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Sample records for adaptation index cai

  1. Performance assessment of the cellulose absorption index (CAI) method for estimating crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and quick field estimation of crop residues are important for carbon sequestration and biofuel production programs. Landscape-scale assessment of this vital information has promoted the use of remote sensing technology. The cellulose absorption index (CAI) technique has outperformed other ...

  2. Retrieval of UV Aerosol Index using backscattered monochromatic radiance measured by GOSAT CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Park, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    UV Aerosol Index(AI) using backscattered radiance at a single channel has been retrieved. In the current UV AI algorithm, two UV channels are used to contrast the absorbing aerosol loaded atmosphere to Rayleigh scattering condition. There have been needs to retrieve information of absorbing aerosol from a single UV channel, such as GOSAT CAI. 30-day minimum composite method, however, makes the process possible to construct the condition with the use of only single UV channel. Also, absorption by aerosol changes with respect to AOD and wavelength for different aerosol types. Therefore, single channel aerosol index(SAI) can detect absorbing aerosol qualitatively. Correlation coefficient of SAI to current UV AI indicate significant value, showing possibility of detecting highly absorbing aerosols. The application of a cloud screening makes the presence of absorbing aerosols even more clear. Radiative transfer calculations using VLIDORT were performed to test the sensitivity of SAI and UV AI to aerosol optical properties, showing that highly absorbing aerosol results in meaningful SAI. Results from dust case study in East Asia show reasonable performance of SAI for the region with single scattering albedo below 0.90. This study concludes with a comparison of SAI from GOSAT lv.1b data to OMI UVAI data, where reasonable agreement and low false detection was found for dust cases in East Asia. The SAI value of -0.2 to 0.0 from GOSAT-CAI was comparable to OMI dust threshold value of 0.7. These findings corroborate the suitability of SAI as a for detecting absorbing aerosols for satellite instrument with a single UV channel.

  3. Some "Facts" About CAI: A Quantitative Analysis of the 1976 Index to Computer Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    1976-01-01

    Descriptive quantitative data on various aspects of CAI are reported, including subject matter, author languages, instructional strategies, level of instruction, sources, and central processors. (Author)

  4. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment. Technical Report 75-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    A study to test the effects of learner control of the sequencing of instructional tasks when using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems is described. Using a series of CAI modules to teach the COBOL programing language to military personnel, students were able to control various aspects of their learning environment. Among the research…

  5. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing Within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to test effects of a specified degree of learner control over the sequencing of instructional materials in a self contained tutorial CAI course in COBOL programming. Findings describe contributions and interactions of learner controlled variables with respect to instructional effectiveness and efficiency. (RAO)

  6. The Effect of Adaptive, Advisement, and Linear CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael

    This study examined the effects of the locus of three computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on the accuracy and efficiency of mathematics rule and application learning of 47 low-achieving seventh grade students in remedial mathematics classes. The instructional task was a mathematics rule lesson concerning divisibility by the numbers two,…

  7. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  8. Conodont color alteration index (CAI) map and conodont-based age determinations for the Winchester 30' x 60' Quadrangle and adjacent area, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Anita G.; Stamm, Nancy R.; Weary, David J.; Repetski, John E.; Stamm, Robert G.; Parker, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the conodont data presented in this report (table 1) were acquired to support 1:100,000-scale geologic mapping of the Winchester 30' X 60' quadrangle by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Conodonts were chosen to provide a biostratigraphic framework for the Upper Cambrian to Mississippian marine carbonate rocks that make up about 25 percent of the Paleozoic strata exposed in the quadrangle (~2,130 m of the approximately 9,450 m) of Paleozoic strata exposed in the quadrangle). Thickness of stratigraphic units are from McDowell (1991), our own measurements, and from many of the stratigraphic reports and geologic maps listed in the references cited. Conodont biostratigraphic and color alteration index (CAI) analyses help identify stratigraphic units and structural discontinuities, particularly in the Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician chiefly carbonate rocks of the Shenandoah Valley and North Mountain fault zone. Conodont biofacies analyses provide additional information about the provincial affinities of the conodonts and the depositional environment of the rocks that contain them. Lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and CAI data for all conodont samples are given in table 1.

  9. A major controversy in codon-anticodon adaptation resolved by a new codon usage index.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuhua

    2015-02-01

    Two alternative hypotheses attribute different benefits to codon-anticodon adaptation. The first assumes that protein production is rate limited by both initiation and elongation and that codon-anticodon adaptation would result in higher elongation efficiency and more efficient and accurate protein production, especially for highly expressed genes. The second claims that protein production is rate limited only by initiation efficiency but that improved codon adaptation and, consequently, increased elongation efficiency have the benefit of increasing ribosomal availability for global translation. To test these hypotheses, a recent study engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes, all encoding the same protein but differing in degrees of codon adaptation, to quantify the effect of differential codon adaptation on protein production in Escherichia coli. The surprising conclusion that "codon bias did not correlate with gene expression" and that "translation initiation, not elongation, is rate-limiting for gene expression" contradicts the conclusion reached by many other empirical studies. In this paper, I resolve the contradiction by reanalyzing the data from the 154 sequences. I demonstrate that translation elongation accounts for about 17% of total variation in protein production and that the previous conclusion is due to the use of a codon adaptation index (CAI) that does not account for the mutation bias in characterizing codon adaptation. The effect of translation elongation becomes undetectable only when translation initiation is unrealistically slow. A new index of translation elongation ITE is formulated to facilitate studies on the efficiency and evolution of the translation machinery.

  10. Skinner and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1984-01-01

    The author cites comments of B.F. Skinner supporting the benefits of carefully constructed computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs. Preliminary studies on military populations suggesting the value of CAI are discussed, as is the collection of information about software. (CL)

  11. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  12. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  13. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  14. Experience with the CAIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tighe, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Intermetrics' experience is that the Ada package construct, which allows separation of specification and implementation allows specification of a CAIS that is transportable across varying hardware and software bases. Additionally, the CAIS is an excellent basis for providing operating system functionality to Ada applications. By allowing the Byron APSE to be moved easily from system to system, and allowing significant re-writes of underlying code. Ada and the CAIS provide portability as well as transparency to change at the application operating system interface level.

  15. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  16. The CAIS 2 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Thall, Richard

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) is a proposed MIL-STD intended to promote the portability of Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) tools written in Ada. The standardized interfaces define a virtual operating system, from which portable tools derive their basic services, e.g., file management, input/output, communications, and process control. In the Ada world, such a virtual operating system is called a Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE). The CAIS is a standardized interface between KAPSEs and tools. The CAIS has been proposed as a starting point for standard interfaces to be used in the NASA Software Support Environment (SSE) for the Space Station Program. The status of the CAIS standardization effort and plans for further development are described.

  17. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  18. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  19. An optimized index of human cardiovascular adaptation to simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, M.; Hassebrook, L.; Evans, J.; Varghese, T.; Knapp, C.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness is known to produce a variety of cardiovascular changes, some of which may influence the astronaut's performance during a mission. In order to find a reliable indicator of cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, we analyzed data from nine male subjects after a 24-hour period of normal activity and after a period of simulated weightlessness produced by two hours in a launch position followed by 20 hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt plus pharmacologically induced diuresis (furosemide). Heart rate, arterial pressure, thoracic fluid index, and radial flow were analyzed. Autoregressive spectral estimation and decomposition were used to obtain the spectral components of each variable from the subjects in the supine position during pre- and post-simulated weightlessness. We found a significant decrease in heart rate power and an increase in thoracic fluid index power in the high frequency region (0.2-0.45 Hz) and significant increases in radial flow and arterial pressure powers in the low frequency region (<0.2 Hz) in response to simulated weightlessness. However, due to the variability among subjects, any single variable appeared limited as a dependable index of cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness. The backward elimination algorithm was then used to select the best discriminatory features from these spectral components. Fisher's linear discriminant and Bayes' quadratic discriminant were used to combine the selected features to obtain an optimal index of adaptation to simulated weightlessness. Results showed that both techniques provided improved discriminant performance over any single variable and thus have the potential for use as an index to track adaptation and prescribe countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness.

  20. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  1. Adaptive dispersion formula for index interpolation and chromatic aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ling; Sasián, José

    2014-01-13

    This paper defines and discusses a glass dispersion formula that is adaptive. The formula exhibits superior convergence with a minimum number of coefficients. Using this formula we rationalize the correction of chromatic aberration per spectrum order. We compare the formula with the Sellmeier and Buchdahl formulas for glasses in the Schott catalogue. The six coefficient adaptive formula is found to be the most accurate with an average maximum index of refraction error of 2.91 × 10(-6) within the visible band.

  2. User-Centered Indexing for Adaptive Information Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1996-01-01

    We are focusing on information access tasks characterized by large volume of hypermedia connected technical documents, a need for rapid and effective access to familiar information, and long-term interaction with evolving information. The problem for technical users is to build and maintain a personalized task-oriented model of the information to quickly access relevant information. We propose a solution which provides user-centered adaptive information retrieval and navigation. This solution supports users in customizing information access over time. It is complementary to information discovery methods which provide access to new information, since it lets users customize future access to previously found information. It relies on a technique, called Adaptive Relevance Network, which creates and maintains a complex indexing structure to represent personal user's information access maps organized by concepts. This technique is integrated within the Adaptive HyperMan system, which helps NASA Space Shuttle flight controllers organize and access large amount of information. It allows users to select and mark any part of a document as interesting, and to index that part with user-defined concepts. Users can then do subsequent retrieval of marked portions of documents. This functionality allows users to define and access personal collections of information, which are dynamically computed. The system also supports collaborative review by letting users share group access maps. The adaptive relevance network provides long-term adaptation based both on usage and on explicit user input. The indexing structure is dynamic and evolves over time. Leading and generalization support flexible retrieval of information under similar concepts. The network is geared towards more recent information access, and automatically manages its size in order to maintain rapid access when scaling up to large hypermedia space. We present results of simulated learning experiments.

  3. Font adaptive word indexing of modern printed documents.

    PubMed

    Marinai, Simone; Marino, Emanuele; Soda, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    We propose an approach for the word-level indexing of modern printed documents which are difficult to recognize using current OCR engines. By means of word-level indexing, it is possible to retrieve the position of words in a document, enabling queries involving proximity of terms. Web search engines implement this kind of indexing, allowing users to retrieve Web pages on the basis of their textual content. Nowadays, digital libraries hold collections of digitized documents that can be retrieved either by browsing the document images or relying on appropriate metadata assembled by domain experts. Word indexing tools would therefore increase the access to these collections. The proposed system is designed to index homogeneous document collections by automatically adapting to different languages and font styles without relying on OCR engines for character recognition. The approach is based on three main ideas: the use of Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to perform unsupervised character clustering, the definition of one suitable vector-based word representation whose size depends on the word aspect-ratio, and the run-time alignment of the query word with indexed words to deal with broken and touching characters. The most appropriate applications are for processing modern printed documents (17th to 19th centuries) where current OCR engines are less accurate. Our experimental analysis addresses six data sets containing documents ranging from books of the 17th century to contemporary journals.

  4. The Effects of the Locus of CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of the locus of computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on low achievers' learning accuracy and efficiency were studied. Externally controlled adaptive, individually based learner control with advisement, and linear control design strategies were used. Effects were examined for CAI strategy, prior achievement, and sex of student.…

  5. Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-Feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. The cross-cultural adaptation process comprised the following stages: (I) initial translation, (II) synthesis of the translated document, (III) retro-translation, (IV) review by a board of experts, (V) pilot study of the pre-final draft and (VI) analysis of the pilot study and final draft. Results: The reliability and internal consistency of every one of the rating scales included in the FDI (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83 for the complete scale and 0.77 and 0.82 for the physical and the social well-being subscales. The analysis of the factorial validity of the main components of the adapted FDI yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between FDI and House-Brackmann scale were positive. The variance percentage was calculated for all FDI components. Conclusions: The FDI questionnaire is a specific instrument for assessing facial neuromuscular dysfunction which becomes a useful tool in order to determine quality of life in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Spanish adapted FDI is equivalent to the original questionnaire and shows similar reliability and validity. The proven reproducibi-lity, reliability and validity of this questionnaire make it a useful additional tool for evaluating the impact of facial nerve paralysis in Spanish-speaking patients. Key words:Parotidectomy, facial nerve paralysis, facial disability. PMID:22926474

  6. Adapting to Regional Enforcement: Fishing Down the Governance Index

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Bodin, Örjan; Hentati Sundberg, Jonas; Press, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a problem for marine resource managers, leading to depletion of fish stocks and negative impacts on marine ecosystems. These problems are particularly evident in regions with weak governance. Countries responsible for sustainable natural resource management in the Southern Ocean have actively worked to reduce IUU fishing in the region over a period of 15 years, leading to a sequence of three distinct peaks of IUU fishing. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed existing public records relating to IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean between 1995–2009 and related this information to the governance capacity of flag states responsible for IUU vessels. IUU operators used a number of methods to adapt to enforcement actions, resulting in reduced risks of detection, apprehension and sanctioning. They changed fishing locations, vessel names and flag states, and ports for offloading IUU catches. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of IUU vessels flagged to CCAMLR countries, and a significant decrease in the average governance index of flag states. Despite a decreasing trend of IUU fishing, further actions are hampered by the regional scope of CCAMLR and the governance capacity of responsible states. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study of long-term change in the modus operandi of IUU fishing operators, illustrating that IUU operators can adapt to enforcement actions and that such dynamics may lead to new problems elsewhere, where countries have a limited capacity. This outsourcing of problems may have similarities to natural resource extraction in other sectors and in other regions. IUU fishing is the result of a number of factors, and effectively addressing this major challenge to sustainable marine resource extraction will likely require a stronger focus on governance. Highly mobile resource extractors with substantial funds are able to adapt to changing regulations by exploiting

  7. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  8. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  9. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  10. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  11. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  12. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  13. Timing Students' Answers in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of limiting response time for students' answers focuses on a study of Israeli elementary students that investigated the effects on their performance of increasing the response time in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for arithmetic drill and practice. Effects on high- versus low-aptitude students, and younger versus older, are…

  14. CAI in Advanced Literature Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Norman

    1981-01-01

    Ways that computer assisted instruction (CAI) can be useful in teaching English at upperclass and graduate levels are considered, with illustrations from PLATO lessons that have been composed and programmed. One lesson takes advantage of PLATO's graphic design capabilities, which enabled the teacher to design the runic figures and to show them in…

  15. Evaluating CAI Material for the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Timothy M.

    The relative worth of any evaluation instrument depends on user needs and the material being evaluated. Potential users of a good computer assisted instruction (CAI) instrument include purchasers, authors, reviewers, and publishers of CAI materials. Although each user has unique needs, a good instrument will serve both to educate and discriminate,…

  16. Some "Facts" about CAI: 1976 in Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This report presents information about the state of the art in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in 1976. This information takes the form of quantitative data (mostly frequency distributions), on the number and average completion time of CAI programs according to subject matter, author, language, instructional strategies, sources, and central…

  17. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  18. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  19. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  20. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  1. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Luis; Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making.

  2. Enhanced flexural wave sensing by adaptive gradient-index metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y. Y.; Zhu, R.; Barnhart, M. V.; Huang, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing sensitivity and signal to noise ratios of conventional wave sensors is an interesting topic in structural health monitoring, medical imaging, aerospace and nuclear instrumentation. Here, we report the concept of a gradient piezoelectric self-sensing system by integrating shunting circuitry into conventional sensors. By tuning circuit elements properly, both the quality and quantity of the flexural wave measurement data can be significantly increased for new adaptive sensing applications. Through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that a metamaterial-based sensing system (MBSS) with gradient bending stiffness can be designed by connecting gradient negative capacitance circuits to an array of piezoelectric patches (sensors). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve more than two orders of magnitude amplification of flexural wave signals to overcome the detection limit. This research encompasses fundamental advancements in the MBSS with improved performance and functionalities, and will yield significant advances for a range of applications. PMID:27748379

  3. Enhanced flexural wave sensing by adaptive gradient-index metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Y; Zhu, R; Barnhart, M V; Huang, G L

    2016-10-17

    Increasing sensitivity and signal to noise ratios of conventional wave sensors is an interesting topic in structural health monitoring, medical imaging, aerospace and nuclear instrumentation. Here, we report the concept of a gradient piezoelectric self-sensing system by integrating shunting circuitry into conventional sensors. By tuning circuit elements properly, both the quality and quantity of the flexural wave measurement data can be significantly increased for new adaptive sensing applications. Through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that a metamaterial-based sensing system (MBSS) with gradient bending stiffness can be designed by connecting gradient negative capacitance circuits to an array of piezoelectric patches (sensors). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve more than two orders of magnitude amplification of flexural wave signals to overcome the detection limit. This research encompasses fundamental advancements in the MBSS with improved performance and functionalities, and will yield significant advances for a range of applications.

  4. Enhanced flexural wave sensing by adaptive gradient-index metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Zhu, R.; Barnhart, M. V.; Huang, G. L.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing sensitivity and signal to noise ratios of conventional wave sensors is an interesting topic in structural health monitoring, medical imaging, aerospace and nuclear instrumentation. Here, we report the concept of a gradient piezoelectric self-sensing system by integrating shunting circuitry into conventional sensors. By tuning circuit elements properly, both the quality and quantity of the flexural wave measurement data can be significantly increased for new adaptive sensing applications. Through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that a metamaterial-based sensing system (MBSS) with gradient bending stiffness can be designed by connecting gradient negative capacitance circuits to an array of piezoelectric patches (sensors). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve more than two orders of magnitude amplification of flexural wave signals to overcome the detection limit. This research encompasses fundamental advancements in the MBSS with improved performance and functionalities, and will yield significant advances for a range of applications.

  5. A theoretical analysis of codon adaptation index of the Boophilus microplus bm86 gene directed to the optimization of a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-04-21

    DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks.

  6. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile

    PubMed Central

    Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making. PMID:27606592

  7. Novel synthetic index-based adaptive stochastic resonance method and its application in bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Lu, Siliang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yongbin; Li, Guihua; Zhao, Jiwen

    2017-03-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR), which is characterized by the fact that proper noise can be utilized to enhance weak periodic signals, has been widely applied in weak signal detection. SR is a nonlinear parameterized filter, and the output signal relies on the system parameters for the deterministic input signal. The most commonly used index for parameter tuning in the SR procedure is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, using the SNR index to evaluate the denoising effect of SR quantitatively is insufficient when the target signal frequency cannot be estimated accurately. To address this issue, six different indexes, namely, power spectral kurtosis of the SR output signal, correlation coefficient between the SR output and the original signal, peak SNR, structural similarity, root mean square error, and smoothness, are constructed in this study to measure the SR output quantitatively. These six quantitative indexes are fused into a new synthetic quantitative index (SQI) via a back propagation neural network to guide the adaptive parameter selection of the SR procedure. The index fusion procedure reduces the instability of each index and thus improves the robustness of parameter tuning. In addition, genetic algorithm is utilized to quickly select the optimal SR parameters. The efficiency of bearing fault diagnosis is thus further improved. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed SQI-based adaptive SR method for bearing fault diagnosis are verified through numerical and experiment analyses.

  8. The Adaptation of Creativity Fostering Primary Teachers Index Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the creativity fostering teacher index scale into Turkish. For the language equivalence, firstly, the English version of the scale was translated by 30 English lecturers and then the Turkish version of the scale retranslated by the same lecturers. Later, the scale was applied to 288 teachers working in Nigde…

  9. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  10. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  11. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-09-29

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7.5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves special attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies.

  12. Re-Os Systematics in the Allende CAI: Big AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1999-03-01

    A sample of coarse-grained Allende CAI, Big Al analyzed using reverse aqua regia, plots on the IIA iron meteorite reference isochron, suggesting a very small time difference between the formation of CAIs, chondrites, and iron.

  13. Adaptive optics enhanced direct laser writing of high refractive index gyroid photonic crystals in chalcogenide glass.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Benjamin P; Turner, Mark D; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Debbarma, Sukanta; Luther-Davies, Barry; Gu, Min

    2014-01-13

    Chiral gyroid photonic crystals are fabricated in the high refractive index chalcogenide glass arsenic trisulfide with an adaptive optics enhanced direct laser writing system. The severe spherical aberration imparted when focusing into the arsenic trisulfide is mitigated with a defocus decoupled aberration compensation technique that reduces the level of aberration that must be compensated by over an order of magnitude. The fabricated gyroids are shown to have excellent uniformity after our adaptive optics method is employed, and the transmission spectra of the gyroids are shown to have good agreement with numerical simulations that are based on a uniform and diffraction limited fabrication resolution.

  14. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  15. CAI Use by Developmental Studies Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumb, Glenn H.; Monroe, Eula Ewing

    This study, conducted with college developmental studies students, explored possible relationships between individualized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in basic mathematics skills and each of two variables; mathematics knowledge and anxiety toward mathematics. Both experimental (N=5) and control (N=12) groups made significant gains in…

  16. Child-OIDP index in Brazil: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rodolfo AL; Cortes, Maria IS; Leão, Anna T; Portela, Margareth C; Souza, Ivete PR; Tsakos, Georgios; Marcenes, Wagner; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures are being increasingly used to introduce dimensions excluded by normative measures. Consequently, there is a need for an index which evaluates children's OHRQoL validated for Brazilian population, useful for oral health needs assessments and for the evaluation of oral health programs, services and technologies. The aim of this study was to do a cross-cultural adaptation of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) index, and assess its reliability and validity for application among Brazilian children between the ages of eleven and fourteen. Methods For cross-cultural adaptation, a translation/back-translation method integrated with expert panel reviews was applied. A total of 342 students from four public schools took part of the study. Results Overall, 80.7% of the sample reported at least one oral impact in the last three months. Cronbach's alpha was 0.63, the weighted kappa 0.76, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.79. The index had a significant association with self-reported health measurements (self-rated oral health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived dental treatment needs, self-rated general health; all p < 0.01). Conclusion It was concluded that the Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Brazilian children. PMID:18793433

  17. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index instrument*

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Luciana Rosa; Horn, Roberta; Cunha, Vivian Trein; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Cardiff Acne Disability Index was originally developed in English for measuring quality of life of acne patients. Considering the psychosocial impact of this disease, it is important to have instruments culturally and linguistically validated for use in Brazilian adolescents. OBJECTIVE To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it, and verify its reliability and validity in adolescent patients with acne. METHODS In the first step, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index was translated and validated linguistically to Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines published. In the second step, the validation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese instrument was performed, when patients aged from 12 to 20 years with acne were selected. The participants were interviewed to collect demographic data, submitted to the classification of acne by the Global Acne Grading System and invited to respond the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version and DLQI (>16 years) or CDLQI (≤16 years). The internal consistency of Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and concurrent validity was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient and Student ‘s t-test for paired samples. RESULTS The study included 100 adolescents. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.73). The concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a strong and significant correlation with CDLQI / DLQI instruments (rs=0.802;p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version is a reliable, valid and valuable tool to measure the impact of acne on quality of life in adolescent patients. PMID:27192517

  18. Feature extraction using adaptive multiwavelets and synthetic detection index for rotor fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Xiao, Zhihuai; Malik, O. P.

    2015-02-01

    State identification to diagnose the condition of rotating machinery is often converted to a classification problem of values of non-dimensional symptom parameters (NSPs). To improve the sensitivity of the NSPs to the changes in machine condition, a novel feature extraction method based on adaptive multiwavelets and the synthetic detection index (SDI) is proposed in this paper. Based on the SDI maximization principle, optimal multiwavelets are searched by genetic algorithms (GAs) from an adaptive multiwavelets library and used for extracting fault features from vibration signals. By the optimal multiwavelets, more sensitive NSPs can be extracted. To examine the effectiveness of the optimal multiwavelets, conventional methods are used for comparison study. The obtained NSPs are fed into K-means classifier to diagnose rotor faults. The results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the sensitivity of the NSPs and achieve a higher discrimination rate for rotor fault diagnosis than the conventional methods.

  19. Data management based on geocoding index and adaptive visualization for airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Xiaodong

    2008-10-01

    With more surveying practice and deeper application, data post-process for airborne LiDAR system has been extracted lots of attention in data accuracy, post-process, fusion, modeling, automation and visualization. However, post-process and flexible visualization were found to be the bottle-neck which limits the LiDAR data usage for industrial applications. The cause of above bottle-neck problems is great capacity for LiDAR system. Thus in article a geocoding index based multivariate data management and adaptive visualization will be studied for based on the feature of airborne LiDAR's data to improve automatization of post-process and surveying efficiency.

  20. Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI).

    PubMed

    Lane, Claire; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Hood, Kerenza; Rollnick, Stephen; Edwards, Karen; Robling, Michael

    2005-02-01

    One of the most common challenges faced by health professionals is encouraging patients to change their behavior to improve their health. This paper reports the development of a checklist, the behavior change counseling index (BECCI). This aims to measure practitioner competence in behavior change counseling (BCC), an adaptation of motivational interviewing suitable for brief consultations in healthcare settings. The checklist has demonstrated acceptable levels of validity, reliability and responsiveness, and aims to assist trainers and researchers in assessing change in practitioner behavior before, during and after training in BCC. BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention.

  1. Operational adaptability evaluation index system of pumped storage in UHV receiving-end grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Feng, Junshu

    2017-01-01

    Pumped storage is an effective solution to deal with the emergency reserve shortage, renewable energy accommodating and peak-shaving problems in ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission receiving-end grids. However, governments and public opinion in China tend to evaluate the operational effectiveness of pumped storage using annual utilization hour, which may result in unreasonable and unnecessary dispatch of pumped storage. This paper built an operational adaptability evaluation index system for pumped storage in UHV-receiving end grids from three aspects: security insurance, peak-shaving and renewable energy accommodating, which can provide a comprehensive and objective way to evaluate the operational performance of a pumped storage station.

  2. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  3. Comparison of Gosat CAI and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.

    2011-08-01

    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

  4. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  5. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of a Spanish version of the lower limb functional index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) is a relatively recently published regional outcome measure. The development article showed the LLFI had robust and valid clinimetric properties with sound psychometric and practical characteristics when compared to the Lower Limb Extremity Scale (LEFS) criterion standard. Objective The purpose of this study was cross cultural adaptation and validation of the LLFI Spanish-version (LLFI-Sp) in a Spanish population. Methods A two stage observational study was conducted. The LLFI was initially cross-culturally adapted to Spanish through double forward and single backward translation; then subsequently validated for the psychometric characteristics of validity, internal consistency, reliability, error score and factor structure. Participants (n = 136) with various lower limb conditions of >12 weeks duration completed the LLFI-Sp, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Euroqol Health Questionnaire 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3 L). The full sample was employed to determine internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, construct validity and factor structure; a subgroup (n = 45) determined reliability at seven days concurrently completing a global rating of change scale. Results The LLFI-Sp demonstrated high but not excessive internal consistency (α = 0.91) and high reliability (ICC = 0.96). The factor structure was one-dimensional which supported the construct validity. Criterion validity with the WOMAC was strong (r = 0.77) and with the EQ-5D-3 L fair and inversely correlated (r = -0.62). The study limitations included the lack of longitudinal data and the determination of responsiveness. Conclusions The LLFI-Sp supports the findings of the original English version as being a valid lower limb regional outcome measure. It demonstrated similar psychometric properties for internal consistency, validity, reliability, error score and factor structure. PMID

  6. Oxygen Isotopes of CAIs from Unequilibrated Enstatite Chondrites: Characteristics and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; McKeegan, K. D.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of ten CAIs from enstatite chondrites show large O-16 excesses similar to CAIs in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, supporting the idea that most CAIs formed in a restricted nebular locale.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Vocal Fatigue Index - VFI.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Behlau, Mara

    2017-03-13

    The purpose of this study was to perform the cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI). Two Brazilian bilingual speech-language pathologists (SLP) translated the original version of the VFI in English into Portuguese. The translations were reviewed by a committee of five voice specialist SLPs resulting in the final version of the instrument. A third bilingual SLP back-translated this final version and the same committee reviewed the differences from its original version. The final Portuguese version of the VFI, as in the original English version, was answered on a categorical scale of 0-4 indicating the frequency they experience the symptoms: 0=never, 1=almost never, 2=sometimes, 3=almost always, and 4=always. For cultural equivalence of the Portuguese version, the option "not applicable" was added to the categorical scale and 20 individuals with vocal complaints and dysphonia completed the index. Questions considered "not applicable" would be disregarded from the Brazilian version of the protocol; no question had to be removed from the instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version was entitled "Índice de Fadiga Vocal - IFV" and features 19 questions, equivalent to the original instrument. Of the 19 items, 11 were related with tiredness of voice and voice avoidance, five concerned physical discomfort associated with voicing, and three were related to improvement of symptoms with rest or lack thereof. The Brazilian version of the VFI presents cultural and linguistic equivalence to the original instrument. The IFV validation into Brazilian Portuguese is in progress.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the voice handicap index into Greek.

    PubMed

    Helidoni, Meropi E; Murry, Thomas; Moschandreas, Joanna; Lionis, Christos; Printza, Athanasia; Velegrakis, George A

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to culturally adapt and validate the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) to the Greek language. The study design used was a psychometric analysis. The VHI was translated into Greek with cultural adaptations to accommodate certain words. The translated version was then completed by 67 subjects with various voice disorders and by a control group of 79 subjects. All the participants also completed a self-rating scale regarding the severity of their voice disorder. Statistical analyses demonstrated high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability both for the overall VHI score and for the functional, physical, and emotional domains of the VHI. A moderate correlation was found between the VHI and the self-rating severity scale. The subjects in the control group had lower scores compared to the subjects with voice disorders for the overall VHI score and for the three domains. Based on the internal consistency values and the test-retest reliability, the Greek version of VHI is a valid and reliable measure for use by Greek subjects with voice disorders.

  9. Selection index in the study of adaptability and stability in maize.

    PubMed

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Miranda Pires, Luiz Paulo; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha(-1)). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed.

  10. Selection Index in the Study of Adaptability and Stability in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Lunezzo de Oliveira, Rogério; Garcia Von Pinho, Renzo; Furtado Ferreira, Daniel; Costa Melo, Wagner Mateus

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative method for evaluating the stability and adaptability of maize hybrids using a genotype-ideotype distance index (GIDI) for selection. Data from seven variables were used, obtained through evaluation of 25 maize hybrids at six sites in southern Brazil. The GIDI was estimated by means of the generalized Mahalanobis distance for each plot of the test. We then proceeded to GGE biplot analysis in order to compare the predictive accuracy of the GGE models and the grouping of environments and to select the best five hybrids. The G × E interaction was significant for both variables assessed. The GGE model with two principal components obtained a predictive accuracy (PRECORR) of 0.8913 for the GIDI and 0.8709 for yield (t ha−1). Two groups of environments were obtained upon analyzing the GIDI, whereas all the environments remained in the same group upon analyzing yield. Coincidence occurred in only two hybrids considering evaluation of the two features. The GIDI assessment provided for selection of hybrids that combine adaptability and stability in most of the variables assessed, making its use more highly recommended than analyzing each variable separately. Not all the higher-yielding hybrids were the best in the other variables assessed. PMID:24696641

  11. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs.

  12. A CAI Study of Learning Geologic Time and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James P.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Twenty-two college students in science education were given an adjunctive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program by means of typewriter consoles and computer-controlled colored slide presentations of critical information. Students were pretested, told how to respond at the student console, taught by the Harvard CAI System, and posttested. The…

  13. Effect of CAI on Achievement of LD Students in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, R. T.; Ramar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study was undertaken with three objectives in view, (i) to identify students with language learning disabilities (ii) to develop CAI software to teach LD students through computer-assisted instruction and (iii) to measure the effectiveness of CAI with special reference to LD students. Two matched groups of LD students were…

  14. High School Students Participate in a CAI Study Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    A 10-module computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on study skills was field tested to determine its effectiveness with high school students, using 50 advanced seniors in a large Texas high school as subjects. The program consisted of a study skills pretest, the CAI modules, a notebook on study skills, and a posttest. The modules were…

  15. Marshall McLuhan and the Case Against CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvela, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Presents some of the conventional arguments against computer assisted instruction (CAI) in language education and explores humanistic concerns raised in the works of Marshall McLuhan. It is concluded that CAI is introduced into the instructional process before proper research has demonstrated that this method of teaching is not harmful for…

  16. Adaptation and validation of the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Ergun, Emrah; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To translate and validate the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index (M-ISI) for its use in Turkish-speaking women with urinary incontinence. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were based on international guidelines. Content validity by content validity ratio/content validity index, internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha, test–retest reliability by Pearson’s correlation, and construct validity by using Spearman rank correlations to show the relationship between individual items and the relevant domains and subdomains were analyzed in 100 female participants with a chief complaint of urinary incontinence. Correlations between the relevant scores of M-ISI and The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire – Short Form scores were analyzed to indicate convergent validity. The Varimax rotation method was used to conduct exploratory factor analysis in order to investigate the factor structures/distribution of M-ISI items. Results Content validity index and content validity ratio values increased to 0.97 and 1.00, respectively, showing sufficient content validity of the Turkish version of the M-ISI. The analysis formed three factors which was slightly different from original developers. In our proposed three-factor construct, all of the ten items demonstrated high correlations with their subdomains and lower correlations with the other domains, indicating good construct validity. Correlations between stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) scores and The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire – Short Form scores were found high, which indicated convergent validity (r: 0.953, P<0.001). Good internal consistency of the scores for each subdomain was observed (stress urinary incontinence, 0.787; UUI, 0.862; pad usage and bother, 0.832). Test–retest reliability was shown for each subdomain (stress urinary incontinence, 0.973; UUI, 0.973; pad usage and bother, 0.979). Conclusion

  17. Creation and Distribution of CAIs in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Davis, S. S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    CaAl rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found at 1 - 10% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be several million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components in the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We assess a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for CAI formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for times of 1 - 3 x 10(exp 6) years. To match the CAI abundances quantitatively, we advocate an enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, due to rapid inward migration of very primitive, silicate and carbon rich, meter-sized objects. 'Combustion' of the carbon into CO would make the CAI formation environment more reduced than solar, as certain observations imply. Abundant CO might also play a role in mass-independent chemical fractionation of oxygen isotopes as seen in CAIs and associated primitive, high-temperature condensates.

  18. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  19. Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Voice Handicap Index into Croatian.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Ana; Bonetti, Luka

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary results of cultural adaptation and validation of the Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The translated version was completed by 38 subjects with voice disorders and 30 subjects without voice complaints. Compared with the subjects in the control group, subjects with voice disorders had significantly higher average total VHI score and scores in each of the three VHI domains (functional, physical, and emotional). Cronbach alpha for total VHI was .94, and coefficients obtained for the three VHI subscales were as follows: α = .87 for functional, α = .88 for physical, and α = .85 for emotional subscales. Intraclass correlation coefficient estimation was also high, for both total VHI (0.92) and subscales (0.85 for functional subscale, 0.87 for physical subscale, and 0.81 for emotional subscale). The overall VHI score positively correlated with auditory perceived grade of dysphonia. In the group with voice disorders, age was not correlated to the total VHI or the subscales. Also, there was no significant difference between male and female voice subjects in total VHI or the subscales. Preliminary findings of this research indicate that the Croatian VHI could provide a reliable and clinically valid measure of patient's current perception of voice problem and its reflection on the quality of life.

  1. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  2. Adapting the posterior probability of diagnosis index to enhance evidence-based screening: an application to ADHD in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Yu, Lan; Grasso, Damion J; Kolko, David J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-04-01

    This study adapts the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index for use with screening data. The original PPOD Index, designed for use in the context of comprehensive diagnostic assessments, is overconfident when applied to screening data. To correct for this overconfidence, we describe a simple method for adjusting the PPOD Index to improve its calibration when used for screening. Specifically, we compare the adjusted PPOD Index to the original index and naïve Bayes probability estimates on two dimensions of accuracy, discrimination and calibration, using a clinical sample of children and adolescents (N = 321) whose caregivers completed the Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to screen for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and who subsequently completed a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Results indicated that the adjusted PPOD Index, original PPOD Index, and naïve Bayes probability estimates are comparable using traditional measures of accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve), but the adjusted PPOD Index showed superior calibration. We discuss the importance of calibration for screening and diagnostic support tools when applied to individual patients.

  3. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, DP; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, LK; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Subjects and Methods: Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20–70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Results: Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22–60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0–11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P < 0.001) for all the 12 items between visits. The Cronbach alpha for 265 samples was 0.8 suggesting good internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Item scale correlation ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 (P < 0.001). Concurrent and discriminant validity was established. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of four factors which together accounted for 66.4% (7.9/12) variance. Conclusion: GOHAI-Tml has shown acceptable

  4. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Chondrules and CAIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Chondrules and CAI's" included the following reports:Metallic Chondrules in NWA 1390 (H3-6): Clues to Their History from Metallic Cu; Relationship Between Bulk Chemical Composition and Formation Age of Chondrules in Bishunpur and Krymka; Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates; An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule; Rare Earth Element Fractionation in Chondrules; Mineralogy and Petrology of Chondrules in Carbonaceous Chondrite NWA 770; Isotopic Cosmobarometry: A Synthesis of Concepts and Implications for Chondrule and CAI Formation Mechanisms; Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs; and Trace Element Compositions of the Sublayers Making Up W-L Rims on CAI .

  6. Bladder cancer index: cross-cultural adaptation into Spanish and psychometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) is so far the only instrument applicable across all bladder cancer patients, independent of tumor infiltration or treatment applied. We developed a Spanish version of the BCI, and assessed its acceptability and metric properties. Methods For the adaptation into Spanish we used the forward and back-translation method, expert panels, and cognitive debriefing patient interviews. For the assessment of metric properties we used data from 197 bladder cancer patients from a multi-center prospective study. The Spanish BCI and the SF-36 Health Survey were self-administered before and 12 months after treatment. Reliability was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity was assessed through the multi-trait multi-method matrix. The magnitude of change was quantified by effect sizes to assess responsiveness. Results Reliability coefficients ranged 0.75-0.97. The validity analysis confirmed moderate associations between the BCI function and bother subscales for urinary (r = 0.61) and bowel (r = 0.53) domains; conceptual independence among all BCI domains (r ≤ 0.3); and low correlation coefficients with the SF-36 scores, ranging 0.14-0.48. Among patients reporting global improvement at follow-up, pre-post treatment changes were statistically significant for the urinary domain and urinary bother subscale, with effect sizes of 0.38 and 0.53. Conclusions The Spanish BCI is well accepted, reliable, valid, responsive, and similar in performance compared to the original instrument. These findings support its use, both in Spanish and international studies, as a valuable and comprehensive tool for assessing quality of life across a wide range of bladder cancer patients. PMID:24528506

  7. Adaptation of Sediment Connectivity Index for Swedish catchments and application for flood prediction of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantone, Carolina; Kalantari, Zahra; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Climate changes are predicted to increase precipitation intensities and occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the near future. Scandinavia has been identified as one of the most sensitive regions in Europe to such changes; therefore, an increase in the risk for flooding, landslides and soil erosion is to be expected also in Sweden. An increase in the occurrence of extreme weather events will impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructures such as roads and railways. This research aimed to identify the risk of flooding at the road-stream intersections, crucial locations where water and debris can accumulate and cause failures of the existing drainage facilities. Two regions in southwest of Sweden affected by an extreme rainfall event in August 2014, were used for calibrating and testing a statistical flood prediction model. A set of Physical Catchment Descriptors (PCDs) including road and catchment characteristics was identified for the modelling. Moreover, a GIS-based topographic Index of Sediment Connectivity (IC) was used as PCD. The novelty of this study relies on the adaptation of IC for describing sediment connectivity in lowland areas taking into account contribution of soil type, land use and different patterns of precipitation during the event. A weighting factor for IC was calculated by estimating runoff calculated with SCS Curve Number method, assuming a constant value of precipitation for a given time period, corresponding to the critical event. The Digital Elevation Model of the study site was reconditioned at the drainage facilities locations to consider the real flow path in the analysis. These modifications led to highlight the role of rainfall patterns and surface runoff for modelling sediment delivery in lowland areas. Moreover, it was observed that integrating IC into the statistic prediction model increased its accuracy and performance. After the calibration procedure in one of the study areas, the model was

  8. A bitmap index technology adapt to original TM/ETM+ image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Biyu; Sun, Yechao

    2009-10-01

    Spatial database is an essential component of Geographic Information System (GIS). With the development of modern remote sensors and data acquiring instruments, the amount of spatial data increases with geometric series. Retrieval required data in such massive database is a challenging issue to database engineers. Therefore, building efficient index is significant to spatial database. In this paper, bitmap index technology, which is rarely used in spatial database, is taken into consideration. In this paper, TM/ETM+ images covered main land of China are selected to establish a spatial database. In order to rapidly inquire and retrieval required data from the spatial database, an effective spatial index is very important. A bitmap index solution for original TM/ETM+ image is advanced in this paper. The bitmap index schema, which indexes field by building "0" and "1" binary bit vectors, is designed based on analyzing its principle and applicable conditions. In the image database, the strategy is programmed to implementation and applied for data retrieval. So that complex querying operations can be transformed to bitwise logical operations. A users' interface is developed based on building such bitmap index for original TM/ETM+ images database. Then the paper probes into the bitmap index update mechanism to address problems resulted from inserting and deleting images operation. In order to address the problem of high cardinality, an encoded bitmap index technology is proposed as well. At last, a simple comparison and efficiency analysis is carried out to illuminate its applicability.

  9. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  10. Thermal Maturity Patterns (CAI and %Ro) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian Rocks of the Appalachian Basin: A Major Revision of USGS Map I-917-E Using New Subsurface Collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the CAI isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of our report are to present new CAI isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The CAI isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the CAI-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The CAI data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the CAI data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front.

  11. Index-based Crop Insurance for Climate Adaptation in the Developing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; Carriquiry, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Weather has always presented a challenge to small-scale farmers, particularly in regions where poverty and lack of infrastructure has restricted the development of financial instruments to limit risk. New 'index' insurance innovations in agriculture are beginning to enable even the poorest farmers to unlock major productivity gains (e.g. insuring loans for improved seeds). Although index insurance has the potential to greatly improve productivity in developing country agriculture, the principal technical challenge to up-scaling this product is "data poverty," the absence of weather data in low-income areas needed to design robust and affordable insurance products. Earth science, particularly remote sensing, has the potential to ameliorate data poverty. However, raw use of earth science model output leads to non-optimal indexes and many obstacles remain to transform earth science products into insurance solutions. Estimation uncertainty, limited availability of consistent time series, and difficulties of predicting loses based on remote observations are reviewed in this article. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches addressing the needs of stakeholders in simple to understand indexes is highlighted. The successful use of Earth science data to support the index insurance industry in currently poor and isolated communities in the developing world would transform the ability of small farmers to increase yields, household incomes and regional economies, if the growing gap between earth science and index insurance can be closed.

  12. [Pathology of adaptation according to Sami-Ali and index of conformity to the Rorschach test in ulcerative rectocolitis].

    PubMed

    Porcelli, P; Zaka, S; Tarantino, S; Sisto, G

    1992-01-01

    According to Sami-Ali's theoretical model the psychosomatic personality is characterised by an adaptation pathology whose main elements are the repression of imaginative thought and conformity to socio-cultural standards. This study examines adaptation pathology using the Rorschach test. The Authors have formulated a conformity index by relating kinestheses (M) and banal perceptions (BAN). The study was carried out on a sample of 41 patients suffering from ulcerous rectocolitis comprising 24 males and 17 women with a mean age of 32 years. As expected in the hypothesis 97.6% of the sample showed M values below the norm, and 68.3% had Ban values higher than normal, whereas the conformity index was positive and tendentially positive in 65.9% of cases. These findings confirm Sami-Ali's theory. Subjects with ulcerous rectocolitis form part of the adaptation pathology which characterised the psychosomatic personality, with an inverse proportionality between imaginative activity (kinesthesia below normal) and conformism (banal perceptions above the norm).

  13. A Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping approach for offshore oil spill vulnerability index classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing; Li, Zelin; Zheng, Xiao; Wu, Hongjing; Jing, Liang; Lee, Kenneth

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation based two-stage adaptive resonance theory mapping (MC-TSAM) model was developed to classify a given site into distinguished zones representing different levels of offshore Oil Spill Vulnerability Index (OSVI). It consisted of an adaptive resonance theory (ART) module, an ART Mapping module, and a centroid determination module. Monte Carlo simulation was integrated with the TSAM approach to address uncertainties that widely exist in site conditions. The applicability of the proposed model was validated by classifying a large coastal area, which was surrounded by potential oil spill sources, based on 12 features. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the classification process was affected by multiple features instead of one single feature. The classification results also provided the least or desired number of zones which can sufficiently represent the levels of offshore OSVI in an area under uncertainty and complexity, saving time and budget in spill monitoring and response.

  14. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  15. Effects of CAI on the Academic Performance and Attitudes of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, Paul D.; Hipworth, Kristin; Pappas, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Although computer-assisted instruction (CAI) favorably affects academic performance and attitudes toward instruction, most CAI programs target mastery but not fluency. This study used a within-subjects, crossover design to compare the effects of CAI that included fluency training with traditional study (TS) conditions on test performance and…

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Clinical Education: A Roadmap to Increasing CAI Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Norman B.; Fall, Leslie H.; Maloney, Christopher G.; Levine, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This reflection is based on the premise that clinical education can be improved by more widespread use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and that a roadmap will enable more medical educators to begin using CAI. The rationale for CAI use includes many of its inherent features such as incorporation of multimedia and interactivity yet the use of…

  17. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  18. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  19. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  20. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  1. Focal Manual for CAI Coding on the TSS/8 System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbs, H. Dewey; And Others

    Basic information is provided in this manual for coding drill-and-practice CAI (computer-assisted instruction) applications in the language FOCAL (Formulating On-line Calculations in Algebraic Language). This language is available on the Digital Equipment Corporation Time-Sharing 8 system (TSS/8). While FOCAL is oriented toward solution of…

  2. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  3. CAISYS-8- A CAI Language Developed For A Minicomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Cheryl; And Others

    The University of Texas Medical Branch developed a minicomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system which employed a teacher oriented software package called CAISYS-8, consisting of a highly modularized teaching compiler and operating system. CAISYS-8 used instructional quanta which generalized the flow of information to and from the…

  4. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  5. Search for 41K Excess in Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Goswami, J. N.

    1993-07-01

    We have used the ion microprobe to measure K isotopic composition of refractory phases in Efremovka CAIs to look for the possible presence of K excess from the decay of extinct radionuclide Ca (halflife = 0.13 Ma). The presence of Ca at the time of CAI formation, if established, will allow us to place a lower limit on the time interval between the last injection of freshly synthesized matter into the solar nebula and the formation of some of the first solid objects (CAIs) in the solar system. Several attempts have been made earlier to detect 41K excess in Allende CAIs [1-4]. We have further investigated this problem by analyzing the Efremovka CAIs for two reasons. First, both the petrographic and magnesium isotopic systematics suggest the Efremovka CAIs to be less altered compared to the Allende CAIs making them an ideal and perhaps better sample for this study. Second, the presence of large perovskite (~10 micrometers) allowed us to analyse this phase, which was not included in earlier studies. The major difficulty in accurately measuring 41K, which was identified in earlier studies, is the unresolvable (40Ca42Ca)++ interference, which was found to be matrix dependent [4]. In addition, one can also have interfernce from the (40CaH)+ peak. In our operating condition the interference from the hydride peak can be neglected (Fig. 1, which appears in the hard copy). We have analyzed terrestrial perovskite (K <= 20 ppm) to determine the (40Ca42Ca)++ correction term, and its equivalence with (40Ca43Ca)++ ion signal at mass 41.5 [4]. In perovskite, the (40Ca42Ca)++ signal constitutes ~80% of the signal at 41K and we could estimate this interference with confidence. A value of (2.7 +- 0.1) x 10^-5 was obtained for the ratio [(40Ca42Ca)++/42Ca+], which is similar to the measured [(40Ca43Ca)++/43Ca+] ratio of (2.4 +- 0.2) x 10^-5. We have therefore used the measured value for the latter ratio in the analyzed phases to correct for the doubly charged interference at mass 41

  6. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  7. Thermal maturity patterns in New York State using CAI and %Ro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, D.J.; Ryder, R.T.; Nyahay, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    New conodont alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) data collected from drill holes in the Appalachian basin of New York State allow refinement of thermal maturity maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks. CAI isotherms on the new maps show a pattern that approximates that published by Harris et al. (1978) in eastern and western New York, but it differs in central New York, where the isotherms are shifted markedly westward by more than 100 km and are more tightly grouped. This close grouping of isograds reflects a steeper thermal gradient than previously noted by Harris et al. (1978) and agrees closely with the abrupt west-to-east increase in thermal maturity across New York noted by Johnsson (1986). These data show, in concordance with previous studies, that thermal maturity levels in these rocks are higher than can be explained by simple burial heating beneath the present thickness of overburden. The Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian Basin in New York must have been buried by very thick post-Devonian sediments (4-6 km suggested by Sarwar and Friedman 1995) or were exposed to a higher-than-normal geothermal flux caused by crustal extension, or a combination of the two.

  8. Observations from a prototype implementation of the Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclimens, M.; Bowerman, R.; Howell, C.; Gill, H.; Hutchison, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS), its purpose, and its history. The paper describes an internal research and development effort at the Mitre Corporation to implement a prototype version of the current CAIS specification and to rehost existing Ada software development tools onto the CAIS prototype. Based on this effort, observations are made on the maturity and functionality of the CAIS. These observations support the government's current policy of publicizing the CAIS specification as a baseline for public review in support of its evolution into a standard which can be mandated for use as Ada is today.

  9. Sparse Representation-Based Image Quality Index With Adaptive Sub-Dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Li, Leida; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Yabin; Lin, Weisi; Kot, Alex C; Sun, Xingming

    2016-08-01

    Distortions cause structural changes in digital images, leading to degraded visual quality. Dictionary-based sparse representation has been widely studied recently due to its ability to extract inherent image structures. Meantime, it can extract image features with slightly higher level semantics. Intuitively, sparse representation can be used for image quality assessment, because visible distortions can cause significant changes to the sparse features. In this paper, a new sparse representation-based image quality assessment model is proposed based on the construction of adaptive sub-dictionaries. An overcomplete dictionary trained from natural images is employed to capture the structure changes between the reference and distorted images by sparse feature extraction via adaptive sub-dictionary selection. Based on the observation that image sparse features are invariant to weak degradations and the perceived image quality is generally influenced by diverse issues, three auxiliary quality features are added, including gradient, color, and luminance information. The proposed method is not sensitive to training images, so a universal dictionary can be adopted for quality evaluation. Extensive experiments on five public image quality databases demonstrate that the proposed method produces the state-of-the-art results, and it delivers consistently well performances when tested in different image quality databases.

  10. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  11. Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the American Skindex-29 quality of life index*

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Henrique Ribeiro; Haddad, Alessandra; Weiss, Mariana Alves; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Measuring the quality of life measure of patients with dermatologic diseases is an important concern. The instruments to evaluate it are commonly originally written in English and need to be translated and validated to be used in different cultures. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper is to translate and validate the Skindex-29 questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese to be used in our country as a quality of life assessment instrument in dermatologic patients. METHODS The first step was the translation from English to Brazilian Portuguese and the back-translation by two native speakers. The translated version was then used for the second step, when three questionnaires were applied to 75 patients (43 of whom were classified as lightly affected and 32 as heavily affected by their dermatologic conditions): an identification questionnaire, the translated version of Skindex-29, and the Brazilian Portuguese version of Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI). Additionally, the generic questionnaire Short Form 36 (SF-36) was applied to 41 of these patients. The last step to evaluate reproducibility was repeating the Skindex-29 questionnaire by the same researcher one week later in 44 patients. RESULTS Reliability was observed in global Skindex-29 scale (α=0.934), and its domains emotions (α=0.926), symptoms (α=0,702), and psycosocial functioning (α=0.860). The reproducibility showed high intraclass correlations. High intra class correlations was observed, thus validating reliability. CONCLUSIONS The Skindex-29 quality of life questionnaire was properly translated and validated to Brazilian Portuguese. PMID:25054747

  12. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  13. CAIS standard manual. System number 32. Central cooling plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Cooling Plants.

  14. CAIS standard manual. System number 24. Natural gas distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Natural Gas Distribution System.

  15. CAIS standard manual. System number 28. Central heating plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Heating Plants.

  16. CAIS standard manual. System number 27. Petroleum fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  17. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  18. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  19. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  20. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  1. A Computer Adaptive Testing Version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan A; McCaffrey, Stacey A; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M

    2017-02-23

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in 4 steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large nonclinical (n = 4,419) and substance abuse treatment (n = 845) sample. Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted, and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent and discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT's time of completion was found to be significantly less than the average time of completion for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an Addiction Severity CAT based on item response theory, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  3. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic version of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index.

    PubMed

    Alsanawi, Hisham A; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Roach, Kathryn E; Alawaji, Alia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Arabic version of the shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). This was an observational reliability and validity study. We recruited 64 patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction with a wide variety of diagnoses. Patients completed the following questionnaires: Arabic SPADI, Quick Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (Quick DASH), and the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain. The active shoulder range of motion (ROM) was also assessed. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach α. Reproducibility was assessed by asking the patients to complete another SPADI questionnaire 2 days after the first. Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the SPADI and the Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The Cronbach α values for the pain score (0.96), disability score (0.98), and total score (0.98) of Arabic SPADI were all high. Similarly, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for the pain, disability, and total score (ICC, 0.87, 0.96, and 0.95, respectively) of Arabic SPADI were all high. With respect to validity, there was a moderate to strong correlation between the Arabic SPADI and the Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The translated version of SPADI in the Arabic language showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Validity was shown by substantial correlations between SPADI and Quick DASH, NRS, and active shoulder ROM. The Arabic SPADI is recommended for the evaluation of patients with shoulder dysfunction.

  5. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  6. Less Equals More: Coaching/Prompting CAI as a Tool Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ted L.

    Recent reviews of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in various journals suggest that the technological and economic barriers to its adoption and use may be overcome in the very near future, and that CAI will be feasible in a number of educational settings. Computer hardware costs have dropped dramatically in recent years, and a variety of…

  7. Student Conceptions of, and Attitudes toward, Specific Features of a CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1989-01-01

    Describes study of Israeli elementary school students that examined student attitudes toward computer-assisted instruction (CAI) designed to provide drill and practice in arithmetic. Attitudes are compared in relation to students' aptitude, gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status, and implications for the design of CAI systems are discussed.…

  8. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  9. Can CAI Help? The Crisis of Content in Educational Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael C.

    Computer technology per se is not a solution to the problem of the current "crisis in content" in teacher education programs. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is defined as the on-line interaction of a student with a computer program for purposes of instruction. The drill-and-practice and tutorial CAI programs serve merely as a medium for…

  10. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  11. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  12. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  13. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  14. Design Specification for Test and Evaluation of the NATO Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    testing (i.e., testing of individual interfaces) for a critical subset of the SWG CAIS interfaces. The second category of testing activities includes...for correctness in the functionality of critical interfaces. These critical interfaces are defined in Section 2.2. The second category, usability...QUEUE-MANAGEMENT CAM-.STANDARD None CAM- DEFENITIONS CAMSJO..DEINITJONS CAI IST-MANAGEMENT CAIS.ACCESS-.CONTROL- MANAGEMENT CAIS-SCROLL-TERMNAL-10 CA1S

  15. Two Generations of Sodic Metasomatism in an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-Aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) in Allende, along with other chondritic compo-nents, experienced variable amounts and types of alter-ation of their mineralogy and chemistry. In CAIs, one of the principal types of alteration led to the depo-sition of nepheline and sodalite. Here we extend initial obervations of alteration in an Allende CAI, focus-ing on occurences of nepheline and a nepheline-like phase with unusally high Ca (referred to as "calcic nepheline" in this abstract). Detailed petrographic and microchemical observations of alteration phases in an Allende Type B CAI (TS4) show that two separate generations of "nepheline", with very distinct composi-tions, crystallized around the margins and in the interi-or of this CAI. We use observations of micro-faults as potential temporal markers, in order to place constraints on the timing of alteration events in Allende. These observa-tions of micro-faulting that truncate and offset one gen-eration of "nepheline" indicate that some "nepheline" crystallized before incorporation of the CAI into the Allende parent-body. Some of the sodic metasomatism in some Allende CAIs occurred prior to Allende par-ent-body assembly. The earlier generation of "calcic-nepheline" has a very distinctive, calcium-rich compo-sition, and the second generation is low in calcium, and matches the compositions of nephelines found in near-by altered chondrules, and in the Allende matrix.

  16. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  17. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIs Record Varying Composition of Protosolar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-03-01

    High-resolution O-isotopic zoning profiles obtained by NanoSIMS indicate a progressive and cyclic record of exchange between CAIs and distinct nebular gases. Numerical models are used to constrain conditions and duration of these exchange events.

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Testing of the Brazilian Version of the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index Version 6.2

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Christiane Wahast; Riegel, Barbara; Pokorski, Simoni Chiarelli; Camey, Suzi; Silveira, Luana Claudia Jacoby; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the SCHFI v 6.2. Methods. With the approval of the original author, we conducted a complete cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument (translation, synthesis, back translation, synthesis of back translation, expert committee review, and pretesting). The adapted version was named Brazilian version of the self-care of heart failure index v 6.2. The psychometric properties assessed were face validity and content validity (by expert committee review), construct validity (convergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis), and reliability. Results. Face validity and content validity were indicative of semantic, idiomatic, experimental, and conceptual equivalence. Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant though moderate correlation (r = −0.51) on comparison with equivalent question scores of the previously validated Brazilian European heart failure self-care behavior scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor model as having the best fit, although similar results were obtained for inadequate fit indices. The reliability of the instrument, as expressed by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.40, 0.82, and 0.93 for the self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence scales, respectively. Conclusion. The SCHFI v 6.2 was successfully adapted for use in Brazil. Nevertheless, further studies should be carried out to improve its psychometric properties. PMID:24163765

  19. Adaptive Management Tools for Nitrogen: Nitrogen Index, Nitrogen Trading Tool and Nitrogen Losses Environmental Assessment Package (NLEAP-GIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Average nitrogen (N) use efficiencies are approximately fifty percent and can be even lower for shallower rooted systems grown on irrigated sandy soils. These low N use efficiencies need to be increased if reactive N losses to the environmental are to be reduced. Recently, USDA-NRCS identified Adapt...

  20. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  1. A Discussion of Behavioral Technology Laboratories CAI Projects In Relation to a CAI Test-Bed Concept. Technical Report Number 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.

    The elements of an instructional system are discussed and some literature bearing on these is reviewed. The discussion is intended to stimulate thought about an instructional system as a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) test-bed and to point out some noteworthy laboratory research results, particularly in cognitive psychology. Following this,…

  2. Fine-Gained CAIs in Comet Samples: Moderate Refractory Character and Comparison to Small Refractory Inclusions in Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Nguyen, A. N.; Messenger, S

    2017-01-01

    Examination of >200 comet Wild 2 particles collected by the Stardust (SD) mission shows that the CAI abundance of comet Wild 2's rocky material is near 1% and that nearly 50% of all bulbous tracks will contain at least one recognizable CAI fragment. A similar abundance to Wild 2 is found in a giant cluster IDP thought to be of cometary origin. The properties of these CAIs and their comparison with meteoritic CAIs provide important clues on the role of CAIs in the early Solar System (SS) and how they were transported to the edge of the solar nebula where Kuiper Belt comets formed. Previously, only two CAIs in comet Wild 2 had been identified and studied in detail. Here we present 2 new Wild 2 CAIs and 2 from a giant cluster cometary IDP, describe their mineralogical characteristics and show that they are most analogous to nodules in spinel-rich, fine-grained inclusions (FGIs) observed in CV3 and other chondrites. Additionally, we present new O isotope measurements from one CAI from comet Wild 2 and show that its oxygen isotopic composition is similar to some FGIs. This is only the second CAI from Wild 2 in which O isotopes have been measured.

  3. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  4. Do comets have chondrules and CAIs? Evidence from the Leonid meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Campins, Humberto

    2004-10-01

    Chondrules, silicate spheres typically 0.1 to 1 mm in diameter, are the most abundant constituents in the most common meteorites falling on Earth, the ordinary chondrites. In addition, many primitive meteorites have calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The question of whether comets have chondrules or CAIs is relevant to understanding what the interior of a comet is like and what a cometary meteorite might be like. In addition, one prominent model for forming chondrules and CAIs, the X-wind model, predicts their presence in comets, while most other models do not. At present, the best way to search for chondrules and CAIs in comets is through meteor showers derived from comets, in particular, the Leonid meteor shower. Evidence potentially could be found in the overall mass distribution of the shower, in chemical analyses of meteors, or in light curves. There is no evidence for a chondrule abundance in the Leonid meteors similar to that found in chondritic meteorites. There is intriguing evidence for chondrule- or CAI-sized objects in a small fraction of the light curves, but further work is required to generate a definitive test.

  5. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  6. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  7. Experimental Determination of Li, Be and B Partitioning During CAI Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Brenan, J M; Phinney, D L

    2005-01-12

    The main focus of the work is to develop a better understanding of the distribution of the elements B, Be and Li in melilite, fassaitic clinop clinopy-roxene, anorthite and spinel, which are the primary constituents of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). These elements are the parent or decay products of short-lived nuclides (specifically, {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be) formed by cosmic ray spallation reactions on silicon and oxygen. Recent observations suggest that some CAIs contain ''fossil'' {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be in the form of ''excess'' amounts of their decay products (B and Li). The exact timing of {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be production is unknown, but if it occurred early in CAI history, it could constrain the birthplace of CAIs to be within a limited region near the infant sun. Other interpretations are possible, however, and bear little significance to early CAI genesis. In order to interpret the anomalies as being ''primary'', and thus originating at high temperature, information on the intermineral partitioning of both parent and daughter elements is required.

  8. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  9. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  10. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  11. Arginine oscillation explains Na+ independence in the substrate/product antiporter CaiT.

    PubMed

    Kalayil, Sissy; Schulze, Sabrina; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-10-22

    Most secondary-active transporters transport their substrates using an electrochemical ion gradient. In contrast, the carnitine transporter (CaiT) is an ion-independent, l-carnitine/γ-butyrobetaine antiporter belonging to the betaine/carnitine/choline transporter family of secondary transporters. Recently determined crystal structures of CaiT from Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis revealed an inverted five-transmembrane-helix repeat similar to that in the amino acid/Na(+) symporter LeuT. The ion independence of CaiT makes it unique in this family. Here we show that mutations of arginine 262 (R262) make CaiT Na(+)-dependent. The transport activity of R262 mutants increased by 30-40% in the presence of a membrane potential, indicating substrate/Na(+) cotransport. Structural and biochemical characterization revealed that R262 plays a crucial role in substrate binding by stabilizing the partly unwound TM1' helix. Modeling CaiT from P. mirabilis in the outward-open and closed states on the corresponding structures of the related symporter BetP reveals alternating orientations of the buried R262 sidechain, which mimic sodium binding and unbinding in the Na(+)-coupled substrate symporters. We propose that a similar mechanism is operative in other Na(+)/H(+)-independent transporters, in which a positively charged amino acid replaces the cotransported cation. The oscillation of the R262 sidechain in CaiT indicates how a positive charge triggers the change between outward-open and inward-open conformations as a unifying critical step in LeuT-type transporters.

  12. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an Allende CAI.

    PubMed

    Young, E D; Russell, S S

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta (17)O against delta (18)O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in (17)O and (18)O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive (16)O-rich component of CAIs.

  13. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an allende CAI

    PubMed

    Young; Russell

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta17O against delta18O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in 17O and 18O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive 16O-rich component of CAIs.

  14. Processing of refractory meteorite inclusions (CAIs) in parent-body atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, Morris; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, Pat; Reynolds, Ray T.; Chang, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in refractory meteorites are shown to have been subject to partial melting during a suitably high gas density/small scale height regime arising during gasdynamic deceleration in a temporary atmosphere around an accreting parent body. The presence of dust in such an atmosphere would have increased the pressure gradient with height, lowering the boiloff rate, and permitting dust particles to become trapped in the partially melted material. CAIs may therefore be studied as probes of a primitive atmosphere.

  15. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-03-01

    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  16. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  17. Revision of the Oriental leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae), with a new synonym and two new combinations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-04-08

    The leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He is revised to include two species D. latifrons (Walker 1851, Ledra) n. comb. and D. conspicuus (Distant 1907, Petalocephala) n. comb. Destinoides fasciata Cai & He, 2000 is placed as a junior synonym of D. latifrons, syn. nov. These two species are redescribed and illustrated in detail and a key is given based on the males.

  18. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  19. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI): A Partner for PI?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John S.; Tillman, Murray

    1982-01-01

    Discusses differences between computer-delivered instruction and print-delivered instruction and the importance of the role of the instructional design process when adapting traditional teaching materials to newer media. The use of authoring systems for preparing materials and computer-managed instruction as a support for programed instruction are…

  20. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  1. Heterogeneity of Mg Isotopes and Variable ^26Al/^27Al Ratio in FUN CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Nagashima, K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Krot, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    We report high-precision Mg-isotope data of individual minerals from the Axtell 2271, BG82DH8, EK1-4-1, C1, TE, and CG14 FUN CAIs, which shows variations in both Mg-isotope ratio and ^26Al/^27Al ratio.

  2. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  3. Using CAI To Enhance the Peer Acceptance of Mainstreamed Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliver, Concetta; Obi, Sunday

    This study applied computer-assisted instruction (CAI) techniques to improve peer acceptance among 92 mainstreamed students with mild disabilities from 10 to 13 years of age. Participants in the treatment group received their generalized curriculum program (including mathematics, language arts, reading, health, social studies, and science)…

  4. C.A.I. as a Means for Educational Justice in Primary Schools: A Greek Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Nicos

    This study examines the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the inequalities in education among children of less privileged backgrounds. A natural science lesson was taught to 116 children at the fifth level of the Greek primary school. Subjects went to two different public schools, one of which was in a privileged area, and the…

  5. Making C.A.I. Make a Difference in College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    An explanation for the failure of technology and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in particular to make much headway in education is that even when innovations are introduced in the classroom, their potentials are not exploited; rather, they are used in traditional ways. The integration of new technologies with other classroom activities is…

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Aptitude, and Gender Differences in CAI Gains of Arithmetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; Shorer, Dvora

    1989-01-01

    A report is given of a study which examined the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics on 99 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged Israeli students. Higher performance levels and larger gains were found for advantaged over disadvantaged students, for high achievers over low achievers, and for boys over girls. (IAH)

  7. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  8. The Use of C.A.I. in the Language Program at Gallaudet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madachy, James L.; Miller, J. Douglas

    Employing an English-as-a-second-language approach, Gallaudet College has developed 101 computer assisted instruction (CAI) lessons to help deaf students master basic English structures. These lessons begin with a pretest and then branch to appropriate explanations and drills. Some are accompanied by coordinated presentations in sign language. In…

  9. Melilite-Rich CAIs and Wark-Lovering Rims Formed from a Common Oxygen Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodénan, J.-D.; Starkey, N. A.; Russell, S. S.; Wright, I. P.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-09-01

    O isotopic ratio profiles in CAIs from the unaltered meteorites Léoville and QUE 99177 and their Wark-Lovering rims show no variation, indicating that they sampled the same O isotopic reservoir that persisted until the end of WL rim formation.

  10. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  11. Toward a Market Success for CAI; An Overview of the TICCIT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetten, Kenneth J.

    A new computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for college teaching is being tested in two locations by the MITRE Corporation. The system, called TICCIT (Time-Share Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television), now interacts with more than 100 students, each moving at his own pace, for four semesters of community college math and…

  12. CAI for the Visually Handicapped: Promising Collaboration Between Two and Four-Year Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William K.; And Others

    This report describes the efforts of the Office of Research and Extension of the North Carolina State University (NCSU) School of Education to develop vocal computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tutorials for blind junior college students, the rationale behind those efforts, the costs and means of funding for the project, and suggested ways in which…

  13. A Pseudo-Language for Creating CAI Programs on APL Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucker, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Encourages the use of APL as a language for computer assisted instruction (CAI) instead of such languages as BASIC or COURSEWRITER. Describes a set of APL functions that can simulate to some extent the features of COURSEWRITER, while permitting a more experienced course author to use the full mathematical power of APL. (Author/JF)

  14. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  15. Case Study: Using VDO or CAI in Studying Methods of Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chundang, Ungsana; Setteechaichana, Patcharin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research is to study the effectiveness of the students' performance and the attitude of the students towards using VDO (MTH 225 principle of mathematics) or CAI (MTH 225 principle of mathematics) in studying the topic "Methods of Proof", of 74 students. The students would be categorized into: group A, students who…

  16. Has Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Been a Financial Failure? Studies in Economic Education No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daellenbach, Lawrence A.; And Others

    A course in macroeconomics was used to investigate the cost effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The experimental design used an experimental section in which the students had the opportunity to use the computer to the intensity of their choice, choosing from tutorial lessons, games, and simulations. The students in the control…

  17. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  18. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  19. High-Throughput Proteomic Approaches to the Elucidation of Potential Biomarkers of Chronic Allograft Injury (CAI)

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Hilary; Slyne, Jennifer; Frain, Helena; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of OMICs technologies, concentrating in particular on proteomics, in biomarker discovery in chronic allograft injury (CAI). CAI is the second most prevalent cause of allograft dysfunction and loss in the first decade post-transplantation, after death with functioning graft (DWFG). The term CAI, sometimes referred to as chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), describes the deterioration of renal allograft function and structure as a result of immunological processes (chronic antibody-mediated rejection), and other non-immunological factors such as calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced nephrotoxicity, hypertension and infection. Current methods for assessing allograft function are costly, insensitive and invasive; traditional kidney function measurements such as serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) display poor predictive abilities, while the current “gold-standard” involving histological diagnosis with a renal biopsy presents its own inherent risks to the overall health of the allograft. As early as two years post-transplantation, protocol biopsies have shown more than 50% of allograft recipients have mild CAN; ten years post-transplantation more than 50% of the allograft recipients have progressed to severe CAN which is associated with diminishing graft function. Thus, there is a growing medical requirement for minimally invasive biomarkers capable of identifying the early stages of the disease which would allow for timely intervention. Proteomics involves the study of the expression, localization, function and interaction of the proteome. Proteomic technologies may be powerful tools used to identify novel biomarkers which would predict CAI in susceptible individuals. In this paper we will review the use of proteomics in the elucidation of novel predictive biomarkers of CAI in clinical, animal and in vitro studies. PMID:28250402

  20. Teaching earth sciences: should we implement teacher-directed or student-controlled CAI in the secondary classroom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2003-04-01

    While previous studies and meta analyses have primarily focused on the comparative efficacy of computer assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional instruction, there have been relatively fewer examples of research exploring how various teaching formats of CAI influence student science learning outcomes in the secondary classroom. In this paper this issue is addressed by comparing teacher-directed CAI (TDCAI) and student-controlled CAI (SCCAI) in a compulsory earth science course in a secondary school in Taiwan. Data collection instruments included the Earth Science Achievement Test and the Attitudes Toward Earth Science Inventory. A multivariate analysis of covariance suggested that TDCAI students had significantly higher score gains than SCCAI students on the set of achievement and attitude measures. It is therefore suggested that TDCAI-based instruction is an alternative in teaching basic science concepts in the secondary classroom.

  1. Heterogeneity of a metal particle enriched with refractory elements in the CAI Efremovka CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the morphology and mineral composition of a macroscopic-size (about 0.5 mm) metallic particle found in a type-B1 CAI fragment from the Efremovka chondrite. Results of mineralographic and chemical analyses showed that the particle consists of two different metallic particles. One of these (EM1A), which is of a hypidiomorphic shape, is composed mainly of taenite and kamacite and contains micron-size inclusions of vanadium oxide. The other particle (EM1) is of ellipsoidal form and, besides taenite and kamacite, is enriched by phosphides; it also contains inclusions of vanadium sulfide and oxide. The EM particle is surrounded by a border of opaque minerals including kulsonite, chromite, and Ca phosphate. The characteristics of this particle have no analogs among the known metal particles in CAI or other carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 CAI system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (CAI) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for CAI, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.

  3. Al-rich Chondrules: Petrologic Basis for Their Diversity, and Relation to Type C CAIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    Al-rich chondrules share mineralogical and chemical properties with, and are intermediate in a volatility sense between, CAIs and ferromagnesian chondrules. In some way they must be petrogenetic links between the two. A recent upsurge of interest in Al-rich chondrules is due to their constituent plagioclase feldspar and Al-rich glass being amenable to successful ion microprobe searches for radiogenic Mg-26, the decay product of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 720,000 y). This has allowed estimates to be made of the time duration between CAI formation and the onset of Al-rich (and possibly, by extension, ferromagnesian) chondrule formation, on the order of 1.5-2.5 million years.

  4. CAIS standard manual. System number 26. Industrial gas storage and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  5. CAIS standard manual. System number 25. Coal site handling and storage

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Coal Site Handling and Storage Svstem.

  6. Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Set (CAIS) Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    euthanasia, 17 TABLE 2. SYNOPSIS OF PHASE II AND PHASE 111 TESTING PROCEDURES Phase II. A total of I I hairless guinea pigs ( HGPs ) were used in this...24 HGPs were used, dosing six to eight sites per animal with a 1 hr duration of exposure. All animals were examined 24 hr following exposure and...The "blue" wastestream, that CAIS component containing neat HD neutralized with DCDMH, has been found to cause microvesication in HGPs at dosing

  7. Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 CAI: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.

    1993-01-01

    Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of CAI. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 CAI from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 CAIs, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.

  8. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  9. Development of a Demand Sensitive Drought Index and Its Forecasting for Climate Adaptation and Water Management over the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, E.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Devineni, N.

    2014-12-01

    Drought has cascading effects on the environment, economy and society. Seasonal water deficits resulting from natural variability in rainfall coupled with increased demands have severe implications for the adequacy of water storage in both surface and groundwater stores. Managers need better estimates of potential shortfalls in supply due to droughts of varying severity and duration. While global and national drought indicators exist, none directly connect existing or projected water demand to the potential deficit during the drought. They are essentially supply based. However, the temporal patterns of both demand and supply ultimately determine the stress or impact. Consequently, assessment of risk for various sectorial operations could be much better informed if appropriate stress indices were developed for drought conditions relative to current and projected demands, and their likelihood assessed for future climate scenarios. The present research addresses this methodological gap by (1) developing new drought indices that consider both water supply and current or projected sectorial demands, and (2) developing insights into the large-scale climatic drivers for forecasting drought onset, duration and severity up to one season ahead for climate informed adaptive risk assessment and long-term planning. We present an application at a county level for the conterminous United States considering more than 60 years of rainfall data as the renewable supply, and water demand patterns for 3 sectors (agricultural, industrial, and domestic use). The demand data are available at the county level. Consequently, we use the county rather than river basins as the unit of analysis. The county is also a spatial resolution consistent with political decision making. The index is useful for indicating whether small or large surface storage will suffice, or whether the extent of groundwater storage or external transfers, or changes in demand are needed to achieve a sustainable solution.

  10. Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its

  11. Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aléon, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B CAIs. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B CAI USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of CAI formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main CAI formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface

  12. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): I. Mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.; Huss, Gary R.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Davis, Andrew M.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN CAIs, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies of several elements. The other samples show more modest patterns of isotopic fractionation and have smaller but significant isotopic anomalies. All FUN CAIs studied are coarse-grained igneous inclusions: Type B, forsterite-bearing Type B, compact Type A, and hibonite-rich. Some inclusions consist of two mineralogically distinct lithologies, forsterite-rich and forsterite-free/poor. All the CV FUN CAIs experienced postcrystallization open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration resulting in the formation of secondary minerals commonly observed in non-FUN CAIs from CV chondrites. The CR FUN CAI GG#3 shows no evidence for alteration. In all samples, clear evidence of oxygen isotopic fractionation was found. Most samples were initially 16O-rich. On a three-oxygen isotope diagram, various minerals in each FUN CAI (spinel, forsterite, hibonite, dmisteinbergite, most fassaite grains, and melilite (only in GG#3)), define mass-dependent fractionation lines with a similar slope of ∼0.5. The different inclusions have different Δ17O values ranging from ∼-25‰ to ∼-16‰. Melilite and plagioclase in the CV FUN CAIs have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ∼-3‰) and plot near the intercept of the Allende CAI line and the terrestrial fractionation line. We infer that mass-dependent fractionation effects of oxygen isotopes in FUN CAI minerals are due to evaporation during melt crystallization. Differences in Δ17O values of mass-dependent fractionation lines defined by minerals in individual FUN CAIs are inferred to reflect differences in Δ17O values of their precursors. Differences in δ18O values of minerals defining the mass-dependent fractionation lines in several FUN CAIs

  13. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  14. Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneities in the Solar Nebula Reflected in Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Systematics of Al3S4, an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, N. E.; Borg, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    2012-03-01

    We have measured the Rb-Sr, ^1^7^4Sm-^1^4^3Nd and ^1^4^7Sm-^1^4^2Nd isotope compositions of a type B CAI. These data indicate that CAIs and Earth have the same ^1^4^2Nd/^1^4^4Nd composition and that carbonaceous chondrites are distinct from both Earth and CAIs.

  15. Development and Evaluation of an E-Learning Course for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Based on the Advanced Adapted Pedagogical Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debevc, Matjaž; Stjepanovic, Zoran; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Web-based and adapted e-learning materials provide alternative methods of learning to those used in a traditional classroom. Within the study described in this article, deaf and hard of hearing people used an adaptive e-learning environment to improve their computer literacy. This environment included streaming video with sign language interpreter…

  16. The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the CAI oxygen isotopic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.

    2009-12-01

    Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (CAIs) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The CAI oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in CAIs is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the CAI oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the CAI oxygen

  17. Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to CAIs and Primitive Meteorite Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.

    2015-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in CAIs and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of CAIs has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular CAI assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface

  18. An oxygen isotope study of Wark-Lovering rims on type A CAIs in primitive carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodénan, Jean-David; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.; Wright, Ian P.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and the thin Wark-Lovering (WL) rims of minerals surrounding them offer a record of the nature of changing conditions during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. Considerable heterogeneity in the gas composition in the immediate vicinity of the proto-Sun had previously been inferred from oxygen isotopic variations in the WL rim of a CAI from Allende (Simon et al., 2011). However, high precision and high spatial resolution oxygen isotope measurements presented in this study show that WL rim and pristine core minerals of individual CAIs from meteorites that had experienced only low degrees of alteration or low grade metamorphism (one from Léoville (reduced CV3), two in QUE 99177 (CR3.0) and two in ALHA 77307 (CO3.0)) are uniformly 16O-rich. This indicates that the previously observed variations are the result of secondary processes, most likely on the asteroid parent body, and that there were no temporal or spatial variations in oxygen isotopic composition during CAI and WL rim formation. Such homogeneity across three groups of carbonaceous chondrites lends further support for a common origin for the CAIs in all chondrites. 16O-poor oxygen reservoirs such as those associated with chondrule formation, were probably generated by UV photo-dissociation involving self-shielding mechanisms and must have occurred elsewhere in outer regions of the solar accretion disk.

  19. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D

    2005-10-24

    The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.

  20. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2010-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  1. Opaque minerals in CAIs, and classification of the Axtell (CV3) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Simon, S. B.

    1994-07-01

    Axtell is a new CV3 chondrite from Texas. Preliminary studies of its Ca-Al rich Inclusions (CAIs) were reported. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of opaque minerals in four Axtell CAIs are distinct from their analogs in other inclusions from CV3 chondrites. Metallic NiFe (awaruite) is the dominant phase in opaque assemblages from Axtell inclusions, and occurs as well-rounded particles of sizes between about 1 and 20 microns. Their compositions (in atom %) are N63-67Fe31-33Co2-3 in AX-4, AX-7, and AX-9, and Ni74Fe23Co2 in AX-5. None of the awaruite grains contains measurable amounts (greater than 200 ppm by weight) of the platinum-group elements analyzed for Ru, W, Mo, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. With very few exceptions, the awaruite particles studied are surrounded by or intergrown with V-free magnetite (detection limit = 400 ppm). In contrast with Allende, the dominant sulfide phase in Axtell inclusions is troilite (Ni less than or = 0.02-0.3%, by weight); pentlandite is scarce, occurring only sporadically as small grains associated with metallic FeNi (just a few particles of 5-15 microns were found in AX-5, AX-4, and AX-7, and none in AX-9). Also, an isolated 10-microns grain of millerite (NiS; Fe = 0.6 wt%) has been identified in AX-5. Unlike Allende inclusions, Axtell CAIs do not contain sulfide veins. Two remarkably large PGE-rich sulfide grains have been recognized: one spherical 12-microns particle in AX-4 (AX-4A, in melilite, close to the edge of the inclusion) and another irregularly shaped 25-microns grain in AX-9 (AX-9A, in melilite inside a spinel palisade). Study of the elemental distribution by wavelength-dispersive X-ray mapping and analysis and backscattered electron imaging suggests that these are single minerals and not multiphase assemblages. Microprobe analyses of chondrule olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes yield average Fa and Fs contents of 6.7 and 1.0 mol% respectively. These compositions suggest that Axtell is more similar to the CV3 chondrites

  2. Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on CAI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo

    It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the CAI technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.

  3. New Evidence for 26Al in CAI and Chondrules from Type 3 Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Russell, S. S.; MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1996-03-01

    We have known since 1976 that 26A1 (tl/2 = 7.2 x 105 yrs) was alive in the early solar system, at a level of (26Al/27Al)o z 5 x 10-5 in calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAI). However, several outstanding questions remain. Little evidence for 26A1 has been found in other chondritic material, and none has been found in differentiated meteorites. These results might imply that 26A1 was heterogeneously distributed in the nebula or by mineralogic site in nebular dust, or they might reflect differences in time of formation. There are strict limitations on finding evidence of 26A1 in normal chondrules with bulk Al/Mg ~ 0.1, since even quenched, perfectly preserved, late-stage glasses would have low Al/Mg. Primary plagioclase crystals provide the only possibility, but these only crystallize rarely in melts within the compositional range of normal chondrules. Also, metamorphism can erase the evidence in high-AI/Mg phases. To address these issues, we have conducted a search for chondrules and CAI with high-Al/Mg phases suitable for ion-probe measurement in type 3 ordinary chondrites. Previous work has revealed evidence for 26Al in a plagioclase bearing, olivine-pyroxene class from Semarkona (LL3.0; (26Al/27Al)o = 7.7+/-2.1 x 10-6)), a plagioclase-rich object from Bovedy (L3.7?; 2.5+/-1.2 x 10-7), in separated plagioclase from St. Marguerite (H4; 2.0+/-0.6 x 10-7), an isolated hibonite grain from Dhajala (H3.8; 8.4+0.5 x 10-6), and in Al2O3 and hibonite grains ((26Al/27Al)o = 2-5 x 10-5; [GRH, unpublished]) from acid residues of Semarkona, Bishunpur (LL3.1), and Krymka (LL3.1). We have identified and measured Al-Mg isotope systematics in two CAI and seven chondrules from ordinary chondrites of low metamorphic grade and have found clear evidence for 26A1 in both CAI and in two chondrules.

  4. Intelligent CAI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    of industria !, technological, and sociological interest- invaluable information for executives and professionals who must keep up to date. The...BEVERAGE 1A HOT CHOCOLATE MB TEA IBI WITH LEMON HB2 WITH SUGAR AND CREAM 1C COFFEE 11 SUBSTITUTE WOR’ JN &TATCIKMT Before we end this

  5. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  6. Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD CAIS 1.0 node model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Kathy L.

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (CAIS) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the CAIS model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the CAIS into these four areas are proposed.

  7. In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 CAI: EK-459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that CAIs have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 CAI (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.

  8. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias of Zika Virus and Its Adaption to the Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongju; Liu, Siqing; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by ZIKV infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. Codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of ZIKV. To gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of ZIKV, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 ZIKV strains by calculating the effective number of codons (ENc), codon adaptation index (CAI), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and other indicators. The results indicate that the codon usage bias of ZIKV is relatively low. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that translational selection plays a role in shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. The results from a correspondence analysis (CA) indicate that other factors, such as base composition, aromaticity, and hydrophobicity may also be involved in shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. Additionally, the results from a comparative analysis of RSCU between ZIKV and its hosts suggest that ZIKV tends to evolve codon usage patterns that are comparable to those of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from Homo sapiens on the ZIKV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Taken together, both natural translational selection and mutation pressure are important for shaping the codon usage pattern of ZIKV. Our findings contribute to understanding the evolution of ZIKV and its adaption to its hosts. PMID:27893824

  9. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  10. Characterizing Pyroxene Reaction Space in Calcium-Aluminum Rich Inclusions: Oxidation During CAI Rim Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2009-12-01

    We define the reaction space that controls changes in pyroxene composition in CAIs and Wark-Lovering (WL) rims in an oxidizing solar nebula. Ti-rich pyroxenes in CAIs record a sub-solar oxygen fugacity (Ti3+/Ti4+~1.5). WL rim pyroxenes in the CAI Leoville 144A have a distinctly lower oxidation state.This difference supports WL rim condensation in an environment of increasing O2(g) and Mg(g) (Simon et al. 2005). We used the following phase components to identify four linearly independent reactions (Thompson 1982): diopside, CaTs (Al2Mg-1Si-1), T3 (Ti3+AlMg-1Si-1), T4 (Ti4+Al2Mg-1Si-2), En (MgCa-1), perovskite, O(g), Mg(g), SiO(g), and Ca(g). Compositional variation in this system is dominated by two reactions. The first is oxidation of Ti3+ via reaction with O and Mg in the gas phase: 1.5 O(g) + Mg(g) → ¼ Di + [Ti4+Mg3/4Ti3+-1Ca-1/4Si-1/2] (1). Pyroxene is produced and En is introduced. The second reaction (2) is perovskite formation. It is observed in the WL rim of Leoville 144A, and experiments confirm that an elevated Ti component converts pyroxene to perovskite(Gupta et al. 1973). MgCa-1 is the third linearly independent reaction (3). They combine to give: ½ Di + x Ca(g)→ x Mg(g)+ Pv + [Mg1/2-xSiTi4+-1Ca-1/2+x](2,3). Unlike (1), pyroxene is consumed in this reaction. The parameter x defines the extent of Mg-Ca exchange. When x > 0.5, WL rim formation occurs in an environment where Mg is volatile and Ca condenses. The reaction space defined by reactions (1) and (2,3) describes the transition from CAI interior to WL rims. WL rim pyroxene Ti contents, [CaTs], and Ca < 1 pfu are all explained in this space. The fourth linearly independent reaction is SiO(g):1/8 Di + ¼ Mg(g)→ ¾ SiO(g) + [Mg3/8Ca1/8Ti4+Ti3+-1Si-1/2](4). Silica reduction forms Ti4+, releasing SiO(g). (4) does not describe the oxidation of Ti3+ in WL rim pyroxene, but (1) - (4) results in En formation directly from the gas phase. This may explain WL rim analyses that have Si contents in excess

  11. High precision Al-Mg systematics of forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs from CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Bullock, E. S.; Tenner, T. J.; Nakashima, D.; Kita, N. T.; Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.; Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to further elucidate possible temporal relationships between different varieties of calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we measured the aluminum-magnesium isotopic systematics of seven examples of the rare type known as forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) inclusions from four different CV3 carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Efremovka, NWA 3118, and Vigarano. The primary phases (forsterite, Al-Ti-rich diopside, spinel, melilite, and anorthite) in each inclusion were analyzed in situ using high-precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS). In all cases, minerals with low Al/Mg ratios (all except anorthite) yield well-defined internal Al-Mg isochrons, with a range of initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (5.30 ± 0.22) × 10-5 down to (4.17 ± 0.43) × 10-5. Anorthite in all cases is significantly disturbed relative to the isochrons defined by the other phases in the same CAIs, and in several cases contains no resolved excesses of radiogenic 26Mg (δ26Mg∗) even at 27Al/24Mg ratios greater than 1000. The fact that some FoBs preserve (26Al/27Al)0 of ∼5.2 × 10-5, close to the canonical value of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from bulk magnesium-isotope measurements of CV CAIs (B. Jacobsen et al., 2008), demonstrates that FoBs began forming very early, contemporaneous with other more-refractory CAIs. The range of (26Al/27Al)0 values further shows that FoBs continued to be reprocessed over ∼200,000 years of nebular history, consistent with results obtained for other types of igneous CAIs in CV chondrites. The absence of any correlation between of CAI + FoB formation or reprocessing times with bulk composition or CAI type means that there is no temporal evolutionary sequence between the diverse CAI types. The initial δ26Mg∗ value in the most primitive FoB (SJ101) is significantly lower than the canonical solar system value of -0.040 ± 0.029‰.

  12. Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in CAIS: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a CAI is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.

  13. Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) CAI: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some CAIs from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one CAI in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.

  14. Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument.

    PubMed

    Cushion, Christopher; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (CAIS) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The CAIS is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.

  15. A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…

  16. A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…

  17. A One Year Post-program Assessment of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Weight Management Program for Industrial Employees: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Kathryn F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined whether a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) nutrition program would help employees maintain weight loss and dietary intake improvements over time. Subjects received either no nutrition education, education with microcomputer use, or education without microcomputers. Posttesting found greater weight loss for CAI participants,…

  18. Linking CAI abundance to polarimetric response in a population of ancient asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devogele, Maxime; Tanga, Paolo; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Bus, Schelte J.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Cellino, Alberto; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Carry, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetry constitutes one of the fundamental tools for characterizing the surface texture and composition of airless Solar System bodies. In 2006, polarimetric observations led to the discovery of a new type of asteroids, which displays a peculiar polarimetric response. These asteroids are collectively known as "Barbarians", from (234) Barbara the first discovered one.The most commonly accepted explanation for this perculiar polarization response seems to be the presence of a high percentage of fluffy-type Calcium Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs), whose optical properties could produce the observed polarization. Their reflectance spectra also exibit an absorption feature in the near-infrared around 2.1-2.2 microns, that is characteristic of this peculiar group.Based on these results, we organized a systematic polarimetric and near-infrared observational campaign of known Barbarians or candidate asteroids. These campaigns include members of the family of 1040 Klumpkea, 2085 Henan and 729 Watsonia, which are known to contain Barbarian and/or L-type asteroids also suspected to have such a polarimetric behaviour. We have made use of the ToPo polarimeter at the 1m telescope of the Centre pédagogique Planète et Univers (C2PU, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France). The spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared were obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF).By combining polarimetry and spectroscopy we find a correlation between the abundance of CAIs and the inversion angle of the phase-polarization curve of Barbarian asteroids. This is the first time that a direct link has been established between a specific polarimetric response and the surface composition of asteroids. In addition, we find a considerable variety of CAI abundance from one object to the other, consistent with a wide range of possible albedos. Since these asteroids constitute a reservoir of primitive Solar System material, understanding their origin can

  19. Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the CAI microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (CAI) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the CAI genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the CAI locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the CAI microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans.

  20. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills with CAI: A Design by Two Researchers Shows Computers Can Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, George M., Jr.; Perkins, Harvey W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a project which involved designing a nine-week course utilizing computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach seventh graders critical thinking skills. Results indicate measurable gains were made in the critical thinking skills of verbal analogy and inductive/deductive reasoning, although no consistent gains were made in logical reasoning…

  1. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.

  2. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595

  3. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  4. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  5. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Language Arts: Investigating the Influence of Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes on the Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) into the language arts classroom can greatly assist teachers meet the needs of diverse literacy learners. However, this new technology does not come without some concerns, including but not limited to ease of implementation, funding for new hardware and software, appropriate teacher support,…

  6. Investigating Learning Achievements of Thai High School Students in a Sequences and Series Lesson Delivered on CAI-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chundang, Ungsana; Singhaprink, Wipawaan; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Tantipisalkul, Tasanee; Praekhaow, Puchong

    2012-01-01

    The current experimental research aims to investigate students' learning outcomes in classes in which the interactive CAI (computer-assisted instruction)-based materials were implemented. It also aims to compare the learning outcomes of the students based on regions in which their school is located. The participants were 326 Matthayom-4 students…

  7. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  8. Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based CAI workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, D. L.; Wind, G. G.

    1991-01-01

    In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (CAI) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1807767

  9. Two years since SSAMS: Status of 14C AMS at CAIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Prasad, G. V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.

    2015-10-01

    The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.

  10. A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ca- Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of CAIs [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after CAI formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both

  11. Secondary processing of chondrules and refractory inclusions (CAIs) by gasdynamic heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, M.; Prialnik, D.; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results of calculations performed to determine the conditions necessary for producing the opaque rims on chondrules and CAI rims by high-speed entry into the transient atmosphere of an accreting meteorite parent body are presented. The sensitivity of these results to variations in critical parameters is investigated. The range of entry velocities which can produce such rims is shown to depend on the size, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity of the particles. For particles greater than 2 mm in radius, with thermal conductivities of 20,000 ergs/sm s K or lower, entry velocities of about 3 km/s suffice. For particle sizes less than 1 mm in radius, the range of encounter velocities that can produce rims is narrow or vanishing, regardless of the thermal conductivity, unless the melting temperature in the outer part of the chondrule has been reduced by compositional heterogeneity.

  12. Illite crystallinity and conodont alteration index in a polymetamorphic nappe pile: the Montagne Noire (S-France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doublier, M. P.

    2003-04-01

    The Montagne Noire is situated on the southern flank of the Variscan Belt in South France (e.g. MATTE 1991). The S flank is composed of a tectonic pile of recumbent, grossly southward facing fold nappes (D1, ECHTLER 1990) involving Cambrian to Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. In a second step, HT/LP gneisses were exhumed in a central "Zone Axiale" (D2). Since a laterally consistent sequence of Palaeozoic sediments (quartzites, greywackes, pelites, radiolarian cherts and carbonates) may be traced across the metamorphic zonation, from diagenesis into amphibolite facies, the Montagne Noire offers ideal conditions for methodical metamorphic studies. Earlier petrological studies have revealed a concentric zonation of low pressure metamorphism centred around the gneissic core (DEMANGE 1985). A field study was carried out on the southern part, in order to compare the records of the conodont alteration indexes (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC) methods, and to provide additional constraints on the tectono-metamorphic evolution. Illite crystallinity is defined as the "full width at half maximum" (FWHM given in *2 of the basal 10 A illite peak. The IC values were transformed into Kuebler index values (KI) using the "crystallinity index standard" (CIS). CAI was analyzed in a continuous belt of Devonian to Early Carboniferoushemipelagic limestones (WIEDERER et al., 2002). Both methods show similar metamorphic evolution: CAI is highest (5-7) in the neighbourhood of the Zone Axiale, and decreases down to diagenetic grade (CAI = 2) at the southern margin of the Montagne Noire. The KI values show also a decreasing metamorphism (epizone to diagenetic zone) away from the "Zone Axiale". Since CAI and IC zonations cut across the overturned limbs of large recumbent D1 folds, the origin of CAI and the IC must post-date D1. It appears that metamorphism of both the Zone Axiale and its lower grade cover were controlled by the exhumation of the hot gneissic core. The

  13. VARIABLE AND EXTREME IRRADIATION CONDITIONS IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM INFERRED FROM THE INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF {sup 10}Be IN ISHEYEVO CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire

    2013-02-01

    A search for short-lived {sup 10}Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 CAIs had {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be){sub 0} ratios vary between {approx}10{sup -3} and {approx}10{sup -2} for CAI 411. The initial ratio of CAI 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 CAIs, suggesting that the more likely origin of CAI 411 {sup 10}Be is early solar system irradiation. The low ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} [{<=} 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}] with which CAI 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 10{sup 19} protons cm{sup -2}, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other CAIs are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} protons cm{sup -2}. The variable and extreme value of the initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite CAIs is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.

  14. A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during CAI formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2015-09-01

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI, that encloses at least 26 smaller CAIs of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B CAIs found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B CAIs within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" CAIs. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) CAIs plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid CAIs. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host CAI during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host CAI of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.

  15. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  16. Measuring impairments of functioning and health in patients with axial spondyloarthritis by using the ASAS Health Index and the Environmental Item Set: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into 15 languages

    PubMed Central

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Bautista-Molano, W; Burgos-Vargas, R; Chiowchanwisawakit, P; Duruoz, T; El-Zorkany, B; Essers, I; Gaydukova, I; Géher, P; Gossec, L; Grazio, S; Gu, J; Khan, M A; Kim, T J; Maksymowych, W P; Marzo-Ortega, H; Navarro-Compán, V; Olivieri, I; Patrikos, D; Pimentel-Santos, F M; Schirmer, M; van den Bosch, F; Weber, U; Zochling, J; Braun, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Assessments of SpondyloArthritis international society Health Index (ASAS HI) measures functioning and health in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) across 17 aspects of health and 9 environmental factors (EF). The objective was to translate and adapt the original English version of the ASAS HI, including the EF Item Set, cross-culturally into 15 languages. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation has been carried out following the forward–backward procedure. In the cognitive debriefing, 10 patients/country across a broad spectrum of sociodemographic background, were included. Results The ASAS HI and the EF Item Set were translated into Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai and Turkish. Some difficulties were experienced with translation of the contextual factors indicating that these concepts may be more culturally-dependent. A total of 215 patients with axial SpA across 23 countries (62.3% men, mean (SD) age 42.4 (13.9) years) participated in the field test. Cognitive debriefing showed that items of the ASAS HI and EF Item Set are clear, relevant and comprehensive. All versions were accepted with minor modifications with respect to item wording and response option. The wording of three items had to be adapted to improve clarity. As a result of cognitive debriefing, a new response option ‘not applicable’ was added to two items of the ASAS HI to improve appropriateness. Discussion This study showed that the items of the ASAS HI including the EFs were readily adaptable throughout all countries, indicating that the concepts covered were comprehensive, clear and meaningful in different cultures. PMID:27752358

  17. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-03-01

    Petrographic and chemical observations of secondary alteration products in a CAI constrain the physical and temporal setting of the alteration. Andradite, hedenbergite, sodalite, and nepheline alteration pre-dated assembly of the Allende chondrite parent body.

  18. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  19. Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in CAI 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the CAI (which itself preceded CAI spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.

  20. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin

    2006-02-01

    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  1. Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.

  2. I-Xe measurements of CAIs and chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2004-08-01

    I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of CAIs in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.

  3. Adaptive Automation Triggered by EEG-Based Mental Workload Index: A Passive Brain-Computer Interface Application in Realistic Air Traffic Control Environment.

    PubMed

    Aricò, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Pozzi, Simone; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Raïlane; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under- and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. The main issue on the use of AA is how to trigger the AA solutions without affecting the operative task. In this regard, passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems are a good candidate to activate automation, since they are able to gather information about the covert behavior (e.g., mental workload) of a subject by analyzing its neurophysiological signals (i.e., brain activity), and without interfering with the ongoing operational activity. We proposed a pBCI system able to trigger AA solutions integrated in a realistic Air Traffic Management (ATM) research simulator developed and hosted at ENAC (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse, France). Twelve Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) students have been involved in the experiment and they have been asked to perform ATM scenarios with and without the support of the AA solutions. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload.

  4. Adaptive Automation Triggered by EEG-Based Mental Workload Index: A Passive Brain-Computer Interface Application in Realistic Air Traffic Control Environment

    PubMed Central

    Aricò, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Pozzi, Simone; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Raïlane; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under- and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. The main issue on the use of AA is how to trigger the AA solutions without affecting the operative task. In this regard, passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems are a good candidate to activate automation, since they are able to gather information about the covert behavior (e.g., mental workload) of a subject by analyzing its neurophysiological signals (i.e., brain activity), and without interfering with the ongoing operational activity. We proposed a pBCI system able to trigger AA solutions integrated in a realistic Air Traffic Management (ATM) research simulator developed and hosted at ENAC (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse, France). Twelve Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) students have been involved in the experiment and they have been asked to perform ATM scenarios with and without the support of the AA solutions. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload. PMID:27833542

  5. Evidence for divalent vanadium in Allende CAI fassaite and implications for formation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.R.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.; Delaney, J.S.; Beckett, J.; Newville, M.; Eng, P.; Rivers, M.L.

    2005-04-22

    Fassaite, a Ti-rich, Al-rich clinopyroxene, is a major mineral in Type B refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Stoichiometric treatment of electron microprobe data reveals that Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} is {approx}1 in the fassaite, and experimental work shows that this implies crystallization at fO{sub 2} of {approx}10{sup -19} at 1200 C, very close to the fO{sub 2} of a gas of solar composition. Many fassaite grains are strongly zoned in Ti, whose abundance decreases from core to rim, probably as a result of the compatibility of Ti{sup 3+} in fassaite during crystallization of the molten Ca-rich, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Superimposed on these profiles are zones where Ti and V contents spike upward together, within which the Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratio also increases significantly. Because Ti{sup 3+} is more compatible than Ti{sup 4+}, the spikes are thought to be caused by variable fO{sub 2} during crystallization. Thermodynamic calculations show that VO and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} are in equilibrium at approximately the same T-fO{sub 2} conditions as Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+}, but whether variable fO{sub 2} can be responsible for the V spikes is unclear, since V{sup 2+} would not be expected to be more compatible than V{sup 3+} in clinopyroxene. We report here on our initial results from using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to determine the oxidation state of V in the zoned Allende fassaite and synthetic pyroxene. The ultimate goal is to place constraints on the oxygen fugacity history of the nebular environment during the crystallization of individual fassaite grains by also determining the pyroxene/liquid partitioning behavior of V as a function of oxidation state.

  6. An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (CAI) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Joan Beverly

    Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (CAI). This case study investigated the use of CAI as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of CAI. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of CAI as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that CAI is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the CAI laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of CAI also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings

  7. Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a CAI from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the CAI at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the CAI and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the CAI rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the CAI before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the CAI contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the CAI is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the CAI-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the CAI was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.

  8. Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A CAI from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.

    2014-05-01

    We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 μm long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the CAI, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary CAI mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (Δ17O ~ -24‰); Δ17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the CV chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered CAIs from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in CAIs from the oxidized Allende-like CV3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.

  9. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  10. Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %R) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Harper, John A.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  11. Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %R%) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Ryder, Robert T.; Nyahay, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in New York State by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. The thermal maturity of the Ordovician and Devonian rocks is of major interest because they contain the source for most of the unconventional natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Jenden and others, 1993; Ryder and others, 1998). Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation, in particular, its basin-centered part (Ryder, 1998). Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulation in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  12. Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  13. Evaluation of the Experimental CAI Network (1973-1975) of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. Final Report. No. ED-75-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Martin L.; And Others

    An evaluation was made of the biomedical Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network Experiment, established by the National Library of Medicine in 1973 to test the feasibility of sharing CAI learning materials through a national computer network. The evaluation was designed to assist decision makers in planning a future mechanism for distributing…

  14. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Neck Disability Index and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale for patients with neck pain due to degenerative and discopathic disorders. Psychometric properties of the Polish versions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Even though there are several region-specific functional outcome questionnaires measuring neck disorders that have been developed in English-speaking countries, no Polish version has ever been validated. The purpose of our study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CDS) for Polish-speaking patients with neck pain. Methods The translation was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) Project. Sixty patients were treated due to degenerative and discopathic disorders in the cervical spine filled out the NDI-PL and the CDS-PL. The pain level was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale. The mean age of the assessed group was 47.1 years (SD 8.9). We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency. We assessed the test-retest reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS) was used to determine dependency between quantitative characteristics. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine dependency between quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The Cronbach's alpha values were excellent for the NDI-PL in the test and in the retest (0.84, 0.85, respectively), and for the CDS-PL (0.90 in the test and in the retest). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were excellent for the CDS-PL and NDI-PL and equalled 0.93 (95% CI from 0.89 to 0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI from 0.80 to 0.92), respectively The concurrent validity was good in the test and in the retest (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.002, respectively) for NDI-PL and for CDS-PL (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.001, respectively). The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both in the test (0.87 p < 0.001) and in the retest (0.79 p < 0.001). Conclusions The present versions of the NDI-PL and CDS-PL, the first to be published in Polish, have proven to be reliable and valid for

  16. The contribution of the androgen receptor (AR) in human spatial learning and memory: A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Verwilst, T; Van Branteghem, A; T'Sjoen, G; Cools, M

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of androgen insensitivity on human spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we tested 11 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by complete absence of AR activity, and compared their performance against 20 comparison males and 19 comparison females on a virtual analog of the Morris Water Maze task. The results replicated a main sex effect showing that men relative to women were faster in finding the hidden platform and had reduced heading error. Furthermore, findings indicated that mean performance of women with CAIS was between control women and control men, though the differences were not statistically significant. Effect size estimates (and corresponding confidence intervals) of spatial learning trials showed little difference between women with CAIS and control women but CAIS women differed from men, but not women, on two variables, latency to find the platform and first-move latency. No differences between groups were present during visible platform trials or the probe trial, a measure of spatial memory. Moreover, groups also did not differ on estimates of IQ and variability of performance. The findings are discussed in relation to androgen insensitivity in human spatial learning and memory.

  17. An Evaluation of the Cognitive and Affective Performance of an Integrated Set of CAI Materials in the Principles of Macroeconomics. Studies in Economic Education, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daellenbach, Lawrence A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the cognitive and affective development of college students enrolled in a principles of macroeconomics course. The hypotheses of the experiment were stated as follows: In relation to the traditional principles course, the experimental treatment will…

  18. Chronological study of oxygen isotope composition for the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Fluffy Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) containing reversely zoned melilite crystals are suggested to be aggregates of direct condensates from solar nebular gas. We conducted an investigation of 26Al-26Mg systematics of a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano, named V2-01, with known oxygen isotopic distributions of reversely zoned melilite crystals; we also conducted oxygen isotope measurements of coexisting minerals. Two of six reversely zoned melilite crystals show continuous variations in magnesium isotopic composition, with δ25Mg decreasing along the inferred direction of crystal growth, which supports the idea that they originated through condensation. Petrography suggests that the constituent minerals of V2-01 formed in the following order: first spinel and fassaite enclosed by melilite, then reversely zoned melilite crystals, and spinel and diopside in the Wark-Lovering rim. The spinel enclosed by melilite has 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O ∼ -24‰) and on an Al-Mg evolutionary diagram plots along model isochron with an initial value of (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The fassaite enclosed by melilite crystals shows variable oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O ∼ -12‰ and -17‰) and plots on an isochron with (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The oxygen isotopic compositions of reversely zoned melilite showed continuous variations in Δ17O along the inferred direction of crystal growth, suggesting that surrounding nebular gas, during the formation of the reversely zoned melilite, changed from 16O-poor (Δ17O values larger than -10‰) to 16O-rich (Δ17O ∼ -25‰). The six reversely zoned melilite crystals show indistinguishable initial 26Al/27Al values with an average (26Al/27Al)0 of (4.7 ± 0.3) × 10-5, which is clearly distinguishable from the value of enclosed spinel and fassaite, indicating a younger formation age than the enclosed spinel and fassaite. The spinel and diopside from the Wark-Lovering rim show 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O

  19. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "short-lived radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.

  20. Isotopic Measurements in CAIs with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most CAIs from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of CAIs in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various CAI minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and CAI sample of 7R19-1(a).

  1. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  2. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  3. A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A CAI or AL-Rich Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Polymict ureilites are breccias interpreted to represent regolith formed on a ureilitic asteroid [1-3]. They consist of approximately 90-95% clasts of various ureilite types (olivine-pyroxene rocks with Fo 75-95), a few % indigenous feldspathic clasts, and a few % foreign clasts [4-20]. The foreign clasts are diverse, including fragments of H, L, LL and R chondrites, angrites, other achondrites, and dark clasts similar to CC [6,7,9-19]. We report a new type of foreign clast in polymict ureilite DaG 999. Methods: Clast 8 in Dar al Gani (DaG) 999/1 (Museum fur Naturkunde) was discovered during a survey of feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [19,20]. It was studied by BEI, EMPA, and X-ray mapping on the JEOL 8530F electron microprobe at ARES, JSC. Petrography and Mineral Compositions: Clast 8 is sub-rounded to irregular in shape, approximately 85 micrometers in diameter, and consists of approximately 68% pyroxene and 32% mesostasis (by area). Part of the pyroxene (top half of clast in Fig. 1a and 2) shows a coarse dendritic morphology; the rest appears massive. Mesostasis may be glassy and contains fine needles/grains of pyroxene. The pyroxene has very high CaO (23.5 wt.%) and Al2O3 (19.7 wt.%), with the formula: (Ca(0.91)Mg(0.63)Fe(0.01)Al(sup VI) (0.38)Cr(0.01)Ti(0.05)1.99 Si2O6. The bulk mesostasis also has very high Al2O3 (approximately 26 wt.%). A bulk composition for the clast was obtained by combining modal abundances with phase compositions (Table 1, Fig. 3). Discussion: The pyroxene in clast 8 has a Ca-Al-(Ti)- rich (fassaitic) composition that is clearly distinct from compositions of pyroxenes in main group ureilites [22] or indigenous feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [4-8]. It also has significantly higher Al than fassaite in angrites (up to approximately 12 wt.% [23]), which occur as xenoliths in polymict ureilites. Ca-Al-Ti rich pyroxenes are most commonly found in CAIs, Al-rich chondrules and other types of refractory

  4. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  5. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  6. New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende CAI: EK-459-7-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.

  7. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  8. Efremovka 101.1: A Primitive CAI with Superrefractory REE Patterns and Enormous Enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.

    1993-07-01

    A fragment (30 mg) consisting of two inclusions (101.1 and 101.2) was separated from the Efremovka (CV3) meteorite. 101.1 is an unusual Type A CAI, whereas 101.2 consists of Cr-spinel and fassaite. INAA of the whole fragment revealed 16% MgO reflecting significant contributions from 101.2. Refractory lithophile elements in the bulk fragment have CI-enrichment factors of ~14 with two times enrichment factors for Ca, Eu, and Yb. CAI 101.1 (1.6 mm) contains more than 90% gehlenitic melilite (Ak(sub)1- Ak(sub)32) in its core. It is surrounded by a 5 layer rim sequence (~40 micrometers thick) consisting of spinel -->Al- diopside + fassaite (<= 0.7% Sc2O3) -->forsterite (Fo(sub)97- Fo(sub)100) --> diopside --> forsterite. Two small complete CAIs with a two layer sequence (diopside + anorthite) are contained within the core. Numerous layered sinuous inclusions presumably rim sequence fragments also consisting of diopside + anorthite, are locally crowded in the core. The melilite core is sprinkled with fassaite, perovskite, FeNi, and OsRu-rich metal blebs. Fassaite grains (<= 30 micrometers) contain enormous concentrations in Sc (up to 12.9% Sc2O3) and Zr (up to 5.4% ZrO2). Fassaite rims around FeNi blebs are rich in V (up to 5.4% V2O3) and are zoned with decreasing Sc-, Zr-, and V-concents from the metal cores to the outer fassaite rims. Sc2O3 and ZrO2 concentrations in fassaite display a positive correlation with a correlation coeffient of 0.88. This coherent behavior is a result of a complex cation substitution involving Mg, Ti, Sc, Zr, and V. A coupled substitution is demonstrated by the excellent linear correlation between Mg^2++Ti^4+(y) and Sc^3++Zr^4++Ti^3++V^3+(x) satisfying the equation y = 0.70-0.66x and having a linear regression coefficient of 0.84. Ti^3+/Ti^tot varies between 0.27 and 1. In contrast to fassaites, perovskites are generally depleted in Sc and Zr and enriched in Y (<=1.4% Y2O3). The assemblage andradite+wollastonite+ Fe^degree/or FeNi metal was

  9. Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fibre in local (Mong Cai), F1 (Mong Cai x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Len, N T; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, B

    2007-08-01

    Total tract digestibility and nitrogen retention of three diets containing different levels of fibre [200, 260 and 320 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in dry matter] were determined in three breeds of growing pig at an initial age of approximately 3.5 months. The breeds were local (Mong Cai, MC), F1 crossbred (MC x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire, LY), allocated at random within breed (block) to double 3 x 3 Latin squares. The main fibrous ingredients of the experimental diets were rice bran, cassava residue meal and non-dehulled groundnut cake meal. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), NDF, crude fibre, gross energy (GE) and ether extract (EE) decreased as the level of dietary NDF increased (p < 0.001). The r(2) values for the relationship between NDF level and digestibility of OM, CP, GE and EE were 83%, 83%, 80% and 82% respectively. On average, an increase in NDF content of 1% unit resulted in a decrease in OM, CP, GE and EE digestibility of 0.67%, 0.75%, 0.50% and 0.42% units respectively. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was the highest for MC and the lowest for LY (p < 0.01), with intermediate values for F1. There was a negative effect of NDF level on nitrogen (N) retained as a proportion of intake (p < 0.05). Nitrogen retention and utilization were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for LY than for MC and F1 pigs.

  10. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  11. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  12. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  13. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  14. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  15. [Characteristics and adaption of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit index].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as agricultural drought index, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops.

  16. Occupation and educational inequalities in laryngeal cancer: the use of a job index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies tried to assess the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco consumption explain already a large part of the social inequalities. Occupational exposures might explain a part of the remaining but the components and pathways of the socioeconomic contribution have yet to be fully disentangled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of occupation using different occupational indices, differentiating between physical, psycho-social and toxic exposures and trying to summarize the occupational burden into one variable. Methods A population-based case–control study conducted in Germany in 1998–2000 included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption and education was collected with face-to-face interviews. A recently developed job-classification index was used to account for the occupational burden. A sub-index focussed on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (CAI) for the upper aero digestive tract. Results When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the physical and psycho-social job indices (OR = 3.2, 95%-CI: 1.5-6.8), similar to the OR using the sub-index CAI (OR = 3.0, 95%-CI: 1.4-6.5). Conclusions The use of an easily applicable control variable, simply constructed on standard occupational job classifications, provides the possibility to differentiate between educational and occupational contributions. Such an index might indirectly reflect the effect of carcinogenic agents, which are not collected in many studies. PMID:24246148

  17. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. IV. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for maize based on crop water deficit index].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-09-01

    Based on the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 249 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as the agricultural drought index, this paper calculated the drought frequency and drought stations ratio in this region, and analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of drought for spring maize and summer maize during their growth periods. As for the spatial pattern of drought frequency, the drought for spring maize was more severe in the north of Huaihe River, northern Yunnan, and southern South China, but was lighter in the other regions. Except that the drought for summer maize at its late developmental stage was more severe in the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River, northern South China, and eastern Southwest China, the drought for summer maize at its other developmental stages within southern China was lighter. As for the variation trend of drought intensity and drought area, the drought intensity of spring maize from its seven-leaf stage to jointing stage in the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River increased obviously, while the drought intensity and drought area of the spring maize from its late spinning stage to milky maturity stage presented a decreasing trend. The drought of summer maize from its late jointing stage to tasseling stage and from late spinning stage to milky maturity stage all showed a decreasing trend. In Southwest China, the drought intensity and drought area for spring maize and summer maize had no clear trend. From the viewpoint of the inter-annual and decadal variability of drought intensity and drought area, there was a larger variation for the summer maize in the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River, but less difference in Southwest China.

  18. CAI Invention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn

    Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data…

  19. CAI Applications in Statics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Clayton C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a statics course developed at Texas A&M University in the engineering curriculum which utilizes computer-assisted instruction. Discusses the organization and management of the team that developed the course, the selection of the hardware and software used, and the implementation model and lesson prototype developed for the course.…

  20. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  1. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  2. Adaptive variable selection for extended Nijboer-Zernike aberration retrieval via lasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Diao, Huai-An; Guo, Jianhua; Liu, Xiyang; Wu, Yuanhao

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) method for aberration retrieval by incorporating lasso variable selection method which can improve the accuracy of aberration retrieval. The proposed model is computed by the state-of-art algorithm of the Bregman iterative algorithm (Bregman, 1967 [1]; Cai et al., 2008 [2]; Yin et al., 2008 [3]) for L1 minimization problem with adaptive regularized parameter choice based on the strategy (Ito et al., 2011 [4]). Numerical simulations for real world and simulated phase data validate the effectiveness of the proposed ENZ AR via lasso.

  3. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  4. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  5. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  6. A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich CAIs from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.

    2016-09-01

    PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like CAIs) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like CAIs have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like CAIs from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 CAIs studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like CAIs. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like CAIs with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like CAIs.

  7. Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  8. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  9. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  10. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  11. Flexilevel Adaptive Testing Paradigm: Hierarchical Concept Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    items . In reference to the psychometric outcomes, Table 3 presents the mean item difficulties by subtest plus a Kuder - Richardson reliability index. A...leas~: 50percent of the subject population , an adaptive Kuder - Richardson index was calculated . This was found to be r = . 701 for Block II test and r...whole correlations between adaptive test and total test scores (r ’s = .95). Descriptive test indices and test reliabilities were also essentially

  12. Adaptive Clustering of Hypermedia Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew; Fotouhi, Farshad

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia systems focuses on a comparison of two types of adaptive algorithm (genetic algorithm and neural network) in clustering hypermedia documents. These clusters allow the user to index into the nodes to find needed information more quickly, since clustering is "personalized" based on the user's paths rather than…

  13. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  14. Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory CAI-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory CAI-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The CAI-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the CAI-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and

  15. Combining Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and a Live TV Teacher To Extend Learning Opportunities into the Home. A Learning Productivity Research and Developmental Project of the Research Foundation of the State University of New York and Instructional Systems Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Gregory M., Jr.

    The State University of New York and Instructional Systems, Inc., (ISI) developed a project to combine computer assisted instruction (CAI) and live, interactive videoconferencing with a television teacher, conducted via cable. The project is being pursued by the Syracuse (New York) City School District in conjunction with the State University of…

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (CAI/CMS). 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Ed

    A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (CAI/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…

  17. An Iron Microprobe Study of Be-B Isotope Systematic in Melilite-Rich CAIs Based on Newly Determined Be/B Relative Sensitivity Factors for Melilitic Glass Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, K.; Fujiya, W.; Hiyagon, H.; Sugiura, N.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We report relative sensitivity factors for melilitic glasses and Be-B systematics of melilite-rich CAIs in CO, CH and ungrouped C chondrites. The variable 10Be/9Be ratios observed in this study supports 10Be production by local irradiation processes.

  18. Reconceptualizing Family Adaptation to Developmental Delay.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anita L; Crnic, Keith A; Baker, Bruce L; Blacher, Jan

    2015-07-01

    This study explores accurate conceptualization of the adaptation construct in families of children with developmental delay aged 3 to 8 years. Parents' self-reported measures of adaptation and observed dyadic relationship variables were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis and longitudinal growth modeling were used to evaluate the nature of adaptational processes. Results indicate that adaptational processes vary across adaptation index, child developmental level, and parent gender. Adaptation indices did not load onto a single construct at any time point. Several adaptational processes remained stable across time, although others showed linear or quadratic change. The findings of the current study indicate that it is time for a change in how adaptation is conceived for families of children with developmental delay.

  19. Cost Index Flying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    continually alter applicable cost indexes . Computed KC-10 Cost Index Equation Using the dollar figures given above, our CI equation reads : CI = CT / C...COST INDEX FLYING GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER John M. Mirtich, Major, USAF AFIT/IMO/ENS/11-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  20. The dimensions of indexing.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

    2003-01-01

    Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.

  1. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  2. Back-of-Book Subject Indexing with APL: Automated Indexing for Those without Computer Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Considers the question of the utility of a book indexing computer program for those without computer background or experience. APL time-sharing systems seem well adapted to support a simple, "portable," and relatively inexpensive system to operate for this purpose. (Author)

  3. JPH-2 INTERACTS WITH Cai-HANDLING PROTEINS AND ION CHANNELS IN DYADS: CONTRIBUTION TO PREMATURE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION-INDUCED CARDIOMYOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Zhang, Mei; Howren, Maureen; Wang, Yuhong; Tan, Alex; Balijepalli, Ravi C.; Huizar, Jose F.; Tseng, Gea-Ny

    2015-01-01

    Background In a canine model of premature ventricular contraction-induced cardiomyopathy (PVC-CM), Cav1.2 is downregulated and misplaced from t-tubules. Junctophilin-2 (JPH-2) is also downregulated. Objective To understand the role of JPH-2 in PVC-CM, and to probe changes in other proteins involved in dyad structure and function. Methods We quantify t-tubule contents (di-8-ANEPPS fluorescence in live myocytes), examine myocyte ultra-structures (electron microscopy), probe JPH-2 interacting proteins (co-immunoprecipitation), quantify dyad and non-dyad protein levels (immunoblotting), and examine subcellular distributions of dyad proteins (immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy). We also test direct JPH-2 modulation of channel function (vs indirect modulation through dyad formation) using heterologous expression. Results PVC myocytes have reduced t-tubule contents but otherwise normal ultra-structures. Among nineteen proteins examined, only JPH-2, bridging-integrator-1 (BIN-1) and Cav1.2 are highly downregulated in PVC hearts. However, statistical analysis indicates a general reduction of dyad protein levels when JPH-2 is downregulated. Furthermore, several dyad proteins, including Na/Ca exchanger, are missing or shifted from dyads to peripheral surface in PVC myocytes. JPH-2 directly or indirectly interacts with Cai-handling proteins, Cav1.2 and KCNQ1, although not BIN-1 or other scaffolding proteins tested. Expression in mammalian cells, that do not have dyads, confirms direct JPH-2 modulation of ICaL (Cav1.2/Cavβ2) and IKs (KCNQ1/KCNE1). Conclusion JPH-2 is more than a ‘dyad glue’: it can modulate Cai-handling and ion channel function in the dyad region. Downregulation of JPH-2, BIN-1 and Cav1.2 plays a deterministic role in PVC-CM. Dissecting the hierarchical relationship among the three is necessary for the design of therapeutic interventions to prevent the progression of PVC-CM. PMID:26538326

  4. Indexing for Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Ernest J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a functional indexing system that is tailored to the thinking involved in the process of invention. Classification by function is discussed; matrix representation is explained; a controlled vocabulary of verbs, objects, and modifiers is described; and the relation to other indexing systems is examined. (13 references)…

  5. Indexing Editorial Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple-Sokol, Angie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

  6. Linked Phrase Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted system for the production of printed indexes based on networks of concept relations expressed in natural-language-like form. The LIPHIS is designed to handle more complex networks of concept relations, and so produce better indexing of highly detailed subjects. (Author/CWM)

  7. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  8. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  9. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  10. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  11. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  12. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  13. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  14. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  15. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  16. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1990-01-01

    Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

  17. Assessing urban adaptive capacity to climate change.

    PubMed

    Araya-Muñoz, Dahyann; Metzger, Marc J; Stuart, Neil; Wilson, A Meriwether W; Alvarez, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Despite the growing number of studies focusing on urban vulnerability to climate change, adaptive capacity, which is a key component of the IPCC definition of vulnerability, is rarely assessed quantitatively. We examine the capacity of adaptation in the Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile. A flexible methodology based on spatial fuzzy modelling was developed to standardise and aggregate, through a stepwise approach, seventeen indicators derived from widely available census statistical data into an adaptive capacity index. The results indicate that all the municipalities in the CMA increased their level of adaptive capacity between 1992 and 2002. However, the relative differences between municipalities did not change significantly over the studied timeframe. Fuzzy overlay allowed us to standardise and to effectively aggregate indicators with differing ranges and granularities of attribute values into an overall index. It also provided a conceptually sound and reproducible means of exploring the interplay of many indicators that individually influence adaptive capacity. Furthermore, it captured the complex, aggregated and continued nature of the adaptive capacity, favouring to deal with gaps of data and knowledge associated with the concept of adaptive capacity. The resulting maps can help identify municipalities where adaptive capacity is weak and identify which components of adaptive capacity need strengthening. Identification of these capacity conditions can stimulate dialogue amongst policymakers and stakeholders regarding how to manage urban areas and how to prioritise resources for urban development in ways that can also improve adaptive capacity and thus reduce vulnerability to climate change.

  18. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  19. Index Construction, A Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Application in Science, S5G37 Technology , and Humanities, N.Y., N.Y: John Wiley & Sons, C 1969. Z695.9 Harrod, Leonard Montague, ed. Indexers on... Indexing Terminology, Posting Terms and KWOC, DESK Alexandria, VA: DDC, May, 1979. Z1035.1 Library of Congress. Main Reading Room, Reference Collection...A1544 750 INDEX CONSTRUCTON AR BI OGRAPHYU ARMY FIEL ARTILERY SHOOL FORT SIL OR MILE R SEP 84 USA FASM -DSB- A0 VNtASIIEFG 5/2 NI MONSOONSfl 0841

  20. Glycemic index and disease.

    PubMed

    Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2002-07-01

    It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. This paper explores the glycemic index and its validity and discusses the effect of postprandial glucose and insulin responses on food intake, obesity, type 1 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Presented herein are the reasons why it is premature to recommend that the general population avoid foods with a high glycemic index.

  1. Automatic conceptual indexing of French pharmaceutical theses.

    PubMed

    Mary, Vincent; Pouliquen, Bruno; Le Duff, Franck; Darmoni, Stefan J; Segui, Alain; Le Beux, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    French pharmaceutical theses are rarely quoted. If the main obstacles originate from language or access barriers, proper indexation could also be blamed. Manually extracted key-words don't necessary come from a structured thesaurus. In the following work, this manual indexing method is compared to an automated one, "Nomindex", based on UMLS. The automated method is improved by the addition of a relevance scoring system. The first indexing step consists of downloading, adapting and indexing theses in electronic format. Results will then be analyzed and sorted by relevance, through the comparison of classic statistical indices (noise, silence and relevance). It was assumed that the manually obtained key-words were always relevant. The silence of manual indexing is nevertheless high: seven new key-words are proposed by Nomindex, which results are mixed (10% of silence, but 50% of noise). These results are promising on the first experiment on pharmaceutical document without lexicon improvement. The indexing, if it is currently insufficient for a real life use, could easily be improved by specific updates of the lexicon.

  2. A liquid crystal adaptive lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Cleverly, D.

    1981-01-01

    Creation of an electronically controlled liquid crystal lens for use as a focusing mechanism in a multi-element lens system or as an adaptive optical element is analyzed. Varying the index of refraction is shown to be equivalent to the shaping of a solid refracting material. Basic characteristics of liquid crystals, essential for the creation of a lens, are reviewed. The required variation of index of refraction is provided by choosing appropriate electrode voltages. The configuration required for any incoming polarization is given and its theoretical performance in terms of modulation transfer function derived.

  3. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  4. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  5. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly

    2015-10-06

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  6. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Abrahams, L.; Bradford, K.; Hegglin, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/ Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare datasets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  7. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  8. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  9. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  10. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  11. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  12. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  13. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  14. Needs for Research in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1994-01-01

    Uncovers issues in indexing that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of indexers and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human indexers' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of indexes on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of indexes. (Contains 21…

  15. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  16. Measurement of refractive index distribution of biotissues by scanning focused refractive index microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tengqian; Ye, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Jin; Deng, Zhi-Chao; Mei, Jian-Chun; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    We adapt the improved scanning focused refractive-index microscopy (SFRIM) technique to the quantitative study of biological tissues. Delicate refractive index (RI) imaging of a porcine muscle tissue is obtained in a reflection mode. Some modifications are made to the SFRIM for better two dimension (2-D) observation of the tissues. The RI accuracy is 0.002. The central spatial resolution of SFRIM achieves 1μm, smaller than the size of the focal spot. Our method is free from signal distortion. The experimental result demonstrates that SFRIM is a potential technique in a wide field of biomedical research.

  17. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  18. A Medical Research and Evaluation Facility Defense and Studies Supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Task 95-38: Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Set (CAIS) Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    total of 11 hairless guinea pigs ( HGPs ) were used in this phase with seven or eight sites dosed on each animal. All animals were examined 24 hr...A total of 24 HGPs were used, dosing six to eight sites per animal with a 1 hr duration of exposure. All animals were examined 24 hr following...Change: The "blue" wastestream, that CAIS component containing neat HD neutralized with DCDMH, has been found to cause microvesication in HGPs at

  19. Indexes of severity: conceptual development.

    PubMed Central

    Krischer, J P

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of severity index development is presented in relation to conceptual issues in index definition, analytic issues in index formulation and validation issues in index application. The CHOP index is discussed along with six severity indexes described in an earlier paper dealing with underlying concepts to illustrate the material presented. Replies are provided to specific questions raised in an accompanying paper discussing the Injury Severity Score. This conceptual material is presented to provide a foundation for severity index development, to suggest criteria to be used in their formulation and testing, and to identify analyses that can lead to the successful selection and application of an index for a defined purpose. PMID:468553

  20. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach.

    PubMed

    Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tuan, Do Huu; Brimer, Leon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. A total of 42 composite food samples representing 1134 individual food samples were prepared according to normal household practices and analysed for the three mycotoxins. Results showed that the dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (39.4 ng/kg bw/day) and ochratoxin A (18.7 ng/kg bw/day) were much higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical solutions which could reduce mycotoxin contamination as well as to determine the health effects of the co-exposure to different types of mycotoxins.

  1. A Sociodemographic Risk Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

  2. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  3. Nitrate Leaching Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  4. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  5. The Vocational Commitment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    1973-01-01

    The Index is the result of an effort made to examine all components of vocational commitment and to translate this information into an instrument which could be used to assess the relationship of an individual to a vocation.. The predictive ability of the 74-item device requires further research. (Author/AG)

  6. Drug Impact Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  7. Indexing molecules with chemical graph identifiers.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    Fast and robust algorithms for indexing molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming adaptation of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original adaptation and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used indexing codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular index being used.

  8. The COPD Helplessness Index

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ≤ median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes. PMID:19837823

  9. Analysis of the WAIS-III Index score scatter using the significant deviation from the mean of the four Index scores.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    Despite their validity and their potential clinical interest, the WAIS-III Index scores seem less used by clinicians than the traditional IQs. One of reason of this lack of interest in the Indices is the relative complexity of their interpretation. We advocate the use of the average index score as a baseline to analyze the Index score variability and to identify strengths and weaknesses in the profile of the Index scores. Davis's formula provides reference values to be used to highlight the Index scores significantly moving away from the baseline. The usefulness of this method is illustrated with the analysis the Index score scatter in the standardization sample of the French adaptation of the WAIS-III. A rather important dispersion of the Index scores around the average index score was observed, a large percentage of standardization sample showing one or two Index scores significantly different from the baseline.

  10. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  11. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1991-01-01

    Based on the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) IIIb data set in the 1978 to 1979 winter, a potential vorticity (PV) index was defined as a measure of the zonally averaged, mid-latitude PV gradient on the 300 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of that index and its relation to teleconnection patterns of 500 mb geopotential height anomaly are studied. The results of the temporal and spatial variation of blocking and cyclogenesis in the 1978 to 1979 winter and its relation to global and local PV gradients were obtained. Complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses were performed, using the same FGGE data set for the 1978 to 1979 winter, for a representative high latitude band and mid latitude band geopotential height anomalies at 500 mb, phi sub h, phi sub m, and PV gradient at 300 K, delta(Q), at each longitude for the three month period. The focus of current research is the following: (1) to perform Fourier analyses for the first three EOF's of phi sub h, phi sub m, and delta(Q) at given latitude bands, and to find the dominant wavenumbers and frequencies which are responsible for these EOF's; (2) to compare the results from EOF and Fourier analyses which will be used to explore the relations of blocking and cyclogensis with local and global PV gradients; and (3) to study the time dependence of the local PV gradients and relate it to the PV index vacillation cycles observed in the PV index cycle.

  12. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  13. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  14. Indexing Overlap and Consistency between the "Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals" and the "Architectural Periodicals Index."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giral, Angela; Taylor, Arlene G.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the overlap of article coverage and the consistency of indexing between the "Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals" and the "Architectural Periodicals Index." The historical backgrounds of the two indexes are described, possibilities for collaboration between them are considered, and implications for users are…

  15. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early Solar System as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part II - Laboratory evaporation of potential CMS-1 precursor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Williams, Curtis D.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Richter, Frank M.; Valley, John W.; Fedkin, Alexei V.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of laboratory experiments in which a forsterite-rich melt estimated to be a potential precursor of Allende CMS-1 FUN CAI was evaporated into vacuum for different lengths of time at 1900 °C. The evaporation of this melt resulted in residues that define trajectories in chemical as well as magnesium, silicon and oxygen isotopic composition space and come very close to the measured properties of CMS-1. The isotopic composition of the evaporation residues was also used to determine the kinetic isotopic fractionation factors [α2,1 (vapor-melt) defined as the ratio of isotopes 2 and 1 of a given element in the evaporating gas divided by their ratio in the evaporating source] for evaporation of magnesium (α25,24 for 25Mg/24Mg), silicon (α29,28 for 29Si/28Si) and oxygen (α18,16 for 18O/16O) from the forsterite-rich melt at 1900 °C. The values of α25,24 = 0.98383 ± 0.00033 and α29,28 = 0.99010 ± 0.00038 are essentially independent of change in the melt composition as evaporation proceeds. In contrast, α18,16 changes from 0.9815 ± 0.0016 to ∼0.9911 when the residual melt composition changes from forsteritic to melilitic. Using the determined values of α25,24 and α29,28 and present-day bulk chemical composition of the CMS-1, the composition of the precursor of the inclusion was estimated to be close to the clinopyroxene + spinel + forsterite assemblage condensed from a solar composition gas. The correspondence between the chemical composition and isotopic fractionation of experimental evaporation residues and the present-day bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of CMS-1 is evidence that evaporation played a major role in the chemical evolution of CMS-1.

  16. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the psoriasis family index.

    PubMed

    Boza, Juliana Catucci; Basra, Mohammad K A; Vanin, Rafaela Caminha; Carvalho, Renata Rosa; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis Family Index is a quality of life instrument for family members of patients with psoriasis developed in English. The aims of this study were to translate the Psoriasis Family Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed these two steps: 1) Translation, linguistic and cultural adaptation, 2) Validation. The translated Psoriasis Family Index showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. The Portuguese version of the Psoriasis Family Index was validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess the QoL of family members and partners of patients with psoriasis.

  17. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  18. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  19. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  20. A roughness-corrected index of relative bed stability for regional stream surveys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative regional assessments of streambed sedimentation and its likely causes are hampered because field investigations typically lack the requisite sample size, measurements, or precision for sound geomorphic and statistical interpretation. We adapted an index of relative b...

  1. [Adaptation potential of cardio-respiratory system in dust diseases].

    PubMed

    Serebryakov, P V; Nenenko, O I; Fedina, I N; Rakhimzyanov, A R

    2016-01-01

    The article covers results of cardio-respiratory system evaluation in workers exposed to dust, on basis of adaptation potential evaluation via calculation of functional changes index and 6 minutes' walk test with continuous assessment of blood oxygenation and heart rate. Adaptation disorders are supported by results of external respiration assessment and echo-cardiography.

  2. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  3. [Ankle brachial index measurement].

    PubMed

    Rucigaj, Tanja Planinsek

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasound examinations are noninvasive diagnostic methods which, along with appropriate history and clinical examination, provide basic information on the etiology and spread of the disease, as well as on treatment options required in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and arterial flow impairment. Doppler flow meter offers useful data on venous blood return, primarily in great veins, while both deep and superficial veins as well as arteries can be visualized and data on venous and arterial hemodynamics obtained by duplex ultrasonography. In addition, Doppler flow meter provides data on the peripheral arterial system action through ankle brachial index measurement, which will guide the choice of compression therapy when deciding on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease and mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers. However, diagnosis of arterial insufficiency requires additional examinations.

  4. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  5. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the Expectation-Maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad-hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper: First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. Experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  6. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  7. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, T T B; Hong, T T T; Len, N T; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC) and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs.

  8. Efficient Joins with Compressed Bitmap Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Computational Research Division; Madduri, Kamesh; Wu, Kesheng

    2009-08-19

    We present a new class of adaptive algorithms that use compressed bitmap indexes to speed up evaluation of the range join query in relational databases. We determine the best strategy to process a join query based on a fast sub-linear time computation of the join selectivity (the ratio of the number of tuples in the result to the total number of possible tuples). In addition, we use compressed bitmaps to represent the join output compactly: the space requirement for storing the tuples representing the join of two relations is asymptotically bounded by min(h; n . cb), where h is the number of tuple pairs in the result relation, n is the number of tuples in the smaller of the two relations, and cb is the cardinality of the larger column being joined. We present a theoretical analysis of our algorithms, as well as experimental results on large-scale synthetic and real data sets. Our implementations are efficient, and consistently outperform well-known approaches for a range of join selectivity factors. For instance, our count-only algorithm is up to three orders of magnitude faster than the sort-merge approach, and our best bitmap index-based algorithm is 1.2x-80x faster than the sort-merge algorithm, for various query instances. We achieve these speedups by exploiting several inherent performance advantages of compressed bitmap indexes for join processing: an implicit partitioning of the attributes, space-efficiency, and tolerance of high-cardinality relations.

  9. Awareness of sensorimotor adaptation to visual rotations of different size.

    PubMed

    Werner, Susen; van Aken, Bernice C; Hulst, Thomas; Frens, Maarten A; van der Geest, Jos N; Strüder, Heiko K; Donchin, Opher

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on sensorimotor adaptation revealed no awareness of the nature of the perturbation after adaptation to an abrupt 30° rotation of visual feedback or after adaptation to gradually introduced perturbations. Whether the degree of awareness depends on the magnitude of the perturbation, though, has as yet not been tested. Instead of using questionnaires, as was often done in previous work, the present study used a process dissociation procedure to measure awareness and unawareness. A naïve, implicit group and a group of subjects using explicit strategies adapted to 20°, 40° and 60° cursor rotations in different adaptation blocks that were each followed by determination of awareness and unawareness indices. The awareness index differed between groups and increased from 20° to 60° adaptation. In contrast, there was no group difference for the unawareness index, but it also depended on the size of the rotation. Early adaptation varied between groups and correlated with awareness: The more awareness a participant had developed the more the person adapted in the beginning of the adaptation block. In addition, there was a significant group difference for savings but it did not correlate with awareness. Our findings suggest that awareness depends on perturbation size and that aware and strategic processes are differentially involved during adaptation and savings. Moreover, the use of the process dissociation procedure opens the opportunity to determine awareness and unawareness indices in future sensorimotor adaptation research.

  10. Human Factors in CAI Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambally, Gerard K.; Rambally, Rodney S.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies human factor issues involved in the student-computer interface in computer assisted instruction and makes specific recommendations for screen design. Factors considered include simplicity, spaciousness, relevance, standardization, changing display screen contents, color coding, shape and size coding, and brightness coding. (Author/LRW)

  11. A New Direction for CAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    Author contends that the future of computer assisted instruction lies in the wealth of concepts, analytical tools and practical techniques which computer scientists have accumulated in the process of learning to build and program various kinds of systems and hardware. (Author/HB)

  12. Generative CAI in Analytical Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, William R.; And Others

    A generative computer-assisted instruction system is being developed to tutor students in analytical geometry. The basis of this development is the thesis that a generative teaching system can be developed by establishing and then stimulating a simplified, explicit model of the human tutor. The goal attempted is that of a computer environment…

  13. CAI on a Programmable Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaphoff, Carl W.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes a procedure for presenting routine practice problems on a programable calculator with attached teletype. The program uses a random number generator to write problems, gives feedback and assigns grades according to the procedures outlined (and flow-charted) by the author. (SD)

  14. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  15. The glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Wolever, T M

    1990-01-01

    Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. Methods of processing, and other factors unrelated to the nutrient composition of foods may also have major effects on the glycemic response. The reason for differences in glycemic response appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the many factors influencing this. The glycemic index (GI) is a system of classification in which the glycemic responses of foods are indexed against a standard (white bread). This allows the results of different investigators to be pooled. GI values also depend upon a number of nonfood-related variables. The method of calculation of the glycemic response area is most important, but the method of blood sampling and length of time of studies also may have effects. Variability of glycemic responses arises from day-to-day variation in the same subject and variation between different subjects. There is less variability between the GI values of different subjects than there is within the same subject from day to day. Therefore, the mean GI values of foods are independent of the glucose tolerance status of the subjects being tested. Potentially clinically useful starchy foods producing relatively flat glycemic responses have been identified, including legumes, pasta, barley, bulgur, parboiled rice and whole grain breads such as pumpernickel. Specific incorporation of these foods into diets have been associated with reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Low-GI foods may influence amino acid metabolism although the implications of these are unknown. In addition, low GI foods increase colonic fermentation. The physiologic and metabolic implications of this relate to increased bacterial urea utilization, and to the production and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the colon. The application of the GI to therapeutic diets should be in the context

  16. The Development and Validation of the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument that measures the ethical climate of elementary schools. To create the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index (ESECI), we adapted the ethical climate index for middle and high schools. The ESECI assesses student and teacher interactions and relationships through the application…

  17. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  18. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  19. Dermal toxicity evaluation of neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an overview of the dermal toxicity of vesicant agents and their degradation products. Final report, January-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Olajos, E.J.; Cameron, K.P.; Way, R.A.; Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.

    1996-10-01

    Acute dermal toxicity (limit test) and skin irritation studies were conducted in New Zealand white rabbits to ascertain the systemic toxicity and skin-injury potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS). Studies also included the assessment of oxidant/solvent systems and solvent induced toxicity. The toxicity limit test consisted of a 24-hr occluded exposure to 1.0 ml/kg of `test article.` Dermal irritation studies were based on a 4-hr occluded exposure to 0.5 ml of `test article.` Chemical neutralization of CAIS resulted in complex product solutions (wastestreams) containing ppm levels of agent and an array of degradation products. Findings from the skin irritation testing of wastestreams and oxidant/solvent systems indicate that wastestream-induced skin effects (edema and erythema) were equivalent to or less in severity than the skin effects produced by exposure to oxidant/solvent systems. Systemic effects were not observed in 4/5 wastestream-exposed groups; however, 2/5 wastestream-treated groups exhibited systemic effects. Lethality was noted in only 1/5 wastestream-treated groups. Limit test data indicate that agents (HD, HN, or L) were destroyed by reaction with oxidant to less toxic materials.

  20. Nuclear Energy Standards. KWIC index

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The KWIC Index is an alphabetical listing that provides rapid identification of NE standards based upon the specific subject areas. This index facilitates identification of a NE standard by major or key words located in the center of the alphabetical index listing. Alphanumerical designations for specific NE standards are shown in the right-hand column. Standards referenced in this listing include those that are active, inactive, or discontinued.

  1. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  2. Hardware Index to Permutation Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Hardware Index to Permutation Converter J. T. Butler T. Sasao Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Computer Science...generates a permutation in response to an index. Since there are n! n-element permutations , the index ranges from 0 to n! − 1. Such a circuit is needed...in the hardware implementation of unique- permutation hash functions to specify how parallel machines interact through a shared memory. Such a circuit

  3. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  4. Semiotics and Indexing: An Analysis of the Subject Indexing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Explains some major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes semiotics as a framework for understanding the interpretive nature of the process. Explores the approach to studies of indexing and library and information science suggested by Fairthorne, Blair, Benediktsson, and others. Offers an explanation of what occurs in the…

  5. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  6. Environmental Terminology Index (Permuted Index). Volume 2. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    This Environmental Terminology Index or Thesaurus was developed to help meet the urgent need for world-wide communication on practical as well as basic environmental problems. This working draft of the Index includes terms in the areas of physical sciences, social sciences, earth sciences, biology, and ecology. This edition of the thesaurus…

  7. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  8. Birthweight for length: ponderal index, body mass index or Benn index?

    PubMed

    Cole, T J; Henson, G L; Tremble, J M; Colley, N V

    1997-01-01

    This study compares how effectively the ponderal index and the body mass index adjust birthweight for length at different gestations, and derives an improved index suitable for all gestations. The study was a cross-sectional survey, in a London teaching hospital, using a total of 999 neonates of 33 weeks gestation or later. Main outcome measures were the ponderal index (birthweight/length3), body mass index (birthweight/length2), and Benn index (birthweight/length(n)), where the length power n varies with gestation and is estimated by log-log regression. Results showed that up to 39 weeks gestation, the ponderal index is uncorrelated with length and so is a good index of birthweight for length. Past 39 weeks gestation, the ponderal index is negatively correlated with length, while the body mass index is uncorrelated, so that the body mass index is better. Neither index is optimal at all gestations. Deriving the Benn index (birthweight/length(n)) for each week of gestation, choosing n to make the index uncorrelated with length, shows that n falls steadily and very significantly (p < 0.0001) with increasing gestation. This in turn means that predicted birthweight for length depends on gestation: for a neonate 48 cm long, predicted birthweight varies from 2485 g at 34 weeks to 3030 g at 43 weeks, a 20% range. However, for a 54 cm long infant, predicted birthweight is the same at all gestations. A Benn index where the value of n changes linearly with gestation is described. We conclude that the ponderal index is not appropriate for measuring intra-uterine malnutrition, as it fails to adjust for length at all gestations. No other index of birthweight/length(n) with constant n is any better, as different gestations require different indices. Birthweight predicted from an infant's length depends on the infant's gestation. If, as Barker proposes, thinness at birth assessed by birthweight for length is used to predict later health status, more account needs to be taken of

  9. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  10. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  11. In Brief: Climate Adaptation Summit report released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    “We understand from the science that we have no choice between mitigation and adaptation. We have to do both,” John Holdren, President Barack Obama's science and technology advisor, said at a 29 September meeting where he was presented with a new report about national and regional preparations for adapting to changing climate. The report is based on the National Climate Adaptation Summit, which was convened by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research in May 2010. Stating that the United States must adapt to a changing climate now and prepare for increasing impacts on urban infrastructure, food, water, human health, and ecosystems in the coming decades, the report identifies a set of priorities for near-term action. Among the priorities are developing an overarching national strategy, with research, planning, and management components to guide federal climate change adaptation programs. Other priorities include improving coordination of federal plans and programs and creating a federal climate information portal and a clearinghouse of best practices and tool kits for adaptation. The report also identifies other priorities, including the need for support for assessments in the U.S. Global Change Research Program agency budgets, for increasing funding for research on vulnerability and impacts, and for initiating a regional series of ongoing climate adaptation forums. For more information, see http://www.joss.ucar.edu/events/2010/ncas/index.html.

  12. Data indexing techniques for the EUVE all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J.; Saba, V.; Dobson, C.

    1992-01-01

    This poster describes techniques developed for manipulating large full-sky data sets for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project. The authors have adapted the quatrilateralized cubic sphere indexing algorithm to allow us to efficiently store and process several types of large data sets, such as full-sky maps of photon counts, exposure time, and count rates. A variation of this scheme is used to index sparser data such as individual photon events and viewing times for selected areas of the sky, which are eventually used to create EUVE source catalogs.

  13. How To Create a Great Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the index at the back of a book is an important reader service. Discusses how and why to index, and how to make indexes interesting. Outlines programs, such as Filemaker and Adobe, which help the indexing process. (PM)

  14. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  15. The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1997-01-01

    Describes early Hebrew citation indexes, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of index entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)

  16. Estrada index and Chebyshev polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginosar, Yuval; Gutman, Ivan; Mansour, Toufik; Schork, Matthias

    2008-03-01

    Let G be a graph whose eigenvalues are λ1, λ2,…, λn. The Estrada index of G is equal to ∑i=1ne. We point out certain classes of graphs whose characteristic polynomials are closely connected to the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. Various relations, in particular approximations, for the Estrada index of these graphs are obtained.

  17. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  18. Linguistic Indexicality in Algebra Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…

  19. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  20. Reverberant speech recognition exploiting clarity index estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Pablo Peso; Sharma, Dushyant; Naylor, Patrick A.; Waterschoot, Toon van

    2015-12-01

    We present single-channel approaches to robust automatic speech recognition (ASR) in reverberant environments based on non-intrusive estimation of the clarity index ( C 50). Our best performing method includes the estimated value of C 50 in the ASR feature vector and also uses C 50 to select the most suitable ASR acoustic model according to the reverberation level. We evaluate our method on the REVERB Challenge database employing two different C 50 estimators and show that our method outperforms the best baseline of the challenge achieved without unsupervised acoustic model adaptation, i.e. using multi-condition hidden Markov models (HMMs). Our approach achieves a 22.4 % relative word error rate reduction in comparison to the best baseline of the challenge.

  1. [ATD index in Perthes disease].

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Synder, Marek; Szymczak, Wiesław; Kowalewski, Maciej; Kozłowski, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Authors present an estimation of articulo-trochanteric-distance (ATD) and ATD index in patients with Perthes disease and if there is any correlation between ATD and ATD index and age at the onset, gender, type of treatment, Herring and Stulberg classification. The study population consisted of 242 patients (35 female and 207 male) who had reached skeletal maturity at last follow up. The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 7 years and 4 months. All patients were treated by containment methods (bed rest and traction in abduction, brace, Petri cast, varus osteotomy, Salter osteotomy and shelf operation). ATD was estimated according to the Edgren methods and ATD index was calculated as relation ATD on Perthes site to ATD in normal joint. The late results were classified according to the Stulberg classification. Statistical analysis did not revealed any correlation between the age at the onset, gender and ATD index and ATD during last follow up. Both parameters decreased with poor results according to the Stulberg classifications. ATD index and ATD were statistically significant less after surgical treatment than after non-operative treatment. The same relations were seen between patients with leg length discrepancy (LLD) and without LLD. Patients in Herring group A had statistically significant bigger both parameters than patients in group B, C and patients in Herring group B than C. Articulo-trochanteric-distance and ATD index decreased during follow up and ATD decreased also in normal joint. In our opinion ATD index is a more reliable radiological parameter than ATD. ATD index decreases with bigger necrosis of the femoral head and poor result according to the Stulberg classification. This parameter is an evidence of the dysfunction proximal femoral growth plate in patients with LLD. The most decreased ATD index was observed after surgical treatment. There was no correlation between the age at the onset, gender and ATD index at last follow up.

  2. Source Indexing in Science Journals and Indexing Services: A Survey of Current Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil; Pearson, Karen

    1986-01-01

    Study of state of source indexing (indexing data published simultaneously with articles they represent) examines aspects of 685 science journals: science fields using source indexing; source indexing formats; assignment of indexing terms from controlled vocabularies; suppliers of indexing (authors, editors, indexers); use of source indexing by…

  3. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  4. Robust Adaptive Control of Hypnosis During Anesthesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1 of 4 ROBUST ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF HYPNOSIS DURING ANESTHESIA Pascal Grieder1, Andrea Gentilini1, Manfred Morari1, Thomas W. Schnider2 1ETH Zentrum...A closed-loop controller for hypnosis was designed and validated on humans at our laboratory. The controller aims at regulat- ing the Bispectral Index...BIS) - a surro- gate measure of hypnosis derived from the electroencephalogram of the patient - with the volatile anesthetic isoflurane administered

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Fallfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for fallfish (Semotilis corporalis), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Fallfish habitat.

  6. Resilience through adaptation

    PubMed Central

    van Voorn, George A. K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover’s distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system. PMID:28196372

  7. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... September 2016, Busan, South Korea. More more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  8. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  9. Environmental Quality Index - Overview Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  10. Stator Indexing in Multistage Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.

    1997-01-01

    The relative circumferential location of stator rows (stator indexing) is an aspect of multistage compressor design that has not yet been explored for its potential impact on compressor aerodynamic performance. Although the inlet stages of multistage compressors usually have differing stator blade counts, the aft stages of core compressors can often have stage blocks with equal stator blade counts in successive stages. The potential impact of stator indexing is likely greatest in these stages. To assess the performance impact of stator indexing, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center used the 4 ft diameter, four-stage NASA Low Speed Axial Compressor for detailed experiments. This compressor has geometrically identical stages that can circumferentially index stator rows relative to each other in a controlled manner; thus it is an ideal test rig for such investigations.

  11. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  12. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bullfrog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Brent M.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  16. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  17. Human heat adaptation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation.

  18. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  19. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  20. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  1. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  2. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  3. Receptor-Induced Dilatation in the Systemic and Intrarenal Adaptation to Pregnancy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Gomes, Thiago S.; Reis, Luciana A.; Ferreira, Alice T.; Razvickas, Clara V.; Schor, Nestor; Boim, Mirian A.

    2009-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with systemic and intrarenal vasodilatation resulting in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This adaptive response occurs in spite of elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, we evaluated the potential mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. The reactivity of the mesangial cells (MCs) cultured from 14-day-pregnant rats to Ang II was measured through changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Cai]). The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the Ang II-induced vasodilatation receptor AT2, and the relaxin (LGR7) receptor were evaluated in cultured MCs and in the aorta, renal artery and kidney cortex by real time-PCR. The intrarenal distribution of LGR7 was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The MCs displayed a relative insensitivity to Ang II, which was paralleled by an impressive increase in the expression level of iNOS, AT2 and LGR7. These results suggest that the MCs also adapt to the pregnancy, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the glomerular surface area even in the presence of high levels of Ang II. The mRNA expression levels of AT2 and LGR7 also increased in the aorta, renal artery and kidney of the pregnant animals, whereas the expression of the AT1 did not significantly change. This further suggests a role of these vasodilatation-induced receptors in the systemic and intrarenal adaptation during pregnancy. LGR7 was localized in the glomeruli and on the apical membrane of the tubular cells, with stronger labeling in the kidneys of pregnant rats. These results suggest a role of iNOS, AT2, and LGR7 in the systemic vasodilatation and intrarenal adaptation to pregnancy and also suggest a pivotal role for relaxin in the tubular function during gestation. PMID:19287481

  4. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  5. Human adaptation to smog

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  6. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Gunderson, Lance H; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  7. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  8. Effective indexing for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  9. Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-09-09

    As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

  10. Thesaurus-Based Automatic Indexing: A Study of Indexing Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla Louise

    This study examines automatic indexing performed with a manually constructed thesaurus on a document collection of titles and abstracts of library science master's papers. Errors are identified when the meaning of a posted descriptor, as identified by context in the thesaurus, does not match that of the passage of text which occasioned the…

  11. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Headers and Digests; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index; and Facility Index.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  13. Adaptive radiations: From field to genomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Scott A.; Derieg, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  14. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  15. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  16. On Teaching Adaptively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    New theory on adaptive teaching reflects the social dynamics of classrooms to explain what practicing teachers do to address student differences related to learning. In teaching adaptively, teachers respond to learners as they work. Teachers read student signals to diagnose needs on the fly and tap previous experience with similar learners to…

  17. Computerized Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…

  18. Retinal Imaging: Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with adaptive optics is considered.

  19. Research, Adaptation, & Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A., Ed.; And Others

    Research adaptation is an endeavor that implies solid collaboration among school practitioners and university and college researchers. This volume addresses the broad issues of research as an educational endeavor, adaptation as a necessary function associated with applying research findings to school situations, and change as an inevitable…

  20. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  1. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN21 Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation AGENCY... housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain provisions from the... adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation (SHA) grants. The public comment period ended...

  2. Financing climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.

  3. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This index contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…

  4. A Glossary of Indexing Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Brian

    An expansion of a list developed at a British library school, this glossary contains terminology used in indexing work done by libraries and information scientists. Entries are arranged alphabetically and vary in length from one line to one page. There may be up to three parts in each entry. The first is a basic definition with examples where…

  5. Teaching Physiology with Citation Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Explains use of the Citation Index in writing term papers by assigning an older publication as a starting point in a literature search. By reading the original research report and following its subsequent use by other researchers, the student discovers the impact of the original research. (CS)

  6. Index of Spectrum Signature Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Frederick Research Corporation. Alexandria. VA 163 AN/APG-030 Radar Receiver Heasureaents Electromagnetic Coapatibilitv Analysis Center, US Navv Marine ... Electromagnetic Compatibility Characteristics of the W 86 Gun Fire Control Svstem. Naval HEapons Lab, Dahlgren, VA 501 Partial Spectrum Signature...ECAC-I-IO-(SS) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center Annapolis, Maryland 21402 INDEX OF SPECTRUM SIGNATURE DATA

  7. An ESL Index of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the progress being made in an attempt to establish a second language acquisition index of development that would gauge a learner's second language proficiency. A project was undertaken involving the analysis of 212 compositions written by university students of English as a second language. (CFM)

  8. Refractive Index Enhancement in Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-29

    experimentally demonstrated the key ingredients of this approach in Rubidium vapor where we have observe enhanced refractive index with vanishing absorption...beam, Ep. We have recently experimentally demonstrated this effect in a 1-mm-long Rubidium (Rb) vapor cell at high vapor densities. Here, we utilize

  9. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  10. 1988 Bulletin compilation and index

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    This document is published to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1988 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information.

  11. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  12. Index and Description of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    The tests described in this index are used by the Institute for Developmental Studies in its principal areas of research and do not include recently developed tests. The research at the Institute is concerned with (1) the relationship of differing environments to language development, (2) classroom communication between teachers and children of…

  13. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  14. Coming to Schools: Creativity Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an index that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…

  15. Future of gradient index optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank

    2001-11-01

    First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.

  16. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  17. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2016-06-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).

  18. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Index to issues 26-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography provides an index to issues 26 through 29 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word index for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and adaptation, biospherics, and others.

  19. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Index to issues 15-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography provides an index to issues 15 through 20 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word index for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and adaptation, biospherics, and others.

  20. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Index to issues 21-25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography provides an index to issues 21 through 25 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word index for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and adaptation, biospherics, and others.

  1. Adaptation to blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Webster, Shernaaz M.; MacDonald, Jennifer; Bahradwadj, Shrikant R.

    2001-06-01

    Blur is an intrinsic property of the retinal image that can vary substantially in natural viewing. We examined how processes of contrast adaptation might adjust the visual system to regulate the perception of blur. Observers viewed a blurred or sharpened image for 2-5 minutes, and then judged the apparent focus of a series of 0.5-sec test images interleaved with 6-sec of readaptation. A 2AFC staircase procedure was used to vary the amplitude spectrum of successive test to find the image that appeared in focus. Adapting to a blurred image causes a physically focused image to appear too sharp. Opposite after-effects occur for sharpened adapting images. Pronounced biases were observed over a wide range of magnitudes of adapting blur, and were similar for different types of blur. After-effects were also similar for different classes of images but were generally weaker when the adapting and test stimuli were different images, showing that the adaptation is not adjusting simply to blur per se. These adaptive adjustments may strongly influence the perception of blur in normal vision and how it changes with refractive errors.

  2. Adaptation of Panic-Related Psychopathology Measures to Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotov, Roman; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vinogradov, Alexander; Antipova, Anna V.

    2005-01-01

    The study reports results of adaptation of panic-related psychopathology measures to Russian, including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia (MIA). Psychometric properties (e.g., reliability, factor structure, endorsement) and external validity of the…

  3. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  4. Adaptive wall wind tunnels: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 257 citations arranged in chronological order. Selection of the citations was made for their value to researchers working to solve problems associated with reducing wall interference by the design, development, and operation of adaptive wall test sections. Author, source, and subject indexes are included.

  5. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  6. On the age-independent publication index.

    PubMed

    Sangwal, Keshra

    2012-06-01

    It is shown that the age-independent index based on h-type index per decade, called hereafter an α index instead of the a index, suggested by Kosmulski (Journal of Informetrics 3, 341-347, 2009) and Abt (Scientometrics 2012) is related to the square-root of the ratio of citation acceleration a to the Hirsch constant A.

  7. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  8. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  9. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  10. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  11. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  12. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  13. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  14. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  15. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  16. Development of indoor environmental index: Air quality index and thermal comfort index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, index for indoor air quality (also known as IAQI) and thermal comfort index (TCI) have been developed. The IAQI was actually modified from previous outdoor air quality index (AQI) designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In order to measure the index, a real-time monitoring system to monitor indoor air quality level was developed. The proposed system consists of three parts: sensor module cloud, base station and service-oriented client. The sensor module cloud (SMC) contains collections of sensor modules that measures the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless. Each sensor modules includes an integrated sensor array that can measure indoor air parameters like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Oxygen, Volatile Organic Compound and Particulate Matter. Temperature and humidity were also being measured in order to determine comfort condition in indoor environment. The result from several experiments show that the system is able to measure the air quality presented in IAQI and TCI in many indoor environment settings like air-conditioner, chemical present and cigarette smoke that may impact the air quality. It also shows that the air quality are changing dramatically, thus real-time monitoring system is essential.

  17. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  18. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  19. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  20. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Roorda, A

    2000-01-01

    Retinal images in the human eye are normally degraded because we are forced to use the optical system of the human eye--which is fraught with aberrations--as the objective lens. The recent application of adaptive optics technology to measure and compensate for these aberrations has produced retinal images in human eyes with unprecedented resolution. The adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is used to take pictures of photoreceptors and capillaries and to study spectral and angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. Application of adaptive optics technology for ophthalmoscopy promises continued progress toward understanding the basic properties of the living human retina and also for clinical applications.

  1. Adaptive Telemetry Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinderson, R. L.; Salazar, G. A.; Haddick, C. M., Jr.; Spahn, C. J.; Venkatesh, C. N.

    1989-01-01

    Telemetry-data-acquisition unit adjusted remotely to produce changes in sampling rate, sampling channels, measurement scale, and output-bias level. Functional configuration adapted to changing conditions or new requirements by distant operator over telemetry link. Reconfiguration done in real time, without removing equipment from service. Bus-interface unit accepts reprogramming commands and translates them for low-rate adaptive multiplexer. Reprogrammable equipment reduces need for spare parts, since not necessary to stock variety of hardware with fixed characteristics. Adaptive multiplexer performs well in tests, amplitude errors less than 0.5 percent, distortion less than 0.25 percent, and crosstalk and common-mode rejection indiscernible.

  2. Significant efficiency findings while controlling for the frequent confounders of CAI research in the PlanAlyzer project's computer-based, self-paced, case-based programs in anemia and chest pain diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lyon, H C; Healy, J C; Bell, J R; O'Donnell, J F; Shultz, E K; Wigton, R S; Hirai, F; Beck, J R

    1991-04-01

    Richard E. Clark in his widely published comprehensive studies and meta-analyses of the literature on computer assisted instruction (CAI) has decried the lack of carefully controlled research, challenging almost every study which shows the computer-based intervention to result in significant post-test proficiency gains over a non-computer-based intervention. We report on a randomized study in a medical school setting where the usual confounders found by Clark to plague most research, were carefully controlled. PlanAlyzer is a microcomputer-based, self-paced, case-based, event-driven system for medical education which was developed and used in carefully controlled trials in a second year medical school curriculum to test the hypothesis that students with access to the interactive programs could integrate their didactic knowledge more effectively and/or efficiently than with access only to traditional textual "nonintelligent" materials. PlanAlyzer presents cases, elicits and critiques a student's approach to the diagnosis of two common medical disorders: anemias and chest pain. PlanAlyzer uses text, hypertext, images and critiquing theory. Students were randomized, one half becoming the experimental group who received the interactive PlanAlyzer cases in anemia, the other half becoming the controls who received the exact same content material in a text format. Later in each year there was a crossover, the controls becoming the experimentals for a similar intervention with the cardiology PlanAlyzer cases. Preliminary results at the end of the first two full trials shows that the programs have achieved most of the proposed instructional objectives, plus some significant efficiency and economy gains. 96 faculty hours of classroom time were saved by using PlanAlyzer in their place, while maintaining high student achievement. In terms of student proficiency and efficiency, the 328 students in the trials over two years were able to accomplish the project's instructional

  3. Liquefaction potential index: Field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Cone penetration test (CPT) soundings at historic liquefaction sites in California were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the liquefaction potential index (LPI), which was defined by Iwasaki et al. in 1978. LPI combines depth, thickness, and factor of safety of liquefiable material inferred from a CPT sounding into a single parameter. LPI data from the Monterey Bay region indicate that the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction is 58 and 93%, respectively, when LPI equals or exceeds 5 and 15. LPI values also generally correlate with surface effects of liquefaction: Decreasing from a median of 12 for soundings in lateral spreads to 0 for soundings where no surface effects were reported. The index is particularly promising for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping where it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the liquefaction potential of geologic units.

  4. Comparing the performance of two CBIRS indexing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang; Robbert, Guenter; Henrich, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Content based image retrieval (CBIR) as it is known today has to deal with a number of challenges. Quickly summarized, the main challenges are firstly, to bridge the semantic gap between high-level concepts and low-level features using feedback, secondly to provide performance under adverse conditions. High-dimensional spaces, as well as a demanding machine learning task make the right way of indexing an important issue. When indexing multimedia data, most groups opt for extraction of high-dimensional feature vectors from the data, followed by dimensionality reduction like PCA (Principal Components Analysis) or LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing). The resulting vectors are indexed using spatial indexing structures such as kd-trees or R-trees, for example. Other projects, such as MARS and Viper propose the adaptation of text indexing techniques, notably the inverted file. Here, the Viper system is the most direct adaptation of text retrieval techniques to quantized vectors. However, while the Viper query engine provides decent performance together with impressive user-feedback behavior, as well as the possibility for easy integration of long-term learning algorithms, and support for potentially infinite feature vectors, there has been no comparison of vector-based methods and inverted-file-based methods under similar conditions. In this publication, we compare a CBIR query engine that uses inverted files (Bothrops, a rewrite of the Viper query engine based on a relational database), and a CBIR query engine based on LSD (Local Split Decision) trees for spatial indexing using the same feature sets. The Benchathlon initiative works on providing a set of images and ground truth for simulating image queries by example and corresponding user feedback. When performing the Benchathlon benchmark on a CBIR system (the System Under Test, SUT), a benchmarking harness connects over internet to the SUT, performing a number of queries using an agreed-upon protocol, the multimedia

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  6. Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer

  7. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Refractive index measurements of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, John H.; Kaplan, Simon G.; Stover, Eric; Phenis, Adam

    2016-09-01

    A program has been started at NIST to make high-accuracy measurements of the infrared (IR) index properties of technologically important IR materials, in order to provide the IR optics community with updated values for the highest quality materials now available. For this purpose, we designed and built a minimum-deviation-angle refractometry system enabling diffraction-limited index measurements for wavelengths from 0.12 μm to 14 μm. We discuss the apparatus and procedures that we use for IR measurements. First results are presented for germanium for the wavelength range from 2 μm to 14 μm, with standard uncertainties ranging from 2 × 10-5 near 2 μm to 8 × 10-5 near 14 μm. This is an improvement by about an order of magnitude of the uncertainty level for index data of germanium generally used for optic design. A Sellmeier formula fitting our data for this range is provided. An analysis of the uncertainty is presented in detail. These measurements are compared to previous measurements of Ge.

  9. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  10. Adaptive Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V

    2016-07-15

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  11. Rocketing into Adaptive Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Dowling, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Defines adaptive inquiry and argues for employing this method which allows lessons to be shaped in response to student needs. Illustrates this idea by detailing an activity in which teams of students build rockets. (DDR)

  12. Adaptive Management of Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...

  13. Leak test adapter for containers

    DOEpatents

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  14. Adaptive Man-Machine Interaction in Information Retrieval; A Dissertation in Electrical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John S.

    Three specific contributions to the field of information retrieval are presented. The first two describe the establishment of an adaptive, interactive man-machine dialogue that produces a form of unsolicited librarian-like assistance for the user in his selection of index terms to characterize an indexing function. The data set upon which the…

  15. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  16. Robust Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  17. Adaptive Gaussian Pattern Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    redundant model of the data to be used in classification . There are two classes of learning, or adaptation schemes. The first, unsupervised learning...37, No. 3, pp. 242-247, 1983. [2] E. F. Codd, Cellular Automata , Academic Press, 1968. [31 H. Everett, G. Gilbreath, S. Alderson, D. J. Marchette...Na al Oca aytm aete !JTI FL E COPY AD-A 199 030 Technical Document 1335 August 1988 Adaptive Gaussian Pattern Classif ication C. E. Priebe D. J

  18. Driver Adaptive Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    this threshold, an alarm is triggered. Since TLC based systems can have user defined thresholds, a warning can be given as early as desired. However, the...Driver Adaptive Warning Systems Thesis Proposal Parag H. Batavia CMU-RI-TR-98-07 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh...control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1998 to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driver Adaptive Warning

  19. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  20. Intestinal adaptation following resection.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation.