, suggesting that iRhoms1/2 could emerge as novel targets for treatment of ADAM17/EGFR-dependent pathologies. PMID:25918388

  16. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of... 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small...

  17. 76 FR 64419 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00045

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  18. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  19. The Pennsylvania ABLE Staff Handbook. 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Tana, Ed.

    This guide contains 55 articles written by adult basic education (ABE) practitioners in Pennsylvania suggesting ways to improve teaching and program administration in the field. The guide is organized into four parts: (1) working together for program improvement, (2) teaching and learning, (3) developing as a professional and (4) appendixes (high…

  20. 77 FR 58975 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 11, 2012, (77 FR 40836) we published a proposed rule that would revise the... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ] ACTION: Proposed...

  1. COMPUTER PROGRAMING - SECONDARY SCHOOL, ALTOONA, PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHANAHAN, R.

    A HIGH SCHOOL IN ALTOONA, PENNSYLVANIA, IS USING AN ELECTRONIC COMPUTER TO TEACH COMPUTER PROGRAMING AND OPERATION AS PART OF THE THE REGULAR SCIENCE MATHEMATICS PROGRAM. NO DRASTIC CHANGES HAVE BEEN NECESSARY IN COURSE SCHEDULING OR TEACHING PERSONNEL. THE COMPUTER PERMITS MORE TIME TO BE SPENT ON THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES AND LESS TIME ON…

  2. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  3. Medication Administration Practices in Pennsylvania Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette

    2006-01-01

    As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…

  4. 21 CFR 808.88 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pennsylvania. 808.88 Section 808.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.88...

  5. Approaching K-12 Online Education in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadell, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how K-12 schools are addressing the need to accommodate online learners in Pennsylvania. It is built upon a review of literature focusing on educational legislation, the personalization of online learning and online learning solutions. The study posed 21 questions utilizing a mixed methods approach to…

  6. Privatizing Pennsylvania, and Then Un-Privatizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Jerel

    2007-01-01

    Nearly ten years ago, the University of Pennsylvania announced that it would outsource its facilities and real-estate operations to Trammell Crow Higher Education Services, Inc. The agreement included management of school facilities--155 buildings over 269 acres on the West Philadelphia campus. It also included construction management and…

  7. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  8. Pennsylvania Cyber School Funding: Follow the Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Marsh, Rose M.

    2009-01-01

    Cyber charter schools are public charter schools which are entirely online and typically serve all grades from pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. Pennsylvania implemented widespread charter school legislation as early as 1997. This has offered a great number of Pennsylvanians options in their public schooling. One of these options has been…

  9. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  10. Water Curriculum Evaluation for Educators in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua B.; Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented from a formal evaluation of The Pennsylvania Bureau of State Park's Watershed Education (WE) curriculum developed for students in grades 6-12. The primary research objective was to measure the impact the training and subsequent use of the WE curriculum had on teachers' behavior, confidence, and self-efficacy in teaching about…

  11. ESEA Title III 1972 - PACE in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Information Services for Education, King of Prussia, PA.

    This document is a collection of abstracts of all ESEA Title III educational innovation projects funded or operating in Pennsylvania during 1972. Each abstract contains the name of the local supporting agency, the project number, financial information, target population, major objectives, activities, evaluation design, findings to date,…

  12. 76 FR 18467 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also...), (ww), (xx), (zz), (aaa), (ccc), (iii), (jjj), (nnn), (ppp), and (ttt). It was also intended to address... mentioned above--30 CFR 938.16(rr) (tt), (uu), (vv), (ww), (xx), (zz), and (aaa); and (2) one...

  13. Engaging Pennsylvania Teachers in Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua; Luloff, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Water-resource scientists have become increasingly concerned about global water quality and quantity issues. Water and watershed education are now mandated topics for school-aged youth. Pennsylvania teachers lack consistent and accessible curricula to teach students about water quality and quantity. A mail survey administered in 2004 determined…

  14. 76 FR 12920 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... by OSMRE in a final rule notice published in the Federal Register on November 7, 1997, (62 FR 60177... Federal Register (62 FR 60169-70 and Table A). OSM then concluded: ``Because the above proposed...

  15. Latinos in Pennsylvania: Summary Report & Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs, Harrisburg.

    This report summarizes the activities of the Pennsylvania Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs from its inception in January, 1989, to December, 1990; and makes recommendations to the Governor on policies, procedures, and legislation that would make the state more responsive to the Latin American community. Latin Americans are the…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Pennsylvania showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and boys and girls. Achievement gaps generally narrowed at grades 4 and 8 but…

  17. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 06/24/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  18. 78 FR 55210 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... regulations on the use of the Coal Refuse Disposal Control Fund (``CRDCF'') and permit and reclamation fees... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also..., 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 13002). In the same document, we opened the public comment period...

  19. 75 FR 46877 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also find later actions concerning the Pennsylvania... impoundments at coal refuse disposal sites. These amendments address the requirements set forth at 30 CFR 938... require that no noncoal waste be deposited in a coal refuse pile or impounding structure....

  20. Ethnic History in Pennsylvania: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodnar, John E.

    This bibliography provides a selective listing of both primary and secondary sources dealing with ethnic groups in Pennsylvania history. Books and articles published between 1835 and 1974 are listed for students at the college and high school levels. Materials for 23 separate ethnic groups are provided. These groups include Asians, Dutch, English,…

  1. "Intelligent Design" Goes on Trial in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether "intelligent design" amounts to legitimate science, pseudo-science, or religion masquerading as science has underwent a potentially historic legal test, as a federal court in Pennsylvania considered whether a public school district can require that students be exposed to the controversial concept. Eleven parents from the…

  2. 78 FR 62000 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00065

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4149-DR), dated 10/01/2013. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/26/2013 through 07/11/2013. Effective Date: 10/01/2013. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 12/02/2013. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 07/01/2014....

  3. 1978 Inventory of Pennsylvania Library Cooperative Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

    Intended for Pennsylvania librarians, those who use libraries, and those responsible for libraries, this directory of cooperative library organizations in the state provides information on current operating programs and describes those which may be appropriate for libraries not now participating in them. With few exceptions, the members of the…

  4. Pennsylvania's No Child Left Behind. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is meant to highlight key issues some believe would improve the implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) for all Pennsylvania schools and students. NCLB has already undergone several midcourse corrections as the law is implemented across the nation. Additional refinements are anticipated, and as a result, this position paper…

  5. Association of wintering raptors with Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program grasslands in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, A.; Brittingham, M.; Grove, G.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation grasslands can provide valuable habitat resource for breeding songbirds, but their value for wintering raptors has received little attention. We hypothesized that increased availability of grassland habitat through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has resulted in an increase or redistribution in numbers of four species of raptors in Pennsylvania since 2001. We tested this by analyzing winter raptor counts from volunteer surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2008, for Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). During that period, numbers of wintering Northern Harriers increased by more than 20% per year. Log-linear Poisson regression models show that all four species increased in the region of Pennsylvania that had the most and longest-established conservation grasslands. At the county scale (N= 67), Bayesian spatial models showed that spatial and temporal population trends of all four species were positively correlated with the amount of conservation grassland. This relationship was particularly strong for Northern Harriers, with numbers predicted to increase by 35.7% per year for each additional 1% of farmland enrolled in CREP. Our results suggest that conservation grasslands are likely the primary cause of the increase in numbers of wintering Northern Harriers in Pennsylvania since 2001. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  6. Field Survey of Health Perception and Complaints of Pennsylvania Residents in the Marcellus Shale Region

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Pouné; Propert, Kathleen Joy; Powers, Martha; Emmett, Edward; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale region residents have reported medical symptoms they believe are related to nearby Unconventional Natural Gas Development (UNGD). Associations between medical symptoms and UNGD have been minimally explored. The objective of this descriptive study is to explore whether shale region Pennsylvania residents perceive UNGD as a health concern and whether they attribute health symptoms to UNGD exposures. A questionnaire was administered to adult volunteers with medical complaints in a primary-care medical office in a county where UNGD was present. Participants were asked whether they were concerned about health effects from UNGD, and whether they attributed current symptoms to UNGD or to some other environmental exposure. There were 72 respondents; 22% perceived UNGD as a health concern and 13% attributed medical symptoms to UNGD exposures. Overall, 42% attributed one or more of their medical symptoms to environmental causes, of which UNGD was the most frequent. A medical record review conducted on six participants who attributed their medical symptoms to UNGD revealed that only one of these records documented both the symptoms in question and the attribution to UNGD. The results of this pilot study suggest that there is substantial concern about adverse health effects of UNGD among Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale residents, and that these concerns may not be adequately represented in medical records. Further efforts to determine the relationship between UNGD and health are recommended in order to address community concerns. PMID:25003172

  7. Dissecting the role of ADAM10 as a mediator of Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin action.

    PubMed

    von Hoven, Gisela; Rivas, Amable J; Neukirch, Claudia; Klein, Stefan; Hamm, Christian; Qin, Qianqian; Meyenburg, Martina; Füser, Sabine; Saftig, Paul; Hellmann, Nadja; Postina, Rolf; Husmann, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infections in humans, including life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. Its small membrane-pore-forming α-toxin is considered an important virulence factor. By destroying cell-cell contacts through cleavage of cadherins, the metalloproteinase ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) critically contributes to α-toxin-dependent pathology of experimental S. aureus infections in mice. Moreover, ADAM10 was proposed to be a receptor for α-toxin. However, it is unclear whether the catalytic activity or specific domains of ADAM10 are involved in mediating binding and/or subsequent cytotoxicity of α-toxin. Also, it is not known how α-toxin triggers ADAM10's enzymatic activity, and whether ADAM10 is invariably required for all α-toxin action on cells. In the present study, we show that efficient cleavage of the ADAM10 substrate epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) requires supra-cytotoxic concentrations of α-toxin, leading to significant increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)]; the fall in cellular ATP levels, typically following membrane perforation, became observable at far lower concentrations. Surprisingly, ADAM10 was dispensable for α-toxin-dependent xenophagic targeting of S. aureus, whereas a role for α-toxin attack on the plasma membrane was confirmed. The catalytic site of ADAM10, furin cleavage site, cysteine switch and intracellular domain of ADAM10 were not required for α-toxin binding and subsequent cytotoxicity. In contrast, an essential role for the disintegrin domain and the prodomain emerged. Thus, co-expression of the prodomain with prodomain-deficient ADAM10 reconstituted binding of α-toxin and susceptibility of ADAM10-deficient cells. The results of the present study may help to inform structural analyses of α-toxin-ADAM10 interactions and to design novel strategies to counteract S. aureus α-toxin action. PMID:27147619

  8. Geographic and temporal prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Walter O; Heagy, Robin L; Johnson, Joshua B; Marcantuno, Richard; Nolan, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    In autumn of 2010 we collected fecal samples from the rectums of 89 trapped or road-killed Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor). Similar samples were collected in the summer and autumn of 2011 from 383 raccoons. Fecal samples were stored in 10% formalin until examined. Using saturated sugar flotation and a direct smear, we found Baylisascaris procyonis eggs in 38% of 2010 samples and 32.9% of 2011 samples. Prevalence in raccoons was greater in autumn than in summer and greater in juveniles than in adults; there was not a statistically significant difference between sexes. Infected raccoons were found in 54 of the 65 counties from which samples were recovered (a mean of 5.9 [range 1-12] raccoons were examined per county). The prevalences were similar in all regions of the state. PMID:25105813

  9. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  10. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  11. ADAM12-deficient zebrafish exhibit retardation in body growth at the juvenile stage without developmental defects.

    PubMed

    Tokumasu, Yudai; Iida, Atsuo; Wang, Zi; Ansai, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Masato; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) constitutes a family of multi-domain proteins that are involved in development, homeostasis, and disease. ADAM12 plays important roles in myogenesis and adipogenesis in mice; however, the precise physiological mechanisms are not known, and the function of this gene in other vertebrates has not been examined. In this study, we used a simple model vertebrate, the zebrafish, to investigate the functions of ADAM12 during development. Zebrafish adam12 is conserved with those of mammals in the synteny and the amino-acid sequence. We examined adam12 expression in zebrafish embryos by whole mount in situ hybridization and the promoter activity of the adam12 upstream sequence. We found that adam12 is strongly expressed in the cardiovascular system, erythroid progenitors, brain, and jaw cartilage during zebrafish development, and adam12-knockout zebrafish exhibited reduced body size in the juvenile stage without apparent morphological defects. Taken together, these results suggest that adam12 plays a significant role in the regulation of body growth during juvenile stage in zebrafish, although the precise molecular mechanisms await further study. PMID:27185351

  12. Effects of ADAM10 upregulation on progression, migration, and prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Shi, Si; Li, Xingyu; You, Yiwen

    2015-11-01

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a typical member of the ADAMs family, which has been reported to be upregulated in various types of cancers and contribute to cancer progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of ADAM10 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study is to explore ADAM10 expression status and its biological functions in NPC. We first examined the expression of ADAM10 in NPC tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, PCR, and immunofluorescence analysis. We observed that ADAM10 was significantly elevated in NPC and its expression level was correlated with T classification (P = 0.044), distant metastasis (P = 0.016), TNM clinical stage (P = 0.013), and proliferation marker Ki-67 expression (P = 0.001). Patients with NPC with high expression of ADAM10 had shorter overall survival rates. In addition, knockdown of ADAM10 by RNAi was found to inhibit the CNE-2 cell proliferation and migration. Our findings hinted that overexpression of ADAM10 promotes the progression and migration of NPC, which makes it a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of tumor metastases in NPC. PMID:26310711

  13. Examination of woodcock nest sites in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, R.A.; Williams, B.K.; Lindzey, J.S.; George, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is given to support Iow selectivity in choice of nest sites by woodcock (Philohela minor). Habitat characteristics measured at 30 woodcock nest sites were compared with non-nest control sites in Huntingdon County, central Pennsylvania. Mean nest density per year was 1/4.8 ha within the 54-ha study area. Of 14 characteristics measured, higher shrub-stem density at nests was the only variable significantly different (P 0.05) between habitat characteristics at nests and controls. A computed discriminant function also indicated little distinction between nests and controls. Spatial distribution of nests for each of the three years did not depart significantly (P :> 0.05) from a random distribution. Although evidence is given for little overall selectivity, greater shrub-stem density at nests and associations related in part to 'edge' habitat may be important in the location of substantial numbers of woodcock nests. The mean distance from nest site to nearest tree (1.0 ? 1.1 m) and to nearest shrub (22.8 ? 17.8 cm) was significantly less (P < 0.01) than for control areas. Additional research on woodcock nest-site selection may lead to enhanced woodcock production in a variety of habitats.

  14. Dissolved methane in groundwater, Upper Delaware River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York, 2007-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of natural gas development from the Marcellus and Utica Shales has raised concerns about freshwater aquifers being vulnerable to contamination. Well owners are asking questions about subsurface methane, such as, “Does my well water have methane and is it safe to drink the water?” and “Is my well system at risk of an explosion hazard associated with a combustible gas like methane in groundwater?” This newfound awareness of methane contamination of water wells by stray gas migration is based upon studies such as Molofsky and others (2011) who document the widespread natural occurrence of methane in drinking-water wells in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. In the same county, Osborn and others (2011) identified elevated methane concentrations in selected drinking-water wells in the vicinity of Marcellus Shale gas-development activities, although pre-development groundwater samples were not available for comparison. A compilation of dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater for New York State was published by Kappel and Nystrom (2012). Recent work documenting the occurrence and distribution of methane in groundwater was completed in southern Sullivan County, Pennsylvania (Sloto, 2013). Additional work is ongoing with respect to monitoring for stray gases in groundwater (Jackson and others, 2013). These studies and their results indicate the importance of collecting baseline or pre-development data. While such data are being collected in some areas, published data on methane in groundwater are sparse in the Upper Delaware River Basin of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. To manage drinking-water resources in areas of gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the Upper Delaware River Basin, the natural occurrence of methane in the tri-state aquifers needs to be documented. The purpose of this report is to present data on dissolved methane concentrations in the groundwater in the Upper Delaware River Basin. The scope is restricted to

  15. Oriskany sand gas in western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and northern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, J.T.

    1987-09-01

    Gas has been found only on structural closures in the Lower Devonian Oriskany, east of the stratigraphic accumulations in Ohio and West Virginia and west of the faulted areas of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia. Structural closures occur where the rate of west reversal of the surface rocks exceeds the rate of eastward thickening of the Devonian section. This shifts the basal Devonian structural high west of that at the surface. Without such a rate of reversal, there would be no closure and, therefore, no gas. The first structural closure discovered in western Pennsylvania was in Beaver County in 1935 where projection of the Mississippian structure to the Oriskany by convergence revealed a low-relief closure. Although reliable control for the rate of Devonian section thickening at that time was sparse and widespread, the predicted Oriskany datum for the discovery was within a few feet of that actually found, demonstrating the relatively uniform rate of Devonian thickening. Development of the feature revealed slightly subnormal thickening over the Oriskany high and slightly abnormal thickening under the highest part of the surface, but this was insufficient to give greater structural relief to the Oriskany than that found at surface. Four pools, in addition to that in Beaver County (one in West Virginia and three in eastern Ohio), were discovered by the same means. Of the many wells in this area drilled to test the Oriskany but not meeting the conditions described, all without exception have been failures.

  16. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John S., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The 2006-07 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 22,136. The total was comprised of 11,422 males and 10,714 females. There was a decrease of 276 students, or 1.2%, from the 2005-06 total of 22,412. It was the fourth year in a row that home education enrollments decreased and only the fifth year overall since the passage of Act 169…

  17. Home Education in Pennsylvania 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-04 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,076. The total was comprised of 12,285 males and 11,791 females. This was a decrease of 339 students, or 1.4%, from the 2002-03 total of 24,415. This was the second year (along with 2001-02) that home education enrollments decreased since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  18. Blood parasites of shrews from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Haukisalmi, V; Merritt, J F

    1998-12-01

    We examined 30 Sorex cinereus, 5 Sorex fumeus, and 21 Blarina brevicauda collected from Pennsylvania in 1995 for blood parasites. Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. were visible in 13% of the S. cinereus. Ten percent of S. cinereus, 20% of S. fumeus, and 14% of B. brevicauda were infected with Bartonella sp. (or spp.). In S. cinereus, we detected no concurrent Trypanosoma and Bartonella infections. PMID:9920338

  19. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  20. The "delivery" of Adam: a medical interpretation of Michelangelo.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Stefano; Taglietti, Fabrizio; Iacobuzio, Andrea; Johnson, Emma; Baiocchini, Andrea; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    This article describes what we believe to be the key to interpreting the concept represented by Michelangelo's painting the Creation of Adam. This fresco, one of his most famous masterpieces, is situated in the heart of the Sistine Chapel and is viewed by millions of people every year. A man of many talents, Michelangelo's proficiency in anatomical dissection is reflected in his artwork. As such, analyses of hidden meanings in this fresco have been ascribed, including the concept of the "Brain-God." However, we see a postpartum uterus and adjacent anatomy, justifying our interpretation that Michelangelo was depicting something far more fundamental: the birth of mankind. PMID:25841253

  1. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  2. ADAM33 gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation as a molecular marker in breast invasive lobular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background ADAM33 protein is a member of the family of transmembrane glycoproteins composed of multidomains. ADAM family members have different activities, such as proteolysis and adhesion, making them good candidates to mediate the extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in cellular adhesion that characterise certain pathologies and cancer development. It was reported that one family member, ADAM23, is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation. This seems to correlate with tumour progression and metastasis in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the involvement of ADAM33, another ADAM family member, in breast cancer. Methods First, we analysed ADAM33 expression in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadCR) treatment and DNA bisulphite sequencing to study the promoter methylation of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines. We evaluated ADAM33 methylation in primary tumour samples by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Finally, ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation was correlated with clinicopathological data using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results The expression analysis of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR revealed gene silencing in 65% of tumour cell lines. The corresponding lack of ADAM33 protein was confirmed by western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCR) demethylation and bisulphite sequencing methodologies to confirm that gene silencing is due to ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation. Using MSP, we detected ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation in 40% of primary breast tumour samples. The correlation between methylation pattern and patient's clinicopathological data was not significantly associated with histological grade; tumour stage (TNM); tumour size; ER, PR or ERBB2 status; lymph node status; metastasis or recurrence. Methylation frequency in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) was 76.2% compared with 25.5% in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and this

  3. Metalloproteinases ADAM12 and MMP-14 are associated with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junwen; Voellger, Benjamin; Benzel, Julia; Schlomann, Uwe; Nimsky, Christopher; Bartsch, Jörg W; Carl, Barbara

    2016-09-15

    Invasion of tumor cells critically depends on cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Enzymes capable of modulating these interactions belong to the proteinase families of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and MMP (matrix metalloprotease) proteins. Our objective is to examine their expression levels and evaluate the relationship between expression levels and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas. Tissue samples from 35 patients with pituitary adenomas were analyzed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was employed to assess mRNA expression levels for ADAM and MMP genes. Protein levels were examined using immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Correlation analyses between expression levels and clinical parameters were performed. By silencing ADAM12 and MMP-14 with siRNA in a mouse pituitary adenoma cell line (TtT/GF), their cellular effects were investigated. In our study, nine women and 26 men were included, with a mean age of 53.1 years (range 15-84 years) at the time of surgery. There were 19 cases with cavernous sinus invasion. The proteins ADAM12 and MMP-14 were significantly up-regulated in invasive adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas. Both human isoforms of ADAM12 (ADAM12L and ADAM12s) were involved in tumor invasion; moreover, ADAM12L was found to correlate positively with Ki-67 proliferation index in pituitary adenomas. In TtT/GF pituitary adenoma cells, silencing of ADAM12 and MMP-14 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration, respectively, whereas only silencing of ADAM12 suppressed cell proliferation. We conclude that ADAM12 and MMP-14 are associated with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas, which qualifies these proteins in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27144841

  4. ADAM15 Is Functionally Associated with the Metastatic Progression of Human Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, John R.; Hayward, Alexandra; Cates, Angelica L.; Day, Kathleen C.; El-Sawy, Layla; Kunju, L. Priya; Daignault, Stephanie; Lee, Cheryl T.; Liebert, Monica; Hussain, Maha; Day, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM15 is a member of a family of catalytically active disintegrin membrane metalloproteinases that function as molecular signaling switches, shed membrane bound growth factors and/or cleave and inactivate cell adhesion molecules. Aberrant metalloproteinase function of ADAM15 may contribute to tumor progression through the release of growth factors or disruption of cell adhesion. In this study, we utilized human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines to evaluate the expression and function of ADAM15 in the progression of human bladder cancer. Examination of genome and transcriptome databases revealed that ADAM15 ranked in the top 5% of amplified genes and its mRNA was significantly overexpressed in invasive and metastatic bladder cancer compared to noninvasive disease. Immunostaining of a bladder tumor tissue array designed to evaluate disease progression revealed increased ADAM15 immunoreactivity associated with increasing cancer stage and exhibited significantly stronger staining in metastatic samples. About half of the invasive tumors and the majority of the metastatic cases exhibited high ADAM15 staining index, while all low grade and noninvasive cases exhibited negative or low staining. The knockdown of ADAM15 mRNA expression significantly inhibited bladder tumor cell migration and reduced the invasive capacity of bladder tumor cells through MatrigelTM and monolayers of vascular endothelium. The knockdown of ADAM15 in a human xenograft model of bladder cancer inhibited tumor growth by 45% compared to controls. Structural modeling of the catalytic domain led to the design of a novel ADAM15-specific sulfonamide inhibitor that demonstrated bioactivity and significantly reduced the viability of bladder cancer cells in vitro and in human bladder cancer xenografts. Taken together, the results revealed an undescribed role of ADAM15 in the invasion of human bladder cancer and suggested that the ADAM15 catalytic domain may represent a viable therapeutic target in

  5. 75 FR 81641 - Odessa Subarea Special Study; Adams, Franklin, Grant, and Lincoln Counties, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... was originally scheduled to end on December 31, 2010 (75 FR 65503). DATES: Written or e-mailed... Main Street, Warden WA 98857. Washington State Library, 6880 Capitol Boulevard South, Olympia, WA...

  6. 77 FR 2992 - Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Adams and Grant Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... process for Columbia NWR. We started this process through a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 25576... notice of availability in the Federal Register (76 FR 45600; July 29, 2011). We announce our CCP decision... solicited comments on the draft CCP/EA for the refuge from July 29, 2011, to August 29, 2011 (76 FR...

  7. 76 FR 45600 - Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Adams and Grant Counties, WA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... process by publishing a notice of intent in the Federal Register (74 FR 25576) on May 28, 2009. The Refuge... publishing a notice of intent in the Federal Register (74 FR 25576) on May 28, 2009, announcing our intention... Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, develop volunteer opportunities, and make restoration of...

  8. Levatiracetam for the management of Lance-Adams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ILIK, Faik; Kemal ILIK, Mustafa; ÇÖVEN, İlker

    2014-01-01

    Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus, also known as Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is a neurological complication characterized by uncontrolled myoclonic jerks following cardiac arrest. In this article, clinical manifestation and symptomatic treatment options are discussed especially concerning the rationale of use of levatiracetam in patients with Lance-Adams syndrome. Clinical presentation is action myoclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia, postural imbalance, and very mild intellectual deficit. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our intensive care unit in a coma. She had a cardiorespiratory arrest after a splenectomy in a local hospital. Then, myoclonic movements were continuously observed over the entire body, including the face. On day 14 of hospitalization, we started levatiracetam 1000 mg daily. The frequency of convulsion movements was reduced. The patient level of consciousness was 15 on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 23 out of 30. She was later transferred to the rehabilitation department. Vigilance is required to ensure early diagnosis and timely intervention for the myoclonic jerks. We would like to emphasize that LAS should be considered in patients with the myoclonic jerks following cardiac arrest and that levatiracetam therapy may be useful as treatment. PMID:24949053

  9. The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2000-10-01

    Economic theorizing is based on the postulated, nonempiric notion of utility. Economists assume that prices, dynamics, and market equilibria are supposed to be derived from utility. The results are supposed to represent mathematically the stabilizing action of Adam Smith's invisible hand. In deterministic excess demand dynamics I show the following. A utility function generally does not exist mathematically due to nonintegrable dynamics when production/investment are accounted for, resolving Mirowski's thesis. Price as a function of demand does not exist mathematically either. All equilibria are unstable. I then explain how deterministic chaos can be distinguished from random noise at short times. In the generalization to liquid markets and finance theory described by stochastic excess demand dynamics, I also show the following. Market price distributions cannot be rescaled to describe price movements as ‘equilibrium’ fluctuations about a systematic drift in price. Utility maximization does not describe equilibrium. Maximization of the Gibbs entropy of the observed price distribution of an asset would describe equilibrium, if equilibrium could be achieved, but equilibrium does not describe real, liquid markets (stocks, bonds, foreign exchange). There are three inconsistent definitions of equilibrium used in economics and finance, only one of which is correct. Prices in unregulated free markets are unstable against both noise and rising or falling expectations: Adam Smith's stabilizing invisible hand does not exist, either in mathematical models of liquid market data, or in real market data.

  10. Mineral Resources of the Hells Canyon Study Area, Wallowa County, Oregon, and Idaho and Adams Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Gualtieri, James L.; Close, Terry J.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Field studies supporting the evaluation of the mineral potential of the Hells Canyon study area were carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1974-76 and 1979. The study area includes (1) the Hells Canyon Wilderness; (2) parts of the Snake River, Rapid River, and West Fork Rapid River Wild and Scenic Rivers; (3) lands included in the second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II); and (4) part of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area. The survey is one of a series of studies to appraise the suitability of the area for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System as required by the Wilderness Act of 1964. The spectacular and mineralized area covers nearly 950 mi2 (2,460 km2) in northeast Oregon and west-central Idaho at the junction of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Columbia Plateau.

  11. An assessment of ammonia emissions from dairy facilities in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J D; Dou, Z; Ramberg, C F

    2001-10-26

    A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb). Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups) to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor) typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status) and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP). Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM), urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28 tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution. Reduction of ammonia

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN LUNG MEASURED BY AEROSOL-DERIVED AIRWAY MORPHEMETRY (ADAM).

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured, in vivo, the airspace calibers of the small airways and alveoli by ADAM in the lungs of children of ages 6 to 18 years and adults aged 18 to 80 years. ADAM utilizes the gravitational settling time of inhaled monodisperse particles to infer the vertical distance to th...

  13. ADAM30 Downregulates APP-Linked Defects Through Cathepsin D Activation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Letronne, Florent; Laumet, Geoffroy; Ayral, Anne-Marie; Chapuis, Julien; Demiautte, Florie; Laga, Mathias; Vandenberghe, Michel E; Malmanche, Nicolas; Leroux, Florence; Eysert, Fanny; Sottejeau, Yoann; Chami, Linda; Flaig, Amandine; Bauer, Charlotte; Dourlen, Pierre; Lesaffre, Marie; Delay, Charlotte; Huot, Ludovic; Dumont, Julie; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Lafont, Franck; Mendes, Tiago; Hansmannel, Franck; Dermaut, Bart; Deprez, Benoit; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; Dhenain, Marc; Souedet, Nicolas; Pasquier, Florence; Tulasne, David; Berr, Claudine; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Lemoine, Yves; Amouyel, Philippe; Mann, David; Déprez, Rebecca; Checler, Frédéric; Hot, David; Delzescaux, Thierry; Gevaert, Kris; Lambert, Jean-Charles

    2016-07-01

    Although several ADAMs (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteases) have been shown to contribute to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, the full spectrum of metalloproteases involved in this metabolism remains to be established. Transcriptomic analyses centred on metalloprotease genes unraveled a 50% decrease in ADAM30 expression that inversely correlates with amyloid load in Alzheimer's disease brains. Accordingly, in vitro down- or up-regulation of ADAM30 expression triggered an increase/decrease in Aβ peptides levels whereas expression of a biologically inactive ADAM30 (ADAM30(mut)) did not affect Aβ secretion. Proteomics/cell-based experiments showed that ADAM30-dependent regulation of APP metabolism required both cathepsin D (CTSD) activation and APP sorting to lysosomes. Accordingly, in Alzheimer-like transgenic mice, neuronal ADAM30 over-expression lowered Aβ42 secretion in neuron primary cultures, soluble Aβ42 and amyloid plaque load levels in the brain and concomitantly enhanced CTSD activity and finally rescued long term potentiation alterations. Our data thus indicate that lowering ADAM30 expression may favor Aβ production, thereby contributing to Alzheimer's disease development. PMID:27333034

  14. The disintegrin/metalloproteinase Adam10 is essential for epidermal integrity and Notch-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Silvio; Niessen, Michaela T.; Prox, Johannes; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Schmitz, Annika; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Blobel, Carl P.; Jorissen, Ellen; de Strooper, Bart; Niessen, Carien M.; Saftig, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The disintegrin and metalloproteinase Adam10 has been implicated in the regulation of key signaling pathways that determine skin morphogenesis and homeostasis. To address the in vivo relevance of Adam10 in the epidermis, we have selectively disrupted Adam10 during skin morphogenesis and in adult skin. K14-Cre driven epidermal Adam10 deletion leads to perinatal lethality, barrier impairment and absence of sebaceous glands. A reduction of spinous layers, not associated with differences in either proliferation or apoptosis, indicates that loss of Adam10 triggers a premature differentiation of spinous keratinocytes. The few surviving K14-Adam10-deleted mice and mice in which Adam10 was deleted postnatally showed loss of hair, malformed vibrissae, epidermal hyperproliferation, cyst formation, thymic atrophy and upregulation of the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), thus indicating non cell-autonomous multi-organ disease resulting from a compromised barrier. Together, these phenotypes closely resemble skin specific Notch pathway loss-of-function phenotypes. Notch processing is indeed strongly reduced resulting in decreased levels of Notch intracellular domain fragment and functional Notch signaling. The data identify Adam10 as the major Site-2 processing enzyme for Notch in the epidermis in vivo, and thus as a central regulator of skin development and maintenance. PMID:21205794

  15. The shedding activity of ADAM17 is sequestered in lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Tellier, Edwige; Canault, Matthias; Rebsomen, Laure; Bonardo, Bernadette; Juhan-Vague, Irene; Nalbone, Gilles; Peiretti, Franck . E-mail: Franck.Peiretti@medecine.univ-mrs.fr

    2006-12-10

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) converting enzyme (ADAM17) is a metalloprotease-disintegrin responsible for the cleavage of several biologically active transmembrane proteins. However, the substrate specificity of ADAM17 and the regulation of its shedding activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report that during its transport through the Golgi apparatus, ADAM17 is included in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) where its prodomain is cleaved by furin. Consequently, ADAM17 shedding activity is sequestered in lipid rafts, which is confirmed by the fact that metalloproteinase inhibition increases the proportion of ADAM17 substrates (TNF and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2) in lipid rafts. Membrane cholesterol depletion increases the ADAM17-dependent shedding of these substrates demonstrating the importance of lipid rafts in the control of this process. Furthermore, ADAM17 substrates are present in different proportions in lipid rafts, suggesting that the entry of each of these substrates in these particular membrane microdomains is specifically regulated. Our data support the idea that one of the mechanisms regulating ADAM17 substrate cleavage involves protein partitioning in lipid rafts.

  16. Tumorigenicity of cortical astrocyte cell line induced by the protease ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Katakowski, Mark; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, XuGuang; Gutierrez, Jorge A.; Szalad, Alexandra; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The metalloprotease ADAM17 (a.k.a. TACE) plays a pivotal role in the cleavage and activation of membrane-anchored receptor ligands. More recently, it has been revealed that ADAM17 is a potent sheddase of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of ligands and regulates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity in a variety of tumors. EGFR is a key component of autonomous growth signaling in several tumors, and correlates with the malignancy grade of astrocytoma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that over-expression of ADAM17 in cortical astrocytes derived from normal brain would induce a progression towards a malignant phenotype. Over-expression of human ADAM17 (hADAM17) in the CTX-TNA2 cortical astrocyte cell line resulted in non-adherent growth, increased proliferation, invasiveness, production of angiogenic factors, and expression of genes associated with immature and/or neoplastic cells. hADAM17 up-regulated EGFR and AKT phosphorylation, and increased proliferation and cell invasion were significantly dependent upon EGFR activity. When implanted in the nude mouse brain, CTX-TNA2 cells induced low histological grade, benign intraventricular gliomas. In contrast, the same astrocytes with hADAM17 formed large malignant gliomas. Taken together, these findings suggest that unregulated ADAM17 activity induces functional changes in astrocytes that significantly advance the malignant phenotype. PMID:19515085

  17. Cell surface annexins regulate ADAM-mediated ectodomain shedding of proamphiregulin

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Hironao; Fukuda, Shinji; Inoue, Hirofumi; Nishida-Fukuda, Hisayo; Shirakata, Yuji; Hashimoto, Koji; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) is a family of enzymes involved in ectodomain shedding of various membrane proteins. However, the molecular mechanism underlying substrate recognition by ADAMs remains unknown. In this study, we successfully captured and analyzed cell surface transient assemblies between the transmembrane amphiregulin precursor (proAREG) and ADAM17 during an early shedding phase, which enabled the identification of cell surface annexins as components of their shedding complex. Annexin family members annexin A2 (ANXA2), A8, and A9 interacted with proAREG and ADAM17 on the cell surface. Shedding of proAREG was increased when ANXA2 was knocked down but decreased with ANXA8 and A9 knockdown, because of enhanced and impaired association with ADAM17, respectively. Knockdown of ANXA2 and A8 in primary keratinocytes altered wound-induced cell migration and ultraviolet B–induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), suggesting that annexins play an essential role in the ADAM-mediated ectodomain shedding of EGFR ligands. On the basis of these data, we propose that annexins on the cell surface function as “shedding platform” proteins to determine the substrate selectivity of ADAM17, with possible therapeutic potential in ADAM-related diseases. PMID:22438584

  18. 77 FR 5291 - The Designation of Monir Chouka, also Known as Mounir Chouka, Also Known as Abu Adam, Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Germany, also Known as Abu Adam aus Deutschland, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to... Monir Chouka, also known as Mounir Chouka, also known as Abu Adam from Germany, also known as Abu...

  19. The role of CXCL16 and its processing metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the proliferation and migration of human mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schramme, Anja; Abdel-Bakky, Mohamed Sadek; Kaempfer-Kolb, Nicole; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2008-05-30

    In this study, we analyzed the regulation and functional role of CXCL16 in human mesangial cells (hMCs). We can show, that CXCL16 is constitutively expressed in hMCs and is further up-regulated by cytokine mix (IFN{gamma}, TNF{alpha}, and IL1{beta}). The constitutive release of CXCL16 from hMCs was rapidly induced by the stimulation with cytokines. We identified ADAM10 and ADAM17 as being responsible for the cytokine-induced shedding of CXCL16. Notably, targeting ADAM10 and ADAM17 in hMCs decreased the chemotaxis of T-Jurkat cells, whereas the inhibition of CXCL16 had no significant influence. This suggests that both proteases are important players in the recruitment of immune cells into the glomerulus, but other substrates than CXCL16 are involved in this process. Finally, we could show that the inhibition of CXCL16, ADAM10, and ADAM17 led to a strong reduction of cell proliferation and migration of hMCs. This finding could be important to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to treat mesangial proliferative kidney diseases.

  20. A-Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17 Enzymatically Degrades Interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Maiko; Wada, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Katsumata, Yuta; Makihira, Seicho; Kawai, Toshi; Taubman, Martin A; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts anti-tumor and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Although transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ is well understood, subsequent modifications of secreted IFN-γ are not fully elucidated. Previous research indicates that some cancer cells escape immune surveillance and metastasize into bone tissue by inducing osteoclastic bone resorption. Peptidases of the a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. We hypothesized that the ADAM enzymes expressed by cancer cells degrades IFN-γ and attenuates IFN-γ-mediated anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Recombinant ADAM17 degraded IFN-γ into small fragments. The addition of ADAM17 to the culture supernatant of stimulated mouse splenocytes decreased IFN-γ concentration. However, ADAM17 inhibition in the stimulated mouse T-cells prevented IFN-γ degradation. ADAM17-expressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 also degraded recombinant IFN-γ, but this was attenuated by ADAM17 inhibition. Degraded IFN-γ lost the functionality including the inhibititory effect on osteoclastogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the extracellular proteolytic degradation of IFN-γ by ADAM17. These results suggest that ADAM17-mediated degradation of IFN-γ may block the anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of IFN-γ. ADAM17 inhibition may be useful for the treatment of attenuated cancer immune surveillance and/or bone metastases. PMID:27573075

  1. A-Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17 Enzymatically Degrades Interferon-gamma

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Maiko; Wada, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Katsumata, Yuta; Makihira, Seicho; Kawai, Toshi; Taubman, Martin A.; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts anti-tumor and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Although transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ is well understood, subsequent modifications of secreted IFN-γ are not fully elucidated. Previous research indicates that some cancer cells escape immune surveillance and metastasize into bone tissue by inducing osteoclastic bone resorption. Peptidases of the a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. We hypothesized that the ADAM enzymes expressed by cancer cells degrades IFN-γ and attenuates IFN-γ-mediated anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Recombinant ADAM17 degraded IFN-γ into small fragments. The addition of ADAM17 to the culture supernatant of stimulated mouse splenocytes decreased IFN-γ concentration. However, ADAM17 inhibition in the stimulated mouse T-cells prevented IFN-γ degradation. ADAM17-expressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 also degraded recombinant IFN-γ, but this was attenuated by ADAM17 inhibition. Degraded IFN-γ lost the functionality including the inhibititory effect on osteoclastogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the extracellular proteolytic degradation of IFN-γ by ADAM17. These results suggest that ADAM17-mediated degradation of IFN-γ may block the anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of IFN-γ. ADAM17 inhibition may be useful for the treatment of attenuated cancer immune surveillance and/or bone metastases. PMID:27573075

  2. Identification of Novel Interaction between ADAM17 (a Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17) and Thioredoxin-1*

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Annelize Z. B.; Nogueira, Maria Luiza C.; Granato, Daniela C.; Simabuco, Fernando M.; Honorato, Rodrigo V.; Hoffman, Zaira; Yokoo, Sami; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.; Squina, Fabio M.; Zeri, Ana Carolina M.; Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2012-01-01

    ADAM17, which is also known as TNFα-converting enzyme, is the major sheddase for the EGF receptor ligands and is considered to be one of the main proteases responsible for the ectodomain shedding of surface proteins. How a membrane-anchored proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain can be activated by inside-out regulation is not completely understood. We characterized thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) as a partner of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain that could be involved in the regulation of ADAM17 activity. We induced the overexpression of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain in HEK293 cells, and ligands able to bind this domain were identified by MS after protein immunoprecipitation. Trx-1 was also validated as a ligand of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain and full-length ADAM17 recombinant proteins by immunoblotting, immunolocalization, and solid phase binding assay. In addition, using nuclear magnetic resonance, it was shown in vitro that the titration of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain promotes changes in the conformation of Trx-1. The MS analysis of the cross-linked complexes showed cross-linking between the two proteins by lysine residues. To further evaluate the functional role of Trx-1, we used a heparin-binding EGF shedding cell model and observed that the overexpression of Trx-1 in HEK293 cells could decrease the activity of ADAM17, activated by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or EGF. This study identifies Trx-1 as a novel interaction partner of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain and suggests that Trx-1 is a potential candidate that could be involved in ADAM17 activity regulation. PMID:23105116

  3. A new species of Spiroberotha Adams 1989 (Neuroptera: Berothidae) and the first record of the genus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Renato Jose Pires; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2016-01-01

    The genus Spiroberotha Adams, 1989 is classified in Berothidae (Neuroptera) with two described species: S. fernandezi Adams, 1989 from Venezuela and S. sanctarosae Adams, 1989 from Colombia, Costa Rica and Venezuela. Here we describe a new species, S. tocantinensis n. sp., from Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. This is the first record of the genus in Brazil, extending its geographical distribution. PMID:27394485

  4. Taxing Pennsylvania: A Family-Focused Overview of Pennsylvania Taxes. State Fiscal Analysis Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children, Harrisburg.

    Noting that a state's tax policies have direct impact on a family's ability to feed, clothe, house, educate, and care for its children, this report presents an overview of taxes in the state of Pennsylvania. The report is presented in five sections. Section 1 presents the argument that it is necessary to understand the rule driving the revenue…

  5. Program Integration: An Alternative for Improving County Rural Human Services Delivery. Technical Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    This report examines program integration as a way to improve the delivery of rural human services in Pennsylvania. A panel of policymakers, human services providers, and representatives of state agencies identified barriers to effective rural human services delivery and generated policy recommendations. Most county-based human services in…

  6. From Impasse to "Lockout": Community College of Beaver County, September 1976. Special Report #30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Janet Novotny

    This document analyzes the events and circumstances surrounding the collective negotiations between faculty and administration at the Community College of Beaver County (Pennsylvania) during the summer of 1976; the impasse that resulted concerning the issue of retrenchment; the Board's refusal to accept a faculty offer to continue negotiations…

  7. Assessment of Training Needs for Cogeneration Technology in Schuylkill County. Project Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Passmore, David L.

    This paper reports an assessment of the education and training program needs stimulated by investment in cogeneration technology in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. (Cogeneration technology would convert raw culm, a byproduct of anthracite coal mining, into a fuel source for steam power generation.) After plant tours and interviews with plant…

  8. A Study of Continuing Legal Education of Allegheny County Bar Association Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Benjamin George

    Legal education needs and preferences of lawyers in the Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Bar Association were surveyed, with attention to such factors as motivation and lawyer characteristics. A pretested 40-item questionnaire was sent to all 2,218 members. Findings included the following: (1) felt needs pertained to trial work, real property law,…

  9. Female Drug Offenders Reflect on Their Experiences with a County Drug Court Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James C.; Wolfer, Loreen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of a group of female drug offenders who successfully completed a county drug court program in northeast Pennsylvania. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed interviews with these women for thematic patterns in order to provide an evaluation of this program based on participants' subjective…

  10. Interests and Information Sources of Tioga County Homemakers. Extension Studies No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emory J.; And Others

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 115 housewives in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, to determine their interests, information sources, financial credit sources, plans for remodeling homes and purchasing household conveniences, and family participation in Extension programs. It was found that 28% of the women kept record books of income and…

  11. Lehigh County Community College Substance Abuse Prevention Program. LCCC Drug Free Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, June

    Three documents illustrate the Lehigh County Community College (LCCC), Pennsylvania, drug and alcohol policy: a formal statement of policy and two educational brochures for distribution to students and employees. The policy statement details policies approved by the board of trustees governing drug and alcohol abuse including policies for students…

  12. Lineaments and Mineral Occurrences in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conservative lineament map of Pennsylvania interpreted from ERTS-1 channel 7 (infrared) imagery and Skylab photography was compared with the distribution of known metallic mines and mineral occurrences. Of 383 known mineral occurrences, 116 show a geographical association to 1 km wide lineaments, another 24 lie at the intersection of two lineaments, and one lies at the intersection of three lineaments. The Perkiomen Creek lineament in the Triassic Basin is associated with 9 Cu-Fe occurrences. Six Pb-Zn occurrences are associated with the Tyrone-Mount Union lineament. Thirteen other lineaments are associated with 3, 4, or 5 mineral occurrences each.

  13. 76 FR 62085 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated September 12, 2011... dated September 12, 2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

  14. An Analysis of Teacher Selection Tools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher screening and selection tools currently being utilized by public school districts in Pennsylvania and to compare these tools to the research on qualities of effective teachers. The researcher developed four research questions that guided her study. The Pennsylvania Association of School Personnel…

  15. Clinical nurse specialists gain title protection in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in Pennsylvania will long remember the bright, sunny day of July 20, 2007. That was the day Governor Edward G. Rendell signed House Bill 1254 into law. Clinical nurse specialists in Pennsylvania finally gained title protection! What does this mean? How did it all come about? What are the implications for practice? PMID:18091127

  16. 40 CFR 282.88 - Pennsylvania State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pennsylvania State-Administered Program. 282.88 Section 282.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.88 Pennsylvania State-Administered Program. (a)...

  17. Implementing Pennsylvania's Plan for a Unified Workforce System. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Johnny

    In 2000 and 2001, the Team Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Board (Team PA WIB) and its partners worked jointly to address Pennsylvania's workforce needs and respond to the need of its customers through new initiatives, new partnerships, and new strategies. The Team PA WIB and its partners continued implementation of the state's vision to create…

  18. A Study of Mentor Principal Training in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify, investigate, and describe the espoused Pennsylvania Principal Mentoring Network (PPMN) training program and protocols for the principals who served as mentors for newly hired principals in Pennsylvania. This study posed three research questions: (1) what was the espoused training provided…

  19. Women's History Week in Pennsylvania. March 3-9, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Bertha S., Comp.

    The materials in this resource handbook are for the use of Pennsylvania teachers in developing classroom activities during National Women's History Week. The focus is on women who were notably active in government and politics (primarily, but not necessarily in Pennsylvania). The following women are profiled: Hallie Quinn Brown; Mary Ann Shadd…

  20. IPM for Pennsylvania Schools: A How-To Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Eston, Ed.

    This manual presents practical advice on planning and adopting an integrated pest management (IPM) program for Pennsylvania educational facilities. The manual covers how to implement a school IPM, school IPM operational information for the school administrator, and technical information for Pennsylvania schools concerning various pests found in…

  1. PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE PARK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library offer Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania State park boundaries from 1:24,000 scale USGS maps. Coverage is incomplete, areas are not mapped when screened at smaller scales during low level radioactive waste siting analysis. The ...

  2. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…

  3. Measuring Music Education: Music Teacher Evaluation in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Dennis; Sheehan, Scott; Deitz, O. David

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge currently facing Pennsylvania music educators (and many music educators across the country) is change to the evaluation process of teachers in Non-Tested Grades and Subjects (NTGS). The law directing this change is known as Act 82 and comes from the Pennsylvania legislature, authorized through House Bill 1901. The Pennsylvania…

  4. The Pennsylvania Panel on Rural Poverty. Final Summary Report, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Community Affairs, Harrisburg.

    An analysis of the facts and opinions on rural poverty presented in over 1,000 pages of testimony to the Pennsylvania Panel on Rural Poverty is presented in this report. The problem of poverty is discussed in general and also as it specifically relates to Pennsylvania in terms of conditions, causes, proposals for improvement, comments, and the…

  5. 77 FR 69489 - Pennsylvania; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-3356-EM), dated October 29, 2012,...

  6. 76 FR 61372 - Pennsylvania; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-3339-EM), dated August 29, 2011,...

  7. Scope of Collective Bargaining in Pennsylvania Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Kenneth B., Jr.

    This paper contains an analysis of case law as it relates to the scope of bargainable issues and its possible impact on public two-year postsecondary institutions in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania's Public Employee Relations Act defines three categories of collective bargaining issues: (1) mandatory subjects of negotiation, (2) permissive issues of…

  8. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    SciTech Connect

    Endsley, Mark A.; Somasunderam, Anoma D.; Li, Guangyu; Oezguen, Numan; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Murray, James L.; Rubin, Donald H.; Hodge, Thomas W.; and others

    2014-04-15

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes.

  9. Econophysical visualization of Adam Smith’s invisible hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Morrel H.; Eliazar, Iddo I.

    2013-02-01

    Consider a complex system whose macrostate is statistically observable, but yet whose operating mechanism is an unknown black-box. In this paper we address the problem of inferring, from the system’s macrostate statistics, the system’s intrinsic force yielding the observed statistics. The inference is established via two diametrically opposite approaches which result in the very same intrinsic force: a top-down approach based on the notion of entropy, and a bottom-up approach based on the notion of Langevin dynamics. The general results established are applied to the problem of visualizing the intrinsic socioeconomic force-Adam Smith’s invisible hand-shaping the distribution of wealth in human societies. Our analysis yields quantitative econophysical representations of figurative socioeconomic forces, quantitative definitions of “poor” and “rich”, and a quantitative characterization of the “poor-get-poorer” and the “rich-get-richer” phenomena.

  10. Defenses and morality: Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, and contemporary psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gabrinetti, Paul A; Özler, Sule

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we follow the development and transmission of moral learning from Adam Smith's impartial spectator to Sigmund Freud's superego and then to contemporary psychoanalysis. We argue that defenses are an integral component in the acquisition of any moral system. Elaborating on this argument, we assert that there is a progression from defensive systems that are "closed" to defensive systems that are "open," as defined in a recent work by Novick and Novick. The former system is "static, avoids reality, and is characterized by power dynamics, sadomasochism, and omnipotent defense." The latter, on the other hand, is a system that allows for "joy, creativity, spontaneity, love and it is attuned to reality." Furthermore, while Smith and Freud's systems are more one-person systems of defense, contemporary psychoanalysis has moved to more of a two-person system. PMID:25247288

  11. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs’ function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  12. York County Energy Partners DOE CCI ACFB demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. ); Cox, J.; Parham, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The York County Energy Partners (YCEP) project, to be located in York County, Pennsylvania, will demonstrate the world's largest atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology I Program. The single ACFB boiler, designed by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, will produce 227 MWe of net electrical power and export approximately 50,000 lb/hr of steam. This paper explains how the technical challenges to the design of a utility-scale ACFB boiler were met and presents the innovative features of this design.

  13. York County Energy Partners DOE CCI ACFB demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Cox, J.; Parham, D.

    1992-09-01

    The York County Energy Partners (YCEP) project, to be located in York County, Pennsylvania, will demonstrate the world`s largest atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology I Program. The single ACFB boiler, designed by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, will produce 227 MWe of net electrical power and export approximately 50,000 lb/hr of steam. This paper explains how the technical challenges to the design of a utility-scale ACFB boiler were met and presents the innovative features of this design.

  14. Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Upper White Clay Creek and Lower West Branch Brandywine Creek Basins including Portions of Penn, London Grove, New Garden, Londonderry, West Marlborough, Highland, and East Fallowfield Townships and West Grove, Avondale, Modena, and South Coatesville boroughs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May through July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Lindsay B.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county. These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements. For this study, the potentiometric surface was mapped for an area in south-central Chester County. The northern part of the map includes portions of Highland, East Fallowfield, Londonderry, and West Marlborough Townships and South Coatesville and Modena Boroughs. The southern part of the map includes portions of Londonderry, West Marlborough, Penn, London Grove, and New Garden Townships and West Grove and Avondale Boroughs. The study area is mostly underlain by metamorphic rocks of the Glenarm Supergroup including Peters Creek Schist, Octoraro Phyllite, Wissahickon Schist, Cockeysville Mrable, and Setters Quartzite; and by pegmatite, mafic gneiss, felsic gneiss, and diabase. Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures. The altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface was contoured from water levels measured on different dates in available wells during May through July 2006 and from the altitude of springs and perennial streams. Topography was used as a guide for contouring so that the altitude of the potentiometric surface was inferred nowhere to be higher than the land surface. The potentiometric surface shown on this map is an approximation of the water table. The altitude of the actual potentiometric surface may differ from the water table, especially in areas where wells are completed in a semi-confined zone or have long open intervals that reflect the composite hydraulic head of multiple water-yielding fractures. A composite

  15. Neptune's Discovery: Le Verrier, Adams, and the Assignment of Credit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most significant achievements of 19th century astronomy, the discovery of Neptune has been the subject of a vast literature. A large part of this literature--beginning with the period immediately after the optical discovery in Berlin--has been the obsession with assigning credit to the two men who attempted to calculate the planet's position (and initially this played out against the international rivalry between France and England). Le Verrier and Adams occupied much different positions in the Scientific Establishments of their respective countries; had markedly different personalities; and approached the investigation using different methods. A psychiatrist and historian of astronomy tries to provide some new contexts to the familiar story of the discovery of Neptune, and argues that the personalities of these two men played crucial roles in their approaches to the problem they set themselves and the way others reacted to their stimuli. Adams had features of high-functioning autism, while Le Verrier's domineering, obsessive, orderly personality--though it allowed him to be immensely productive--eventually led to serious difficulties with his peers (and an outright revolt). Though it took extraordinary smarts to calculate the position of Neptune, the discovery required social skills that these men lacked--and thus the process to discovery was more bumbling and adventitious than it might have been. The discovery of Neptune occurred at a moment when astronomy was changing from that of heroic individuals to team collaborations involving multiple experts, and remains an object lesson in the sociological aspects of scientific endeavor.

  16. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu; Fu, Runqing; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Yong; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Ning; Nie, Ping; Cao, Haifeng; Yang, Zhi; Fang, Bing

    2016-07-01

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. PMID:27221046

  17. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α stimulates ADAM10-mediated proteolysis of APP.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Grant T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-07-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derivative β-amyloid (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequential proteolysis of APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase generates Aβ. Conversely, the α-secretase "a disintegrin and metalloproteinase" 10 (ADAM10) cleaves APP within the eventual Aβ sequence and precludes Aβ generation. Therefore, up-regulation of ADAM10 represents a plausible therapeutic strategy to combat overproduction of neurotoxic Aβ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Here, we determined that the Adam10 promoter harbors PPAR response elements; that knockdown of PPARα, but not PPARβ or PPARγ, decreases the expression of Adam10; and that lentiviral overexpression of PPARα restored ADAM10 expression in Ppara(-/-) neurons. Gemfibrozil, an agonist of PPARα, induced the recruitment of PPARα:retinoid x receptor α, but not PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), to the Adam10 promoter in wild-type mouse hippocampal neurons and shifted APP processing toward the α-secretase, as determined by augmented soluble APPα and decreased Aβ production. Accordingly, Ppara(-/-) mice displayed elevated SDS-stable, endogenous Aβ and Aβ1-42 relative to wild-type littermates, whereas 5XFAD mice null for PPARα (5X/α(-/-)) exhibited greater cerebral Aβ load relative to 5XFAD littermates. These results identify PPARα as an important factor regulating neuronal ADAM10 expression and, thus, α-secretase proteolysis of APP. PMID:26080426

  18. An improved fluorescent substrate for assaying soluble and membrane-associated ADAM family member activities.

    PubMed

    Moss, Marcia L; Minond, Dmitriy; Yoneyama, Toshie; Hansen, Hinrich P; Vujanovic, Nikola; Rasmussen, Fred H

    2016-08-15

    A fluorescent resonance energy transfer substrate with improved sensitivity for ADAM17, -10, and -9 (where ADAM represents a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) has been designed. The new substrate, Dabcyl-Pro-Arg-Ala-Ala-Ala-Homophe-Thr-Ser-Pro-Lys(FAM)-NH2, has specificity constants of 6.3 (±0.3) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and 2.4 (±0.3) × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) for ADAM17 and ADAM10, respectively. The substrate is more sensitive than widely used peptides based on the precursor tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cleavage site, PEPDAB010 or Dabcyl-Ser-Pro-Leu-Ala-Gln-Ala-Val-Arg-Ser-Ser-Lys(FAM)-NH2 and Mca-Pro-Leu-Ala-Gln-Ala-Val-Dpa-Arg-Ser-Ser-Arg-NH2. ADAM9 also processes the new peptide more than 18-fold better than the TNF-alpha-based substrates. The new substrate has a unique selectivity profile because it is processed less efficiently by ADAM8 and MMP1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -12, and -14. This substrate provides a unique tool in which to assess ADAM17, -10, and -9 activities. PMID:27177841

  19. SAP97-mediated ADAM10 trafficking from Golgi outposts depends on PKC phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Saraceno, C; Marcello, E; Di Marino, D; Borroni, B; Claeysen, S; Perroy, J; Padovani, A; Tramontano, A; Gardoni, F; Di Luca, M

    2014-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is the major α-secretase that catalyzes the amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain shedding in the brain and prevents amyloid formation. Its activity depends on correct intracellular trafficking and on synaptic membrane insertion. Here, we describe that in hippocampal neurons the synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97), an excitatory synapse scaffolding element, governs ADAM10 trafficking from dendritic Golgi outposts to synaptic membranes. This process is mediated by a previously uncharacterized protein kinase C phosphosite in SAP97 SRC homology 3 domain that modulates SAP97 association with ADAM10. Such mechanism is essential for ADAM10 trafficking from the Golgi outposts to the synapse, but does not affect ADAM10 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. Notably, this process is altered in Alzheimer's disease brains. These results help in understanding the mechanism responsible for the modulation of ADAM10 intracellular path, and can constitute an innovative therapeutic strategy to finely tune ADAM10 shedding activity towards APP. PMID:25429624

  20. ADAM10-Notch signaling governs the recruitment of ovarian pregranulosa cells and controls folliculogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lizhao; Wang, Yijing; Cai, Han; Sun, Guanghong; Niu, Wanbao; Xin, Qiliang; Tang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian follicles are the basic functional units of female reproduction in the mammalian ovary. We show here that the protein a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (ADAM10), a cell surface sheddase, plays an indispensable role in controlling primordial follicle formation by regulating the recruitment of follicle supporting cells in mice. We demonstrate that suppressing ADAM10 in vitro or deletion of Adam10 in vivo disrupts germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation. Using a cell lineage tracing approach, we show that ADAM10 governs the recruitment of ovarian follicle cells by regulating the differentiation and proliferation of LGR5-positive follicle supporting progenitor cells. By detecting the development of FOXL2-positive pregranulosa cells, we found that inhibiting ADAM10 reduced the number of FOXL2-positive cells in perinatal ovaries. Furthermore, inhibiting ADAM10 suppressed the activation of Notch signaling, and blocking Notch signaling also disrupted the recruitment of follicle progenitor cells. Taken together, these results show that ADAM10-Notch signaling in ovarian somatic cells governs the primordial follicle formation by controlling the development of ovarian pregranulosa cells. The proper recruitment of ovarian follicle supporting cells is essential for establishment of the ovarian reserve in mice. PMID:27084580