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Sample records for adaptation index cai

  1. E-CAI: a novel server to estimate an expected value of Codon Adaptation Index (eCAI)

    PubMed Central

    Puigbò, Pere; Bravo, Ignacio G; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is a measure of the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. It quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Extreme values in the nucleotide or in the amino acid composition have a large impact on differential preference for synonymous codons. It is thence essential to define the limits for the expected value of CAI on the basis of sequence composition in order to properly interpret the CAI and provide statistical support to CAI analyses. Though several freely available programs calculate the CAI for a given DNA sequence, none of them corrects for compositional biases or provides confidence intervals for CAI values. Results The E-CAI server, available at , is a web-application that calculates an expected value of CAI for a set of query sequences by generating random sequences with G+C and amino acid content similar to those of the input. An executable file, a tutorial, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section and several examples are also available. To exemplify the use of the E-CAI server, we have analysed the codon adaptation of human mitochondrial genes that codify a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (excluding those genes that lack a prokaryotic orthologue) and are encoded in the nuclear genome. It is assumed that these genes were transferred from the proto-mitochondrial to the nuclear genome and that its codon usage was then ameliorated. Conclusion The E-CAI server provides a direct threshold value for discerning whether the differences in CAI are statistically significant or whether they are merely artifacts that arise from internal biases in the G+C composition and/or amino acid composition of the query sequences. PMID:18230160

  2. Performance assessment of the cellulose absorption index (CAI) method for estimating crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and quick field estimation of crop residues are important for carbon sequestration and biofuel production programs. Landscape-scale assessment of this vital information has promoted the use of remote sensing technology. The cellulose absorption index (CAI) technique has outperformed other ...

  3. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment. Technical Report 75-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    A study to test the effects of learner control of the sequencing of instructional tasks when using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems is described. Using a series of CAI modules to teach the COBOL programing language to military personnel, students were able to control various aspects of their learning environment. Among the research…

  4. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing Within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to test effects of a specified degree of learner control over the sequencing of instructional materials in a self contained tutorial CAI course in COBOL programming. Findings describe contributions and interactions of learner controlled variables with respect to instructional effectiveness and efficiency. (RAO)

  5. The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(CAI) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, B.

    1997-01-01

    BioChem Thinker is a CAI program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar CAI in other biomedical areas. PMID:9357717

  6. Skinner and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1984-01-01

    The author cites comments of B.F. Skinner supporting the benefits of carefully constructed computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs. Preliminary studies on military populations suggesting the value of CAI are discussed, as is the collection of information about software. (CL)

  7. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  8. Current Issues in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Duncan N.

    A great deal of research has been done on instructional strategies and concepts of individualized instruction in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Individualizing instruction within CAI can be defined in terms of an input output process which includes a stimulus array, cognitive processes, and response requirements. Research in these areas of…

  9. CAI Terminal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    The bewildering number of available terminals which are offered to CAI users presents a rather formidable problem of which one to choose. This article surveys what appear to be evolving standards for terminals. The usefulness of these terminals for CAI purposes is discussed, together with the best known prototype exhibiting the particular feature.…

  10. Experience with the CAIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tighe, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Intermetrics' experience is that the Ada package construct, which allows separation of specification and implementation allows specification of a CAIS that is transportable across varying hardware and software bases. Additionally, the CAIS is an excellent basis for providing operating system functionality to Ada applications. By allowing the Byron APSE to be moved easily from system to system, and allowing significant re-writes of underlying code. Ada and the CAIS provide portability as well as transparency to change at the application operating system interface level.

  11. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  12. The CAIS 2 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Thall, Richard

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) is a proposed MIL-STD intended to promote the portability of Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) tools written in Ada. The standardized interfaces define a virtual operating system, from which portable tools derive their basic services, e.g., file management, input/output, communications, and process control. In the Ada world, such a virtual operating system is called a Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE). The CAIS is a standardized interface between KAPSEs and tools. The CAIS has been proposed as a starting point for standard interfaces to be used in the NASA Software Support Environment (SSE) for the Space Station Program. The status of the CAIS standardization effort and plans for further development are described.

  13. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  14. CAI Update: So You Want to Do CAI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carole

    1979-01-01

    Provides necessary characteristics to consider when selecting a CAI system plus a list of costs and capabilities available with the better known CAI systems. Characteristics of major CAI systems are presented in three categories--large/maxi, mini, and micro systems--in chart form. (JEG)

  15. Skill Specific CAI Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Roberta Z.; Fechter, Sharon Ahern

    Advantages of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for grammar-oriented exercises are considered, and a learning module to help the student prepare for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam is described. The exercises are modeled on the TOEFL exam: the student is given a sentence, one part of which is incorrect and is asked to…

  16. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  17. CAI: VS CBE Languages. Authoring, How Soon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carole A.

    This paper gives a view of CAI (computer assisted instruction), computers in education, CAI author languages, and concepts for authoring. Distinctions are drawn among CAI, CBE (computer based education), CMI (computer managed instruction), and CGM (computer managed materials), and the functions of each are described. CAI has been slow in coming…

  18. Font adaptive word indexing of modern printed documents.

    PubMed

    Marinai, Simone; Marino, Emanuele; Soda, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    We propose an approach for the word-level indexing of modern printed documents which are difficult to recognize using current OCR engines. By means of word-level indexing, it is possible to retrieve the position of words in a document, enabling queries involving proximity of terms. Web search engines implement this kind of indexing, allowing users to retrieve Web pages on the basis of their textual content. Nowadays, digital libraries hold collections of digitized documents that can be retrieved either by browsing the document images or relying on appropriate metadata assembled by domain experts. Word indexing tools would therefore increase the access to these collections. The proposed system is designed to index homogeneous document collections by automatically adapting to different languages and font styles without relying on OCR engines for character recognition. The approach is based on three main ideas: the use of Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to perform unsupervised character clustering, the definition of one suitable vector-based word representation whose size depends on the word aspect-ratio, and the run-time alignment of the query word with indexed words to deal with broken and touching characters. The most appropriate applications are for processing modern printed documents (17th to 19th centuries) where current OCR engines are less accurate. Our experimental analysis addresses six data sets containing documents ranging from books of the 17th century to contemporary journals. PMID:16886856

  19. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  20. Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-Feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. The cross-cultural adaptation process comprised the following stages: (I) initial translation, (II) synthesis of the translated document, (III) retro-translation, (IV) review by a board of experts, (V) pilot study of the pre-final draft and (VI) analysis of the pilot study and final draft. Results: The reliability and internal consistency of every one of the rating scales included in the FDI (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83 for the complete scale and 0.77 and 0.82 for the physical and the social well-being subscales. The analysis of the factorial validity of the main components of the adapted FDI yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between FDI and House-Brackmann scale were positive. The variance percentage was calculated for all FDI components. Conclusions: The FDI questionnaire is a specific instrument for assessing facial neuromuscular dysfunction which becomes a useful tool in order to determine quality of life in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Spanish adapted FDI is equivalent to the original questionnaire and shows similar reliability and validity. The proven reproducibi-lity, reliability and validity of this questionnaire make it a useful additional tool for evaluating the impact of facial nerve paralysis in Spanish-speaking patients. Key words:Parotidectomy, facial nerve paralysis, facial disability. PMID:22926474

  1. CAI in Thermodynamics at the USAF Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerley, Aaron R.; Winn, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates computer assisted instruction (CAI) at the United States Air Force (USAF) academy by presenting a sample CAI session involving thermodynamics. Comments on evaluation of the program. Future plans are included. (JN)

  2. CAI in Advanced Literature Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Norman

    1981-01-01

    Ways that computer assisted instruction (CAI) can be useful in teaching English at upperclass and graduate levels are considered, with illustrations from PLATO lessons that have been composed and programmed. One lesson takes advantage of PLATO's graphic design capabilities, which enabled the teacher to design the runic figures and to show them in…

  3. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  4. Flexible Teaching Methods for CAI Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, D. G.

    Although much progress has been made in the ten years that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been researched, two major problems still exist. One is the high cost of CAI; the other is its lack of flexibility. The former problem will abate with improved technology and the creation of educational CAI utility systems. One possible solution to…

  5. Adapting to Regional Enforcement: Fishing Down the Governance Index

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Bodin, Örjan; Hentati Sundberg, Jonas; Press, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a problem for marine resource managers, leading to depletion of fish stocks and negative impacts on marine ecosystems. These problems are particularly evident in regions with weak governance. Countries responsible for sustainable natural resource management in the Southern Ocean have actively worked to reduce IUU fishing in the region over a period of 15 years, leading to a sequence of three distinct peaks of IUU fishing. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed existing public records relating to IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean between 1995–2009 and related this information to the governance capacity of flag states responsible for IUU vessels. IUU operators used a number of methods to adapt to enforcement actions, resulting in reduced risks of detection, apprehension and sanctioning. They changed fishing locations, vessel names and flag states, and ports for offloading IUU catches. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of IUU vessels flagged to CCAMLR countries, and a significant decrease in the average governance index of flag states. Despite a decreasing trend of IUU fishing, further actions are hampered by the regional scope of CCAMLR and the governance capacity of responsible states. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study of long-term change in the modus operandi of IUU fishing operators, illustrating that IUU operators can adapt to enforcement actions and that such dynamics may lead to new problems elsewhere, where countries have a limited capacity. This outsourcing of problems may have similarities to natural resource extraction in other sectors and in other regions. IUU fishing is the result of a number of factors, and effectively addressing this major challenge to sustainable marine resource extraction will likely require a stronger focus on governance. Highly mobile resource extractors with substantial funds are able to adapt to changing regulations by exploiting

  6. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  7. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  8. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  9. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  10. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  11. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, John E.

    After six years of research in computer assisted instruction (CAI) using PLATO III, a decision was made at the University of Illinois to develop a larger system as a national CAI resource. This document describes the design specifications and problems in the development of PLATO IV, a system which is capable of accomodating up to 4,000 terminals…

  12. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  13. CAI Systems Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Samuel L.

    In considering the development of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems over the past eleven years, one can see a pattern of interaction between advances in computer hardware and software and continuing efforts to solve the basic problems of CAI: problems of achieving a natural-language capability, of keeping the cost low, and of making…

  14. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  15. Adaptive filtering and prediction of the Southern Oscillation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Ghil, Michael

    1992-12-01

    Singular spectrum analysis (SSA), a variant of principal component analysis, is applied to a time series of the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). The analysis filters out variability unrelated to the Southern Oscillation and separates the high-frequency, 2- to 3-year variability, including the quasi-biennial oscillation, from the lower-frequency 4- to 6-year El Niño cycle. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is applied to forecasting the prefiltered SOI. Prediction based on MEM-associated autoregressive models has useful skill for 30-36 months. A 1993-1994 La Niña event is predicted based on data through February 1992.

  16. Adaptive filtering and prediction of the Southern Oscillation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keppenne, Christian L.; Ghil, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Singular spectrum analysis (SSA), a variant of principal component analysis, is applied to a time series of the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). The analysis filters out variability unrelated to the Southern Oscillation and separates the high-frequency, 2- to 3-year variability, including the quasi-biennial oscillation, from the lower-frequency 4- to 6-year El Nino cycle. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is applied to forecasting the prefiltered SOI. Prediction based on MEM-associated autoregresive models has useful skill for 30-36 months. A 1993-1994 La Nina event is predicted based on data through February 1992.

  17. Adaptive filtering and prediction of the Southern Oscillation index

    SciTech Connect

    Keppenne, C.L. California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena ); Ghil, M. )

    1992-12-20

    Singular spectrum analysis (SSA), a variant of principal component analysis, is applied to a time series of the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). The analysis filters out variability unrelated to the Southern Oscillation and separates the high-frequency, 2- to 3-year variability, including the quasi-biennial oscillation, from the lower-frequency 4- to 6-year El Nino cycle. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is applied to forecasting the prefiltered SOI. Prediction based on MEM-associated autoregressive models has useful skill for 30-36 months. A 1993-1994 La Nina event is predicted based on data through February 1992. 52 refs., 4 figs.

  18. A theoretical analysis of codon adaptation index of the Boophilus microplus bm86 gene directed to the optimization of a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-04-21

    DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks. PMID:16171828

  19. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  20. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Luis; Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making. PMID:27606592

  1. The Adaptation of Creativity Fostering Primary Teachers Index Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the creativity fostering teacher index scale into Turkish. For the language equivalence, firstly, the English version of the scale was translated by 30 English lecturers and then the Turkish version of the scale retranslated by the same lecturers. Later, the scale was applied to 288 teachers working in Nigde…

  2. Adaptation and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Hope Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacico, Juliana Cerentini; Zanon, Cristian; Bastianello, Micheline Roat; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to adapt and gather validity evidence for a Brazilian sample version of the Hope Index and to verify if cultural differences would produce different results than those found in the United States. In this study, we present a set of analyses that together comprise a comprehensive validity argument for the use of a…

  3. Simplified Tutorial Programming for Interactive CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelden, D. L.

    A validated instructional model generated on a large mainframe computer by the military was modified to a microcomputer format for use in programming tutorial computer assisted instruction (CAI) materials, and a simplified, compatible system of generating programs was identified--CP/M and MP/M from Digital Research Corporation. In order to…

  4. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  5. Man-Computer Communications and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A variety of direct and indirect instructional activities during the last ten years have employed computers. Within Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs, the following broad classes of instructional strategies have been generally accepted: tutorial, drill and practice, review, testing, remediation and diagnosis, problem solving, and…

  6. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  7. Magnesium Isotopic Composition of CAIs and Chondrules from CBb Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounelle, M.; Young, E. D.; Shahar, A.; Kearsley, A.

    2006-03-01

    We measured magnesium isotope ratios in 17 chondrules and 3 CAIs from the CBb chondrites HH 237 and QUE 94411 by LA-MC-ICPMS. We find no detectable 26Al excesses in the three CAIs and approximately normal (chondritic) d25Mg in CAIs and chondrules.

  8. Quantitative Models of CAI Rim Layer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1995-09-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to account for the ~50 micrometer-thick layer sequences (Wark-Lovering rims) that typically surround coarse-grained Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), but to date no consensus has emerged on how these rims formed. A two-step process-- flash heating of CAIs to produce a refractory residue on the margins of CAIs [1,2,3], followed by reaction and diffusion between CAIs or the refractory residue and an external medium rich in Mg, Si and other ferromagnesian and volatile elements to form the layers [3,4,5]-- may have formed the rims. We have tested the second step of this process quantitatively, and show that many, but not all, of the layering characteristics of CAI rims in the Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka CV3 chondrites can be explained by steady-state reaction and diffusion between CAIs and an external medium rich in Mg and Si. Moreover, observed variations in the details of the layering from one CAI to another can be explained primarily by differences in the identity and composition of the external medium, which appears to have included vapor alone, vapor + olivine, and olivine +/- clinopyroxene +/- vapor. An idealized layer sequence for CAI rims in Vigarano, Leoville, and Efremovka can be represented as MSF|S|AM|D|O, where MSF = melilite (M) + spinel (S) + fassaite (F) in the interior of CAIs; S = spinel-rich layer; AM = a layer consisting either of anorthite (A) alone, or M alone, or both A and M; D = a clinopyroxene layer consisting mainly of aluminous diopside (D) that is zoned to fassaite towards the CAI; and O = olivine-rich layer, composed mainly of individually zoned olivine grains that apparently pre-existed layer formation [3]. A or M are absent between the S and D layers in roughly half of the rims. The O layer varies considerably in thickness (0-60 micrometers thick) and in porosity from rim to rim, with olivine grains either tightly intergrown to form a compact layer or arranged loosely on the outer surfaces of the CAIs

  9. Child-OIDP index in Brazil: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rodolfo AL; Cortes, Maria IS; Leão, Anna T; Portela, Margareth C; Souza, Ivete PR; Tsakos, Georgios; Marcenes, Wagner; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures are being increasingly used to introduce dimensions excluded by normative measures. Consequently, there is a need for an index which evaluates children's OHRQoL validated for Brazilian population, useful for oral health needs assessments and for the evaluation of oral health programs, services and technologies. The aim of this study was to do a cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) index, and assess its reliability and validity for application among Brazilian children between the ages of eleven and fourteen. Methods For cross-cultural adaptation, a translation/back-translation method integrated with expert panel reviews was applied. A total of 342 students from four public schools took part of the study. Results Overall, 80.7% of the sample reported at least one oral impact in the last three months. Cronbach's alpha was 0.63, the weighted kappa 0.76, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.79. The index had a significant association with self-reported health measurements (self-rated oral health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived dental treatment needs, self-rated general health; all p < 0.01). Conclusion It was concluded that the Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Brazilian children. PMID:18793433

  10. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index instrument*

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Luciana Rosa; Horn, Roberta; Cunha, Vivian Trein; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Cardiff Acne Disability Index was originally developed in English for measuring quality of life of acne patients. Considering the psychosocial impact of this disease, it is important to have instruments culturally and linguistically validated for use in Brazilian adolescents. OBJECTIVE To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it, and verify its reliability and validity in adolescent patients with acne. METHODS In the first step, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index was translated and validated linguistically to Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines published. In the second step, the validation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese instrument was performed, when patients aged from 12 to 20 years with acne were selected. The participants were interviewed to collect demographic data, submitted to the classification of acne by the Global Acne Grading System and invited to respond the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version and DLQI (>16 years) or CDLQI (≤16 years). The internal consistency of Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and concurrent validity was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient and Student ‘s t-test for paired samples. RESULTS The study included 100 adolescents. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.73). The concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a strong and significant correlation with CDLQI / DLQI instruments (rs=0.802;p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version is a reliable, valid and valuable tool to measure the impact of acne on quality of life in adolescent patients. PMID:27192517

  11. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  12. Accelerating Content-Based Image Retrieval via GPU-Adaptive Index Structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A tremendous amount of work has been conducted in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) on designing effective index structure to accelerate the retrieval process. Most of them improve the retrieval efficiency via complex index structures, and few take into account the parallel implementation of them on underlying hardware, making the existing index structures suffer from low-degree of parallelism. In this paper, a novel graphics processing unit (GPU) adaptive index structure, termed as plane semantic ball (PSB), is proposed to simultaneously reduce the work of retrieval process and exploit the parallel acceleration of underlying hardware. In PSB, semantics are embedded into the generation of representative pivots and multiple balls are selected to cover more informative reference features. With PSB, the online retrieval of CBIR is factorized into independent components that are implemented on GPU efficiently. Comparative experiments with GPU-based brute force approach demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve high speedup with little information loss. Furthermore, PSB is compared with the state-of-the-art approach, random ball cover (RBC), on two standard image datasets, Corel 10 K and GIST 1 M. Experimental results show that our approach achieves higher speedup than RBC on the same accuracy level. PMID:24782668

  13. Feature extraction using adaptive multiwavelets and synthetic detection index for rotor fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Xiao, Zhihuai; Malik, O. P.

    2015-02-01

    State identification to diagnose the condition of rotating machinery is often converted to a classification problem of values of non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs). To improve the sensitivity of the NSPs to the changes in machine condition, a novel feature extraction method based on adaptive multiwavelets and the synthetic detection index (SDI) is proposed in this paper. Based on the SDI maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets are searched by genetic algorithms (GAs) from an adaptive multiwavelets library and used for extracting fault features from vibration signals. By the optimal multiwavelets, more sensitive NSPs can be extracted. To examine the effectiveness of the optimal multiwavelets, conventional methods are used for comparison study. The obtained NSPs are fed into K-means classifier to diagnose rotor faults. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the sensitivity of the NSPs and achieve a higher discrimination rate for rotor fault diagnosis than the conventional methods.

  14. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  15. Comparison of Gosat CAI and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.

    2011-08-01

    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

  16. Titanium Isotopes in CAIs -- Heterogeneities in the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, I.; Schönbächler, M.; Halliday, A. N.

    2009-03-01

    We present Ti isotope data for CAIs from Allende and Efremovka. The new data demonstrate that n-rich isotopes, e.g., 50Ti, 62Ni, and 96Zr, are correlated in CAIs and that the n-rich addition was heteogeneously distributed in the early solar system.

  17. Metamorphism of an Efremovka Type B CAI and Comparison with Other Settings of Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Aragane, H.; Enokido, Y.; Brearley, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Primary minerals in a type B CAI from Efremovka are partially altered to feldspathoids, Fe-spinel and secondary anorthite. The extent of recrystallization is not as great as in typical Allende CAIs, but metamorphism has affected Efremovka CAIs.

  18. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of a Spanish version of the lower limb functional index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) is a relatively recently published regional outcome measure. The development article showed the LLFI had robust and valid clinimetric properties with sound psychometric and practical characteristics when compared to the Lower Limb Extremity Scale (LEFS) criterion standard. Objective The purpose of this study was cross cultural adaptation and validation of the LLFI Spanish-version (LLFI-Sp) in a Spanish population. Methods A two stage observational study was conducted. The LLFI was initially cross-culturally adapted to Spanish through double forward and single backward translation; then subsequently validated for the psychometric characteristics of validity, internal consistency, reliability, error score and factor structure. Participants (n = 136) with various lower limb conditions of >12 weeks duration completed the LLFI-Sp, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Euroqol Health Questionnaire 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3 L). The full sample was employed to determine internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, construct validity and factor structure; a subgroup (n = 45) determined reliability at seven days concurrently completing a global rating of change scale. Results The LLFI-Sp demonstrated high but not excessive internal consistency (α = 0.91) and high reliability (ICC = 0.96). The factor structure was one-dimensional which supported the construct validity. Criterion validity with the WOMAC was strong (r = 0.77) and with the EQ-5D-3 L fair and inversely correlated (r = -0.62). The study limitations included the lack of longitudinal data and the determination of responsiveness. Conclusions The LLFI-Sp supports the findings of the original English version as being a valid lower limb regional outcome measure. It demonstrated similar psychometric properties for internal consistency, validity, reliability, error score and factor structure. PMID

  19. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs. PMID:2331561

  20. Selection Index in the Study of Adaptability and Stability in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha−1). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed. PMID:24696641

  1. Selection index in the study of adaptability and stability in maize.

    PubMed

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Miranda Pires, Luiz Paulo; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha(-1)). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed. PMID:24696641

  2. Performance verification of bivariate regressive adaptive index for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Su; Kijewski-Correa, Tracy

    2007-04-01

    This study focuses on data-driven methods for structural health monitoring and introduces a Bivariate Regressive Adaptive INdex (BRAIN) for damage detection in a decentralized, wireless sensor network. BRAIN utilizes a dynamic damage sensitive feature (DSF) that automatically adapts to the data set, extracting the most damage sensitive model features, which vary with location, damage severity, loading condition and model type. This data-driven feature is key to providing the most flexible damage sensitive feature incorporating all available data for a given application to enhance reliability by including heterogeneous sensor arrays. This study will first evaluate several regressive-type models used for time-series damage detection, including common homogeneous formats and newly proposed heterogeneous descriptors and then demonstrate the performance of the newly proposed dynamic DSF against a comparable static DSF. Performance will be validated by documenting their damage success rates on repeated simulations of randomly-excited thin beams with minor levels of damage. It will be shown that BRAIN dramatically increases the detection capabilities over static, homogeneous damage detection frameworks.

  3. Adaptation and validation of the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Ergun, Emrah; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To translate and validate the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index (M-ISI) for its use in Turkish-speaking women with urinary incontinence. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were based on international guidelines. Content validity by content validity ratio/content validity index, internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha, test–retest reliability by Pearson’s correlation, and construct validity by using Spearman rank correlations to show the relationship between individual items and the relevant domains and subdomains were analyzed in 100 female participants with a chief complaint of urinary incontinence. Correlations between the relevant scores of M-ISI and The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire – Short Form scores were analyzed to indicate convergent validity. The Varimax rotation method was used to conduct exploratory factor analysis in order to investigate the factor structures/distribution of M-ISI items. Results Content validity index and content validity ratio values increased to 0.97 and 1.00, respectively, showing sufficient content validity of the Turkish version of the M-ISI. The analysis formed three factors which was slightly different from original developers. In our proposed three-factor construct, all of the ten items demonstrated high correlations with their subdomains and lower correlations with the other domains, indicating good construct validity. Correlations between stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) scores and The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire – Short Form scores were found high, which indicated convergent validity (r: 0.953, P<0.001). Good internal consistency of the scores for each subdomain was observed (stress urinary incontinence, 0.787; UUI, 0.862; pad usage and bother, 0.832). Test–retest reliability was shown for each subdomain (stress urinary incontinence, 0.973; UUI, 0.973; pad usage and bother, 0.979). Conclusion

  4. Creation and Distribution of CAIs in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Davis, S. S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    CaAl rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found at 1 - 10% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be several million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components in the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We assess a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for CAI formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for times of 1 - 3 x 10(exp 6) years. To match the CAI abundances quantitatively, we advocate an enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, due to rapid inward migration of very primitive, silicate and carbon rich, meter-sized objects. 'Combustion' of the carbon into CO would make the CAI formation environment more reduced than solar, as certain observations imply. Abundant CO might also play a role in mass-independent chemical fractionation of oxygen isotopes as seen in CAIs and associated primitive, high-temperature condensates.

  5. New Titanium Isotope Data for Allende and Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, Ingo; Schönbächler, Maria; Krähenbühl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-01

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., 50Ti/47Ti, 48Ti/47Ti, and 46Ti/47Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in 50Ti/47Ti and 46Ti/47Ti and are slightly depleted in 48Ti/47Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional 50Ti excess of ~8ɛ relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in 50Ti by ~2ɛ relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of ~10ɛ. This additional 50Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in 62Ni and 96Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the measured data.

  6. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  7. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  8. Bivariate regressive adaptive index for structural health monitoring: performance assessment and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Su; Kijewski-Correa, Tracy; Pando Balandra, Juan Francisco

    2009-03-01

    This study focuses on embeddable algorithms that operate within multi-scale wireless sensor networks for damage detection in civil infrastructure systems, and in specific, the Bivariate Regressive Adaptive INdex (BRAIN) to detect damage in structures by examining the changes in regressive coefficients of time series models. As its name suggests, BRAIN exploits heterogeneous sensor arrays by a data-driven damage feature (DSF) to enhance detection capability through the use of two types of response data, each with its own unique sensitivities to damage. While previous studies have shown that BRAIN offers more reliable damage detection, a number of factors contributing to its performance are explored herein, including observability, damage proximity/severity, and relative signal strength. These investigations also include an experimental program to determine if performance is maintained when implementing the approaches in physical systems. The results of these investigations will be used to further verify that the use of heterogeneous sensing enhances overall detection capability of such data-driven damage metrics.

  9. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals. PMID:25738913

  10. Adapting the posterior probability of diagnosis index to enhance evidence-based screening: an application to ADHD in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Yu, Lan; Grasso, Damion J; Kolko, David J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-04-01

    This study adapts the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index for use with screening data. The original PPOD Index, designed for use in the context of comprehensive diagnostic assessments, is overconfident when applied to screening data. To correct for this overconfidence, we describe a simple method for adjusting the PPOD Index to improve its calibration when used for screening. Specifically, we compare the adjusted PPOD Index to the original index and naïve Bayes probability estimates on two dimensions of accuracy, discrimination and calibration, using a clinical sample of children and adolescents (N = 321) whose caregivers completed the Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to screen for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and who subsequently completed a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Results indicated that the adjusted PPOD Index, original PPOD Index, and naïve Bayes probability estimates are comparable using traditional measures of accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve), but the adjusted PPOD Index showed superior calibration. We discuss the importance of calibration for screening and diagnostic support tools when applied to individual patients. PMID:25000935

  11. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, DP; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, LK; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Subjects and Methods: Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20–70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Results: Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22–60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0–11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P < 0.001) for all the 12 items between visits. The Cronbach alpha for 265 samples was 0.8 suggesting good internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Item scale correlation ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 (P < 0.001). Concurrent and discriminant validity was established. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of four factors which together accounted for 66.4% (7.9/12) variance. Conclusion: GOHAI-Tml has shown acceptable

  12. Adaptation of Sediment Connectivity Index for Swedish catchments and application for flood prediction of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantone, Carolina; Kalantari, Zahra; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Climate changes are predicted to increase precipitation intensities and occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the near future. Scandinavia has been identified as one of the most sensitive regions in Europe to such changes; therefore, an increase in the risk for flooding, landslides and soil erosion is to be expected also in Sweden. An increase in the occurrence of extreme weather events will impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructures such as roads and railways. This research aimed to identify the risk of flooding at the road-stream intersections, crucial locations where water and debris can accumulate and cause failures of the existing drainage facilities. Two regions in southwest of Sweden affected by an extreme rainfall event in August 2014, were used for calibrating and testing a statistical flood prediction model. A set of Physical Catchment Descriptors (PCDs) including road and catchment characteristics was identified for the modelling. Moreover, a GIS-based topographic Index of Sediment Connectivity (IC) was used as PCD. The novelty of this study relies on the adaptation of IC for describing sediment connectivity in lowland areas taking into account contribution of soil type, land use and different patterns of precipitation during the event. A weighting factor for IC was calculated by estimating runoff calculated with SCS Curve Number method, assuming a constant value of precipitation for a given time period, corresponding to the critical event. The Digital Elevation Model of the study site was reconditioned at the drainage facilities locations to consider the real flow path in the analysis. These modifications led to highlight the role of rainfall patterns and surface runoff for modelling sediment delivery in lowland areas. Moreover, it was observed that integrating IC into the statistic prediction model increased its accuracy and performance. After the calibration procedure in one of the study areas, the model was

  13. Bladder cancer index: cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish and psychometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) is so far the only instrument applicable across all bladder cancer patients, independent of tumor infiltration or treatment applied. We developed a Spanish version of the BCI, and assessed its acceptability and metric properties. Methods For the adaptation into Spanish we used the forward and back-translation method, expert panels, and cognitive debriefing patient interviews. For the assessment of metric properties we used data from 197 bladder cancer patients from a multi-center prospective study. The Spanish BCI and the SF-36 Health Survey were self-administered before and 12 months after treatment. Reliability was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity was assessed through the multi-trait multi-method matrix. The magnitude of change was quantified by effect sizes to assess responsiveness. Results Reliability coefficients ranged 0.75-0.97. The validity analysis confirmed moderate associations between the BCI function and bother subscales for urinary (r = 0.61) and bowel (r = 0.53) domains; conceptual independence among all BCI domains (r ≤ 0.3); and low correlation coefficients with the SF-36 scores, ranging 0.14-0.48. Among patients reporting global improvement at follow-up, pre-post treatment changes were statistically significant for the urinary domain and urinary bother subscale, with effect sizes of 0.38 and 0.53. Conclusions The Spanish BCI is well accepted, reliable, valid, responsive, and similar in performance compared to the original instrument. These findings support its use, both in Spanish and international studies, as a valuable and comprehensive tool for assessing quality of life across a wide range of bladder cancer patients. PMID:24528506

  14. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  15. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  16. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  17. Spectral reflectance of conodonts: A step toward quantitative color alteration and thermal maturity indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, B.C.; Nestell, M.; Balsam, W.L.

    1996-07-01

    Changes in the color of conodonts have long been used to assess thermal maturity. Color is a subjective measure, and color changes in conodonts are related to a subjective scale, the conodont alteration index or CAI. In this paper, we propose a simple, nondestructive method for objectively determining CAI and relating CAI to thermal maturity, the spectral reflectance of conodonts (SRC). The diffuse reflectance of about 30 large conodont fragments arranged on a barium-sulfate slide was determined with a total reflectance spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-850 nm. By examining conodonts that ranged form a CAI of 1 to a CAI of 6 we found that the average slope of the reflectance curve from 550 to 800 nm is a good proxy for CAI. A second-order regression equation estimates CAI from this slope with high accuracy (correlation coefficient = 0.99). These estimates appear most accurate for a CAI of 1 to a CAI of 4, where the slopes change most rapidly, but give reasonable results up to a CAI of 6. Based on the results of our analysis of two samples with known thermal maturities form the Valles Caldera region of New Mexico, we propose a preliminary relationship among SRC slope, CAI, and in-situ alteration temperature.

  18. Index-based Crop Insurance for Climate Adaptation in the Developing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; Carriquiry, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Weather has always presented a challenge to small-scale farmers, particularly in regions where poverty and lack of infrastructure has restricted the development of financial instruments to limit risk. New 'index' insurance innovations in agriculture are beginning to enable even the poorest farmers to unlock major productivity gains (e.g. insuring loans for improved seeds). Although index insurance has the potential to greatly improve productivity in developing country agriculture, the principal technical challenge to up-scaling this product is "data poverty," the absence of weather data in low-income areas needed to design robust and affordable insurance products. Earth science, particularly remote sensing, has the potential to ameliorate data poverty. However, raw use of earth science model output leads to non-optimal indexes and many obstacles remain to transform earth science products into insurance solutions. Estimation uncertainty, limited availability of consistent time series, and difficulties of predicting loses based on remote observations are reviewed in this article. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches addressing the needs of stakeholders in simple to understand indexes is highlighted. The successful use of Earth science data to support the index insurance industry in currently poor and isolated communities in the developing world would transform the ability of small farmers to increase yields, household incomes and regional economies, if the growing gap between earth science and index insurance can be closed.

  19. Use of Selected Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Health Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehler, David L.

    A pilot project examined the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in teaching selected concepts of health and fitness: coronary risk, lifestyle, and nutrition as related to weight control. A convenience sample of 58 students from two Concepts of Health and Fitness classes were randomly assigned to two groups, both of which used…

  20. Effects of Logo and CAI Environments on Cognition and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of learning logo computer programing and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on specific cognitive skills, metacognitive skills, creativity, and achievement. The programing group scored significantly higher on measures of operational competence, two of three measures of metacognitive skills, and a measure of…

  1. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  2. Introductory CAI Dialogue in Differential Calculus for Freshman Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, C. S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A project on computer based dialogue for freshmen is described and evaluated. The dialogue utilizes a CAI language written in Fortran that allows a designer to easily write and edit questions at his own desk without the use of a terminal. (Author/DT)

  3. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  4. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  5. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  6. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  7. Harvard University Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) Laboratory. Technical Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.; Peterson, Theodore I.

    This report is a detailed description of the Harvard CAI Laboratory, including its history, organization, functions, staffing, programs and support. Discussed are materials relating to CAI in general, such as psychological research, modes of instruction, advantages and implementation of CAI. Reviewed also are specific projects of this facility. A…

  8. A Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping approach for offshore oil spill vulnerability index classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing; Li, Zelin; Zheng, Xiao; Wu, Hongjing; Jing, Liang; Lee, Kenneth

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping (MC-TSAM) model was developed to classify a given site into distinguished zones representing different levels of offshore Oil Spill Vulnerability Index (OSVI). It consisted of an adaptive resonance theory (ART) module, an ART Mapping module, and a centroid determination module. Monte Carlo simulation was integrated with the TSAM approach to address uncertainties that widely exist in site conditions. The applicability of the proposed model was validated by classifying a large coastal area, which was surrounded by potential oil spill sources, based on 12 features. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the classification process was affected by multiple features instead of one single feature. The classification results also provided the least or desired number of zones which can sufficiently represent the levels of offshore OSVI in an area under uncertainty and complexity, saving time and budget in spill monitoring and response. PMID:25044043

  9. Observations from a prototype implementation of the Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclimens, M.; Bowerman, R.; Howell, C.; Gill, H.; Hutchison, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS), its purpose, and its history. The paper describes an internal research and development effort at the Mitre Corporation to implement a prototype version of the current CAIS specification and to rehost existing Ada software development tools onto the CAIS prototype. Based on this effort, observations are made on the maturity and functionality of the CAIS. These observations support the government's current policy of publicizing the CAIS specification as a baseline for public review in support of its evolution into a standard which can be mandated for use as Ada is today.

  10. An adaptation of the MMPI-2 Meyers Index for the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; Miller, Ronald M; Haws, Nathan A; Murphy-Tafiti, Jason L; Curtis, Thomas D; Rupp, Zachary W; Smart, Taylor A; Thompson, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Using an overall sample of 278 individuals who had taken the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition (MMPI-2) and who had clear diagnostic information available in their medical records, the Meyers Index (MI) for the MMPI-2 (Meyers, Millis, & Volkert, 2002 ) was calculated for each individual, and a new version of the MI created for the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) was calculated. The MI is a method of combining multiple MMPI-2 validity scales into a single weighted index to assess exaggerated self-report on the MMPI-2. The new index is intended to provide the same type of global assessment of validity but for the MMPI-2-RF (MI-r). The MI and the MI-r were compared at both individual and group levels and were found to correlate well (r = .87). Diagnostic groups of litigants and nonlitigants of traumatic brain injury, chronic pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder were also examined; and the performance of the MI and the MI-r were similar. Similarly, the pass and fail agreement rate for the two scales was 93%. The results indicate that the MI and MI-r perform very similarly and are good methods of assessing overall validity of MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF test performance. PMID:24826509

  11. Response-Adaptive Randomization for Multi-arm Clinical Trials Using the Forward Looking Gittins Index Rule

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Sofía S.; Wason, James; Bowden, Jack

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Gittins index provides a well established, computationally attractive, optimal solution to a class of resource allocation problems known collectively as the multi-arm bandit problem. Its development was originally motivated by the problem of optimal patient allocation in multi-arm clinical trials. However, it has never been used in practice, possibly for the following reasons: (1) it is fully sequential, i.e., the endpoint must be observable soon after treating a patient, reducing the medical settings to which it is applicable; (2) it is completely deterministic and thus removes randomization from the trial, which would naturally protect against various sources of bias. We propose a novel implementation of the Gittins index rule that overcomes these difficulties, trading off a small deviation from optimality for a fully randomized, adaptive group allocation procedure which offers substantial improvements in terms of patient benefit, especially relevant for small populations. We report the operating characteristics of our approach compared to existing methods of adaptive randomization using a recently published trial as motivation. PMID:26098023

  12. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  13. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  14. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  15. Cultural Adaptation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index to a Hindi Speaking Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aayush; Sharma, Yugal K; Dash, K; Verma, Sampurna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is known to impair many aspects of the quality of life (QoL) of its patients. Aim: To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) from English into Hindi and to assess its validity and reliability in Hindi speaking patients with acne from India. Methods: Hindi version of CADI, translated and linguistically validated as per published international guidelines, along with a previously translated Hindi version of dermatology life quality index (DLQI) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to acne patients. The internal consistency reliability of the Hindi version of CADI and its concurrent validity were assessed by Cronbach's alpha co-efficient and Spearman's correlation co-efficient respectively. Construct validity was examined by factor analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for Windows. Results: One hundred Hindi speaking patients with various grades of acne participated in the study. Hindi version of CADI showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha co-efficient = 0.722). Mean item-to-total correlation co-efficient ranged from 0.502 to 0.760. Concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a significant correlation with the Hindi DLQI. Factor analysis revealed the presence of two dimensions underlying the factor structure of the scale. Conclusion: Hindi CADI is equivalent to the original English version and constitutes a reliable and valid tool for clinical assessment of the impact of acne on QoL. PMID:26288422

  16. Sparse Representation-Based Image Quality Index With Adaptive Sub-Dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Li, Leida; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Yabin; Lin, Weisi; Kot, Alex C; Sun, Xingming

    2016-08-01

    Distortions cause structural changes in digital images, leading to degraded visual quality. Dictionary-based sparse representation has been widely studied recently due to its ability to extract inherent image structures. Meantime, it can extract image features with slightly higher level semantics. Intuitively, sparse representation can be used for image quality assessment, because visible distortions can cause significant changes to the sparse features. In this paper, a new sparse representation-based image quality assessment model is proposed based on the construction of adaptive sub-dictionaries. An overcomplete dictionary trained from natural images is employed to capture the structure changes between the reference and distorted images by sparse feature extraction via adaptive sub-dictionary selection. Based on the observation that image sparse features are invariant to weak degradations and the perceived image quality is generally influenced by diverse issues, three auxiliary quality features are added, including gradient, color, and luminance information. The proposed method is not sensitive to training images, so a universal dictionary can be adopted for quality evaluation. Extensive experiments on five public image quality databases demonstrate that the proposed method produces the state-of-the-art results, and it delivers consistently well performances when tested in different image quality databases. PMID:27295675

  17. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  18. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  19. Primary Reverse Oxygen-Isotope Evolution of Pyroxene in Compact Type A CAIs from the Efremovka and NWA-3118 CV3 Chondrites: Insights into Internal CAI Mixing Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Nagashima, K.; Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.

    2012-03-01

    ^1^6O-depleted Ti-Al-rich pyroxenes in compact Type A CAIs reflect the composition of the perovsites from which they first formed. Perovsite apparently exchanged oxygen very early, prior to melilite exchange and to initial melting of the CAIs.

  20. Design optimization of long period waveguide grating devices for refractive index sensing using adaptive particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semwal, Girish; Rastogi, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Grating assisted surface plasmon resonance waveguide grating has been designed and optimized for the sensing application. Adaptive particle swarm optimization in conjunction with derivative free method for mode computation has been used for design optimization of LPWG sensor. Effect of metal thickness and cladding layer thickness on the core mode and surface plasmon mode has been analyzed in detail. Results have been utilized as benchmarks for deciding the bounds of these variables in the optimization process. Two waveguides structures have been demonstrated for the grating assisted surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor. The sensitivity of the designed sensors has been achieved 3.5×104 nm/RIU and 5.0×104 nm/RIU with optimized waveguide and grating parameters.

  1. Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the American Skindex-29 quality of life index*

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Henrique Ribeiro; Haddad, Alessandra; Weiss, Mariana Alves; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Measuring the quality of life measure of patients with dermatologic diseases is an important concern. The instruments to evaluate it are commonly originally written in English and need to be translated and validated to be used in different cultures. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper is to translate and validate the Skindex-29 questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese to be used in our country as a quality of life assessment instrument in dermatologic patients. METHODS The first step was the translation from English to Brazilian Portuguese and the back-translation by two native speakers. The translated version was then used for the second step, when three questionnaires were applied to 75 patients (43 of whom were classified as lightly affected and 32 as heavily affected by their dermatologic conditions): an identification questionnaire, the translated version of Skindex-29, and the Brazilian Portuguese version of Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI). Additionally, the generic questionnaire Short Form 36 (SF-36) was applied to 41 of these patients. The last step to evaluate reproducibility was repeating the Skindex-29 questionnaire by the same researcher one week later in 44 patients. RESULTS Reliability was observed in global Skindex-29 scale (α=0.934), and its domains emotions (α=0.926), symptoms (α=0,702), and psycosocial functioning (α=0.860). The reproducibility showed high intraclass correlations. High intra class correlations was observed, thus validating reliability. CONCLUSIONS The Skindex-29 quality of life questionnaire was properly translated and validated to Brazilian Portuguese. PMID:25054747

  2. Analysing agricultural drought vulnerability at sub-district level through exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity based composite index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, C. S.; Laxman, B.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Diwakar, P. G.

    2014-11-01

    Information on agricultural drought vulnerability status of different regions is extremely useful for implementation of long term drought management measures. A quantitative approach for measuring agricultural drought vulnerability at sub-district level was developed and implemented in the current study, which was carried-out in Andhra Pradesh state, India with the data of main cropping season i.e., kharif. The contributing indicators represent exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components of vulnerability and were drawn from weather, soil, crop, irrigation and land holdings related data. After performing data normalisation and variance based weights generation, component wise composite indices were generated. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was generated using the three component indices and beta distribution was fitted to it. Mandals (sub-district level administrative units) of the state were categorised into 5 classes - Less vulnerable, Moderately vulnerable, Vulnerable, Highly vulnerable and Very highly vulnerable. Districts dominant with vulnerable Mandals showed considerably larger variability of detrended yields of principal crops compared to the other districts, thus validating the index based vulnerability status. Current status of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state, based on ADVI, indicated that vulnerable to very highly vulnerable group of Mandals represent 54 % of total Mandals and about 55 % of the agricultural area and 65 % of the rainfed crop area. The variability in the agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level was effectively captured by ADVI. The vulnerability status map is useful for diagnostic analysis and for formulating vulnerability reduction plans.

  3. Adaptive semi-supervised recursive tree partitioning: The ART towards large scale patient indexing in personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei

    2015-06-01

    With the rapid development of information technologies, tremendous amount of data became readily available in various application domains. This big data era presents challenges to many conventional data analytics research directions including data capture, storage, search, sharing, analysis, and visualization. It is no surprise to see that the success of next-generation healthcare systems heavily relies on the effective utilization of gigantic amounts of medical data. The ability of analyzing big data in modern healthcare systems plays a vital role in the improvement of the quality of care delivery. Specifically, patient similarity evaluation aims at estimating the clinical affinity and diagnostic proximity of patients. As one of the successful data driven techniques adopted in healthcare systems, patient similarity evaluation plays a fundamental role in many healthcare research areas such as prognosis, risk assessment, and comparative effectiveness analysis. However, existing algorithms for patient similarity evaluation are inefficient in handling massive patient data. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Semi-Supervised Recursive Tree Partitioning (ART) framework for large scale patient indexing such that the patients with similar clinical or diagnostic patterns can be correctly and efficiently retrieved. The framework is designed for semi-supervised settings since it is crucial to leverage experts' supervision knowledge in medical scenario, which are fairly limited compared to the available data. Starting from the proposed ART framework, we will discuss several specific instantiations and validate them on both benchmark and real world healthcare data. Our results show that with the ART framework, the patients can be efficiently and effectively indexed in the sense that (1) similarity patients can be retrieved in a very short time; (2) the retrieval performance can beat the state-of-the art indexing methods. PMID:25656756

  4. A new approach to assess function after sciatic nerve lesion in the mouse - adaptation of the sciatic static index.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Gomes, Joyce Rios de Souza; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeria; Santos, Soraia Moreira Garzedim; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2007-04-15

    Among the numerous ways of assessing regeneration after peripheral nerve lesions, the analysis of gait is one of the most important, because it shows the recovery of function, which is the ultimate goal of the repair machinery. The sciatic function index was introduced as a method to assess reinnervation after an experimental sciatic nerve lesion, and was adapted to the mouse model. The sciatic static index (SSI), is more simple and practical to perform, and is not so influenced by gait's velocity, but this method has not yet been adapted to the mouse model of sciatic lesion. We used 63 male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) to develop a formula to the sciatic static index in mice (SSIm). The animals were divided on three groups (control, transection and crush). They were evaluated at the preoperative and 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days postoperative by the ink track method (SFI), and by the acquisition of photographs of the plantar aspects of the injured and uninjured hind paws. The parameters evaluated were the 1-5 toe spread (TS), the 2-4 toe spread (ITS) and the distance between the tip of the third toe and the most posterior aspect of the paw (PL), on both methods. After verifying the temporal pattern of function, correlation and reproducibility of the measurements, we performed a multiple regression analysis using SFI values as dependent variable, and the TS, ITS and PL measured with the photo method as independent variables, and found the formula of the SSI for mice (SSIm). The three groups (control, transection and crush) had a characteristic pattern of dysfunction. The parameters measured in the ink and photo method had variable but significant correlations between them (P<0.000), but photo method of measurement showed a better reproducibility. The correlation between SFI and SSIm showed a high correlation coefficient (r=0.892, P<0.000), and demonstrates that SSIm can be used as an alternative method to assess the functional status relative of sciatic

  5. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  6. JCat: a novel tool to adapt codon usage of a target gene to its potential expression host.

    PubMed

    Grote, Andreas; Hiller, Karsten; Scheer, Maurice; Münch, Richard; Nörtemann, Bernd; Hempel, Dietmar C; Jahn, Dieter

    2005-07-01

    A novel method for the adaptation of target gene codon usage to most sequenced prokaryotes and selected eukaryotic gene expression hosts was developed to improve heterologous protein production. In contrast to existing tools, JCat (Java Codon Adaptation Tool) does not require the manual definition of highly expressed genes and is, therefore, a very rapid and easy method. Further options of JCat for codon adaptation include the avoidance of unwanted cleavage sites for restriction enzymes and Rho-independent transcription terminators. The output of JCat is both graphically and as Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) values given for the pasted sequence and the newly adapted sequence. Additionally, a list of genes in FASTA-format can be uploaded to calculate CAI values. In one example, all genes of the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans were adapted to Escherichia coli codon usage and further optimized to avoid commonly used restriction sites. In a second example, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exbD gene codon usage was adapted to E.coli codon usage with parallel avoidance of the same restriction sites. For both, the degree of introduced changes was documented and evaluated. JCat is integrated into the PRODORIC database that hosts all required information on the various organisms to fulfill the requested calculations. JCat is freely accessible at http://www.prodoric.de/JCat. PMID:15980527

  7. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  8. Reliability and validity of the cross-culturally adapted Italian version of the Core Outcome Measures Index.

    PubMed

    Mannion, A F; Boneschi, M; Teli, M; Luca, A; Zaina, F; Negrini, S; Schulz, P J

    2012-08-01

    Patient-orientated outcome questionnaires are essential for the assessment of treatment success in spine care. Standardisation of the instruments used is necessary for comparison across studies and in registries. The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) is a short, multidimensional outcome instrument validated for patients with spinal disorders and is the recommended outcome instrument in the Spine Society of Europe Spine Tango Registry; currently, no validated Italian version exists. A cross-cultural adaptation of the COMI into Italian was carried out using established guidelines. 96 outpatients with chronic back problems (>3 months) were recruited from five practices in Switzerland and Italy. They completed the newly translated COMI, the Roland Morris disability (RM), adjectival pain rating, WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL), EuroQoL-5D, and EuroQoL-VAS scales. Reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of 63 patients who returned a second questionnaire within 1 month and indicated no change in back status on a 5-point Likert-scale transition question. The COMI scores displayed no floor or ceiling effects. On re-test, the responses for each individual domain of the COMI were within one category in 100% patients for "function", 92% for "symptom-specific well-being", 100% for "general quality of life", 90% for "social disability", and 98% for "work disability". The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) for the COMI back and leg pain items were 0.78 and 0.82, respectively, and for the COMI summary index, 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.95); this compared well with 0.84 for RM, 0.87 for WHOQoL, 0.79 for EQ-5D, and 0.77 for EQ-VAS. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for COMI was 0.54 points, giving a ''minimum detectable change'' for the COMI of 1.5 points. The scores for most of the individual COMI domains and the COMI summary index correlated to the expected extent (0.4-0.8) with the corresponding full-length reference questionnaires (r = 0.45-0.72). The reproducibility

  9. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  10. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  11. The Graphics Terminal Display System; a Powerful General-Purpose CAI Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Frederick W., Brock, Lynn

    The Graphic Terminal Display System (GTDS) was created to support research and development in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The system uses an IBM 360/50 computer and interfaces with a large-screen graphics display terminal, a random-access slide projector, and a speech synthesizer. An authoring language, GRAIL, was developed for CAI, and…

  12. Knowledge-Based CAI: CINS for Individualized Curriculum Sequencing. Final Technical Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wescourt, Keith T.; And Others

    This report describes research on the Curriculum Information Network (CIN) paradigm for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in technical subjects. The CIN concept was first conceived and implemented in the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP). The primary objective of CIN-based CAI and the BIP project has been to develop procedures for providing each…

  13. Less Equals More: Coaching/Prompting CAI as a Tool Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ted L.

    Recent reviews of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in various journals suggest that the technological and economic barriers to its adoption and use may be overcome in the very near future, and that CAI will be feasible in a number of educational settings. Computer hardware costs have dropped dramatically in recent years, and a variety of…

  14. Curricular and Computer System Compatibility of CAI Programs for Multi-University Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    A brief introduction to developmental efforts in computer assisted instruction (CAI) at Pennsylvania State University is followed by a description of a program of mobile CAI facilities inaugurated in 1970 as part of the inservice continuing education program for teachers. The paper includes very brief descriptions of the graduate level courses…

  15. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  16. CAI-BASIC: A Program to Teach the Programming Language BASIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Thomas Anthony

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program was designed which fulfills the objectives of teaching a simple programing language, interpreting student responses, and executing and editing student programs. The CAI-BASIC program is written in FORTRAN IV and executes on IBM-2741 terminals while running under a time-sharing system on an IBM-360-70…

  17. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  18. Learning with Computers: Implementation of an Integrated Learning System for Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Criminal Justice, Huntsville. Windham School System.

    This publication provides information on implementation of an integrated learning system for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in adult learning environments. The first of the document's nine chapters is an introduction to computer-delivered instruction that addresses the appropriateness of computers in instruction and types of CAI activities.…

  19. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  20. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  1. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-03-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  2. Computer-Aided Technical Training Using Electronic Equipment On-Line with the CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Geoffrey; And Others

    This report describes an experimental course in the operation and troubleshooting of a communications transceiver, the AN/URC-32, in which the transceiver is used as part of an instructional station in a CAI system. The transceiver and the CAI system are hard-wired together to form a single training system. The system is presently operating in the…

  3. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  4. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  5. CAI in New York City: Report on the First Year's Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Cornelius F.

    1969-01-01

    "The nation's largest CAI operation in a public school system concluded its first full year of operation in June, 1969. The results indicate a very definite success for education's most closely watched use of technology. Three major criteria for success of such a project are 1) acceptance of CAI by the schools and their pupils, 2) per pupil costs…

  6. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  7. Nebular History of the Allende FoB CAI SJ101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    We compare petrologic and chemical characteristics of a unique FoB CAI SJ101 with the results of thermodynamic modeling of condensation of its precursors in a system of solar composition and speculate about nebular formation history of this CAI.

  8. Adapting the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index to Enhance Evidence-Based Screening: An Application to ADHD in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Yu, Lan; Grasso, Damion J.; Kolko, David J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study adapts the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index for use with screening data. The original PPOD Index, designed for use in the context of comprehensive diagnostic assessments, is overconfident when applied to screening data. To correct for this overconfidence, we describe a simple method for adjusting the PPOD Index to improve its calibration when used for screening. Specifically, we compare the adjusted PPOD Index to the original index and Naïve Bayes probability estimates on two dimensions of accuracy, discrimination and calibration, using a clinical sample of children and adolescents (N = 321) whose caregivers completed the Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to screen for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and who subsequently completed a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Results indicated that the adjusted PPOD Index, original PPOD Index, and Naïve Bayes probability estimates are comparable using traditional measures of accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, AUC) but the adjusted PPOD Index showed superior calibration. We discuss the importance of calibration for screening and diagnostic support tools when applied to individual patients. PMID:25000935

  9. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  10. Compound CAIs Containing Zr-Y-Sc-Rich Inclusions from NWA 3118 and Efremovka CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Lorenz, C. A.; Logan, M. A. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    CAIs enriched in Zr, Sc and Y provide important records of the refractory element fractionation in the early solar nebula. We discribed mineralogy, petrology and oxygen isotopes of two Zr-rich CAIs from NWA 3118 and from Efremovka.

  11. Development and validation of the Female Sexual Function Index adaptation for breast cancer patients (FSFI-BC).

    PubMed

    Bartula, Iris; Sherman, Kerry A

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer treatment is common and screening for this is recommended. This study determined the reliability, validity, and acceptability of a breast cancer-specific adaptation of the Female Sexual Function Index, the FSFI-BC. This new measure addresses limitations in the FSFI when assessing sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer regarding applicability to non-sexually active women, measuring distress and changes after cancer. Female breast cancer survivors (n = 596; 429 sexually active, 166 non-sexually active) completed an online survey including demographic/medical information, the FSFI-BC, and scales measuring sexual functioning, fatigue, body image, physical and mental health, and relationship adjustment (Time 1). Three weeks later, 326 women (245 sexually active; 81 non-sexually active) completed the Time 2 survey including the FSFI-BC, and questions regarding its acceptability and perceived change in sexual functioning. Reliability, construct validity, and acceptability were examined using standard scale validation techniques. Exploratory factor analysis delineated seven factors: Changes after cancer, desire/arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain, satisfaction, and distress, accounting for 79.98 % (sexually active) and 77.19 % (non-active) variance in responses. Acceptable internal consistencies (non-active: α = 0.71-0.96; sexually active: α = 0.89-0.96) and test-retest reliabilities (non-active: r = 0.63-0.86; sexually active: r = 0.71-0.88) were evident. Inter-scale correlations provided evidence for convergent and divergent validities of the FSFI-BC. Both sexually active and non-active women provided positive feedback about the FSFI-BC. The optional partner questions demonstrated clinical utility. With desirable psychometric properties and acceptability to participants, the FSFI-BC is suitable for screening for sexual dysfunction in women with breast cancer. PMID:26198992

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index.

    PubMed

    Alsanawi, Hisham A; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Roach, Kathryn E; Alawaji, Alia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Arabic version of the shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). This was an observational reliability and validity study. We recruited 64 patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction with a wide variety of diagnoses. Patients completed the following questionnaires: Arabic SPADI, Quick Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (Quick DASH), and the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain. The active shoulder range of motion (ROM) was also assessed. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach α. Reproducibility was assessed by asking the patients to complete another SPADI questionnaire 2 days after the first. Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the SPADI and the Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The Cronbach α values for the pain score (0.96), disability score (0.98), and total score (0.98) of Arabic SPADI were all high. Similarly, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for the pain, disability, and total score (ICC, 0.87, 0.96, and 0.95, respectively) of Arabic SPADI were all high. With respect to validity, there was a moderate to strong correlation between the Arabic SPADI and the Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The translated version of SPADI in the Arabic language showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Validity was shown by substantial correlations between SPADI and Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The Arabic SPADI is recommended for the evaluation of patients with shoulder dysfunction. PMID:25954858

  13. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  14. Two Generations of Sodic Metasomatism in an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-Aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) in Allende, along with other chondritic compo-nents, experienced variable amounts and types of alter-ation of their mineralogy and chemistry. In CAIs, one of the principal types of alteration led to the depo-sition of nepheline and sodalite. Here we extend initial obervations of alteration in an Allende CAI, focus-ing on occurences of nepheline and a nepheline-like phase with unusally high Ca (referred to as "calcic nepheline" in this abstract). Detailed petrographic and microchemical observations of alteration phases in an Allende Type B CAI (TS4) show that two separate generations of "nepheline", with very distinct composi-tions, crystallized around the margins and in the interi-or of this CAI. We use observations of micro-faults as potential temporal markers, in order to place constraints on the timing of alteration events in Allende. These observa-tions of micro-faulting that truncate and offset one gen-eration of "nepheline" indicate that some "nepheline" crystallized before incorporation of the CAI into the Allende parent-body. Some of the sodic metasomatism in some Allende CAIs occurred prior to Allende par-ent-body assembly. The earlier generation of "calcic-nepheline" has a very distinctive, calcium-rich compo-sition, and the second generation is low in calcium, and matches the compositions of nephelines found in near-by altered chondrules, and in the Allende matrix.

  15. Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

  16. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  17. Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. J.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2004-03-01

    We have measured minor element concentrations in spinels from type B CAIs in Efremovka and Allende. We find a correlation of V and Ti that supports previous interpretations of additional remelting and crystallization events for these objects.

  18. Tungsten and hafnium distribution in calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs) from Allende and Efremovka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humayun, Munir; Simon, Steven B.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2007-09-01

    Recent 182Hf- 182W age determinations on Allende Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) and on iron meteorites indicate that CAIs have initial ɛ182W (-3.47 ± 0.20, 2 σ) identical to that of magmatic iron meteorites after correction of cosmogenic 182W burn-out (-3.47 ± 0.35, 2 σ). Either the Allende CAIs were isotopically disturbed or the differentiation of magmatic irons (groups IIAB, IID, IIIAB, and IVB) all occurred <1 m.y. after CAI formation. To assess the extent of isotopic disturbance, we have analyzed the elemental distribution of Hf and W in two CAIs, Ef2 from Efremovka (CV3 reduced), and Golfball from Allende (CV3 oxidized). Fassaite is the sole host of Hf (10-25 ppm) and, therefore, of radiogenic W in CAIs, with 180Hf/ 184W > 10 3, which is lowered by the ubiquitous presence of metal inclusions to 180Hf/ 184W > 10 in bulk fassaite. Metal alloy (Ni ˜ 50%) is the sole host of W (˜500 ppm) in Ef2, while opaque assemblages (OAs) and secondary veins are the hosts of W in Golfball. A large metal alloy grain from Ef2, EM2, has 180Hf/ 184W < 0.006. Melilite has both Hf and W below detection limits (<0.01 ppm), but the presence of numerous metallic inclusions or OAs makes melilite a carrier for W, with 180Hf/ 184W < 1 in bulk melilite. Secondary processes had little impact on the 182Hf- 182W systematics of Ef2, but a vein cross-cutting fassaite in Golfball has >100 ppm W with no detectable Pt or S. This vein provides evidence for transport of oxidized W in the CAI. Because of the ubiquitous distribution of OAs, interpretations of the 182Hf- 182W isochron reported for Allende CAIs include: (i) all W in the OAs was derived by alteration of CAI metal, or (ii) at least some of the W in OAs may have been equilibrated with radiogenic W during metamorphism of Allende. Since (ii) cannot be ruled out, new 182Hf- 182W determinations on CAIs from reduced CV3 chondrites are needed to firmly establish the initial W isotopic composition of the solar system.

  19. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  20. Correlates of aldosterone-induced increases in Cai2+ and Isc suggest that Cai2+ is the second messenger for stimulation of apical membrane conductance.

    PubMed Central

    Petzel, D; Ganz, M B; Nestler, E J; Lewis, J J; Goldenring, J; Akcicek, F; Hayslett, J P

    1992-01-01

    Studies were performed on monolayers of cultured A6 cells, grown on permeable filters, to determine the second messenger system involved in the aldosterone-induced increase in electrogenic sodium transport. Addition of aldosterone (1 microM) to the solution bathing the basal surface of cells caused both an increase in Isc and threefold transient rise in intracellular calcium Cai2+ after a delay of approximately 60 min. Because both events were inhibited by actinomycin D and cyclohexamide, they appeared to require transcriptional and translational processes. Addition of BAPTA to the bathing media to chelate Cai2+ reduced Isc and the delayed Cai2+ transient; 50 microM BAPTA inhibited Isc and the rise in Cai2+ by greater than 80%. Further studies suggested that the action of aldosterone to increase Isc may be dependent on a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, because W-7 and trifluoperazine reduced the aldosterone-induced Isc in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these observations suggest that calcium is a second messenger for the action of aldosterone on sodium transport, and suggest, for the first time, that agonists which bind to intracellular receptors can utilize, via delayed processes dependent on de novo transcription and translation, intracellular second messenger systems to regulate target cell function. PMID:1729267

  1. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  2. Adaptive Management Tools for Nitrogen: Nitrogen Index, Nitrogen Trading Tool and Nitrogen Losses Environmental Assessment Package (NLEAP-GIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Average nitrogen (N) use efficiencies are approximately fifty percent and can be even lower for shallower rooted systems grown on irrigated sandy soils. These low N use efficiencies need to be increased if reactive N losses to the environmental are to be reduced. Recently, USDA-NRCS identified Adapt...

  3. Experimental Determination of Li, Be and B Partitioning During CAI Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Brenan, J M; Phinney, D L

    2005-01-12

    The main focus of the work is to develop a better understanding of the distribution of the elements B, Be and Li in melilite, fassaitic clinop clinopy-roxene, anorthite and spinel, which are the primary constituents of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). These elements are the parent or decay products of short-lived nuclides (specifically, {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be) formed by cosmic ray spallation reactions on silicon and oxygen. Recent observations suggest that some CAIs contain ''fossil'' {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be in the form of ''excess'' amounts of their decay products (B and Li). The exact timing of {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be production is unknown, but if it occurred early in CAI history, it could constrain the birthplace of CAIs to be within a limited region near the infant sun. Other interpretations are possible, however, and bear little significance to early CAI genesis. In order to interpret the anomalies as being ''primary'', and thus originating at high temperature, information on the intermineral partitioning of both parent and daughter elements is required.

  4. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  5. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  6. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  7. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  8. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  9. Arginine oscillation explains Na+ independence in the substrate/product antiporter CaiT

    PubMed Central

    Kalayil, Sissy; Schulze, Sabrina; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Most secondary-active transporters transport their substrates using an electrochemical ion gradient. In contrast, the carnitine transporter (CaiT) is an ion-independent, l-carnitine/γ-butyrobetaine antiporter belonging to the betaine/carnitine/choline transporter family of secondary transporters. Recently determined crystal structures of CaiT from Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis revealed an inverted five-transmembrane-helix repeat similar to that in the amino acid/Na+ symporter LeuT. The ion independence of CaiT makes it unique in this family. Here we show that mutations of arginine 262 (R262) make CaiT Na+-dependent. The transport activity of R262 mutants increased by 30–40% in the presence of a membrane potential, indicating substrate/Na+ cotransport. Structural and biochemical characterization revealed that R262 plays a crucial role in substrate binding by stabilizing the partly unwound TM1′ helix. Modeling CaiT from P. mirabilis in the outward-open and closed states on the corresponding structures of the related symporter BetP reveals alternating orientations of the buried R262 sidechain, which mimic sodium binding and unbinding in the Na+-coupled substrate symporters. We propose that a similar mechanism is operative in other Na+/H+-independent transporters, in which a positively charged amino acid replaces the cotransported cation. The oscillation of the R262 sidechain in CaiT indicates how a positive charge triggers the change between outward-open and inward-open conformations as a unifying critical step in LeuT-type transporters. PMID:24101465

  10. High expression of CAI2, a 9p21-embedded long non-coding RNA, contributes to advanced stage neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Lisa M.; Williams, Richard T.; Cohen, Olga; Kim, Youngjin; Batova, Ayse; Mielke, Jenna A.; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Bao, Lei; Yu, Alice L.; Diccianni, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer with significant genomic and biological heterogeneity. p16 and ARF, two important tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 9p21, are inactivated commonly in most cancers but paradoxically overexpressed in neuroblastoma. Here we report that exon γ in p16 is also part of an undescribed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we have termed CAI2 (CDKN2A/ARF Intron 2 lncRNA). CAI2 is a single exon gene with a poly A signal located in but independent of the p16/ARF exon 3. CAI2 is expressed at very low levels in normal tissue but is highly expressed in most tumor cell lines with an intact 9p21 locus. Concordant expression of CAI2 with p16 and ARF in normal tissue along with the ability of CAI2 to induce p16 expression suggested that CAI2 may regulate p16 and/or ARF. In neuroblastoma cells transformed by serial passage in vitro, leading to more rapid proliferation, CAI2, p16 and ARF expression all increased dramatically. A similar relationship was also observed in primary neuroblastomas where CAI2 expression was significantly higher in advanced stage neuroblastoma, independently of MYCN amplification. Consistent with its association with high risk disease, CAI2 expression was also significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes, although this effect was reduced when adjusted for MYCN amplification. Taken together, our findings suggested that CAI2 contributes to the paradoxical overexpression of p16 in neuroblastoma, where CAI2 may offer a useful biomarker of high-risk disease. PMID:25028366

  11. The effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ching-Heng

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers, when the effects of computer ownership, prior computer instruction, previous software and programming experience were controlled. The participants were 155 undergraduates enrolled in introductory computer courses at two colleges in North Taiwan during the Fall 1996 semester. Before the treatment period, they were asked to fill out the Background Data Form, instructed with cooperative learning strategy, and trained on cooperative and individual learning with CAI. During the treatment period, they were randomly assigned to the treatment (78 students) or the control group (77 students). The treatment group students used a CAI program on computer numbering, encoding, and hardware systems with their partner throughout all six CAI sessions. The control group students used the same CAI program individually within the six CAI sessions. After the 6-week treatment period, both groups were posttested by a 40-item multiple-choice Computer Science Achievement Test (CSAT) and a 30-item Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). Data for both posttests were collected from 153 students (77 in the treatment, 76 in the control group; 62 males, 91 females) and analyzed by MANCOVA and follow-up univariate hierarchical MRC analyses for ANCOVAs. Based on the covariate-adjusted CSAT scores, the results indicated that students using CAI cooperatively had a significantly higher mean than those using CAI individually. Neither gender nor interaction effects were found. Regarding the covariate-adjusted CAS scores, the results showed that males had a significantly higher mean than females. No treatment or interaction effects were found. Due to the higher computer achievement resulted from cooperative learning with CAI, this study suggested that instructors apply cooperative learning strategy in CAI settings in computer courses

  12. Processing of refractory meteorite inclusions (CAIs) in parent-body atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, Morris; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, Pat; Reynolds, Ray T.; Chang, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in refractory meteorites are shown to have been subject to partial melting during a suitably high gas density/small scale height regime arising during gasdynamic deceleration in a temporary atmosphere around an accreting parent body. The presence of dust in such an atmosphere would have increased the pressure gradient with height, lowering the boiloff rate, and permitting dust particles to become trapped in the partially melted material. CAIs may therefore be studied as probes of a primitive atmosphere.

  13. CAI and At-Risk Minority Urban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signer, Barbara R.

    1991-01-01

    The Microcomputer Adaptive Testing High-Risk-Urban Students (MATH-R-US) project made computerized assessment an integral part of remedial high school mathematics at an inner-city school with predominantly African-American students. Results suggest that the girls exhibited greater self-esteem toward using computers than did boys and that…

  14. The Misplaced Adaptation to Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, James G.

    The current interest in an educational technology that stresses adaptation to individual student differences has resulted in such individualized systems as Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). However, such systems are not the answer to an avoidance of standardization of students. No one has yet…

  15. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  16. The Interplay between Different Forms of CAI and Students' Preferences of Learning Environment in the Secondary Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student…

  17. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS. PMID:26133743

  18. [Bounds of change in unsaturation index of fatty acid composition of phospholipids at adaptation of molluscs to biogenic and abiogenic factors of external medium].

    PubMed

    Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Shukoliukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2011-01-01

    Comparative study of fatty acid composition of total phospholipids, as well as of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from hepatopancreas and leg muscle was performed on several representatives of gasteropods (Gastropoda) molluscs and bivalve (Bivalvia) mussel (Mytilus edulus). The objects of our study were marine litorins (Littorina saxsatilis) adapted to different temperature conditions of White Sea and Barents Sea, freshwater lymnaea (Lymnaea stagnalis) infested by Trematoda and mussels from White Sea and Black Sea. It was shown that depending on the existence conditions of studied tissue or lipid, the maximal change is observed in the percentage of saturated acids (4-83 %), the percentage of unsaturated acids was less expressed (1-14 %) and the changes in unsaturation index (UI) did not exceed 20 % on average. It was supposed that observed quantitative bounds of UI change under the action of different external factors is utmost for maintenance of membrane fluidity necessary for normal vital activity of cell, particularly in studied ectothermic molluscs. PMID:22145319

  19. SELF-REPORT OF EMPATHY: A SHORTENED FRENCH ADAPTATION OF THE INTERPERSONAL REACTIVITY INDEX (IRI) USING TWO LARGE BELGIAN SAMPLES.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stéphanie; Rosseel, Yves; Kempenaers, Chantal; Loas, Gwenole; Linkowski, Paul

    2015-12-01

    For more than 30 years, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) has been used to measure the multidimensional aspects of empathy. But the 28-item, 4-factor model of Davis (1980 ) is currently contested because of methodological issues and for theoretical reasons. Confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were applied in two French-speaking Belgian student samples (1,244 participants in the first and 729 in the second study) to test this model and to propose a shortened version. A non-optimal fit was found with respect to the CFI value (Study 1). By splitting the student group into two random subsamples, EFA and then CFA were used to propose a 15-item, 4-factor model with good fit indices. A CFA on the second student group (Study 2) replicated this model. Results are discussed considering the influence of social desirability response bias, an absence of strong invariance across sex and the usefulness of self-report scales to measure empathy. PMID:26595295

  20. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  1. C.A.I. as a Means for Educational Justice in Primary Schools: A Greek Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Nicos

    This study examines the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the inequalities in education among children of less privileged backgrounds. A natural science lesson was taught to 116 children at the fifth level of the Greek primary school. Subjects went to two different public schools, one of which was in a privileged area, and the…

  2. A Pseudo-Language for Creating CAI Programs on APL Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucker, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Encourages the use of APL as a language for computer assisted instruction (CAI) instead of such languages as BASIC or COURSEWRITER. Describes a set of APL functions that can simulate to some extent the features of COURSEWRITER, while permitting a more experienced course author to use the full mathematical power of APL. (Author/JF)

  3. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  4. CAI for the Visually Handicapped: Promising Collaboration Between Two and Four-Year Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William K.; And Others

    This report describes the efforts of the Office of Research and Extension of the North Carolina State University (NCSU) School of Education to develop vocal computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tutorials for blind junior college students, the rationale behind those efforts, the costs and means of funding for the project, and suggested ways in which…

  5. 35 Secondary V Students Comment on Their Experience With C.A.I. (Preliminary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gateau, Bernard

    An instrument has been designed and used to quantify the degree of student dissatisfaction with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) experiences. The instrument, entitled PERPI-LPI, was derived from the service test Perceptions Etudiantes de la Relation Professeur-Etudiants (Student Observations on the Teacher-Student Relationship). It measures the…

  6. On the Design and Development of Pedagogy-First CAI Tools for CS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadaparty, K.; And Others

    This paper presents the implications of an ongoing project on the design and development of multimedia instructional material for teaching and learning computer science topics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Important pedagogical requirements that CAI software should satisfy include: (1) animation of the changes in tree topologies; (2)…

  7. Evaluation of Title I CAI Programs at Minnesota State Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Richard S.; Welch, Wayne W.

    Three Minnesota correctional institutions used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on PLATO terminals to improve reading and mathematics skills: (1) the State Reformatory for Men, St. Cloud (males, ages 17-21); (2) the Minnesota Home School, Sauk Centre (males and females, ages 12-18); and (3) the State Training School, Red Wing (males, ages…

  8. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Engineering Dynamics. CAI-Systems Memo Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, John W.

    A 90-minute computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit course supplemented by a 1-hour lecture on the dynamic nature of three-dimensional rotations and Euler angles was given to 29 undergraduate engineering students. The area of Euler angles was selected because it is essential to problem-working in three-dimensional rotations of a rigid body, yet…

  10. The Anatomy and Bulk Composition of CAI Rims in the Vigarano (CV3) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-07-01

    A striking feature of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites is the presence of mineralogical layers that typically form rim sequences up to 50 micrometers thick [1]. Many ideas regarding the origin of CAI rims have been proposed, but none are entirely satisfactory. The detailed mineralogy and bulk compositions of relatively unaltered CAI rims in the Vigarano (CV3) chondrite described here provide constraints on hypotheses of rim formation. Rim Mineralogy: CAIs in Vigarano consist of melilite (mel)- and spinel (sp)- rich varieties, both of which are rimmed [2]. Around mel-rich objects, the layer sequence is CAI interior --> sp-rich layer (sometimes absent) --> mel/anorthite (anor) layer --> Ti-Al-rich clinopyroxene (Tpx) layer --> Al- diopside (Al-diop) layer --> olivine (ol) +/- Al-diop layer --> host matrix. The sequence around sp-rich objects differs from this in that the mel/anor layer is absent. Both the sp-rich layer around mel-cored CAIs and the cores of sp-rich CAIs in Vigarano are largely comprised of a fine-grained (<=1 micrometer) intergrowth of sp, Tpx, and minor mel and perovskite. These intergrowths are typically so fine grained that little internal texture is discernible. Mixing calculations suggest the presence of ~10 vol% Tpx in the sp-rich layer of two mel-cored CAIs, and the presence of ~35 vol% Tpx within one sp-cored CAI. The mel/anor layer is sometimes monomineralic, consisting of mel alone, or bimineralic, consisting of both mel and anor. Where bimineralic, anor typically occurs in the outer part of the layer. In places, anor (An(sub)99-100) has partially altered to nepheline and voids. Rim mel is systematically less gehlenitic than mel in the CAI interiors, especially compared to mel in the interior adjacent to the rims. The Tpx layer (>2 and up to 15 wt% TiO2) and Al-diop layer (<2 wt% TiO2) are monomineralic and show chemical zoning trends radial to the CAIs. Moving outward, TiO2 and Al2O3 generally decrease, while SiO2 and Mg

  11. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  12. Implementing CAI at San Juan College: Toward the Campus of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, John B.

    In 1991, a study was conducted at San Juan College (SJC) to examine existing research, issues, and faculty attitudes and needs regarding computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A faculty needs assessment survey was prepared and conducted, a review of the research literature was undertaken, and initial guidelines were drafted for the utilization of…

  13. Adaptive changes of the electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei (EMN) index in the intensive physical exercise of male rowers with different training experience.

    PubMed

    Szczepanowska, Ewa; Czapla, Zbigniew; Cieślik, Joachim

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to attempt to determine the relationship between the degree of the EMN index and the depth of changes of selected hormones and metabolic parameters as an effect of intensive physical exercise during the training process in male rowers. Juniors (N = 62; chronological age 16.4 y.o. SD = 1.14 y.; training experience 3.0 y.o. SD = 1.05 y.) and seniors (N = 27; chronological age 21.4 y. SD = 1.73 y.; training experience 5.5 y.o. SD = 1.10 y.), in the preparatory period of the training process, performed physical exercise of maximum intensity on a rowing ergometer. Acid-base balance parameters (pH, BE) and the concentration of lactic acid (LA) were determined as the result of physical exercise. Some selected hormones were also indicated (hGH, PrL and Prg) to show their exercise changes. A sample of buccal epithelium cells was taken from each of the male rowers, before and after the exercise, to evaluate the percentage of the EMN index by intracellular microelectrophoresis. A greater differentiation of metabolic changes during exercise was manifested in juniors than seniors. This was reflected in changes of acid-base balance parameters, exercise physiological parameters, hormone concentration and also in changes of the EMN index. These changes were probably dependent on deep metabolic processes of an acid character during exercise. This could prove a more stable homeostasis through more economical metabolic reactions in seniors as the effect of the training process, meaning that seniors were better adapted to heavy physical exercise than juniors. PMID:23390817

  14. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  15. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  16. Synchronizing the Absolute and Relative Clocks: Pb-Pb and Al-Mg Systematics in CAIs from the Allende and NWA 2364 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2009-03-01

    A Pb-Pb internal isochron of a type-B CAI from the NWA 2364 CV3 chondrite gives an absolute age of 4568.6 ± 0.2 Ma which contrasts with previous internal Pb-Pb ages of CAIs from Allende and Efremovka. Al-Mg systematics are also reported for CV3 CAIs.

  17. An adapted frailty-related phenotype and the VACS Index as predictors of hospitalization and mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Akgün, Kathleen M.; Tate, Janet P.; Crothers, Kristina; Crystal, Stephen; Leaf, David A.; Womack, Julie; Brown, Todd T.; Justice, Amy C.; Oursler, Krisann K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Frailty is a geriatric syndrome of decreased physiologic reserve and a risk factor for hospitalization and mortality. We hypothesized that an adapted, survey-based frailty-related phenotype (aFRP) predicts hospitalization and mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals in adjusted models but is uncommon among those achieving undetectable HIV-1 RNA. Methods Defined from self-reported domains of physical shrinking, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity in Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) participants, aFRP was considered present with ≥3 domains and pre-frailty with 1-2 domains. Cox survival analysis determined hazard ratios (HR) for 5-year hospitalization and mortality risk adjusting for frailty states, demographics, health behaviors, comorbidities, and a validated risk index incorporating HIV-specific and general organ system biomarkers, the VACS Index. Model discrimination was assessed. Results Participants with complete data were included (6515/7324 (89%)). Of these, 3.9% of HIV-infected with HIV-1 RNA>400copies/ml; 2.0% of HIV-infected with HIV-1 RNA ≤ 400copies/ml; and 2.8% of uninfected individuals met aFRP criteria (p=0.01). After adjustment for other covariates, aFRP was associated with hospitalization (HR=1.78, 95% CI [1.48, 2.13]) and mortality (HR=1.75, 95% CI [1.28, 2.40]). C-statistics for the VACS Index for hospitalization (0.633) and for mortality (0.756) were higher than for aFRP frailty (0.565 and 0.584, respectively). C-statistic for hospitalization improved modestly when VACS Index and aFRP were both included (0.646) and minimally for mortality (0.761). Conclusions aFRP was independently associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. aFRP modestly improved prediction for hospitalization. However, the aFRP is rare among HIV-infected individuals with undetectable HIV-1 RNA. PMID:25202921

  18. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), 3N from the oxidized CV chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and UR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..64..139C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JSAES..64..139C"><span id="translatedtitle">Conodont color alteration <span class="hlt">index</span> and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The conodont color alteration <span class="hlt">index</span> (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high <span class="hlt">CAI</span> value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4721033','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4721033"><span id="translatedtitle">The Female Sexual Function <span class="hlt">Index</span> (FSFI): Translation, Validation, and Cross‐Cultural <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> of an Urdu Version “FSFI–U”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Asif Mahmood, Mohammad; Sheikh, Saba Shabbir; Sultan, Tipu; Khan, M Amanullah</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Introduction Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common problem, and many self‐report questionnaires are available for its evaluation. Pakistani women with sexual problems feel shy to consult with their physician. A validated self‐report questionnaire, in the local language with modest expressions is required for these women. Aim The aim of this study was to translate, cross‐culturally <span class="hlt">adapt</span>, and perform a psychometric validation of an Urdu translation of the Female Sexual Function <span class="hlt">Index</span> (FSFI). Methods The FSFI was translated in Urdu, and its precision was ascertained through reverse translation. It was pretested on 22 bilingual women and refined again to reach at a reliable Urdu version of the questionnaire FSFI‐U. One hundred sixteen bilingual women, in a stable sexual relationship over the previous 6 months were finally asked to fill out the FSFI and FSFI‐U. Their sexual function was then clinically evaluated and responses were compared with the clinical assessment as well as with each other. Main Outcome Measures The responses were analyzed through descriptive statistics for reliability, face validity, agreement between the responses to the original English version and to the FSFI‐U, and also for test–retest consistency. The data were analyzed statistically using Cronbach's alpha analysis, Intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson correlation, and Student's t‐test. Results FSFI was found to be easily understandable and capable of adequately evaluating and measuring various aspects of female sexual function. A high degree of internal consistency was demonstrated on Cronbach's alpha analysis. Cronbach's α coefficient for various domains was sufficiently high ranging from 0.84 to 0.97. The clinical assessment of the presence and severity of FSD also matched with the self‐report questionnaire. Similarly, various domains of FSFI had high degree of correlation in the Urdu version of FSFI (P < 0.001). Conclusion The Urdu</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858367"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-<span class="hlt">cai</span> under low pressure in closed environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-<span class="hlt">cai</span> were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, it was different from buckwheat. PMID:15858367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Geokh.....1307F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Geokh.....1307F"><span id="translatedtitle">Metal phase in a B1-type <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fragment of the CV Efremovka chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>Results are presented from petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical analyses of metal particles in two B1-type <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fragments obtained from the Efremovka CV chondrite. The fragments were found to have a broken outer border consisting mainly of grains of Ca phosphates and a Fe/Ni phase. Both fragments are associated with V2O3-rich pyroxene. All individual particles and veins of the fragments are made up from high-Ni tenite, sometimes enriched in V. It is suggested that all features of the metal phase of this chondrite are a consequence of oxidation, or of partial evaporation of the metal followed by its oxidation, and that the characteristics of the metal phase of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> phase of the Efremovka chondrite may correspond to those of the protomatter of some fremdlings, such as the Allende chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007LPI....38.1781S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007LPI....38.1781S"><span id="translatedtitle">Al-26 and Be-10 in Efremovka and Acfer <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Constraints on the Origin of Short-lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, G.; Chaussidon, M.; Bischoff, A.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>In this abstract we present aluminum-26 and beryllium-10 abundances in Efremovka and Acfer <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. These measurements help us to constrain the origin of short-lived radionuclides aluminum-26, beryllium-10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 8H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 7H2O and <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 6.5H2O.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop....6K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop....6K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states¿. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop.1106K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011oss..prop.1106K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and isotope chemistry of FUN (fractionation and nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>To understand the origin and formation conditions of FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects) and F (fractionation) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and their significance for constraining the origin of 26Al and O-isotopic compositions of the primordial dust and gas in the early Solar System, we propose to study mineralogy, petrology, oxidation state of Ti, trace element abundances, and O-, Mg-, Si-, Ca-, and Ti- isotope compositions of FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> previously identified in CV and CR chondrites. Twelve out of ~20 FUN and F <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> known will be available for mineralogical study and isotope measurements; these include 1623-5, C1, EK1-4-1, CG-14, BG82DH8, B7F6, B7H10, BG82HB1, KT-1, AXCAI-2771, TE, and Gao-Guenie (b) #3. We will also search for additional FUN and F inclusions among Allende and Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent fractionation effects in Mg. This interdisciplinary research will be done in collaboration with I. Hutcheon (NanoSIMS), G. Huss (SIMS), S. Sutton (XANES), R. Mendybaev and A. Davis (evaporation experiments), F. Ciesla (modeling of evolution of O-isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula), and B. Meyer (modeling of Galactic chemical evolution of O-isotope compositions of dust and gas in the protosolar molecular cloud, and of stellar origin of short-lived radionuclides). The research proposed here is highly relevant to the Science Goals and Objectives of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems Program, specifically ascertain the content, origin, and history of the solar system, and the potential for life elsewhere and increase the understanding of the chemical origin of the Solar System and the processes by which its planets and small bodies have evolved to their present states. Our interdisciplinary research (mineralogical and isotopic studies of the earliest solar-system solids, and astrophysical modeling) is designed to understand the origin of 26Al-poor <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with large mass-dependent isotope fractionation effects, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende <span class="hlt">Cai</span> by Nanosims</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are important to understand processes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aléon, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.145..206K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.145..206K"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>): I. Mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.; Huss, Gary R.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Davis, Andrew M.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies of several elements. The other samples show more modest patterns of isotopic fractionation and have smaller but significant isotopic anomalies. All FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied are coarse-grained igneous inclusions: Type B, forsterite-bearing Type B, compact Type A, and hibonite-rich. Some inclusions consist of two mineralogically distinct lithologies, forsterite-rich and forsterite-free/poor. All the CV FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> experienced postcrystallization open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration resulting in the formation of secondary minerals commonly observed in non-FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV chondrites. The CR FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> GG#3 shows no evidence for alteration. In all samples, clear evidence of oxygen isotopic fractionation was found. Most samples were initially 16O-rich. On a three-oxygen isotope diagram, various minerals in each FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (spinel, forsterite, hibonite, dmisteinbergite, most fassaite grains, and melilite (only in GG#3)), define mass-dependent fractionation lines with a similar slope of ∼0.5. The different inclusions have different Δ17O values ranging from ∼-25‰ to ∼-16‰. Melilite and plagioclase in the CV FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ∼-3‰) and plot near the intercept of the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> line and the terrestrial fractionation line. We infer that mass-dependent fractionation effects of oxygen isotopes in FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals are due to evaporation during melt crystallization. Differences in Δ17O values of mass-dependent fractionation lines defined by minerals in individual FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are inferred to reflect differences in Δ17O values of their precursors. Differences in δ18O values of minerals defining the mass-dependent fractionation lines in several FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372"><span id="translatedtitle">OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O"><span id="translatedtitle">The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Primitive Meteorite Matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular <span class="hlt">CAI</span> assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo</p> <p></p> <p>It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Metal particles in Vigarano 1623-8, a Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> [1], underwent virtually no sulfidation, as is typical of opaque assemblages from Ca, Al-rich inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrites [2]. In this study, we have identified two large metal grains (M1 and M2) with chemical and mineralogical features that may indicate cooling under different conditions and are, therefore, difficult to understand in the environment of a single <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> thermal evolution. M1 is an almost spherical, kamacite+taenite-bearing particle included in a fassaite grain of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> host; a 17.5 micrometer-long (0.5 micrometer steps) microprobe traverse along M1 shows that Ni and Ru contents in the taenite (31.5 and 1.1 wt%, respectively) are uniform, and differ from those in the adjacent kamacite (Ni=4.5, Ru=0.7 wt%). M2 is a 20 micrometer, irregularly-shaped taenite particle, embedded in a fine-grained (spinel-rich) portion of 1623-8. It has a homogeneous composition with 10.5 wt% Ni, 0.4% Co, 0.7% Re, 0.6% Pt and high concentrations of Ru (6.5 wt%), Os (4.3 wt%) and Ir (8.2 wt%), as previously recognized by [1]. The composition of M2 is such that it should have undergone exsolution at 800 = T >= 600 degrees C (according to experimental data by [3]) to form at least two (alpha+gamma-NiFe), or probably three (+epsilon-RuFe) different phases. Lack of exsolution features in this large grain is therefore indicative of equilibration at relatively high temperatures (T>600 degrees C) followed by rapid cooling. Other metal particles of similar bulk compositions in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Leoville chondrite (also a reduced CV3) show extensive exsolution features that have been interpreted as the result of low- temperature equilibration of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and their constituents after incorporation into their parent body [4, 5]. The relatively high equilibration temperature of M2 is, however, inconsistent with the existence of kamacite in M1. From the phase relations in the Fe-Ni binary, a grain like M1, with 25 wt% bulk Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633"><span id="translatedtitle">FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> or are a byproduct of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Time scales of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2500149','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2500149"><span id="translatedtitle">HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Peptide: Structural Preferences and Delivery into Human Embryonic Lung Cells and Lymphocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Braun, Klaus; Frank, Martin; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Reed, Jennifer; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Jürgen; Didinger, Bernd; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Human immunodeficiency virus 1 derived capsid assembly inhibitor peptide (HIV-1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide) is a promising lead candidate for anti-HIV drug development. Its drawback, however, is that it cannot permeate cells directly. Here we report the transport of the pharmacologically active <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide into human lymphocytes and Human Embryonic Lung cells (HEL) using the BioShuttle platform. Generally, the transfer of pharmacologically active substances across membranes, demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), could lead to a loss of function by changing the molecule's structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and circular dichroism (CD) studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide has an intrinsic capacity to form a helical structure, which seems to be critical for the pharmacological effect as revealed by intensive docking calculations and comparison with control peptides. This coupling of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-peptide to a BioShuttle-molecule additionally improved its solubility. Under the conditions described, the HIV-1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> peptide was transported into living cells and could be localized in the vicinity of the mitochondria. PMID:18695744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15746387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15746387"><span id="translatedtitle">Supra-canonical 26Al/27Al and the residence time of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the solar protoplanetary disk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D; Simon, Justin I; Galy, Albert; Russell, Sara S; Tonui, Eric; Lovera, Oscar</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 4.5 x 10(-5) has been a fiducial marker for the beginning of the solar system. Laser ablation and whole-rock multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry magnesium isotope analyses of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV3 meteorites demonstrate that some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> had initial 26Al/27Al values at least 25% greater than canonical and that the canonical initial 26Al/27Al cannot mark the beginning of solar system formation. Using rates of Mg diffusion in minerals, we find that the canonical initial 26Al/27Al is instead the culmination of thousands of brief high-temperature events incurred by <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> during a 10(5)-year residence time in the solar protoplanetary disk. PMID:15746387</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 1.0 node model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kathy L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> into these four areas are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624269"><span id="translatedtitle">[Demotion and promotion of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing and the Medicine School's establishment and abolition three times in the North Song dynasty].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yu-Qing</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing was appointed the prime minister in the Chongning period of Song Hui-tsung. The Medical School was moved to the Imperial College from Taichang Temple. It used a 3-year education system and divided graduates into three grades. The preferential policies promised top students as 8 or 9-rank official position, which attracted a lot of intellectuals into the field of medicine. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing was demoted three times respectively in the fifth year of the Chongning period, the third year of the Daguan period and the second year of the Zhenghe period, and was promoted again after each demotion. Influenced by changes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Jing's position and relative policies, the Medical School was also established and abolished three times. PMID:21624269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-5-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zoran&pg=2&id=EJ1028906','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zoran&pg=2&id=EJ1028906"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and Evaluation of an E-Learning Course for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Based on the Advanced <span class="hlt">Adapted</span> Pedagogical <span class="hlt">Index</span> Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Debevc, Matjaž; Stjepanovic, Zoran; Holzinger, Andreas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Web-based and <span class="hlt">adapted</span> e-learning materials provide alternative methods of learning to those used in a traditional classroom. Within the study described in this article, deaf and hard of hearing people used an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> e-learning environment to improve their computer literacy. This environment included streaming video with sign language interpreter…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=107209','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=107209"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of the Carnitine Pathway in Escherichia coli: Investigation of the <span class="hlt">cai</span>-fix Divergent Promoter Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchet, Anne; Eichler, Knut; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The divergent structural operons <span class="hlt">cai</span>TABCDE and fixABCX of Escherichia coli are required for anaerobic carnitine metabolism. Transcriptional monocopy lacZ fusion studies showed that both operons are coexpressed during anaerobic growth in the presence of carnitine, respond to common environmental stimuli (like glucose and nitrate), and are modulated positively by the same general regulators, CRP and FNR, and negatively by H-NS. Overproduction of the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>F specific regulatory protein mediating the carnitine signal restored induction in an fnr mutant, corresponding to its role as the primary target for anaerobiosis. Transcript analysis identified two divergent transcription start points initiating 289 bp apart. DNase I footprinting revealed three sites with various affinities for the binding of the cAMP-CRP complex inside this regulatory region. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that previously reported perfect CRP motif 1, centered at −41.5 of the <span class="hlt">cai</span> transcriptional start site, plays a direct role in the sole <span class="hlt">cai</span> activation. In contrast, mutation in CRP site 2, positioned at −69.5 of the fix promoter, caused only a threefold reduction in fix expression. Thus, the role of the third CRP site, located at −126.5 of fix, might be to reinforce the action of site 2. A critical 50-bp cis-acting sequence overlapping the fix mRNA start site was found, by deletion analysis, to be necessary for <span class="hlt">cai</span> transcription. This region is thought to be involved in transduction of the signal mediated by the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>F regulator. PMID:9573142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852"><span id="translatedtitle">Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but also penetrates more deeply into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have been extensively metasomatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19953996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19953996"><span id="translatedtitle">[Creation and cross-cultural <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of the Ukrainian versions of SKINDEX-29, SKINDEX-16 questionnaires, Psoriasis Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> and further validation of the Ukrainian version of the Dermatology Life Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chernyshov, P V</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Original versions of SKINDEX-29, SKINDEX-16 and Psoriasis Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> questionnaires were translated into Ukrainian by two independent forward translators and then back-translated into English by two other independent translators. The probe technique for pre-testing was used. Retest of reliability, discriminant validity, over time sensitivity and sensitivity to successful therapeutic intervention were checked. PMID:19953996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+weight+AND+loss&pg=5&id=EJ528590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+weight+AND+loss&pg=5&id=EJ528590"><span id="translatedtitle">A One Year Post-program Assessment of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Weight Management Program for Industrial Employees: Lessons Learned.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dennison, Kathryn F.; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This study examined whether a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) nutrition program would help employees maintain weight loss and dietary intake improvements over time. Subjects received either no nutrition education, education with microcomputer use, or education without microcomputers. Posttesting found greater weight loss for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> participants,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652"><span id="translatedtitle">A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ca- Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505173.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505173.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in Language Arts: Investigating the Influence of Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes on the Learning Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Jamie M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The integration of Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) into the language arts classroom can greatly assist teachers meet the needs of diverse literacy learners. However, this new technology does not come without some concerns, including but not limited to ease of implementation, funding for new hardware and software, appropriate teacher support,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, a traditional food made in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. PMID:26159472</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22knowledge+management%22&pg=6&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22knowledge+management%22&pg=6&id=EJ1062828"><span id="translatedtitle">From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433"><span id="translatedtitle">Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LPI....41.2255N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LPI....41.2255N"><span id="translatedtitle">Micron Scale Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in Anorthite of A Forsterite-bearing Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> E60 from Efremovka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Huss, G. R.; Yurimoto, H.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Oxygen isotope imaging with UH Cameca ims 1280+SCAPS isotope microscope of a Fo-B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> E60 from Efremovka revealed complex distributions of O-isotopes in anorthite supporting isotopic exchange with 16O-poor gas during remelting and recrystallization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SciEd..89..707C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SciEd..89..707C"><span id="translatedtitle">The interplay between different forms of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and students' preferences of learning environment in the secondary science class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student preferences of learning environment (PLE). A total of 347 10th-grade senior high school students participated in this nonequivalent control group quasiexperiment. During a one-week period, one group of students (n = 216) were taught by a teacher-centered <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (TCCAI) model whereas the other group of students (n = 131) were subject to a student-centered <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (SCCAI) method. Results showed that (a) no statistically significant difference on students' earth science achievement was found for either group; (b) TCCAI group had significantly better attitudes toward earth science than did the SCCAI group; furthermore (c) a significant PLE-treatment interaction was found on student attitudes toward the subject matter, where the teacher-centered instructional approach seemed to enhance more positive attitudes of less constructivist-oriented learning preferences students, whereas the student-centered method was more beneficial to more constructivist-oriented learning preferences students on their attitudes toward earth science in a computer-assisted learning environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532902.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532902.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating Learning Achievements of Thai High School Students in a Sequences and Series Lesson Delivered on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Based Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chundang, Ungsana; Singhaprink, Wipawaan; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Tantipisalkul, Tasanee; Praekhaow, Puchong</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The current experimental research aims to investigate students' learning outcomes in classes in which the interactive <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (computer-assisted instruction)-based materials were implemented. It also aims to compare the learning outcomes of the students based on regions in which their school is located. The participants were 326 Matthayom-4 students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41I0176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41I0176K"><span id="translatedtitle">GOSAT CO2 retrieval results using TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol information over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, W.; Jung, Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Goo, T. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the satellite remote sensing of CO2, incorrect aerosol information could induce large errors as previous studies suggested. Many factors, such as, aerosol type, wavelength dependency of AOD, aerosol polarization effect and etc. have been main error sources. Due to these aerosol effects, large number of data retrieved are screened out in quality control, or retrieval errors tend to increase if not screened out, especially in East Asia where aerosol concentrations are fairly high. To reduce these aerosol induced errors, a CO2 retrieval algorithm using the simultaneous TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol information is developed. This algorithm adopts AOD and aerosol type information as a priori information from the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol retrieval algorithm. The CO2 retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation method and VLIDORT, a vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. The CO2 algorithm, developed with various state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable results when compared with other dataset. This study concentrates on the validation of retrieved results with the ground-based TCCON measurements in East Asia and the comparison with the previous retrieval from ACOS, NIES, and UoL. Although, the retrieved CO2 concentration is lower than previous results by ppm's, it shows similar trend and high correlation with previous results. Retrieved data and TCCON measurements data are compared at three stations of Tsukuba, Saga, Anmyeondo in East Asia, with the collocation criteria of ±2°in latitude/longitude and ±1 hours of GOSAT passing time. Compared results also show similar trend with good correlation. Based on the TCCON comparison results, bias correction equation is calculated and applied to the East Asia data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=content+AND+based+AND+image+AND+retrieval&pg=2&id=EJ565473','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=content+AND+based+AND+image+AND+retrieval&pg=2&id=EJ565473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Edie M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>; (5) Content-Based <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015M%26PS...50.1512I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015M%26PS...50.1512I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, that encloses at least 26 smaller <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=confidence+AND+level+AND+student&pg=5&id=ED547046','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=confidence+AND+level+AND+student&pg=5&id=ED547046"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Warren, Richard Daniel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED436181.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED436181.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The ARCS Model for Developing Motivationally-<span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Computer-Assisted Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Song, Sang H.; Keller, John M.</p> <p></p> <p>This study examined the effects of a prototype of motivationally-<span class="hlt">adaptive</span> <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Computer Assisted Instruction), developed in accordance with the ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivational design, on achievement, perceived motivation (both overall motivation and for each of the ARCS components), efficiency, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic study of SJ101, a new forsterite-bearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> SJ101 consists of three major structural units: (1) light patches of sector-zoned, poikilitic Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx) with numerous inclusions of small spinel grains and aggregates and subordinate amounts of Mg-rich melilite (Mel) and anorthite (An) (Sp-Cpx lithology), (2) dark sinuous bands of Al-rich clinopyroxene with large (up to ˜300 × 60 μm) poikilitically enclosed euhedral forsterite (Fo) crystals (Fo-Cpx lithology), and (3) the external Cpx-Sp-An rim overlying the entire inclusion. The two major lithologies are always separated by a transition zone of clinopyroxene poikilitically enclosing both forsterite and spinel. The patches of the Sp-Cpx lithology exhibit significant textural and mineralogical variability that is size-dependent. Small patches typically consist of Cpx and spinel with minor remnants of melilite and/or its alteration products. Large patches contain Mel-An-rich cores with either equigranular-ophitic-subophitic or 'lacy' textures reminiscent of those in Types B or C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, respectively. All silicates poikilitically enclose numerous spinel grains of identical habit. Both melilite and anorthite gradually disappear toward the boundary with the Fo-Cpx lithology. Neither the evaporation mantle of Al-rich melilite typical of other FoBs nor the Wark-Lovering rim is present. Secondary minerals include grossular, monticellite, magnetite, and a few grains of wollastonite, andradite, and nepheline. Being a rather typical FoB mineralogically and chemically, texturally SJ101 differs from other FoBs in displaying the nearly complete segregation of forsterite from spinel which occur only in the Fo-Cpx and Sp-Cpx lithologies, respectively. The complex, convoluted internal structure of SJ101 suggests that the coarse-grained Sp-An-Mel-Cpx cores and Fo-Cpx lithology represent the precursor materials of FoBs, proto-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Fo-rich accretionary rims. While the inferred chemistry and mineralogy of the Fo-rich rims</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation"><span id="translatedtitle">Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16929642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16929642"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic pollution and salt intrusion in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Nuoc District, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, Nico; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, Luc</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>In Ca Mau, Vietnam, farmers converted from rice to shrimp farming, while ignoring the degradation of the aquatic environment. We assessed the seasonal variations in organic pollution of the surface water and salt intrusion in one district and assessed the difference in chemical characteristics of the surface water of shrimp ponds and canals. Several variables reflecting salinity and organic pollution were measured in the wet and dry season. The results show that in the dry season salinity increased to 37.36-42.73 g l(-1) and COD and suspended solids increased to a maximum of 268.7 mg l(-1) and 1312.0 mg l(-1), respectively. In the wet season salinity values of 8.16 to 10.60 g l(-1) were recorded, indicating that salinity could no longer be washed out completely in this season. It is concluded that salinity and suspended solids in the aquatic environment in the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Nuoc district are increased by shrimp monoculture, whereas organic pollution is contributed by human population pressure. PMID:16929642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...53K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...53K"><span id="translatedtitle">Instrument Status and Level 1 Data Processing of TANSO-FTS and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on GOSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuze, Akihiko; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei</p> <p></p> <p>The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) globally from space. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Cen-ter. Since February 7, 2009, the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have been continuously operated. They acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The brief summary of instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan (grid and sun glint observation and special target mode), onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances are presented. TANSO-FTS Level 1A and 1B data processing algorithm and its updates on the ground are also presented. In addition we will show recent on-orbit instrument status such as pointing accuracy, interferogram quality, and radiometric accuracy and vicarious calibration results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka E49: A compact type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> containing a partially molten spinel-melilite-diopside xenolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Eframovka E49 is a triangular 2-mm segment from a Compact Type A (CTA) inclusion with large portions of intact core and rim sequence. It is probably a fragment from an originally round approximately equal to 4-mm Ca-Al rich Inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The core consists of two lithologically different assemblages: (1) The major portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains melilite sprinkled with rare spinel, perovskite, and the new Ca-Ti silicate. It is covered by a six-layer rim consisting of (from the interior outward): two layers of Zr- and Y-rich perovskite, spinel, Al-diopside, diopside, and forsteritic olivine. (2) A 650-micron wide complex xenolith contains coarse spinel, melilite, perovskite, and metal in its interior, surrounded by a broad shell of Al-diopside, diopside, and minor fassaite and anorthite, and in the rim fassaite yields Al-diopside yields diopside. Coarse spinels abundantly display resorbtion outlines and some of the grains have been broken down to several amoeboid fragments floating in the eutectic assemblage. All these textures are evidence of local melting of the xenolith followed by fast cooling. No such features are observed in the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Since melting is confined to the xenolith, the melt event must have predated its capture into the core of E49. Ion microprobe trace-element studies reveal distinct differences between Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in perovskites in the xenolith and the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Perovskites in the xenolith display REE patterns with prominent Yb and small Ce excesses and large Eu depletions. Perovskites in the xenolith show higher abundances of Nb, Zr, and V. Magnesium in xenolith and the host is almost unfractionated. Excesses of Mg-26 are found both in the xenolith and the host with data points plotting along a line with a slope of 4 x 105. This is in accord with the petrographic interpretation and indicates that the melting of the xenolith and its capture in E49 took place early.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJCEM...7...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJCEM...7...41C"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion and engine performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Plus+prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPlus%2Bprizes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Plus+prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPlus%2Bprizes"><span id="translatedtitle">Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459365','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4459365"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of coordination polymers from <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 and proline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamberts, Kevin; Englert, Ulli</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Completing our reports concerning the reaction products from calcium halides and the amino acid proline, two different solids were found for the reaction of l- and dl-proline with <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2. The enanti­opure amino acid yields the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[aqua-μ3-l-proline-tetra-μ2-l-proline-dicalcium] tetra­iodide 1.7-hydrate], {[Ca2(C5H9NO2)5(H2O)]I4·1.7H2O}n, (1), with two independent Ca2+ cations in characteristic seven- and eightfold coordination. Five symmetry-independent zwitterionic l-proline mol­ecules bridge the metal sites into a cationic polymer. Racemic proline forms with Ca2+ cations heterochiral chains of the one-dimensional polymer catena-poly[[di­aquadi-μ2-dl-proline-calcium] diiodide], {[Ca(C5H9NO2)2(H2O)2]I2}n, (2). The centrosymmetric structure is built by one Ca2+ cation that is bridged towards its symmetry equivalents by two zwitterionic proline mol­ecules. In both structures, the iodide ions remain non-coordinating and hydrogen bonds are formed between these counter-anions, the amino groups, coordinating and co-crystallized water mol­ecules. While the overall composition of (1) and (2) is in line with other structures from calcium halides and amino acids, the diversity of the carboxyl­ate coordination geometry is quite surprising. PMID:26090148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611347K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611347K"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments of global greenhouse gas retrieval algorithm using Aerosol information from GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Woogyung; kim, Jhoon; Jung, Yeonjin; lee, Hanlim; Boesch, Hartmut</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Human activities have resulted in increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration since the beginning of Industrial Revolution to reaching CO2 concentration over 400 ppm at Mauna Loa observatory for the first time. (IPCC, 2007). However, our current knowledge of carbon cycle is still insufficient due to lack of observations. Satellite measurement is one of the most effective approaches to improve the accuracy of carbon source and sink estimates by monitoring the global CO2 distributions with high spatio-temporal resolutions (Rayner and O'Brien, 2001; Houweling et al., 2004). Currently, GOSAT has provided valuable information to observe global CO2 trend, enables our extended understanding of CO2 and preparation for future satellite plan. However, due to its physical limitation, GOSAT CO2 retrieval results have low spatial resolution and cannot cover wide area. Another obstruction of GOSAT CO2 retrieval is low data availability mainly due to contamination by clouds and aerosols. Especially, in East Asia, one of the most important aerosol source areas, it is hard to have successful retrieval result due to high aerosol concentration. The main purpose of this study is to improve data availability of GOSAT CO2 retrieval. In this study, current state of CO2 retrieval algorithm development is introduced and preliminary results are shown. This algorithm is based on optimal estimation method and utilized VLIDORT the vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. This proto type algorithm, developed from various combinations of state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable result. Especially the aerosol retrieval algorithm using GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> measurements, which provide aerosol information for the same area with GOSAT-FTS measurements, are utilized as input data of CO2 retrieval. Other CO2 retrieval algorithms use chemical transport model result or climatologically expected values as aerosol information which is the main reason of low data availability. With</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2845973','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2845973"><span id="translatedtitle">Practice environments and their associations with nurse-reported outcomes in Belgian hospitals: Development and preliminary validation of a Dutch <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of the Revised Nursing Work <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van Bogaert, Peter; Clarke, Sean; Vermeyen, Karel; Meulemans, Herman; Van de Heyning, Paul</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Aim To study the relationship between nurse work environment, job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care in the Belgian context. Background Work environment characteristics are important for attracting and retaining professional nurses in hospitals. The Revised Nursing Work <span class="hlt">Index</span> (NWI-R) was originally designed to describe the professional nurse work environment in U.S. Magnet Hospitals and subsequently has been extensively used in research internationally. Method The NWI-R was translated into Dutch to measure the nurse work environment in 155 nurses across 13 units in three Belgian hospitals. Factor analysis was used to identify a set of coherent subscales. The relationship between work environments and job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care was investigated using logistic and linear regression analyses. Results: Three reliable, consistent and meaningful subscales of the NWI-R were identified: nurse–physician relations, nurse management at the unit level and hospital management and organizational support. All three subscales had significant associations with several outcome variables. Nurse–physician relations had a significant positive association with nurse job satisfaction, intention to stay the hospital, the nurse-assessed unit level quality of care and personal accomplishment. Nurse management at the unit level had a significant positive association with the nurse job satisfaction, nurse-assessed quality of care on the unit and in the hospital, and personal accomplishment. Hospital management and organizational support had a significant positive association with the nurse-assessed quality of care in the hospital and personal accomplishment. Higher ratings of nurse–physician relations and nurse management at the unit level had significant negative associations with both the Maslach Burnout Inventory emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions, whereas hospital management and organizational support was inversely associated only</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Joan Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). This case study investigated the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.374...11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.374...11S"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on 10Be and 41Ca distribution in the early solar system from 26Al and 10Be studies of Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, Gopalan; Chaussidon, Marc</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Three refractory coarse grained <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite, one (E65) previously shown to have formed with live 41Ca, were studied by ion microprobe for their 26Al-26Mg and 10Be-10B systematic in order to better understand the origin of 10Be. The high precision Al-Mg data and the inferred 26Al/27Al values attest that the precursors of the three <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> evolved in the solar nebula over a period of few hundred thousand years before last melting-crystallization events. The initial 10Be/9Be ratios and δ10B values defined by the 10Be isochrons for the three Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are similar within errors. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 10Be abundance in published data underscores the large range for initial 10Be/9Be ratios. This is contrary to the relatively small range of 26Al/27Al variations in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> around the canonical ratio. Two models that could explain the origin of this large 10Be/9Be range are assessed from the collateral variations predicted for the initial δ10B values: (i) closed system decay of 10Be from a "canonical" 10Be/9Be ratio and (ii) formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from a mixture of solid precursors and nebula gas irradiated during up to a few hundred thousand years. The second scenario is shown to be the most consistent with the data. This shows that the major fraction of 10Be in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> was produced by irradiation of refractory grains, while contributions of galactic cosmic rays trapping and early solar wind irradiation are less dominant. The case for 10Be production by solar cosmic rays irradiation of solid refractory precursors poses a conundrum for 41Ca because the latter is easily produced by irradiation and should be more abundant than what is observed in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 10Be production by irradiation from solar energetic particles requires high 41Ca abundance in early solar system, however, this is not observed in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15473646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15473646"><span id="translatedtitle">Genotypic differences in effects of cadmium exposure on plant growth and contents of cadmium and elements in 14 cultivars of bai <span class="hlt">cai</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zhu-Jun; Sun, Guang-Wen; Fang, Xue-Zhi; Qian, Qiong-Qiu; Yang, Xiao-E</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Fourteen cultivars of bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing 0-0.5 microg mL(-1) of cadmium (Cd) to investigate genotypic differences in the effects of Cd exposure on the plant growth and uptake and distribution of Cd in bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> plants. The Cd exposure significantly reduced the dry and fresh weights of roots and shoots, the dry weight ratio of shoot/root (S/R), total biomass, and chlorophyll content (SPAD value). Cd concentrations in bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> ranged from 13.3 to 74.9 microg g(-1) DW in shoots and from 163.1 to 574.7 microg g(-1) DW in roots under Cd exposure, respectively. The considerable genotypic differences of Cd concentrations and accumulations in both shoots and roots were observed among 14 bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> cultivars. Moreover, Cd mainly accumulated in the roots. Cd also caused the changes of uptake and distribution of nutrients in bai <span class="hlt">cai</span> and under the influence of cadmium, the concentration of potassium (K) decreased in shoot and increased in root. However, the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), boron (B), and iron (Fe) increased in shoots and decreased in roots. In addition, Cd exposure resulted in an increase in calcium (Ca), sulphur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in both shoots and roots but had no significant effects on the whole uptake of the examined mineral nutrients except for S. PMID:15473646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604967"><span id="translatedtitle">Image quality and radiation reduction of 320-row area detector CT coronary angiography with optimal tube voltage selection and an automatic exposure control system: comparison with body mass <span class="hlt">index-adapted</span> protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lim, Jiyeon; Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal; Shim, Hackjoon; Chung, Jin Wook</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>To assess the image quality and radiation exposure of 320-row area detector computed tomography (320-ADCT) coronary angiography with optimal tube voltage selection with the guidance of an automatic exposure control system in comparison with a body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI)-<span class="hlt">adapted</span> protocol. Twenty-two patients (study group) underwent 320-ADCT coronary angiography using an automatic exposure control system with the target standard deviation value of 33 as the image quality <span class="hlt">index</span> and the lowest possible tube voltage. For comparison, a sex- and BMI-matched group (control group, n = 22) using a BMI-<span class="hlt">adapted</span> protocol was established. Images of both groups were reconstructed by an iterative reconstruction algorithm. For objective evaluation of the image quality, image noise, vessel density, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Two blinded readers then subjectively graded the image quality using a four-point scale (1: nondiagnostic to 4: excellent). Radiation exposure was also measured. Although the study group tended to show higher image noise (14.1 ± 3.6 vs. 9.3 ± 2.2 HU, P = 0.111) and higher vessel density (665.5 ± 161 vs. 498 ± 143 HU, P = 0.430) than the control group, the differences were not significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups for SNR (52.5 ± 19.2 vs. 60.6 ± 21.8, P = 0.729), CNR (57.0 ± 19.8 vs. 67.8 ± 23.3, P = 0.531), or subjective image quality scores (3.47 ± 0.55 vs. 3.59 ± 0.56, P = 0.960). However, radiation exposure was significantly reduced by 42 % in the study group (1.9 ± 0.8 vs. 3.6 ± 0.4 mSv, P = 0.003). Optimal tube voltage selection with the guidance of an automatic exposure control system in 320-ADCT coronary angiography allows substantial radiation reduction without significant impairment of image quality, compared to the results obtained using a BMI-based protocol. PMID:25604967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4177982','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4177982"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">INDEXING</span> MECHANISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kock, L.J.</p> <p>1959-09-22</p> <p>A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an <span class="hlt">Index</span> pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an <span class="hlt">index</span> pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the <span class="hlt">index</span> pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ocgy...55..339L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ocgy...55..339L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved, particulate, and sedimentary organic matter in the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> River basin (Nha Trang Bay of the South China Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Shulga, N. A.; Drozdova, A. N.; Gusev, E. S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The data were obtained on the content of organic carbon in the water, particulate matter, and bottom sediments of the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> River and its tributaries (the basin of Nha Trang Bay). The surface waters of the considered basin contained OM mainly in a dissolved form (DOC/POC = 3). The fraction of Corg in particulate matter amounted to 4.9% on average. Based on the analysis of n-alkanes in bottom sediments, three OM types—autochthonous, mixed, and mainly terrigenous genesis—were distinguished. These types are alternated in series in the lengthwise profile of the river. All the OM types are in close relation to the peculiarities of sedimentation and hydrodynamics of the waters in the treated aquatic area. The geochemical indices (Pr/Ph, OEP17-19, and CPI values) represent the influence of oxidative conditions on OM formation and the intense microbiological transformation of its autochthonous component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED267762.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED267762.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Video-Only, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Only, and Interactive Video Instructional Systems on Learner Performance and Attitude: An Exploratory Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dalton, David W.; Hannafin, Michael J.</p> <p></p> <p>This study compared the effects of interactive video instruction on learner performance and attitude with the effects of conventional computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and stand-alone video. Based on pretest scores, 134 junior high industrial arts students designated as relatively high or low in prior achievement were randomly assigned to one of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522496"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of the androgen receptor (AR) in human spatial learning and memory: A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mueller, S C; Verwilst, T; Van Branteghem, A; T'Sjoen, G; Cools, M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined the impact of androgen insensitivity on human spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we tested 11 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), a rare genetic disorder characterized by complete absence of AR activity, and compared their performance against 20 comparison males and 19 comparison females on a virtual analog of the Morris Water Maze task. The results replicated a main sex effect showing that men relative to women were faster in finding the hidden platform and had reduced heading error. Furthermore, findings indicated that mean performance of women with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> was between control women and control men, though the differences were not statistically significant. Effect size estimates (and corresponding confidence intervals) of spatial learning trials showed little difference between women with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and control women but <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> women differed from men, but not women, on two variables, latency to find the platform and first-move latency. No differences between groups were present during visible platform trials or the probe trial, a measure of spatial memory. Moreover, groups also did not differ on estimates of IQ and variability of performance. The findings are discussed in relation to androgen insensitivity in human spatial learning and memory. PMID:26522496</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2495W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LPI....40.2495W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of Disturbance in the 26Al-26Mg Systematics of the Efremovka E60 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Implications for the High-Resolution Chronology of the Early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wadhwa, M.; Janney, P. E.; Krot, A. N.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We report results of a laser ablation MC-ICPMS study of the Efremovka E60 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Our data indicate that the 26Al-26Mg systematics in E60 are disturbed and we present the chronological implications of this finding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.2486D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.2486D"><span id="translatedtitle">In-Situ UV-Laser Fluorination Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of an Efremovka <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Matrix: Implications for Oxygen Isotopic Exchange in the Solar Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.; Krot, A. N.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Using a UV-laser ablation fluorination system, we obtained high-precision in situ data for E44 and surrounding matrix. The 16O-rich anorthite and solid-state diffusion calculations indicate that this process may be important to the evolution of oxygen in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C"><span id="translatedtitle">B and Mg isotopic variations in Leoville mrs-06 type B1 <span class="hlt">cai</span>:origin of 10Be and 26Al</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; Russel, S. S.; Gounelle, M.; Ash, R. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The finding [1-3] in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) of primitive chondrites of traces of the in situ decay of radioactive 10Be (half-life 1.5Myr) indicates that irradiation of the protosolar nebula by the young Sun in its T-Tauri phase has produced significant amounts of the Li-Be-B elements. This irradiation may have produced also some or all of the short-lived 26Al (half-life 0.7Myr) and 41Ca (half-life 0.1Myr) previously detected in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. To constrain the origin of 10Be and 10Al it is important to look for coupled variations in the 10Be/9Be and 26Al/27Al ratios in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and to understand the processes responsible for these variations (e.g. variations in the fluences of irradiation, secondary perturbations of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, ...) We have thus studied the Li and B isotopic compositions and the Be/Li and Be/B concentration ratios in one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (MRS-06) from the Leoville CV3 chondrite in which large variations of the Mg isotopic compositions showing both the in situ decay of 26Al and the secondary redistribution of Mg isotopes have been observed [4]. The results show large variations for the Li and B isotopic compositions (^7Li/^6Li ranging from 11.02±0.21 to 11.82±0.07, and 10B/11B ratios ranging from 0.2457±0.0053 to 0.2980±0.0085). The ^7Li/^6Li ratio tend to decrease towards the rim of the inclusion. The 10B/11B ratios are positively correlated with the ^9Be/11B ratios indicating the in situ decay of 10Be. However perturbations of the 10Be/B system are observed. They would correspond to an event which occurred approximately 2Myr after the formation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors which is responsible for the 10Be observed in the core of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These perturbations seem compatible with those observed for the 26Al/Mg system but they might be due to an irradiation of the already-formed, isolated <span class="hlt">CAI</span> which would have resulted in increased 10Be/^9Be ratios and low ^7Li/^6Li ratios in the margin of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. [1] McKeegan K. D. et al. (2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic Measurements in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sample of 7R19-1(a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeCoA..66.1459E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeCoA..66.1459E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka 101.1: a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with ultrarefractory REE patterns and enormous enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Inclusion 101.1 from the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Efremovka is a compact Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) highly enriched in ultrarefractory (UR) oxides. It is the first complete <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a UR rare earth element (REE) pattern found in a CV3 chondrite. The inclusion is petrographically complex and was formed in a multistage process. It consists of several lithologically unrelated units. The core contains abundant Y- and Zr-perovskite, Sc- and Zr-rich fassaite, and metallic FeNi enclosed in melilite. All mineral species (except spinel) in all lithological units exhibit the same basic UR REE pattern. Four different populations of perovskites are distinguished by different Y/Zr ratios. A few of the perovskites have Y/Zr ratios similar to those obtained from crystal/liquid fractionation experiments. Perovskites from the other three populations have either chondritic, lower than chondritic Y/Zr ratios or extremely low Zr contents. Ca isotopic ratios differ among three perovskites from different populations, demonstrating a variety of sources and formational processes. Most fassaites crystallized in situ through reaction between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> liquid and preexisting perovskites. This process induced redistribution of Zr, Y, Sc, and V between perovskite and fassaite, thus overprinting the original abundances in perovskite. Fassaite reaction rims around FeNi metals are also encountered. They are enriched in V, which was gained from the metal through oxidation of V in metal during fassaite crystallization. The relative abundances of Zr, Y, and Sc in perovskites are complementary to the abundances of these elements in Sc- and Zr-fassaite, indicating subsolidus partitioning of these elements between the two phases. Perovskites are enriched in Y and depleted in Sc and Zr in comparison to fassaites. The core contains two complete captured <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, several sinuous fragments, and fine-grained polygonal refractory fragments. An assemblage of andradite-wollastonite-hedenbergite and pure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937352','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937352"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable Lifting <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VLI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift <span class="hlt">Index</span> (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift <span class="hlt">Index</span> (CLI) equation is used with lifting <span class="hlt">index</span> (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232"><span id="translatedtitle">New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-7-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7474E..0IK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7474E..0IK"><span id="translatedtitle">On-orbit performance and level 1 data processing of TANSO-FTS and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on GOSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hamazaki, Takashi</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) monitors carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT is placed in a sun-synchronous orbit of 666km and 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center. There are two instruments on GOSAT. The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier- Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 μm) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 μm) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. For three months after the launch, the on-orbit function and performance have been checked out. Now level 1A (raw interferogram) and level 2B (spectra) are now being processed and provided regularly with calibration data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2203799','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2203799"><span id="translatedtitle">Disease Severity <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maloney, Clifford J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Workers studying several diseases have devised severity levels under the term “disease staging” to facilitate both research on the disease and the choice of treatment for individual patients. These categories are usually ad hoc, and hence neither widely accepted nor susceptable to improvement with increasing knowledge. Other workers have developed quantitative assays of the sensitivity of biological organisms under the term bioassay. The present paper applies an <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of bioassay to the assessment of the degree of sickness severity of individual patients. In practice using the <span class="hlt">index</span> requires only a simple table look-up. The feasibility and suitability of the technique were tested on records of 908 metastatic breast cancer patients which happened to be available. Study of other data is highly desirable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.344E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.344E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka 101.1: A Primitive <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with Superrefractory REE Patterns and Enormous Enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A fragment (30 mg) consisting of two inclusions (101.1 and 101.2) was separated from the Efremovka (CV3) meteorite. 101.1 is an unusual Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, whereas 101.2 consists of Cr-spinel and fassaite. INAA of the whole fragment revealed 16% MgO reflecting significant contributions from 101.2. Refractory lithophile elements in the bulk fragment have CI-enrichment factors of ~14 with two times enrichment factors for Ca, Eu, and Yb. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 101.1 (1.6 mm) contains more than 90% gehlenitic melilite (Ak(sub)1- Ak(sub)32) in its core. It is surrounded by a 5 layer rim sequence (~40 micrometers thick) consisting of spinel -->Al- diopside + fassaite (<= 0.7% Sc2O3) -->forsterite (Fo(sub)97- Fo(sub)100) --> diopside --> forsterite. Two small complete <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with a two layer sequence (diopside + anorthite) are contained within the core. Numerous layered sinuous inclusions presumably rim sequence fragments also consisting of diopside + anorthite, are locally crowded in the core. The melilite core is sprinkled with fassaite, perovskite, FeNi, and OsRu-rich metal blebs. Fassaite grains (<= 30 micrometers) contain enormous concentrations in Sc (up to 12.9% Sc2O3) and Zr (up to 5.4% ZrO2). Fassaite rims around FeNi blebs are rich in V (up to 5.4% V2O3) and are zoned with decreasing Sc-, Zr-, and V-concents from the metal cores to the outer fassaite rims. Sc2O3 and ZrO2 concentrations in fassaite display a positive correlation with a correlation coeffient of 0.88. This coherent behavior is a result of a complex cation substitution involving Mg, Ti, Sc, Zr, and V. A coupled substitution is demonstrated by the excellent linear correlation between Mg^2++Ti^4+(y) and Sc^3++Zr^4++Ti^3++V^3+(x) satisfying the equation y = 0.70-0.66x and having a linear regression coefficient of 0.84. Ti^3+/Ti^tot varies between 0.27 and 1. In contrast to fassaites, perovskites are generally depleted in Sc and Zr and enriched in Y (<=1.4% Y2O3). The assemblage andradite+wollastonite+ Fe^degree/or FeNi metal was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005CRGeo.337..399A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005CRGeo.337..399A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty in <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> capacity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The capacity to <span class="hlt">adapt</span> is a critical element of the process of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> actions can be made. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> capacity and the human action of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. While generic <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability <span class="hlt">index</span> for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521951"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hurley, Tim; Sadiq, Rehan; Mazumder, Asit</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Protecting drinking source water quality is a critical step in ensuring a safe supply of drinking water. Increasingly, drinking source water protection programs rely on the active participation of various stakeholders with differing degrees of water science knowledge. A drinking source water quality <span class="hlt">index</span> presents a potential communication and analysis tool to facilitate cooperation between diverse interest groups as well as represent composite water quality. We tested the effectiveness of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> (CCME WQI) in capturing expert assessments of drinking water quality. In cooperation with a panel of drinking water quality experts we identified a core set of parameters to reflect common source water concerns. Drinking source water target values were drafted for use in the <span class="hlt">index</span> corresponding to two basic treatment levels. <span class="hlt">Index</span> scores calculated using the core parameter set and associated source water target values were strongly correlated with expert assessments of water quality. We recommend a modified <span class="hlt">index</span> calculation procedure to accommodate parameters measured at different frequencies within any particular study period. The resulting drinking source water CCME WQI provides a valuable means of monitoring, communicating, and understanding surface source water quality. PMID:22521951</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2217071','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2217071"><span id="translatedtitle">Light <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> in Pecten Hyperpolarizing Photoreceptors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gomez, Maria del Pilar; Nasi, Enrico</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The ability of scallop hyperpolarizing photoreceptors to respond without attenuation to repetitive flashes, together with their low light sensitivity, lack of resolvable quantum bumps and fast photoresponse kinetics, had prompted the suggestion that these cells may be constitutively in a state akin to light <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. We here demonstrate that their photocurrent displays all manifestations of sensory <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>: (a) The response amplitude to a test flash is decreased in a graded way by background or conditioning lights. This attenuation of the response develops with a time constant of 200–800 ms, inversely related to background intensity. (b) <span class="hlt">Adapting</span> stimuli shift the stimulus-response curve and reduce the size of the saturating photocurrent. (c) The fall kinetics of the photoresponse are accelerated by light <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, and the roll-off of the modulation transfer function is displaced to higher frequencies. This light-induced desensitization exhibits a rapid recovery, on the order of a few seconds. Based on the notion that Ca mediates light <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> in other cells, we examined the consequences of manipulating this ion. Removal of external Ca reversibly increased the photocurrent amplitude, without affecting light sensitivity, photoresponse kinetics, or susceptibility to background <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>; the effect, therefore, concerns ion permeation, rather than the regulation of the visual response. Intracellular dialysis with 10 mM BAPTA did not reduce the peak-to-plateau decay of the photocurrent elicited by prolonged light steps, not the background-induced compression of the response amplitude range and the acceleration of its kinetics. Conversely, high levels of buffered free [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> (10 μM) only marginally shifted the sensitivity curve (Δσ = 0.3 log) and spared all manifestations of light <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. These results indicate that hyperpolarizing invertebrate photoreceptors <span class="hlt">adapt</span> to light, but the underlying mechanisms must utilize pathways that are largely</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fuzzy+AND+measure+AND+theory&id=ED032915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fuzzy+AND+measure+AND+theory&id=ED032915"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Consistency and Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.</p> <p></p> <p>A measure of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if <span class="hlt">indexers</span> agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an <span class="hlt">indexer</span>'s work and exhaustivity of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also proposed. Experimental data on <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ability+AND+burn&pg=3&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ability+AND+burn&pg=3&id=ED229789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data that could…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED087423.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED087423.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> In Chicago.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Litman, George H.</p> <p></p> <p>A computer-assisted instructional system has been implemented in 21 elementary schools in Chicago. The system runs on a UNIVAC 418-III computer which processes concurrently the reading, language arts, and mathematics drill and practice strand programs of the Computer Curriculum Corporation. All students participating qualified under the Elementary…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310397&keyword=book&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68568249&CFTOKEN=98687688','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310397&keyword=book&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68568249&CFTOKEN=98687688"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> managem...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872707','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872707"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleic acid <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A restriction site <span class="hlt">indexing</span> method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences complementary to fragment <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial <span class="hlt">indexing</span> facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873713"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleic acid <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A restriction site <span class="hlt">indexing</span> method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences complementary to fragment <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial <span class="hlt">indexing</span> facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830000241&hterms=Construction+management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DConstruction%2Bmanagement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830000241&hterms=Construction+management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DConstruction%2Bmanagement"><span id="translatedtitle">KSC Construction Cost <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, J. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Kennedy Space Center cost <span class="hlt">Index</span> aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost <span class="hlt">Index</span> since January 1974. <span class="hlt">Index</span> since January 1974. <span class="hlt">Index</span> provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1414958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1414958"><span id="translatedtitle">Creatinine arm <span class="hlt">index</span> as alternative for creatinine height <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Hoeyweghen, R J; De Leeuw, I H; Vandewoude, M F</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Nutritional assessment of elderly people is limited due to a lack of age-corrected standards. The objective of this study was to develop a new, more age-independent <span class="hlt">index</span> for nutritional assessment by correcting the creatinine height <span class="hlt">index</span> (CHI) for the age-induced changes in its variables. This might improve the differentiation between physiological reduction in muscle mass in elderly people and the changes induced by malnutrition. Seventy-four elderly and 100 young healthy volunteers were compared by anthropometric and biochemical-assessment variables. From the high correlation between total arm length and body length (r = 0.86; P less than 0.001) and the use of an alternative formula to calculate ideal body weight (IBW) from height and wrist circumference, a relatively age-independent estimate of IBW was determined. Creatinine arm <span class="hlt">index</span>, as an <span class="hlt">adapted</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> of CHI, is proposed based on this age-independent IBW estimation and a specific creatinine coefficient for different age groups. PMID:1414958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286003"><span id="translatedtitle">[Characteristics and <span class="hlt">adaption</span> of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit <span class="hlt">index</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit <span class="hlt">index</span> (CWDI) as agricultural drought <span class="hlt">index</span>, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops. PMID:23286003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..818I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..818I"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare earth element measurements and mapping of minerals in the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, 7R19-1, by NanoSIMS ion microprobe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ito, Motoo; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We have established analytical procedures for quantitative rare earth element (REE) measurements by NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe with 2-10 μm spatial resolution. Measurements are performed by multidetection using energy filtering under several static magnetic field settings. Relative sensitivity factors and REE oxide/REE element secondary ion ratios that we determined for the NanoSIMS match values previously determined for other ion microprobes. REE measurements of 100 ppm REE glass standards yielded reproducibility and accuracy of 0.5-2.5% and 5-15%, respectively. REE measurements of minerals of an Allende type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, 7R19-1, were performed using three different methods: spot analysis, line profile, and imaging. These data are in excellent agreement with previous REE measurements of this inclusion by IMS-3f ion microprobe. The higher spatial resolution NanoSIMS measurements provide additional insight into the formation process of this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and offer a promising new tool for analysis of fine-grained and complexly zoned materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2575754','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2575754"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> SPECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> systems in general, and <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> rules are discussed. PMID:18541485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.189...70K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.189...70K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005945"><span id="translatedtitle">CENDI <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The CENDI <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, <span class="hlt">indexing</span> quality, an <span class="hlt">indexing</span> pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information <span class="hlt">indexing</span> activities, high-tech coding structures, category <span class="hlt">indexing</span> schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225569','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225569"><span id="translatedtitle">Occupation and educational inequalities in laryngeal cancer: the use of a job <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies tried to assess the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco consumption explain already a large part of the social inequalities. Occupational exposures might explain a part of the remaining but the components and pathways of the socioeconomic contribution have yet to be fully disentangled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of occupation using different occupational indices, differentiating between physical, psycho-social and toxic exposures and trying to summarize the occupational burden into one variable. Methods A population-based case–control study conducted in Germany in 1998–2000 included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption and education was collected with face-to-face interviews. A recently developed job-classification <span class="hlt">index</span> was used to account for the occupational burden. A sub-<span class="hlt">index</span> focussed on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for the upper aero digestive tract. Results When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the physical and psycho-social job indices (OR = 3.2, 95%-CI: 1.5-6.8), similar to the OR using the sub-<span class="hlt">index</span> <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (OR = 3.0, 95%-CI: 1.4-6.5). Conclusions The use of an easily applicable control variable, simply constructed on standard occupational job classifications, provides the possibility to differentiate between educational and occupational contributions. Such an <span class="hlt">index</span> might indirectly reflect the effect of carcinogenic agents, which are not collected in many studies. PMID:24246148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). You and your health care provider ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_tbl.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_tbl.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Table</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2435T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.2435T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thoms, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience <span class="hlt">Index</span> Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite <span class="hlt">index</span>, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite <span class="hlt">index</span> of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience <span class="hlt">Index</span> will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236946','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236946"><span id="translatedtitle">California Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The California N <span class="hlt">Index</span> User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N <span class="hlt">Index</span> runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N <span class="hlt">Index</span> to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index&pg=2&id=EJ997592','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index&pg=2&id=EJ997592"><span id="translatedtitle">The Europe 2020 <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pasimeni, Paolo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">index</span> to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the <span class="hlt">index</span> shows…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scheuerman&id=ED133338','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scheuerman&id=ED133338"><span id="translatedtitle">An Inventory of <span class="hlt">Adapting</span> Variables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scheuerman, Karl</p> <p></p> <p>Three quantitative measures which assess instructional material in terms of the rationale of <span class="hlt">adapting</span> are reported. The first <span class="hlt">index</span> is termed the consequence ratio, which evaluates diagnostic items in terms of how effectively time is used. The second measure, termed predictive validity, evaluates the accuracy of diagnostic test predictions. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=genetic+AND+algorithms&pg=5&id=EJ532968','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=genetic+AND+algorithms&pg=5&id=EJ532968"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Clustering of Hypermedia Documents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Andrew; Fotouhi, Farshad</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of hypermedia systems focuses on a comparison of two types of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> algorithm (genetic algorithm and neural network) in clustering hypermedia documents. These clusters allow the user to <span class="hlt">index</span> into the nodes to find needed information more quickly, since clustering is "personalized" based on the user's paths rather than representing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin&pg=6&id=ED287161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin&pg=6&id=ED287161"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS). 1986-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26161471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26161471"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconceptualizing Family <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> to Developmental Delay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pedersen, Anita L; Crnic, Keith A; Baker, Bruce L; Blacher, Jan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This study explores accurate conceptualization of the <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> construct in families of children with developmental delay aged 3 to 8 years. Parents' self-reported measures of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and observed dyadic relationship variables were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis and longitudinal growth modeling were used to evaluate the nature of <span class="hlt">adaptational</span> processes. Results indicate that <span class="hlt">adaptational</span> processes vary across <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> <span class="hlt">index</span>, child developmental level, and parent gender. <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> indices did not load onto a single construct at any time point. Several <span class="hlt">adaptational</span> processes remained stable across time, although others showed linear or quadratic change. The findings of the current study indicate that it is time for a change in how <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is conceived for families of children with developmental delay. PMID:26161471</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18229552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18229552"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">index</span> for quantifying flocking behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quera, Vicenç; Herrando, Salvador; Beltran, Francesc S; Salas, Laura; Miñano, Meritxell</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>One of the classic research topics in <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> behavior is the collective displacement of groups of organisms such as flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of mammals, and crowds of people. However, most agent-based simulations of group behavior do not provide a quantitative <span class="hlt">index</span> for determining the point at which the flock emerges. An <span class="hlt">index</span> was developed of the aggregation of moving individuals in a flock and an example was provided of how it can be used to quantify the degree to which a group of moving individuals actually forms a flock. PMID:18229552</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050156897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050156897"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-<span class="hlt">adaptive</span> clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computers&pg=6&id=ED138296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computers&pg=6&id=ED138296"><span id="translatedtitle">EMMSE Media <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volume&pg=6&id=EJ915335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volume&pg=6&id=EJ915335"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Volumetrically <span class="hlt">Indexed</span> Cups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Dustin L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span>; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142881&keyword=XML&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74025436&CFTOKEN=65522823','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142881&keyword=XML&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74025436&CFTOKEN=65522823"><span id="translatedtitle">HUMAN USE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> (FUTURE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use <span class="hlt">index</span> (also known as U-<span class="hlt">index</span>) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142880&keyword=XML&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74025436&CFTOKEN=65522823','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142880&keyword=XML&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74025436&CFTOKEN=65522823"><span id="translatedtitle">HUMAN USE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use <span class="hlt">index</span> (also known as U-<span class="hlt">index</span>) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drought+AND+california&id=ED362285','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drought+AND+california&id=ED362285"><span id="translatedtitle">Children's Stress <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sherman, Dianne, Ed.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress <span class="hlt">Index</span>", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the <span class="hlt">index</span> ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2920G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2920G"><span id="translatedtitle">Drought Frequency <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought <span class="hlt">indexes</span> try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation <span class="hlt">Index</span> (SPI) is a well-known <span class="hlt">index</span>, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new <span class="hlt">index</span> is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new <span class="hlt">index</span> does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived <span class="hlt">index</span>, named Drought Frequency <span class="hlt">Index</span> (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new <span class="hlt">index</span> was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coastline&pg=6&id=ED257512','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coastline&pg=6&id=ED257512"><span id="translatedtitle">Transfer <span class="hlt">Index</span>: One Definition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heinselman, James L.</p> <p></p> <p>A transfer <span class="hlt">index</span> of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate <span class="hlt">index</span> of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fog&pg=3&id=ED154337','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fog&pg=3&id=ED154337"><span id="translatedtitle">A Computer Calculated <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Francis J.</p> <p></p> <p>The Gunning Fog <span class="hlt">Index</span> of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog <span class="hlt">Index</span> of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866788','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866788"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient <span class="hlt">index</span> retroreflector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Layne, Clyde B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A retroreflector is formed of a graded <span class="hlt">index</span> lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded <span class="hlt">index</span> lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IIE&pg=4&id=EJ314404','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IIE&pg=4&id=EJ314404"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adapting</span> Animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be <span class="hlt">adapted</span> for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231944','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231944"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Thresholds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bremer, P. -T.</p> <p>2014-08-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">ADAPT</span> is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112802"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> homeostasis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davies, Kelvin J A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820008048','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820008048"><span id="translatedtitle">A liquid crystal <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> lens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kowel, S. T.; Cleverly, D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Creation of an electronically controlled liquid crystal lens for use as a focusing mechanism in a multi-element lens system or as an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optical element is analyzed. Varying the <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction is shown to be equivalent to the shaping of a solid refracting material. Basic characteristics of liquid crystals, essential for the creation of a lens, are reviewed. The required variation of <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction is provided by choosing appropriate electrode voltages. The configuration required for any incoming polarization is given and its theoretical performance in terms of modulation transfer function derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1921G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1921G"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, <span class="hlt">adapt</span> or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility <span class="hlt">index</span> for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is a component of the national vulnerability <span class="hlt">index</span> developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed <span class="hlt">index</span> correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESD...2.7553G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESD...2.7553G"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, <span class="hlt">adapt</span> or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility <span class="hlt">index</span> for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is part of the national vulnerability <span class="hlt">index</span> developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed <span class="hlt">index</span> correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024318"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA 1981 photography <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">index</span> of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA21B2160K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA21B2160K"><span id="translatedtitle">A Heat Vulnerability <span class="hlt">Index</span> and <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klima, K.; Abrahams, L.; Bradford, K.; Hegglin, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/ Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare datasets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26333158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26333158"><span id="translatedtitle">A Heat Vulnerability <span class="hlt">Index</span> and <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought. PMID:26333158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMES..42..272J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMES..42..272J"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Dustin L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span>; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007273','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007273"><span id="translatedtitle">JSC document <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document <span class="hlt">index</span> is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The <span class="hlt">index</span> contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7468E..0GL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7468E..0GL"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micro-shutter designs for <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> coded aperture imaging (ACAI) technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ledet, Mary M.; Starman, LaVern A.; Coutu, Ronald A., Jr.; Rogers, Stanley</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Coded aperture imaging (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has been used in both the astronomical and medical communities for years due to its ability to image light at short wavelengths and thus replacing conventional lenses. Where <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is limited, <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> coded aperture imaging (ACAI) can recover what is lost. The use of photonic micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) for creating <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> coded apertures has been gaining momentum since 2007. Successful implementation of micro-shutter technologies would potentially enable the use of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> coded aperture imaging and non-imaging systems in current and future military surveillance and intelligence programs. In this effort, a prototype of MEMS microshutters has been designed and fabricated onto a 3 mm x 3 mm square of silicon substrate using the PolyMUMPSTM process. This prototype is a line-drivable array using thin flaps of polysilicon to cover and uncover an 8 x 8 array of 20 μm apertures. A characterization of the micro-shutters to include mechanical, electrical and optical properties is provided. This prototype, its actuation scheme, and other designs for individual microshutters have been modeled and studied for feasibility purposes. In addition, microshutters fabricated from an Al-Au alloy on a quartz wafer were optically tested and characterized with a 632 nm HeNe laser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080009459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080009459"><span id="translatedtitle">Connector <span class="hlt">adapter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">adapter</span> for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the <span class="hlt">adapter</span> is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3123378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3123378"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipoxygenase inhibitors suppress IL-2 synthesis: relationship with rise of [<span class="hlt">Ca++]i</span> and the events dependent on protein kinase C activation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dornand, J; Sekkat, C; Mani, J C; Gerber, M</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>The present study was performed in an attempt to understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of interleukin 2 (IL-2) synthesis by lipoxygenase (LO) pathway inhibitors. Using the two IL-2-producing lymphoid cell lines, (Jurkat and EL4 cells), we showed first that the inhibitory effect of the phenolic compounds tested (NDGA, BHA and caffeic acid) acted on lymphoid cells themselves and not on eventual monocytic or granulocytic contaminant cells. Secondly, these inhibitors were demonstrated as exerting their effect on two levels: they affected the events controlled by both second messengers implicated in T cell activation, namely rise of intracellular free calcium concentration [( <span class="hlt">Ca++]i</span>) and protein kinase C (PKC) activation. For this purpose, LO inhibitor effects have been compared: (a) on IL-2 production by the two different lines: Jurkat cells, which need both signals, and EL4 cells, which require only PKC activation for the induction of this production; and (b) on the events induced by the different ways of Jurkat cell activation: PHA (or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) versus calcium ionophore. These results are discussed with respect to an eventual involvement of arachidonic acid [AA] derivatives in IL-2 synthesis. PMID:3123378</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331"><span id="translatedtitle">New generic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeston, Michael</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database <span class="hlt">indexing</span> has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> technology for the next generation of database systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864401','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> sampler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6501553','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6501553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> sampler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.</p> <p>1980-08-26</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987maa..agarR....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987maa..agarR....B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> antennas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barton, P.</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>The basic principles of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> system. The three generic approaches to <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculate Your Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014426"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarantine document system <span class="hlt">indexing</span> procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> procedures and thesaurus of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20972058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20972058"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainability <span class="hlt">index</span> for Taipei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Y.-J. . E-mail: yungjaanlee@pchome.com.tw; Huang Chingming . E-mail: michael@everwin.com.tw</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability <span class="hlt">index</span> is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability <span class="hlt">index</span> has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability <span class="hlt">index</span> indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015176','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015176"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span> or the illite "crystallinity' <span class="hlt">index</span>. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span> method alone. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2538220','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2538220"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of endemicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Swaroop, Satya</p> <p>1957-01-01</p> <p>The author discusses the difficulties involved in defining the term “endemicity”, and suggests a new approach to the problem—namely, the establishment of indices of endemicity, based on such data as are usually collected by national health administrations (mortality and morbidity rates, spleen-rates, case incidence in seaports, etc.). Examples are given of the calculation of the endemicity <span class="hlt">index</span> for a number of diseases from different types of data obtained from various countries. An important advantage of the endemicity <span class="hlt">index</span> is that it provides an easy means of studying the geographical pattern of endemic foci of disease. PMID:13479767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LTP....41..760D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LTP....41..760D"><span id="translatedtitle">Graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> magnonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (graded magnonic <span class="hlt">index</span>). By analogy to the fields of graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=application+AND+index+AND+refraction&id=EJ300392','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=application+AND+index+AND+refraction&id=EJ300392"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient Refractive <span class="hlt">Index</span> Lenses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morton, N.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes the nature of gradient refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770013458','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770013458"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Photography 1977 <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">index</span> is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Forbes&pg=2&id=EJ603328','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Forbes&pg=2&id=EJ603328"><span id="translatedtitle">The Misery <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bracey, Gerald W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery <span class="hlt">Index</span> than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914571.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914571.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Allister</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21647928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21647928"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> molecules with chemical graph identifiers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Fast and robust algorithms for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used <span class="hlt">indexing</span> codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular <span class="hlt">index</span> being used. PMID:21647928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874282','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874282"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Weiss, Jonathan David</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A sensor for measuring the change in refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the <span class="hlt">index</span> of the liquid is significantly less than the <span class="hlt">index</span> of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its <span class="hlt">index</span> is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435760"><span id="translatedtitle">The tree BVOC <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC <span class="hlt">index</span> based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the <span class="hlt">index</span> as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039048','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039048"><span id="translatedtitle">Abstracting and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and <span class="hlt">index</span> scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected <span class="hlt">index</span> terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844920"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to nonmelanoma skin cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Czajkowska, Zofia; Radiotis, George; Roberts, Nicole; Körner, Annett</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Taylor's (1983) cognitive <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> theory posits that when people go through life transitions, such as being diagnosed with a chronic disease, they adjust to their new reality. The adjustment process revolves around three themes: search for positive meaning in the experience or optimism, attempt to regain a sense of mastery in life, as well as an effort to enhance self-esteem. In the sample of 57 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer the Cognitive <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> <span class="hlt">Index</span> successfully predicted participants' distress (p < .001) accounting for 60% of the variance and lending support for the Taylor's theory of cognitive <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> in this population. PMID:23844920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1983EOSTr..64R.122.&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1983EOSTr..64R.122.&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">New weather <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress <span class="hlt">index</span>. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the <span class="hlt">index</span> adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress <span class="hlt">index</span> estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9119E..0EA&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9119E..0EA&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of cyber integrity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Gustave</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the <span class="hlt">index</span> of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the <span class="hlt">index</span> of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric <span class="hlt">index</span> may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6124..180H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6124..180H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Similar DNA Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.</p> <p></p> <p>To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an <span class="hlt">indexing</span> data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to <span class="hlt">index</span> highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our <span class="hlt">index</span> requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8808B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8808B"><span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">index</span> to estimate precipitation using cloud growing rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergès, Jean Claude; Jobard, Isabelle; Roca, Rémy</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">index</span> assessing the cloud growing rate is described in this paper. It has been designed to be integrated in rainfall estimation procedures. As the highest precipitation rates occur in growing convective cores, integrating this information should enhance the precipitation estimations. The <span class="hlt">index</span> computation relies on image processing methods. It is composed of two steps: first a watershed segmentation is applied and then an original heritage process is performed. This second step, which is based on a simple matrix computation, is <span class="hlt">adapted</span> to the watershed algorithm as it mitigates the over-segmentation artefact. This cloud growing rate <span class="hlt">index</span> is compared with a cooling <span class="hlt">index</span> which is usually computed to help in identifying raining cells and it is demonstrated to be more efficient. Moreover a simple integration of this <span class="hlt">index</span> in a widespread rainfall estimation method leads to an improvement of the diurnal cycle retrieval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programmable+AND+calculator&pg=5&id=EJ114899','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programmable+AND+calculator&pg=5&id=EJ114899"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> on a Programmable Calculator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schlaphoff, Carl W.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a procedure for presenting routine practice problems on a programable calculator with attached teletype. The program uses a random number generator to write problems, gives feedback and assigns grades according to the procedures outlined (and flow-charted) by the author. (SD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2670211','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2670211"><span id="translatedtitle">The great contribution: <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus, <span class="hlt">Index</span>-Catalogue, and <span class="hlt">Index</span>Cat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greenberg, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Patricia E.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The systematic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> of medical literature by the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (now the National Library of Medicine) has been called “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” In the 1870s, the library launched two <span class="hlt">indexes</span>: the <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus and the <span class="hlt">Index</span>-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office. <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus is better remembered today as the forerunner of MEDLINE, but <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus began as the junior partner of what the library saw as its major publication, the <span class="hlt">Index</span>-Catalogue. However, the <span class="hlt">Index</span>-Catalogue had been largely overlooked by many medical librarians until 2004, when the National Library of Medicine released <span class="hlt">Index</span>Cat, the online version of <span class="hlt">Index</span>-Catalogue. Access to this huge amount of material raised new questions: What was the coverage of the <span class="hlt">Index</span>-Catalogue? How did it compare and overlap with the <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus? Method: Over 1,000 randomly generated <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus citations were cross-referenced in <span class="hlt">Index</span>Cat. Results: Inclusion, form, content, authority control, and subject headings were evaluated, revealing that the relationship between the two publications was neither simple nor static through time. In addition, the authors found interesting anomalies that shed light on how medical literature was selected and <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” PMID:19404501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4094155','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4094155"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span>) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ngoc, T. T. B.; Hong, T. T. T.; Len, N. T.; Lindberg, J. E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span> (MC) and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer’s grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs. PMID:25049538</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0175.photos.168866p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0175.photos.168866p/"><span id="translatedtitle">29. TRACK LAYOUT, <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO DRAWINGS AND <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO MATERIALS, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>29. TRACK LAYOUT, <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO DRAWINGS AND <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Evaluation+AND+psychological+AND+adults+AND+adults+AND+older&pg=5&id=ED020595','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Evaluation+AND+psychological+AND+adults+AND+adults+AND+older&pg=5&id=ED020595"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ADAPTATION</span> AND <span class="hlt">ADAPTABILITY</span>, THE BELLEFAIRE FOLLOWUP STUDY.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>ALLERHAND, MELVIN E.; AND OTHERS</p> <p></p> <p>A RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED INFLUENCES, <span class="hlt">ADAPTATION</span>, AND <span class="hlt">ADAPTABILITY</span> IN 50 POORLY <span class="hlt">ADAPTING</span> BOYS AT BELLEFAIRE, A REGIONAL CHILD CARE CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. THE TEAM ATTEMPTED TO GAUGE THE SUCCESS OF THE RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTER IN TERMS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND ROLE PERFORMANCES OF THE BOYS DURING INDIVIDUAL CASEWORK…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105145&keyword=Cp&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77926456&CFTOKEN=45566736','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105145&keyword=Cp&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77926456&CFTOKEN=45566736"><span id="translatedtitle">A roughness-corrected <span class="hlt">index</span> of relative bed stability for regional stream surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Quantitative regional assessments of streambed sedimentation and its likely causes are hampered because field investigations typically lack the requisite sample size, measurements, or precision for sound geomorphic and statistical interpretation. We <span class="hlt">adapted</span> an <span class="hlt">index</span> of relative b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046799"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> Sets and Vectorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keasler, J A</p> <p>2012-03-27</p> <p>Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid <span class="hlt">index</span> sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid <span class="hlt">index</span> sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890841','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890841"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nuttall, Frank Q.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an <span class="hlt">index</span> of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615112','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615112"><span id="translatedtitle">A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M.; Velligan, Dawn I.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> of 4 intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in 8 countries familiar with medication. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. For each measure except the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the majority of subscales were reported to require major <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries – systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. PMID:23167987</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lookup&pg=4&id=EJ343915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lookup&pg=4&id=EJ343915"><span id="translatedtitle">An Introduction to Voice <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chandler, James G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Uses and sources of voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27416593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27416593"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Image Denoising by Mixture <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We propose an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and <span class="hlt">adapts</span> it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2972429','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2972429"><span id="translatedtitle">SCARF SOCIAL FUNCTIONING <span class="hlt">INDEX</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Padmavathi, R.; Thara, R.; Srinivasan, Latha; Kumar, Shuba</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Several instruments measuring social functioning have been developed in the last four decades, as a result of the increasing interest in community care of the chronic mentally ill. SCARF Social Functioning <span class="hlt">Index</span> (SSFI) was developed to meet the pressing need for an instrument which was easy to administer and which could be used by all mental health professionals. The SSFI comprises four main sections: self concern, occupational role, role in the family and other social roles. Each section has several subsections covering different areas of social functioning. Validity and reliability have been established for a group of normals, patients suffering from schizophrenia and from Hansen's disease. Internal consistencies of these factors were high Factor analysis derived four main factors, which included nearly all items of the SSFI. This paper reports on the development and standardization of the instrument. PMID:21743742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27512505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27512505"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116199','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116199"><span id="translatedtitle">A Windshear Hazard <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional <span class="hlt">index</span> was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagieński, Zbigniew</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966218','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966218"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/481276','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/481276"><span id="translatedtitle">Dermal toxicity evaluation of neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) with an overview of the dermal toxicity of vesicant agents and their degradation products. Final report, January-September 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olajos, E.J.; Cameron, K.P.; Way, R.A.; Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Acute dermal toxicity (limit test) and skin irritation studies were conducted in New Zealand white rabbits to ascertain the systemic toxicity and skin-injury potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>). Studies also included the assessment of oxidant/solvent systems and solvent induced toxicity. The toxicity limit test consisted of a 24-hr occluded exposure to 1.0 ml/kg of `test article.` Dermal irritation studies were based on a 4-hr occluded exposure to 0.5 ml of `test article.` Chemical neutralization of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> resulted in complex product solutions (wastestreams) containing ppm levels of agent and an array of degradation products. Findings from the skin irritation testing of wastestreams and oxidant/solvent systems indicate that wastestream-induced skin effects (edema and erythema) were equivalent to or less in severity than the skin effects produced by exposure to oxidant/solvent systems. Systemic effects were not observed in 4/5 wastestream-exposed groups; however, 2/5 wastestream-treated groups exhibited systemic effects. Lethality was noted in only 1/5 wastestream-treated groups. Limit test data indicate that agents (HD, HN, or L) were destroyed by reaction with oxidant to less toxic materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mcgb.conf...25K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mcgb.conf...25K"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Handwritten Text</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamel, Ibrahim</p> <p></p> <p>This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first <span class="hlt">index</span>, word-level <span class="hlt">index</span>, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level <span class="hlt">index</span> is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level <span class="hlt">index</span>, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level <span class="hlt">index</span> is more accurate, but more costly than the word level <span class="hlt">index</span>. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the <span class="hlt">index</span> size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed <span class="hlt">indexes</span> achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed <span class="hlt">indexes</span> improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5324766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5324766"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">index</span> generation and delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lantz, L.J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The Solar <span class="hlt">Index</span>, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar <span class="hlt">Index</span>, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar <span class="hlt">Index</span> represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The <span class="hlt">Index</span> is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The <span class="hlt">Index</span> is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the <span class="hlt">Index</span>, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the <span class="hlt">Index</span>, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/982896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/982896"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient Joins with Compressed Bitmap <span class="hlt">Indexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Computational Research Division; Madduri, Kamesh; Wu, Kesheng</p> <p>2009-08-19</p> <p>We present a new class of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> algorithms that use compressed bitmap <span class="hlt">indexes</span> to speed up evaluation of the range join query in relational databases. We determine the best strategy to process a join query based on a fast sub-linear time computation of the join selectivity (the ratio of the number of tuples in the result to the total number of possible tuples). In addition, we use compressed bitmaps to represent the join output compactly: the space requirement for storing the tuples representing the join of two relations is asymptotically bounded by min(h; n . cb), where h is the number of tuple pairs in the result relation, n is the number of tuples in the smaller of the two relations, and cb is the cardinality of the larger column being joined. We present a theoretical analysis of our algorithms, as well as experimental results on large-scale synthetic and real data sets. Our implementations are efficient, and consistently outperform well-known approaches for a range of join selectivity factors. For instance, our count-only algorithm is up to three orders of magnitude faster than the sort-merge approach, and our best bitmap <span class="hlt">index</span>-based algorithm is 1.2x-80x faster than the sort-merge algorithm, for various query instances. We achieve these speedups by exploiting several inherent performance advantages of compressed bitmap <span class="hlt">indexes</span> for join processing: an implicit partitioning of the attributes, space-efficiency, and tolerance of high-cardinality relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26ARv..22...76H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26ARv..22...76H"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric and <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickson, Paul</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Atmospheric optics is the study of optical effects induced by the atmosphere on light propagating from distant sources. Of particular concern to astronomers is atmospheric turbulence, which limits the performance of ground-based telescopes. The past two decades have seen remarkable growth in the capabilities and performance of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics (AO) systems. These opto-mechanical systems actively compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. By sensing, and correcting, wavefront distortion introduced by atmospheric <span class="hlt">index</span>-of-refraction variations, AO systems can produce images with resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at near-infrared wavelengths. This review highlights the physical processes and fundamental relations of atmospheric optics that are most relevant to astronomy, and discusses the techniques used to characterize atmospheric turbulence. The fundamentals of AO are then introduced and the many types of advanced AO systems that have been developed are described. The principles of each are outlined, and the performance and limitations are examined. Aspects of photometric and astrometric measurements of AO-corrected images are considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the challenges related to current and future AO systems, particularly those that will equip the next generation of large, ground-based optical and infrared telescopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=231970&keyword=gold&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65330808&CFTOKEN=48641211','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=231970&keyword=gold&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65330808&CFTOKEN=48641211"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Multiple <span class="hlt">Index</span> Development Approaches to Benthic Invertebrate Data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Previous work had indicated that the Virginian Province <span class="hlt">Index</span> did not perform well in a smaller estuarine complex. While it was hoped that the existing Chesapeake Bay Benthic <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Biotic Integrity, with its greater number of metrics and habitat separation would be more <span class="hlt">adapt</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ794785.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ794785.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development and Validation of the Elementary School Ethical Climate <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument that measures the ethical climate of elementary schools. To create the Elementary School Ethical Climate <span class="hlt">Index</span> (ESECI), we <span class="hlt">adapted</span> the ethical climate <span class="hlt">index</span> for middle and high schools. The ESECI assesses student and teacher interactions and relationships through the application…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inclusion+AND+policy+AND+International&pg=7&id=EJ831934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inclusion+AND+policy+AND+International&pg=7&id=EJ831934"><span id="translatedtitle">Can the Introduction of an Inclusion <span class="hlt">Index</span> Move a System Forward?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heung, Vivian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the moves towards greater inclusion in the Hong Kong education system and the problems that have arisen from those moves. It then describes the introduction of an <span class="hlt">adapted</span> version of the <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion, called the Indicators for Inclusion in Hong Kong, in order to stimulate greater progress. As the <span class="hlt">adapted</span> Hong Kong…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048692','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048692"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied Parallel Metadata <span class="hlt">Indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobi, Michael R</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then <span class="hlt">indexed</span> on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940003959&hterms=technical+files&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtechnical%2Bfiles','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940003959&hterms=technical+files&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtechnical%2Bfiles"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA Uniform Files <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files <span class="hlt">Index</span> coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703959','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703959"><span id="translatedtitle">Habituation of visual <span class="hlt">adaptation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> literature focuses on short-term <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> across multiple daily <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, which corresponded to the degree of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> on each day. For passively viewed <span class="hlt">adapters</span>, repeated <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> attenuated aftereffects. Once <span class="hlt">adapters</span> were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> showed that repeated exposure of the <span class="hlt">adapter</span> appeared to be equivalent to <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26739917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26739917"><span id="translatedtitle">Habituation of visual <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> literature focuses on short-term <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> across multiple daily <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, which corresponded to the degree of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> on each day. For passively viewed <span class="hlt">adapters</span>, repeated <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> attenuated aftereffects. Once <span class="hlt">adapters</span> were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> showed that repeated exposure of the <span class="hlt">adapter</span> appeared to be equivalent to <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED061081.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED061081.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of Four Types of Feedback to Student Responses on a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Unit Designed to Teach the Concept of Function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schoen, Harold L.</p> <p></p> <p>This study compared four instructional treatments which differed in the degree of individualization and personalization in a computer assisted instructional unit designed to teach the concept of function. The researcher developed two units and <span class="hlt">adapted</span> the second for four types of feedback: two levels of individualization to incorrect responses and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012065','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840012065"><span id="translatedtitle">Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography is a cumulative <span class="hlt">index</span> to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative <span class="hlt">index</span> includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number <span class="hlt">indexes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....57..208Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CG.....57..208Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast <span class="hlt">indexing</span> of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between <span class="hlt">indexing</span> efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient <span class="hlt">indexing</span> algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> hits, <span class="hlt">indexing</span> logical hops, and <span class="hlt">adaptability</span>. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information <span class="hlt">indexing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125679','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125679"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Dietary <span class="hlt">Indexes</span> among Children in Developed Countries12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Newby, P. K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we review studies that have used dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> to assess different aspects of diet in relation to health outcomes and sociodemographic factors in childhood populations of developed countries. Eighty-four papers published from 1980 to mid-2010 including 90 unique dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> were reviewed. Seventy-two <span class="hlt">indexes</span> were developed (or have been <span class="hlt">adapted</span>) specifically for childhood populations; 38 of these were used to assess diet-disease associations, mostly of diet and obesity. In the majority of these studies, small inverse associations between dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and obesity <span class="hlt">indexes</span> were shown. Children who were younger, female, and from high-income families had better dietary quality scores. Forty-nine <span class="hlt">indexes</span> (of 90) were compared with other aspects of dietary intakes or behaviors, with correlations ranging from very low to modest (∼r = 0.05–0.50). Only 2 validation studies compared an <span class="hlt">index</span> with nutritional biomarkers, and correlations were quite weak for most plasma nutrients (P < 0.10). Overall, a large number of <span class="hlt">indexes</span> have been created and used, but the majority of studies are descriptive. Fewer analytic studies on <span class="hlt">index</span>-health associations have been performed, and most analyses insufficiently adjusted for confounders. Thus, prospective and intervention research in diverse populations is needed to further test these tools. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are potentially useful methods for dietary assessment, because they offer valuable information on overall dietary patterns in children. However, understanding the advantages and limitations when applying them in research and public health settings is important, and more research is needed to further develop their utility. PMID:22332071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22332071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22332071"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> among children in developed countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Newby, P K</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we review studies that have used dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> to assess different aspects of diet in relation to health outcomes and sociodemographic factors in childhood populations of developed countries. Eighty-four papers published from 1980 to mid-2010 including 90 unique dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> were reviewed. Seventy-two <span class="hlt">indexes</span> were developed (or have been <span class="hlt">adapted</span>) specifically for childhood populations; 38 of these were used to assess diet-disease associations, mostly of diet and obesity. In the majority of these studies, small inverse associations between dietary <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and obesity <span class="hlt">indexes</span> were shown. Children who were younger, female, and from high-income families had better dietary quality scores. Forty-nine <span class="hlt">indexes</span> (of 90) were compared with other aspects of dietary intakes or behaviors, with correlations ranging from very low to modest (∼r = 0.05-0.50). Only 2 validation studies compared an <span class="hlt">index</span> with nutritional biomarkers, and correlations were quite weak for most plasma nutrients (P < 0.10). Overall, a large number of <span class="hlt">indexes</span> have been created and used, but the majority of studies are descriptive. Fewer analytic studies on <span class="hlt">index</span>-health associations have been performed, and most analyses insufficiently adjusted for confounders. Thus, prospective and intervention research in diverse populations is needed to further test these tools. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are potentially useful methods for dietary assessment, because they offer valuable information on overall dietary patterns in children. However, understanding the advantages and limitations when applying them in research and public health settings is important, and more research is needed to further develop their utility. PMID:22332071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880036973&hterms=librarian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlibrarian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880036973&hterms=librarian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlibrarian"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span> at NASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buchan, Ronald L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031757&hterms=Automation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAutomation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031757&hterms=Automation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAutomation"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological Self-Regulation and <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Automation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement <span class="hlt">index</span>. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load <span class="hlt">Index</span> scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> automation are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1084999.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1084999.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Malaysian Education <span class="hlt">Index</span> (MEI): An Online <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> and Repository System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education <span class="hlt">Index</span> (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91r.371S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91r.371S"><span id="translatedtitle">In Brief: Climate <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Summit report released</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>“We understand from the science that we have no choice between mitigation and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. We have to do both,” John Holdren, President Barack Obama's science and technology advisor, said at a 29 September meeting where he was presented with a new report about national and regional preparations for <span class="hlt">adapting</span> to changing climate. The report is based on the National Climate <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Summit, which was convened by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research in May 2010. Stating that the United States must <span class="hlt">adapt</span> to a changing climate now and prepare for increasing impacts on urban infrastructure, food, water, human health, and ecosystems in the coming decades, the report identifies a set of priorities for near-term action. Among the priorities are developing an overarching national strategy, with research, planning, and management components to guide federal climate change <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> programs. Other priorities include improving coordination of federal plans and programs and creating a federal climate information portal and a clearinghouse of best practices and tool kits for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. The report also identifies other priorities, including the need for support for assessments in the U.S. Global Change Research Program agency budgets, for increasing funding for research on vulnerability and impacts, and for initiating a regional series of ongoing climate <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> forums. For more information, see http://www.joss.ucar.edu/events/2010/ncas/<span class="hlt">index</span>.html.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018030','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018030"><span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">indexing</span> techniques for the EUVE all-sky survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, J.; Saba, V.; Dobson, C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This poster describes techniques developed for manipulating large full-sky data sets for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project. The authors have <span class="hlt">adapted</span> the quatrilateralized cubic sphere <span class="hlt">indexing</span> algorithm to allow us to efficiently store and process several types of large data sets, such as full-sky maps of photon counts, exposure time, and count rates. A variation of this scheme is used to <span class="hlt">index</span> sparser data such as individual photon events and viewing times for selected areas of the sky, which are eventually used to create EUVE source catalogs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adaptation&pg=2&id=EJ993126','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adaptation&pg=2&id=EJ993126"><span id="translatedtitle">Expressing <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Strategies Using <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9714277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9714277"><span id="translatedtitle">The HLD (CalMod) <span class="hlt">index</span> and the <span class="hlt">index</span> question.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parker, W S</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>The malocclusion <span class="hlt">index</span> problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann <span class="hlt">Index</span> in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any <span class="hlt">index</span>. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many <span class="hlt">indexes</span> have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this <span class="hlt">index</span>. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the <span class="hlt">index</span>. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The <span class="hlt">index</span> problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) <span class="hlt">Index</span> has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the <span class="hlt">index</span> question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HASS&pg=4&id=EJ541529','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HASS&pg=4&id=EJ541529"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earliest Hebrew Citation <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weinberg, Bella Hass</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes early Hebrew citation <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of <span class="hlt">index</span> entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lighting&pg=4&id=EJ723775','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lighting&pg=4&id=EJ723775"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of Refraction without Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the <span class="hlt">index</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22General+Interest+--+Periodicals%22&id=EJ187159','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22General+Interest+--+Periodicals%22&id=EJ187159"><span id="translatedtitle">Magazine <span class="hlt">Index</span>: Popular Literature Online</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Slade, Rod</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A description is given of Magazine <span class="hlt">Index</span> (MI) which is now available on-line through the Dialog system. Features of MI include wide coverage of 372 general interest periodicals, cover to cover <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, several access methods, and two name authority files. (JPF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Structure+AND+Motion&pg=2&id=EJ878326','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Structure+AND+Motion&pg=2&id=EJ878326"><span id="translatedtitle">Linguistic <span class="hlt">Indexicality</span> in Algebra Discussions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as <span class="hlt">indexicals</span> assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. <span class="hlt">Indexical</span> words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index&pg=2&id=EJ881947','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index&pg=2&id=EJ881947"><span id="translatedtitle">Simplifying the Water Poverty <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective <span class="hlt">indexes</span> of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty <span class="hlt">index</span> comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EJASP2015...54P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EJASP2015...54P"><span id="translatedtitle">Reverberant speech recognition exploiting clarity <span class="hlt">index</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parada, Pablo Peso; Sharma, Dushyant; Naylor, Patrick A.; Waterschoot, Toon van</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present single-channel approaches to robust automatic speech recognition (ASR) in reverberant environments based on non-intrusive estimation of the clarity <span class="hlt">index</span> ( C 50). Our best performing method includes the estimated value of C 50 in the ASR feature vector and also uses C 50 to select the most suitable ASR acoustic model according to the reverberation level. We evaluate our method on the REVERB Challenge database employing two different C 50 estimators and show that our method outperforms the best baseline of the challenge achieved without unsupervised acoustic model <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, i.e. using multi-condition hidden Markov models (HMMs). Our approach achieves a 22.4 % relative word error rate reduction in comparison to the best baseline of the challenge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25671368"><span id="translatedtitle">Stretchable graphene thermistor with tunable thermal <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Chaoyi; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See</p> <p>2015-02-24</p> <p>Stretchable graphene thermistors with intrinsic high stretchability were fabricated through a lithographic filtration method. Three-dimensional crumpled graphene was used as the thermal detection channels, and silver nanowires were used as electrodes. Both the detection channel and electrodes were fully embedded in an elastomer matrix to achieve excellent stretchability. Detailed temperature sensing properties were characterized at different strains up to 50%. It is evident that the devices can maintain their functionalities even at high stretched states. The devices demonstrated strain-dependent thermal indices, and the sensitivity of the thermistors can be effectively tuned using strain. The unique tunable thermal <span class="hlt">index</span> is advantageous over conventional rigid ceramic thermistors for diverse and <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> applications in wearable electronics. PMID:25671368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144w4106N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144w4106N"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalized flexibility-rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Flexibility-rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span> (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span> and flexibility <span class="hlt">index</span>. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity <span class="hlt">index</span>, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility <span class="hlt">index</span> based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363258.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363258.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Price <span class="hlt">Indexes</span> for Institutions of Higher Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cohen, Michael P.</p> <p></p> <p>The need for a system of price <span class="hlt">indexes</span> for colleges and universities is discussed. First, past efforts to develop price <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are reviewed, dating back to 1952 and highlighting two specific <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, the Higher Education Price <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HEPI) and the Uniform Price <span class="hlt">Index</span> Calculation System (UPICS). For the latter, the price <span class="hlt">indexes</span> of direct costs…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047136"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> to NASA News Releases 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This issue of the <span class="hlt">index</span> to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is arranged in six sections: Subject <span class="hlt">index</span>, Personal name <span class="hlt">index</span>, News release number <span class="hlt">index</span>, Accession number <span class="hlt">index</span>, Speeches, and News releases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=4&id=EJ212537','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=4&id=EJ212537"><span id="translatedtitle">L'<span class="hlt">index</span> significant (The Pointed <span class="hlt">Index</span> Finger).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Calbris, G.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>In the framework of a study of nonverbal communication, the various meanings attached to the pointed <span class="hlt">index</span> finger are analyzed. The question is raised as to what extent the findings hold for cultures other than French. (AMH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4191228','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4191228"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Hospital Input Price <span class="hlt">Indexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price <span class="hlt">indexes</span> that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price <span class="hlt">Index</span>. The feasibility of developing regional <span class="hlt">indexes</span> was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional <span class="hlt">indexes</span> incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price <span class="hlt">indexes</span> increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price <span class="hlt">indexes</span> relative to the national <span class="hlt">index</span>. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5724...34M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5724...34M"><span id="translatedtitle">High refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> photocurable resins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morford, Robert V.; Mercado, Ramil L.; Planje, Curtis E.; Flaim, Tony D.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The performance of optoelectronic devices can be increased by incorporating a high refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> layer into the system. This paper describes several potential high refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> resin candidates. Our materials include the added advantages over other systems because the new materials are cationically photocurable and free flowing, have low shrinkage upon cure, have no (or little) volatile organic components, are applicable by a variety of methods (dip coating, roller coating, injection molding, or film casting), can be applied in a variety of thicknesses (10-100 m), are fast-curing, and possess robust physical properties. Particular attention focuses on the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> in the visible spectrum, light transmission, and formulation viscosity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..285Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSD....6..285Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The GPCC Drought <span class="hlt">Index</span> - a new, combined and gridded global drought <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ziese, M.; Schneider, U.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schamm, K.; Vido, J.; Finger, P.; Bissolli, P.; Pietzsch, S.; Becker, A.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Drought <span class="hlt">Index</span> (GPCC-DI) provides estimations of water supply anomalies with respect to long-term statistics. It is a combination of the Standardized Precipitation <span class="hlt">Index</span> with <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> from Deutscher Wetterdienst (SPI-DWD) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration <span class="hlt">Index</span> (SPEI). Precipitation data were taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and temperature data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The GPCC-DI is available with several accumulation periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 months for different applications. It is issued monthly starting in January 2013. Typically, it is released on the 10th day of the following month, depending on the availability of the input data. It is calculated on a regular grid with 1° spatial resolution. All accumulation periods are integrated into one netCDF file for each month. This data set is referenced by the <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_GPCC/DI_M_100"target="_blank">doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/DI_M_100</a> and is available free of charge from the GPCC website <a href="ftp://ftp.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/gpcc_di_doi_download.html"target="_blank">ftp://ftp.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/gpcc_di_doi_download.html</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSDD...7..243Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESSDD...7..243Z"><span id="translatedtitle">GPCC Drought <span class="hlt">Index</span> - a new, combined, and gridded global drought <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ziese, M.; Schneider, U.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schamm, K.; Vido, J.; Finger, P.; Bissolli, P.; Pietzsch, S.; Becker, A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Drought <span class="hlt">Index</span> (GPCC-DI) provides estimations of precipitation anomalies with respect to long term statistics. It is a combination of the Standardized Precipitation <span class="hlt">Index</span> with <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> from Deutscher Wetterdienst (SPI-DWD) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration <span class="hlt">Index</span> (SPEI). Precipitation data were taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and temperature data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The GPCC-DI is available with several averaging periods of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 months for different applications. Since spring 2013, the GPCC-DI is calculated operationally and available back to January 2013. Typically it is released at the 10th day of the following month, depending on the availability of the input data. It is calculated on a~regular grid with 1° spatial resolution. All averaging periods are integrated into one netCDF-file for each month. This dataset can be referenced by the DOI:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_GPCC/DI_M_100"target="_blank">10.5676/DWD_GPCC/DI_M_100</a> and is available free of charge from the GPCC website <a href="ftp://ftp.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/gpcc_di_doi_download.html"target="_blank">ftp://ftp.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/gpcc_di_doi_download.html</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=316570&keyword=time&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77970748&CFTOKEN=36150706','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=316570&keyword=time&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77970748&CFTOKEN=36150706"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> - Overview Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality <span class="hlt">index</span> representing multiple domains of the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=2&id=ED192536','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AMH&pg=2&id=ED192536"><span id="translatedtitle">French Basic Course. Grammatical <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060049129','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060049129"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Index</span> For Aircraft Maneuvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison <span class="hlt">index</span> .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of <span class="hlt">index</span> values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy <span class="hlt">index</span> lies outside the normal <span class="hlt">index</span> range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=airnow.showmap&pollutant=OZONE','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=airnow.showmap&pollutant=OZONE"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone - Current Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-148.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-148.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Muskellunge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an <span class="hlt">index</span> between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-147.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-147.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Bobcat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an <span class="hlt">index</span> between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3390T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3390T"><span id="translatedtitle">PC <span class="hlt">index</span> and magnetic substorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly</p> <p></p> <p>PC <span class="hlt">index</span> is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-<span class="hlt">index</span>) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-<span class="hlt">index</span>) and magnetic storms (Dst-<span class="hlt">index</span>), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС <span class="hlt">index</span> growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC <span class="hlt">index</span> exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cameron%2c+AND+kim&pg=3&id=EJ295423','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cameron%2c+AND+kim&pg=3&id=EJ295423"><span id="translatedtitle">Organizational <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> and Higher Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cameron, Kim S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Organizational <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and types of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is discussed. (MLW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071651&hterms=Total+Quality+Management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DTotal%2BQuality%2BManagement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071651&hterms=Total+Quality+Management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DTotal%2BQuality%2BManagement"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with computer-aided lexicography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buchan, Ronald L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> with computers is a far cry from <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with the first <span class="hlt">indexing</span> tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> (RI), can be made to many <span class="hlt">indexing</span> systems. In addition to improving the quality of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21395512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21395512"><span id="translatedtitle">Origins of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> immunity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> immunity. PMID:21395512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008294','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008294"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is <span class="hlt">adapted</span> to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057181&hterms=Heredity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHeredity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820057181&hterms=Heredity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHeredity"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The effect of gravitational <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically <span class="hlt">adapted</span> to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously <span class="hlt">adapted</span> birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..828B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..828B"><span id="translatedtitle">Technology transfer for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Technology alone will not be able to solve <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2828013','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2828013"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> as organism design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gardner, Andy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The problem of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is to explain the apparent design of organisms. Darwin solved this problem with the theory of natural selection. However, population geneticists, whose responsibility it is to formalize evolutionary theory, have long neglected the link between natural selection and organismal design. Here, I review the major historical developments in theory of organismal <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, clarifying what <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is and what it is not, and I point out future avenues for research. PMID:19793739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1236...12T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1236...12T"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> and Correction by <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiziani, Hans J.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> optical elements and systems for imaging or laser beam propagation are used for some time in particular in astronomy, where the image quality is degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In astronomical telescopes a deformable mirror is frequently used to compensate wavefront-errors due to deformations of the large mirror, vibrations as well as turbulence and hence to increase the image quality. In the last few years interesting elements like Spatial Light Modulators, SLM's, such as photorefractive crystals, liquid crystals and micro mirrors and membrane mirrors were introduced. The development of liquid crystals and micro mirrors was driven by data projectors as consumer products. They contain typically a matrix of individually addressable pixels of liquid crystals and flip mirrors respectively or more recently piston mirrors for special applications. Pixel sizes are in the order of a few microns and therefore also appropriate as active diffractive elements in digital holography or miniature masks. Although liquid crystals are mainly optimized for intensity modulation; they can be used for phase modulation. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> optics is a technology for beam shaping and wavefront <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. The application of spatial light modulators for wavefront <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and correction and defect analysis as well as sensing will be discussed. Dynamic digital holograms are generated with liquid crystal devices (LCD) and used for wavefront correction as well as for beam shaping and phase manipulation, for instance. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics is very useful to extend the measuring range of wavefront sensors and for the wavefront <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> in order to measure and compare the shape of high precision aspherical surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5578069','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5578069"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to smog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>This study examined the health effects of human <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological <span class="hlt">adaption</span> to chronic environmental stressors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039023&hterms=parallel+circuit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528parallel%2Bcircuit%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880039023&hterms=parallel+circuit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528parallel%2Bcircuit%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> parallel logic networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span>, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4696843','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4696843"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>) in the <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> cycles are conservative; and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890024639&hterms=adaptive+control+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dadaptive%2Bcontrol%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890024639&hterms=adaptive+control+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dadaptive%2Bcontrol%2Btheory"><span id="translatedtitle">Decentralized <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A decentralized <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of the controller gain is derived by using model reference <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055773"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel In Situ <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> for Data-intensive Computing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng</p> <p>2011-09-09</p> <p>As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that <span class="hlt">indexing</span> is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes <span class="hlt">indexing</span> an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include <span class="hlt">indexes</span> with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap <span class="hlt">indexes</span> from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, we need to build them first. The <span class="hlt">index</span> building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we <span class="hlt">adapt</span> the in situ processing technology to generate the <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build <span class="hlt">indexes</span> in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/459824','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/459824"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexes</span> to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Digests and <span class="hlt">indexes</span> for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name <span class="hlt">Index</span>; Headers and Digests; Legal Citations <span class="hlt">Index</span>; Subject <span class="hlt">Index</span>; and Facility <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2702792','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2702792"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> radiations: From field to genomic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodges, Scott A.; Derieg, Nathan J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene <span class="hlt">Index</span>, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528644"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> radiations: from field to genomic studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodges, Scott A; Derieg, Nathan J</p> <p>2009-06-16</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene <span class="hlt">Index</span>, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=small-scale+AND+testing&pg=4&id=EJ834055','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=small-scale+AND+testing&pg=4&id=EJ834055"><span id="translatedtitle">Applying <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Variables in Computerised <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Current research in computerised <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> testing (CAT) focuses on applications, in small and large scale, that address self assessment, training, employment, teacher professional development for schools, industry, military, assessment of non-cognitive skills, etc. Dynamic item generation tools and automated scoring of complex, constructed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860031086&hterms=Down+syndrome&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Down%2Bsyndrome%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860031086&hterms=Down+syndrome&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528Down%2Bsyndrome%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiologic <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to space - Space <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanderploeg, J. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-011.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Marten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allen, Arthur W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability <span class="hlt">index</span> graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hcdo.book..397G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013hcdo.book..397G"><span id="translatedtitle">Retinal Imaging: <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200508&keyword=supplements&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76685487&CFTOKEN=56593345','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200508&keyword=supplements&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76685487&CFTOKEN=56593345"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Resource <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Water Resource <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to <span class="hlt">adapt</span> water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231623-adaptive-sampling-proxy-application','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231623-adaptive-sampling-proxy-application"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Sampling Proxy Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-22</p> <p>ASPA is an implementation of an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> sampling algorithm [1-3], which is used to reduce the computational expense of computer simulations that couple disparate physical scales. The purpose of ASPA is to encapsulate the algorithms required for <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> sampling independently from any specific application, so that alternative algorithms and programming models for exascale computers can be investigated more easily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466465"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Wavelet Transforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szu, H.; Hsu, C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span>... MINOR SPECIES <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing. (a) FDA will make the list of <span class="hlt">indexed</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 5.1 - Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices paid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 5.1 - Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices paid...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span>... MINOR SPECIES <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing. (a) FDA will make the list of <span class="hlt">indexed</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span>... MINOR SPECIES <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing. (a) FDA will make the list of <span class="hlt">indexed</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 5.1 - Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices paid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span>... MINOR SPECIES <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing. (a) FDA will make the list of <span class="hlt">indexed</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol6-sec516-157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span>... MINOR SPECIES <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the <span class="hlt">index</span> and content of an <span class="hlt">index</span> listing. (a) FDA will make the list of <span class="hlt">indexed</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 5.1 - Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices paid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol1-sec5-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 5.1 - Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity <span class="hlt">index</span> and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the <span class="hlt">index</span> of prices paid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9599999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9599999"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> is automatic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samuel, A G; Kat, D</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Two experiments were used to test whether selective <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an <span class="hlt">adapting</span> sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005447','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005447"><span id="translatedtitle">USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. <span class="hlt">Index</span> to issues 21-25</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography provides an <span class="hlt">index</span> to issues 21 through 25 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word <span class="hlt">index</span> for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, biospherics, and others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910010387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910010387"><span id="translatedtitle">USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. <span class="hlt">Index</span> to issues 26-29</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor)</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography provides an <span class="hlt">index</span> to issues 26 through 29 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word <span class="hlt">index</span> for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, biospherics, and others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016185','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016185"><span id="translatedtitle">USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. <span class="hlt">Index</span> to issues 15-20</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography provides an <span class="hlt">index</span> to issues 15 through 20 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word <span class="hlt">index</span> for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, biospherics, and others.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230685-lawrence-berkeley-lab-indexing-toolbox','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230685-lawrence-berkeley-lab-indexing-toolbox"><span id="translatedtitle">Lawrence Berkeley Lab <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Toolbox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-09-08</p> <p>The Lawrence Berkeley Lab <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Toolbox is intended to be used in the context of X-ray crystallography experiments involving biological macromolecules. Macromolecules such as proteins form 3-dimensional periodic arrays (crystal) which in turn lead to lattice-like diffraction patterns when the crystal sample is irradiated with collimated X-rays from a synchrotron or other X-ray source. Once the diffraction pattern is captured on an imaging device the next step is to deduce the periodic nature of themore » crystal sample, along with its internal symmetry. this analysis, known as "<span class="hlt">indexing</span>" is a well-studied problem. However, there are no other implementations designed to operate in an automated setting, in which the human experimentalist is not prosent to manually verify the results of <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. In particular LABELIT uses three novel algorithms to facilitate automation: a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the image, a better way to verify that the deduced lattice is consistent with the observed crystal lattice, and new method to deduce the internal symmetry from measurements of the lattice. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented in a Python framework that permits <span class="hlt">indexing</span> to fail (in rare cases) without crashing the program, thus allowing the software to be incorporated in robotic systems where unattended operation is expected. It will be especially useful for high throughput operations at snychrotron beamlines.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025304.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025304.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> and Description of Tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.</p> <p></p> <p>The tests described in this <span class="hlt">index</span> are used by the Institute for Developmental Studies in its principal areas of research and do not include recently developed tests. The research at the Institute is concerned with (1) the relationship of differing environments to language development, (2) classroom communication between teachers and children of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21396209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21396209"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal deployment of solar <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Croucher, Matt</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>There is a growing trend, generally caused by state-specific renewable portfolio standards, to increase the importance of renewable electricity generation within generation portfolios. While RPS assist with determining the composition of generation they do not, for the most part, dictate the location of generation. Using data from various public sources, the authors create an optimal <span class="hlt">index</span> for solar deployment. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036726','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036726"><span id="translatedtitle">USGS 1-min Dst <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance <span class="hlt">index</span>, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the <span class="hlt">index</span> uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst <span class="hlt">index</span>. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mining+AND+environment&pg=2&id=ED557816','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mining+AND+environment&pg=2&id=ED557816"><span id="translatedtitle">Mining and <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Graph Databases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yuan, Dayu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and <span class="hlt">index</span> those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/60658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/60658"><span id="translatedtitle">1988 Bulletin compilation and <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>This document is published to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1988 calendar year. A table of contents and one <span class="hlt">index</span> have been provided to assist in finding information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=swine&pg=5&id=ED345082','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=swine&pg=5&id=ED345082"><span id="translatedtitle">Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED068579.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED068579.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Incorrect <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Skewness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pettibone, Timothy J.; Diamond, James J.</p> <p></p> <p>Checking of parametric assumptions is an often ignored step in the inferential process. A misconception regarding symmetry (one aspect of "robustness") is prevalent: that in nonsymmetric distributions the mean and median are always non-coincidental. It is to this fallacious point that the discussion is directed. A generally accepted <span class="hlt">index</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHEP...06..089L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHEP...06..089L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> for noncompact dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten <span class="hlt">index</span> directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4191069','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4191069"><span id="translatedtitle">National Hospital Input Price <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Freeland, Mark S.; Anderson, Gerard; Schendler, Carol Ellen</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The national community hospital input price <span class="hlt">index</span> presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price <span class="hlt">index</span> increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 percent. Using the <span class="hlt">index</span> to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cpu&pg=3&id=ED084772','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cpu&pg=3&id=ED084772"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> to Computer Based Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoye, Robert E., Ed.; Wang, Anastasia C., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The computer-based programs and projects described in this <span class="hlt">index</span> are listed under 98 different subject matter fields. Descrptions of programs include information on: subject field, program name and number, author, source, the program's curriculum content, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student for which it is intended, total hours of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index&pg=5&id=EJ973141','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=index&pg=5&id=EJ973141"><span id="translatedtitle">Coming to Schools: Creativity <span class="hlt">Indexes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robelen, Erik W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an <span class="hlt">index</span> that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immunology&pg=5&id=ED387695','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immunology&pg=5&id=ED387695"><span id="translatedtitle">Competency <span class="hlt">Index</span>. [Health Technology Cluster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.</p> <p></p> <p>This competency <span class="hlt">index</span> lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12317337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12317337"><span id="translatedtitle">Human development <span class="hlt">index</span>: a critique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chowdhury, O H</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>This discussion focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of constructing a summary measure of the multidimensional and dynamic concept of development. 2 <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are referred to: the UN Development Programme; human development <span class="hlt">index</span> (HDI) and the Physical Quality of Life <span class="hlt">Index</span> (PQLI). PQLI weights equally life expectancy at 1 year, infant mortality, and literacy, regardless of the correlation of variables and the arbitrariness of the weights. PQLI also is assumed to measure the quantity of life, not the quality. HDI measures quantity and quality and includes life expectancy, literacy, and real GDP/capita, and may include a measure of human freedom. Objectivity is a major problem with any <span class="hlt">index</span>. Assignment of weights is an example of arbitrariness without justification and the <span class="hlt">index</span> is sensitive the weights assigned. There is a paradox between defending weights on the 1 hand and, if robustness of the <span class="hlt">index</span> is assumed and components are correlated, then any single component could suffice. A more serious criticism of the HDI is the weighting of each rank order of the country by 1/3 and summing the weighted ranking of the 3 indicators. The flaw here is the problem of application of ratio scales on ordinal magnitudes. The rank correlation coefficient between real GDP/capita and life expectancy, real GDP/capita and literacy; and literacy and life expectancy are .90, .80, and .89, respectively. HDI is also correlated with GDP/capita (.87). Composite <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are not sensitive to variability in components or the imbalance in components, e.g., a country with low means but high literacy. The goal should continue to be to develop a conceptually and methodologically acceptable summary measure. It is suggested that a necessary component is economic development. Countries may be ranked according to their level of economic development in order to measure their achievements in human development. A weighted distribution of income/capita is a better indicator of the economic well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=agoraphobia&pg=3&id=EJ735214','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=agoraphobia&pg=3&id=EJ735214"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> of Panic-Related Psychopathology Measures to Russian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kotov, Roman; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vinogradov, Alexander; Antipova, Anna V.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The study reports results of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of panic-related psychopathology measures to Russian, including the Anxiety Sensitivity <span class="hlt">Index</span> (ASI), the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA). Psychometric properties (e.g., reliability, factor structure, endorsement) and external validity of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860020399','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860020399"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> wall wind tunnels: A selected, annotated bibliography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 257 citations arranged in chronological order. Selection of the citations was made for their value to researchers working to solve problems associated with reducing wall interference by the design, development, and operation of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> wall test sections. Author, source, and subject <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollution+AND+animals&pg=6&id=ED050596','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pollution+AND+animals&pg=6&id=ED050596"><span id="translatedtitle">Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> and Pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>1971</p> <p></p> <p>Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject <span class="hlt">index</span> and a directory of sources are also provided. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3828139','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3828139"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> in Photoreceptors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clark, Damon A.; Benichou, Raphael; Meister, Markus; Azeredo da Silveira, Rava</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> of response gain and time scale, over ∼ 300 ms—i. e., over the time scale of the response itself—and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant. PMID:24244119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCIENCE+AND+SEARCH+AND+ENGINE&pg=3&id=EJ659665','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCIENCE+AND+SEARCH+AND+ENGINE&pg=3&id=EJ659665"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> and Retrieval for the Web.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Edie M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Explores current research on <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation <span class="hlt">indexing</span>; relevance; query evaluation;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cpu&pg=3&id=EJ071999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cpu&pg=3&id=EJ071999"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine-Aided <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> of Technical Literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Klingbiel, Paul H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>To <span class="hlt">index</span> at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's <span class="hlt">indexing</span> has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span> system is described that <span class="hlt">indexes</span> one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol5-sec58-50.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol5-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. Itemized <span class="hlt">index</span>, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The <span class="hlt">index</span> may contain such information as: date of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 102.9 - Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. (a) The Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is unnecessary and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 102.9 - Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. (a) The Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is unnecessary and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. Itemized <span class="hlt">index</span>, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The <span class="hlt">index</span> may contain such information as: date of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 102.9 - Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. (a) The Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is unnecessary and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 200.5 - <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. Publication of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> described in § 200.... However, copies of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 102.9 - Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. (a) The Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is unnecessary and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 200.5 - <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. Publication of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> described in § 200.... However, copies of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol5-sec58-50.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol5-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 200.5 - <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. Publication of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> described in § 200.... However, copies of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. Itemized <span class="hlt">index</span>, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The <span class="hlt">index</span> may contain such information as: date of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. Itemized <span class="hlt">index</span>, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The <span class="hlt">index</span> may contain such information as: date of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol6-sec58-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 58.50 - <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reporting § 58.50 <span class="hlt">Index</span> reporting. (a) The State or where... quality <span class="hlt">index</span> that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title13-vol1-sec102-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 102.9 - Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public <span class="hlt">Index</span>. (a) The Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public <span class="hlt">Index</span> is unnecessary and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 200.5 - <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. Publication of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> described in § 200.... However, copies of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol5-sec701-39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn <span class="hlt">index</span>. Itemized <span class="hlt">index</span>, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The <span class="hlt">index</span> may contain such information as: date of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol2-sec200-5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 200.5 - <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>. Publication of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> described in § 200.... However, copies of the <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1167412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1167412"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS <span class="hlt">adapt</span> to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> (SoSAI) used to compare <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor <span class="hlt">adaptability</span> in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System <span class="hlt">Adaptability</span>, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918336','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918336"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> network countermeasures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to <span class="hlt">adapt</span> with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27019970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27019970"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> optics for ophthalmology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saleh, M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:27019970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stochastic&pg=5&id=EJ940999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stochastic&pg=5&id=EJ940999"><span id="translatedtitle">Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information <span class="hlt">index</span> but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection <span class="hlt">index</span> or in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3287447','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3287447"><span id="translatedtitle">The Biodiversity Informatics Potential <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) <span class="hlt">Index</span>' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP <span class="hlt">Index</span> were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP <span class="hlt">Index</span> by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP <span class="hlt">Index</span>, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP <span class="hlt">Index</span> attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP <span class="hlt">Index</span> could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..85..377Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..85..377Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Response to the Comment by S.B. Simon, L. Grossman, and S.R. Sutton on "Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D.; Dyl, Kathryn A.; Simon, Justin I.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>S. Simon et al. incorrectly suggest that in earlier work we claimed there was no Ti3+ in Wark-Lovering rim pyroxenes. In neither the paper by Simon et al. (2005) nor the subsequent paper by Dyl et al. (2011) did we assert that there was no Ti3+ in rim pyroxenes. Rather, we found that many pyroxenes have Ti3+ below detection while others have lower Ti3+/Ti4+ than is typical of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> interiors, indicating rim formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. Dyl et al. (2011) showed through exhaustive testing that the suggestion by Simon et al. (2007) that EMPA data in the paper by Simon et al. (2005) were flawed is incorrect. Here we consider each point raised in the comment by S. Simon et al. and reiterate that our electron microprobe data and the XANES data of Simon et al. (2007) agree and demonstrate a statistically significant (˜2σ) or greater difference between rim and interior pyroxene Ti3+/Ti4+. We show that the oxidation states of Ti in Wark-Lovering rim pyroxenes, the chemistry of rim pyroxenes, and the modal abundances of rim minerals are best explained by reaction between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and gas that was orders of magnitude more oxidizing than the solar-like gas from which the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> originally formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691977','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691977"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adapting</span> and improving crops: the endless task</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evans, L. T.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The Malthusian prognosis has been undermined by an exponential increase in world food supply since 1960, even in the absence of any extension of the arable area. The requisite increases in yield of the cereal staples have come partly from agronomic intensification, especially of nitrogenous fertilizer use made possible by the dwarfing of wheat and rice, in turn made feasible by herbicide development. Cereal dwarfing also contributed to a marked rise in harvest <span class="hlt">index</span> and yield potential.<br>Although there is still scope for some further improvement in harvest <span class="hlt">index</span> and environmental <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>, it is not apparent how a doubling of yield potential can be achieved unless crop photosynthesis can be substantially enhanced by genetic engineering. Empirical selection for yield has not enhanced photosynthetic capacity to date, but nitrogenous and other fertilizers have done so, and there is still scope for agronomic increases in yield and for new synergisms between agronomy and plant breeding. <br></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025796','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025796"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquefaction potential <span class="hlt">index</span>: Field assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Cone penetration test (CPT) soundings at historic liquefaction sites in California were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the liquefaction potential <span class="hlt">index</span> (LPI), which was defined by Iwasaki et al. in 1978. LPI combines depth, thickness, and factor of safety of liquefiable material inferred from a CPT sounding into a single parameter. LPI data from the Monterey Bay region indicate that the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction is 58 and 93%, respectively, when LPI equals or exceeds 5 and 15. LPI values also generally correlate with surface effects of liquefaction: Decreasing from a median of 12 for soundings in lateral spreads to 0 for soundings where no surface effects were reported. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is particularly promising for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping where it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the liquefaction potential of geologic units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097510"><span id="translatedtitle">The genomics of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław</p> <p>2012-12-22</p> <p>The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>. PMID:23097510</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9612136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9612136"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptations</span>, exaptations, and spandrels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These <span class="hlt">adaptations</span>, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to <span class="hlt">adaptations</span>, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039310&hterms=mcgraw&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmcgraw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060039310&hterms=mcgraw&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmcgraw"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Space Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wada, B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The term <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> structures refers to a structural control approach in which sensors, actuators, electronics, materials, structures, structural concepts, and system-performance-validation strategies are integrated to achieve specific objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230804&keyword=science+AND+learning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65052765&CFTOKEN=35198760','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230804&keyword=science+AND+learning&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65052765&CFTOKEN=35198760"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Management of Ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvL.117c0601A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvL.117c0601A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Heat Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure <span class="hlt">adapts</span> to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also <span class="hlt">adapt</span> to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..305D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..305D"><span id="translatedtitle">Limits to <span class="hlt">adaptation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rocket+AND+science&pg=5&id=EJ641961','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rocket+AND+science&pg=5&id=EJ641961"><span id="translatedtitle">Rocketing into <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Inquiry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Dowling, Thomas W.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Defines <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> inquiry and argues for employing this method which allows lessons to be shaped in response to student needs. Illustrates this idea by detailing an activity in which teams of students build rockets. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230808"><span id="translatedtitle">Telescope <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Optics Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillion, D.</p> <p>2005-07-28</p> <p>The Telescope AO Code has general <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27472104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27472104"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Heat Engine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure <span class="hlt">adapts</span> to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also <span class="hlt">adapt</span> to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> and relate them to the prior information available about the environment. PMID:27472104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296138"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> entropy coded subband coding of images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Y H; Modestino, J W</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The authors describe a design approach, called 2-D entropy-constrained subband coding (ECSBC), based upon recently developed 2-D entropy-constrained vector quantization (ECVQ) schemes. The output <span class="hlt">indexes</span> of the embedded quantizers are further compressed by use of noiseless entropy coding schemes, such as Huffman or arithmetic codes, resulting in variable-rate outputs. Depending upon the specific configurations of the ECVQ and the ECPVQ over the subbands, many different types of SBC schemes can be derived within the generic 2-D ECSBC framework. Among these, the authors concentrate on three representative types of 2-D ECSBC schemes and provide relative performance evaluations. They also describe an <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> buffer instrumented version of 2-D ECSBC, called 2-D ECSBC/AEC, for use with fixed-rate channels which completely eliminates buffer overflow/underflow problems. This <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> scheme achieves performance quite close to the corresponding ideal 2-D ECSBC system. PMID:18296138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000146&hterms=Geomagnetic+pulsations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetic%2Bpulsations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000146&hterms=Geomagnetic+pulsations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetic%2Bpulsations"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Of Fluctuating Geomagnetic <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vedder, John; Tabor, Jill</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical model produces synthetic geomagnetic-<span class="hlt">index</span> (ap) data including short-term fluctuations like those of real ap data. Measures geomagnetic activity computed from measurements of fluctuations in geomagnetic field taken at 12 high-latitude stations every 3 hours. Used in studies of interactions between solar wind and Earth, especially in studies of effect of geomagnetic field upon heating of thermosphere by impacts of energetic charged solar-wind particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-065.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-065.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Pronghorn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870580','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870580"><span id="translatedtitle">Leak test <span class="hlt">adapter</span> for containers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">adapter</span> is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The <span class="hlt">adapter</span> comprises an <span class="hlt">adapter</span> body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">adapter</span> stem installs a penetration plug allowing the <span class="hlt">adapter</span> to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the <span class="hlt">adapter</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090043072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090043072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptable</span> DC offset correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Methods and systems for <span class="hlt">adaptable</span> DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary <span class="hlt">adaptable</span> DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022894"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Several concepts and results in robust <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5693067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5693067"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> transfer functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goulding, J.R. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This paper details the approach and methodology used to build <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> transfer functions in a feed-forward Back-Propagation neural network, and provides insight into the structure dependent properties of using non-scaled analog inputs. The results of using <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> transfer functions are shown to outperform conventional architectures in the implementation of a mechanical power transmission gearbox design expert system knowledge base. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL7..771B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL7..771B"><span id="translatedtitle">Exposer Intensity, Vulnerability <span class="hlt">Index</span> And Landscape Change Assessment In Olomouc, Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boori, M. S.; Vozenilek, V.; Choudhary, K.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is vulnerability and exposer intensity due to land use change in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Vulnerability assessment with exposer intensity to land use/cover change is an important step for enhancing the understanding and decision-making to reduce vulnerability. This study work includes quantification of Exposure <span class="hlt">Index</span> (EI), Sensitivity <span class="hlt">Index</span> (SI) and <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Capacity <span class="hlt">Index</span> (AI). EI is based on intensity of land use/cover change, SI and AI based on natural factors such as elevation, slope, vegetation and land use/cover. Vulnerability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VI) derived on the quantification of SI and AI and compared from 1991, 2001 and 2013. Comparing of EI and VI for last three decades, settlements have highest vulnerability <span class="hlt">index</span> due to high socio-economic activities and water have lowest vulnerability <span class="hlt">index</span> due to less human interferences. Agriculture has highest exposer <span class="hlt">index</span> and second highest vulnerability, which show its high rate of exploitation and production. In the study areas, vulnerability tends to increase with the increase of exposure to land use change, but can peak off once the land use start to benefit socio-economically from development. Only in this way we can enhance the <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> capacity of study area to use change of land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751329"><span id="translatedtitle">Shuffling <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> Clinical Trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gokhale, Sanjay G; Gokhale, Sankalp</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Clinical trials are interventional studies on human beings, designed to test the hypothesis for diagnostic techniques, treatments, and disease preventions. Any novel medical technology should be evaluated for its efficacy and safety by clinical trials. The costs associated with developing drugs have increased dramatically over the past decade, and fewer drugs are obtaining regulatory approval. Because of this, the pharmaceutical industry is continually exploring new ways of improving drug developments, and one area of focus is <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> clinical trial designs. <span class="hlt">Adaptive</span> designs, which allow for some types of prospectively planned mid-study changes, can improve the efficiency of a trial and maximize the chance of success without undermining validity and integrity of the trial. However it is felt that in <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> trials; perhaps by using accrued data the actual patient population after the <span class="hlt">adaptations</span> could deviate from the originally target patient population and so to overcome this drawback; special methods like Bayesian Statistics, predicted probability are used to deduce data-analysis. Here, in this study, mathematical model of a new <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> design (shuffling <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> trial) is suggested which uses real-time data, and because there is no gap between expected and observed data, statistical modifications are not needed. Results are obviously clinically relevant. PMID:23751329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6492E..1SW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6492E..1SW"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> and perceptual norms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>We used <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. <span class="hlt">Adapting</span> to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the <span class="hlt">adapting</span> stimulus can be titrated to find the unique <span class="hlt">adapting</span> level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068098','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068098"><span id="translatedtitle">The Climate <span class="hlt">Adaptation</span> Frontier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Preston, Benjamin L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to <span class="hlt">adapt</span>. Here, we introduce the concept of an <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> frontier , which is defined as a socio-ecological system s transitional <span class="hlt">adaptive</span> operating space between safe and unsafe domains. A number of driving forces are responsible for determining the sustainability of systems on the frontier. These include path dependence, <span class="hlt">adaptation</span>/development deficits, values conflicts and discounting of future loss and damage. The cumulative implications of these driving forces are highly uncertain. Nevertheless, the fact that a broad range of systems already persist at the edge of their frontiers suggests a high likelihood that some limits will eventually be exceeded. The resulting system transformation is likely to manifest as anticipatory modification of management objectives or loss and damage. These outcomes vary significantly with respect to their ethical implications. Successful navigation of the <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> frontier will necessitate new paradigms of risk governance to elicit knowledge that encourages reflexive reevaluation of societal values that enable or constrain sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16510223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16510223"><span id="translatedtitle">Prism <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> in schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bigelow, Nirav O; Turner, Beth M; Andreasen, Nancy C; Paulsen, Jane S; O'Leary, Daniel S; Ho, Beng-Choon</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The prism <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> test examines procedural learning (PL) in which performance facilitation occurs with practice on tasks without the need for conscious awareness. Dynamic interactions between frontostriatal cortices, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum have been shown to play key roles in PL. Disruptions within these neural networks have also been implicated in schizophrenia, and such disruptions may manifest as impairment in prism <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> test performance in schizophrenia patients. This study examined prism <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> in a sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (N=91) and healthy normal controls (N=58). Quantitative indices of performance during prism <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> conditions with and without visual feedback were studied. Schizophrenia patients were significantly more impaired in <span class="hlt">adapting</span> to prism distortion and demonstrated poorer quality of PL. Patients did not differ from healthy controls on aftereffects when the prisms were removed, but they had significantly greater difficulties in reorientation. Deficits in prism <span class="hlt">adaptation</span> among schizophrenia patients may be due to abnormalities in motor programming arising from the disruptions within the neural networks that subserve PL. PMID:16510223</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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